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Sample records for lepidoptera crambidae management

  1. Oviposition Preferences of Pickleworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Relation to a Potential Push-Pull Cropping Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, R C; Spafford, H

    2016-04-25

    Pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis Cramer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major pest of cucurbits. The current management approach for this pest is weekly insecticide applications. A push-pull cropping approach may be an alternative management practice and could reduce reliance on pesticides. One potential push-pull scenario is the use of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) as a trap crop and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai) as a deterrent intercrop to manage pickleworm on cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.). This study investigated if the underlying mechanism required for the success of this management approach (a female oviposition preference or nonpreference among squash, cantaloupe, and watermelon) is present. A series of oviposition preference experiments was conducted to see how individual females responded when presented with different host plants for oviposition. Under laboratory conditions, when females had the choice of a leaf from squash, cantaloupe, and watermelon, they laid a higher proportion of their eggs on the cantaloupe leaf. However, under greenhouse conditions, when females were presented with whole plants of the three different species, they laid a higher percent of their eggs on the squash plant. Females laid a similar number of eggs on watermelon as compared with cantaloupe under greenhouse conditions, and appeared to not be averse to laying their eggs on watermelon. However, when presented with a noncucurbit, such as bean, females laid a low number of total eggs. Overall, it appears that squash may be more preferred as an oviposition substrate than cantaloupe or watermelon and may be a useful trap crop or pull. Further study to determine a suitable deterrent intercrop or push and evaluation of the proposed system under field conditions are needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Feeding behavior of neonate Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Cry1Ab Bt corn: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E; Pizzolato, T D

    2011-06-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economically important insect pest of corn, Zea mays L., in the United States and Canada. The development of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect. To assess the feeding behavior of neonate O. nubilalis on Bt corn, we examined differences in feeding behavior, based on presence of plant material in the gut, between Cry1Ab Bt corn and non-Bt near isoline corn for four intervals over a 48-h period. Feeding experiments revealed that there was significantly less feeding on Bt corn compared with non-Bt near isoline corn. The behavior of neonates on the plant corresponded with the differences in feeding on the two corn lines. The findings also showed that > 50% of the larvae initially left the plant before there was evidence in the gut of feeding regardless of whether the source was Bt or non-Bt corn. A higher quantity of plant material was found in the gut of larvae recovered from leaves of non-Bt compared with Bt corn. At the end of 48 h among the larvae that had left the plant, a greater proportion from Bt corn had plant material in the gut than did those from non-Bt corn.

  3. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope A Agunbiade

    Full Text Available Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. var. javanica (Benth. Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir, and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001. The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68% or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62. These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92. In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01, which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27. Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  4. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  5. Identification of Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on cytochrome oxidase II.

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    Barrera, Gloria Patricia; Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Espinel, Carlos; Quintero, Edgar Mauricio; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Toloza, Deisy Liseth; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Vargas, Germán

    2017-01-01

    Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are a group of insects that are agriculture pests in many economically relevant crops such as sugarcane, sorghum, corn and rice. Recognized species for this genus respond differentially to natural enemies used in their biological control, emphasizing the importance of species in a regional approach. Currently, identification is based on the male genitalia. However, the availability of specimens collected from field and subjectivity based on the character recognition can seriously hamper species identification, and therefore result in inadequate pest management. To overcome this, individuals of Diatraea spp. preliminarily classified male genitalia and obtained from reared conditions and the field (both derived from natural populations occurring in Colombia) were analyzed using genitalic morphometry and molecular biology specifically using a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO II) mitochondrial gene. Although morphometric analysis did not show any overriding results regarding genitalia morphology, the bioinformatics analyses of CO II sequences resulted in an adequate classification of the individuals within the recognized species. It also, revealed that the occurrence of clades associated with geographical distribution may be associated with cryptic species. The latter was also confirmed by a Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) methodology evaluating the same fragment of CO II. This experimental approach allows properly recognizing each species and in consequence is proposed as an effective tool in Diatraea species identification.

  6. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

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    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  7. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

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    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  8. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Tyspanodes hypsalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

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    Wang, Jia; Li, Pengfei; You, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The size of Tyspanodes hypsalis (Warren, 1891) mitogenome was 15,329 bp in which the base composition of mitogenome was 40.0% A, 41.4% T, 11.9% G and 7.7% C. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, while COI used CGA as the initial codon. In addition, all PCGs had the common stop codon (TAN), except COI and ND5 respectively used incomplete termination codon T and TA. All tRNAs had the typical cloverleaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The A + T-rich region of 350 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects. Including the motif "ATAGA" followed by a 17-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, and a 12 bp polyA-like stretch (AAATAAAAAAAAA) present immediately upstream tRNAMet.

  10. Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae) Injury to Corn Containing Single and Pyramided Bt Traits, and Blended or Block Refuge, in the Southern United States.

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    Reisig, D D; Akin, D S; All, J N; Bessin, R T; Brewer, M J; Buntin, D G; Catchot, A L; Cook, D; Flanders, K L; Huang, F-N; Johnson, D W; Leonard, B R; Mcleod, P J; Porter, R P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Tindall, K V; Stewart, S D; Troxclair, N N; Youngman, R R; Rice, M E

    2015-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); and lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are lepidopteran pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Blended refuge for transgenic plants expressing the insecticidal protein derivative from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has recently been approved as an alternative resistance management strategy in the northern United States. We conducted a two-year study with 39 experiments across 12 states in the southern United States to evaluate plant injury from these five species of Lepidoptera to corn expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ab, as both single and pyramided traits, a pyramid of Cry1Ab×Vip3Aa20, and a pyramid of Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt in a blended refuge. Leaf injury and kernel damage from corn earworm and fall armyworm, and stalking tunneling by southwestern corn borer, were similar in Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants compared with the Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt blended refuge averaged across five-plant clusters. When measured on an individual plant basis, leaf injury, kernel damage, stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer), and dead or injured plants (lesser cornstalk borer) were greater in the blended non-Bt refuge plants compared to Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment. When non-Bt blended refuge plants were compared to a structured refuge of non-Bt plants, no significant difference was detected in leaf injury, kernel damage, or stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer). Plant stands in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment had more stalk tunneling from sugarcane borer and plant death from lesser cornstalk borer compared to a pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab structured refuge

  11. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

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    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation.

  12. Biology, behavior, and larval morphology of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica

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    Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson; Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San Jose and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and...

  13. Resistance Monitoring of Four Insecticides and a Description of an Artificial Diet Incorporation Method for Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

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    Shuijin, Huang; Qiong, Chen; Wenjing, Qin; Yang, Sun; Houguo, Qin

    2017-12-05

    Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most damaging rice pests in China. Insecticides play a major role in its management. We describe how we monitored the resistance of C. suppressalis to four insecticides in seven field populations from Jiangxi, Hubei, and Hunan Provinces, China, in 2014-2016. The topical application method for resistance monitoring was suitable for triazophos, monosultap, and abamectin. The conventional rice seedling dipping method proved ineffective for testing chlorantraniliprole so the new artificial diet incorporation method was substituted. This new method provided more consistent results than the other methods, once baseline toxicity data had been established. All populations had moderate to high resistance to triazophos from 2014 to 2016. Monosultap resistance in two populations increased from low in 2014 to moderate in 2016 and the other five populations showed moderate to high-level resistance throughout. Abamectin resistance in three populations increased from sensitive or low in 2014 to moderate in 2015-2016, and the other populations had moderate to high levels of resistance. Resistance to chlorantraniliprole increased from sensitive or low in 2014 to moderate to high in 2016. These results suggested that resistance management strategies should be developed according to the needs of a specific location. It was suggested that, in these localities, organophosphate insecticides should be prohibited, the application of nereistoxin, macrolide antibiotic, and diamide insecticides should be limited, and other insecticides, including spinetoram and methoxyfenozide, that exhibited no resistance should be used rationally and in rotation to delay resistance development. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Population Distribution and Range Expansion of the Invasive Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana.

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    Wilson, Blake E; Beuzelin, Julien M; Reagan, Thomas E

    2017-04-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest that was first introduced into southern Texas in 1980 and has been expanding its range eastward along the United States Gulf Coast. The pest attacks rice (Oryza sativa L.), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), corn (Zea mays L.), and other graminaceous crops, and its establishment in Louisiana is expected to have severe economic impacts on crop production. Range expansion and population distribution of E. loftini were monitored with a network of 77 pheromone traps throughout southwestern Louisiana from 2013 to 2015. Eoreuma loftini was ubiquitous throughout the study region, with male moths captured in every habitat sampled. Spatial analysis revealed the population is characterized by high and low density clusters, with the greatest trap captures occurring in southeastern Calcasieu Parish and southern Jefferson Davis Parish. Trap captures in more northern regions of the study were lower than in southern parishes. Trap captures in areas where the pest has been established for >3 yr were greatest in rice habitats. The weighted mean population center moved eastward at a rate of ∼11 km per year. Human-aided movement of E. loftini was probably not involved in the eastward expansion documented during this study. Seasonal population peaks were detected in March-April, July-August, and October-November. This study indicates this species is continuing its spread eastward along the United States Gulf Coast and will likely become established throughout Louisiana within the next 20 yr. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Aquatic larval immatures of two acentropines, Usingeriessa onyxalis (Hampson) and Oxyelophila callista (Forbes) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

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    Pyraloid moths in the subfamily Acentropinae have immatures that are aquatic, that is, they live and breathe underwater during all or part of their immature developmental stages. We discovered and describe the previously unknown larvae of Usingeriessa onyxalis (Hampson) (Crambidae) reared on Hygroph...

  16. Forecasting Spring Emergence of the Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), Based on Postdiapause Development Rate.

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    Park, Chang-Gyu; Seo, Bo Yoon; Jung, Jin Kyo; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Lee, Si-Woo; Seong, Ki Yeong

    2017-12-05

    This study was conducted to develop temperature-dependent postdiapause development models of overwintering larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and to evaluate the models' forecasting accuracy using spring adult emergence data. Overwintering larvae were collected at three different times: 24 February (first), 23 March (second), and 25 April (third), 2005. The developmental periods of each collection colony were measured at eight constant temperatures, and those developmental rates were modeled with linear and nonlinear regression. One linear and three nonlinear models provided good fits of developmental rate to temperature across all colonies (r2 = 0.96-0.99). The distribution of development completion time was modeled with a Weibull equation that fit data from the second (r2 = 0.92) and third (r2 = 0.97) colonies better than the first (r2 = 0.87). A Lactin 2 model based on data from the first colony was statistically the best model to describe the relationship between temperature and the postdiapause development rate of O. furnacalis (r2adj = 0.99). However, validation results based on the field data showed that the Logan 6 model combined with the Weibull model (based on the second colony) was well describing spring adult emergence patterns up to 50% cumulative emergence date. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

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    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  18. Insecticide toxicity to the borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): developmental and egg-laying effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R S; Arcanjo, L P; Soares, J R S; Ferreira, D O; Serrão, J E; Martins, J C; Costa, Á H; Picanço, M C

    2018-04-01

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the major pests of solanaceous plants in South America. It is considered a great threat by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization due to the serious economic damage that it causes on tomato farms; therefore, controlling this pest is a challenging task in South America. Controlling N. elegantalis at the egg stage is the best way to prevent it from damaging crops; however, thorough studies about the effectiveness of chemicals on the different life stages of this insect pest are lacking. In this study, the effects of different chemical classes were evaluated on N. elegantalis adults, female oviposition behavior, larvae, eggs, and embryonic development. None of the tested insecticides demonstrated toxicity to the adults; however, the results showed that cartap hydrochloride affects oviposition behavior. Moreover, methomyl and cartap hydrochloride exhibited high toxicity against the eggs and larvae, with higher than 80% of mortality. These insecticides interrupted larval hatching and caused alterations in the chorion layer. Flubendiamide and deltamethrin demonstrated toxicity on N. elegantalis larvae; however, lufenuron, indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and chlorantraniliprole demonstrated low toxicity on both eggs and larvae, with lower than 70% of mortality. Fruit treated with cartap hydrochloride had a deterrent effect. The ovicidal activity revealed by methomyl and cartap hydrochloride might provide new approaches regarding insecticide effects on eggs. Methomyl, cartap hydrochloride, flubendiamide, and deltamethrin demonstrated toxicity on larvae. The evaluation of the chorion of the eggshell in this study has clarified the toxic effect of methomyl and cartap hydrochloride on eggs.

  19. Egg Hatch and Survival and Development of Beet Webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larvae at Different Combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity.

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    Tang, Jihong; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatch, survival of first-fifth instars, survival of the full larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were investigated at combinations of four temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and five relative humidities (RH; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). We found that greatest egg hatch rate, survival rates of the first and second instars, and survival rate of the complete larval stage occurred at 22°C and 60-80% RH; the lowest values for these parameters were observed at 30°C and 20% RH. Survival of first instars was significantly affected by the interaction of temperature and relative humidity. However, survival of third and fourth instars was neither affected by temperature nor relative humidity, and that of fifth instars was significantly affected only by relative humidity level. The survival curve for larvae was well described by a type III Weibull distribution. Duration of larval stage decreased as temperature increased, but was not affected by relative humidity. We therefore conclude that eggs and early instars are the most critical stages for survival to the pupal stage, and 22-26°C and 60-80% RH are the optimum conditions for their survival and development. These findings confirm that temperature and relative humidity are the critical environmental factors affecting the population growth of L. sticticalis, with temperature being more important. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the development and fecundity of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

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    Tamiru, A; Getu, E; Jembere, B; Bruce, T

    2012-02-01

    The spotted stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most important insect pests attacking maize and sorghum in Ethiopia. Recent studies have indicated that the pest is spreading to new locations where it was not reported before. In the current study, laboratory investigations were carried out to determine the combined effect of different levels of relative humidity and temperature regimes on the development and fecundity of C. partellus, as these physical factors are known to play an important role in the life cycle of insects and adaptability to local climate. Developmental time, longevity, potential fecundity and realized fecundity of C. partellus were measured under controlled conditions. Three temperature regimes (22°C, 26°C and 30°C) and three relative humidity levels (40%, 60% and 80%) were tested. It was found that temperature, relative humidity (RH) and their interaction significantly affected the developmental time, adult longevity, potential fecundity and realized fecundity of the pest. Developmental time was inversely related to temperature. Mean duration of C. partellus life cycle was 70.2 days at 22°C and 80% RH, whereas it took only 26.5 days to complete its life cycle at 30°C and 40% RH. Male and female longevity were similar in most cases. The adult life span ranged between 6.9-11.1 days at 22°C and 3.1-7.2 days at 30°C for different levels of relative humidity. The most suitable conditions for C. partellus development and fecundity were 26-30°C temperatures regimes and 60-80% RH levels.

  1. Expression Profiles of the Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Gene Associated With Thermal Stress in Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tingting; Gao, Yulin; He, Kanglai

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Trehalose is the major blood sugar in insects. Physiological significance of this compound has been extensively reported. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is an important enzyme in the trehalose biosynthesis pathway. Full-length cDNAs of TPS (Of tps) and its alternative splicing isoform (Of tps_isoformI) were cloned from the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae. The Of tps and Of tps_isoformI transcripts were 2913 and 1689 bp long, contained 2529 and 1293 bp open reading frames encoding proteins of 842 and 430 amino acids with a molecular mass of 94.4 and 48.6 kDa, respectively. Transcriptional profiling and response to thermal stress of Of tps gene were determined by quantitative real-time PCR showing that the Of tps was predominantly expressed in the larval fat body, significantly enhanced during molting and transformation; and thermal stress also induced Of tps expression. Gene structure analysis is indicating that one TPS domain and one trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) domain were located at the N- and C-termini of Of        TPS, respectively, while only the TPS domain was detected in OfTPS_isoformI. Three-dimensional modeling and heterologous expression were developed to predict the putative functions of OfTPS and Of   TPS_isoformI. We infer that the expression of Of tps gene is thermally induced and might be crucial for larvae survival.

  2. Sex Pheromone Dosages and Release Point Densities for Mating Disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in NE China Corn Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Jow, Chung-Kuang; Klein, Michael G; Jia, Yu-di; Zhang, Da-Yu; Li, Lan-Bing

    2017-08-01

    Mating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014-2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5-5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2-6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of disruption treatments. Finally, 6.0 (F30) and 0.2 mg (Fs) dosages were used in fields at 20-640 and 200-6,400 release points/ha. We found that ≧6.0 mg of the binary pheromone mixture, or ca. 5.0 mg of either of the two single components, completely disrupted mating behaviors, and F30 of the binary mixture provided a 200-m2 disruption area, with at least 50% capture reductions. At a density of 60-640 and 600-6,400 points/ha in a corn field, F30 and Fs dosages provided >90% mating disruption, leaf protection, and ear protection. The dispenser densities and inverse male catches in traps tended to follow a noncompetitive mechanism of mating disruption. Since 85% disruption of mating with 200-400 0.02 mg release points/ha was obtained, that level is recommended as the choice in future NE China O. furnacalis IPM programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae) Pests on Corn Containing Pyramided Bt Traits and a Blended Refuge in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, F P F; Bessin, R T; Brewer, M J; Buntin, D G; Catchot, A L; Cook, D R; Flanders, K L; Kerns, D L; Porter, R P; Reisig, D D; Stewart, S D; Rice, M E

    2016-08-01

    Blended refuge for transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been approved in the northern United States as a resistance management strategy alternative to a structured refuge. A three-year study (2012-2014) was conducted with 54 trials across nine states in the southern United States to evaluate plant injury from lepidopteran pests of corn and yield in a corn hybrid expressing Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Pioneer Brand Optimum Leptra) planted as a pure stand and in refuge blends of 5, 10, and 20% in both early and late plantings. Injury by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was generally proportional to the percentage of non-Bt corn within each refuge blend. Across locations, ear injury in plots with 100% Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) corn ranged from no injury to a maximum of 0.42 cm(2) per ear in Mississippi in 2013. Leaf injury ratings in 100% non-Bt plots in early and late planted trials in 2014 were 86- and 70-fold greater than in 100% Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) plots. Plants in plots with blended refuges had significantly greater leaf injury in 2012 (5, 10, and 20% refuge blends), in the early-planted corn in 2013 (10 and 20% only), and in both early- and late-planted corn in 2014 (20% only) as compared with leaf injury in a pure stand of Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) seen during these years. Corn ears in plots with blended refuges also had significantly greater area of kernels injured in 2012 (5, 10, and 20%), in early- and late-planted corn in 2013 (5, 10, and 20%), and in early (10 and 20% only)- and late-planted corn (5, 10, and 20%) in 2014 as compared with ear injury in a pure stand of Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) seen during these years. Infestations of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera

  5. Seletividade de inseticidas reguladores de crescimento e botânico no parasitismo de três espécies de Trichogramma em ovos de Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is an exotic moth species which has become a key pest of strawberries in Brazil, causing severe damage in leaves and fruits. Insect growth regulators and botanical insecticides are promising chemical groups to control this pest due to their selectivity to natural enemies and to their lower toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of five insect growth regulators and one botanical insecticide on the parasitism and emergence of three Trichogramma species on eggs of D. fovealis in the laboratory, in order to develop pest management strategies. The insecticides utilized in the tests were formulated from Diflubenzuron, Lufenuron, Pyriproxyfen, Methoxyfenozide, Tebufenozide, and Azadirachtin. D. fovealis eggs were immersed for five seconds in each of the chemical mixtures and after one-hour were offered to Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner,or Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner for parasitism. The insecticides were tested for their action on the parasitism and emergence of the F1 generation; the chemicals were then classified for their toxicity according to indices proposed by IOBC/WPRS. The insecticides affected parasitism and emergence differently, indicating different tolerances among the three Trichogramma species, and were classified as innocuous or slightly harmful to the three species under evaluation. However, lufenuron was moderately harmful to T. galloi and caused the highest reduction in parasitism by the parasitoid.

  6. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group; Esterilizacao quimica da broca da cana-de-acucar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) atraves de isca com melaco e inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazaki, Catia Sumie Shimatai. E-mail csazaki@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to

  7. Manejo de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) em tomateiro no agreste do estado de Pernambuco: estudos comportamentais, uso de iscas tóxicas, inseticidas botânicos e sintéticos.

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Maria de França

    2013-01-01

    A broca-pequena, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), destacase como praga-chave da cultura do tomateiro, principal hortaliça cultivada no Brasil. Seu controle é realizado através do uso de inseticidas químicos sintéticos, comumente aplicados de forma inadequada. Assim, pesquisas que visem à utilização apropriada desses inseticidas, associados com outras táticas de controle são de suma importância para o manejo integrado dessa praga. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se...

  8. Binding analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 proteins in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolos, Camila C; Hernández-Martinez, Patricia; Crialesi-Legori, Paula C B; Desidério, Janete A; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar; Lemos, Manoel Victor F

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis, F.) is an important corn pest in South America and United States. The aim of the present study was to analyze the susceptibility and binding interactions of three Cry1A proteins and Cry1Fa in a Brazilian D. saccharalis population. The results showed that Cry1Ab was the most active, followed by Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa and Cry1Aa. All Cry1-biotinylated proteins tested bound specifically to the D. saccharalis brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Heterologous competition assays showed shared binding sites for all Cry1A proteins and another one shared by Cry1Fa and Cry1Ab. Thus, pyramiding Cry1Aa/Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins would be a recommended strategy for managing this pest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pola sebaran kelompok telur Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae pada lahan jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosefus F. da-Lopez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée, is known as an important pest of maize, Zea mays L., in both whorl and reproductive stages. Management decisions based on egg-mass density is useful because decision is made before damage occurs. Observation on O. furnacalis egg-mass distribution in maize-field was carried out in Agricultural Training, Research, and Development Station (ATRD UGM, Yogyakarta. The number of egg-masses laid on each plant surface in maize-field was sampled in reproductive stage of corn at 52 – 58 days after planting. The spatial dispersion was analyzed using the ratio variance-to-mean (σ2/μ = Iδ, Morista’s Index (Iγ, and the negative binomial parameter (κ-value. The results showed that horizontal and vertical distributions were aggregated distributions (σ2 > μ or σ2/μ > 1. In line with the increasing age of plant, the degree of clustering or aggregation likely tended to decline (the κ-value increased, Morisita index decreased indicating the possible departure from aggregation to randomness (Poison distribution due to the heterogeneity of the environment, such as microclimate, preferred parts of the plants, and occurrence of natural enemies. The results concluded that the horizontal and vertical distributions of egg-masses of O. furnacalis on corn in generative phase were clustered with the degree of clustering tended to decrease by the increase of age of corn. These findings provide the bases for further study on the ecology and biology of O. furnacalis for management decision-making process.

  10. Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2013-04-01

    Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun.

  11. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendera, M.; Ekesi, S.; Ndung'u, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Torto, B.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior.

  12. Diapause induces remodeling of the fatty acid composition of membrane and storage lipids in overwintering larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukašinović, Elvira L; Pond, David W; Worland, M Roger; Kojić, Danijela; Purać, Jelena; Popović, Željko D; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids prepared from the whole bodies of non-diapausing and diapausing fifth instar larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were determined to evaluate the role of these lipids in diapause. Substantial changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids were triggered by diapause development. This led to a significant increase in the overall FA unsaturation (UFAs/SFAs ratio), attributable to an increase in the relative proportion of MUFAs and the concomitant decrease in PUFAs and SFAs. In triacylglycerols, the significant changes in the FAs composition are the result of an increase in the relative proportions of MUFAs, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and oleic acid (18:1n-9), and a concomitant reduction in the composition of SFAs and PUFAs, mainly palmitic acid (16:0) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6), respectively. Changes in the composition of phospholipids were more subtle with FAs contributing to the overall increase of FA unsaturation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the melt transition temperatures of total lipids prepared from whole larvae, primarily attributable to the triacylglycerol component, were significantly lower during the time course of diapause compared with non-diapause. These observations were correlated to the FA composition of triacylglycerols, most likely enabling them to remain functional during colder winter conditions. We conclude that O. nubilalis undergoes remodeling of FA profiles of both energy storage triacylglycerols and membrane phospholipids as an element of its overwintering physiology which may improve the ability to cold harden during diapause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequence and analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Bravo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the sequence and analysis of the mtDNA control region (CR of the Diatraea saccharalis. The genome PCR amplification was performed using the complementary primers to the flanking regions of Bombyx mori CR mitochondrial segment. The sequencing revealed that the amplified product was 568 bp long, which was smaller than that observed for B. mori (725 bp. Within the amplified segment, a sequence with 338 nucleotides was identified as the control region, which displayed a high AT content (93.5%. The D. saccharalis mtDNA CR multiple sequence alignment analysis showed that this region had high similarity with the Lepidoptera Cydia pomonella.A broca da cana, Diatraea saccharalis pertence à família dos lepidópteros. A presença da larva pode ser extremamente destrutiva, chegando a inviabilizar a atividade canavieira, causando prejuízos consideráveis à agroindústria sucro-alcooleira. Atualmente a broca da cana vem sendo extinta da plantação por métodos de controle biológico, entretanto a evolução desses programas depende de maiores conhecimentos básicos da biologia molecular deste inseto. O estudo do segmento do genoma mitocondrial denominado região controle é amplamente utilizado em análises genéticas e filogenéticas em insetos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi sequenciar e analisar a região controle do genoma mitocondrial de Diatraea saccharalis. Esse segmento apresentou 338 nucleotídeos, menor que o observado em Bombyx mori, com conteúdo de 93,5% de A/T. As analises realizadas mostraram que Diatraea saccharalis apresenta 76% de similaridade com Cydia pomonella.

  14. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.

    2012-04-17

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (Pa=0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  15. Variación en la captura de machos de Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae usando feromonas sexuales comerciales en tres hospederos solanáceos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Díaz-Montilla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae represents the most damaging pest of the Solanaceae family. Current studies have demonstrated that the species has differentiated into four races according to variations in female genitalia, wing morphometrics and sequencing of the Cytochrome Oxydase 1 (CO1 mitochondrial gene. The number of males captured in Colombia and Ecuador were registered using traps baited with two sex pheromone: Neolegantol® and P228. These pheromones were synthesized using natural female pheromones collected in Solanum lycopersicumL. plantations in Venezuela. In Colombia, the number of male catches was significantly higher for Neolegantol® than for P228 and this number was significantly higher on S. lycopersicum followed by S. quitoense and S. betaceum. The haplotype net obtained with the CO1 gene produced two main clusters: one cluster was comprised by specimens from S. lycopersicum and S. quitoense plants (both with medium sized female genitalia and the other cluster by specimens from S. betaceum (large sized genitalia. The Neolegantol® pheromone was also tested in Ecuador, however, insignificant number of males were attracted. Results suggest that phero-mone composition or concentration, host biotypes and geographic location are relevant to monitor populations of N. elegantalis. Further studies of the species should concentrate on establishing the pheromone composition and concentration among the four biotypes.

  16. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Joyce

    Full Text Available The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species.

  17. Effects of entomopathogenic fungi on different developmental stages of Cotesia flavipes (Cam. a parasitoid of Diatraea flavipennella (Box (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Conceição Matias da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control using the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cam. is one of the main components in the integrated management of the sugarcane moth borer Diatraea spp. Besides this parasitoid, the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. are used to control sugarcane pests, and they can be found naturally parasitizing caterpillars. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on different developmental stages of the C. flavipes parasitoid on Diatraea flavipennella (Box. The experiments were carried at laboratory with isolates PL 43 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana were applied to the parasitoid at the immature and adult phases. No negative effects were observed on the larval development of C. flavipes, and it could complete its development on caterpillars of D. flavipennella treated with fungi. The fungi did not cause pupal mortality. However, B. bassiana caused high mortality in the adult parasitoid (76%. The fungi had negative effects on parasitoids when applied during certain developmental stages of C. flavipes.

  18. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI. Diez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794 damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days. These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  19. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E

    2013-02-01

    The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  20. Occurrence and larval movement of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in seed mixes of non-Bt and Bt pyramid corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangila, David S; Leonard, B Rogers; Ghimire, Mukti N; Bai, Yaoyu; Zhang, Liping; Yang, Yunlong; Emfinger, Karla D; Head, Graham P; Yang, Fei; Niu, Ying; Huang, Fangneng

    2013-10-01

    Larval movement of target pest populations among Bt and non-Bt plants is a major concern in the use of a seed mixture refuge strategy for Bt resistance management. In this study, occurrence and larval movement of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), were evaluated in four planting patterns of non-Bt and Bt plants containing Genuity® SmartStax(TM) traits in 2009-2011. The four planting patterns were: (1) a pure stand of 27 Bt plants; (2) one non-Bt plant in the center, surrounded by 26 Bt plants; (3) a pure stand of 27 non-Bt plants; (4) one Bt plant in the center, surrounded by 26 non-Bt plants. Studies were conducted under four conditions: (1) open field with natural infestation; (2) greenhouse with artificial infestations; open field with artificial infestations (3) on the center plants only and (4) on every plant. The major objective of this study was to determine whether refuge plants in a seed mixture strategy could provide a comparable refuge population of D. saccharalis to a 'structured refuge' planting. Larvae of D. saccharalis showed the ability to move from infested plants to at least four plants away, as well as to adjacent rows, but the majority remained within the infested row. However, the number of larvae found on the non-Bt plants in the mixture plantings was not significantly reduced compared with the pure stand of non-Bt corn. The results of this study show that refuge plants in a seed mixture may be able to provide a comparable refuge population of D. saccharalis to a structured refuge planting. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31...... species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records......, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  2. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have...... established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe...... for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries...

  3. Status dan Mekanisme Resistensi Biokimia Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae terhadap Insektisida Organofosfat serta Kepekaannya terhadap Insektisida Botani Ekstrak Biji Barringtonia asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAR DONO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An examination of insect resistance was determined by several steps, i.e. standard sensitivity, resistance diagnosis, and determination of resistance level. Each phase was tested with feeding and residue contact methods at glass tube. Resistance ratio (RR was determined by comparing LC50 value of field population with standard population. Field population of C. pavonana was classified resistant if it had RR 5 4. Biochemistry analysis of resistance was conducted to population of C. pavonana showing resistance to prophenophos insecticide. The activity analysis of acetylcholine esterase (ACHE, esterase, and Glutation Stransferase was done with spectrophotometer method. Insect which are resistant to prophenophos insecticide was tested for its sensitivity to Barringtonia asiatica seed extract. Result indicated that C. pavonana population from Pengalengan showed resistance to prophenophos synthetic insecticide. Using contact test, the highest resistance ratio value was 4.04, while by feeding assay the RR was 2.78. The study on biochemical resistance mechanisms of each field population of C. pavonana showed various activities of enzymatic detoxification. This could be due to the difference in the kind of insecticides exposed to each field population of C. pavonana. Since RR value from the contact test was higher than that of the feeding test, the resistance development of C. pavonana to synthetic insecticides was probably caused by physiological and biochemical changes in insect cuticle rather than the activity of detoxification enzyme. Methanolic seed extract of B. asiatica can be used as an alternative of resistance management of C. pavonana to prophenophos synthetic insecticide.

  4. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae = Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Paes de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos àslarvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered oneof the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of differentconcentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis werefungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower survival

  5. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae Biologia e técnica de criação de Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae em folhas de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI. Diez-Rodríguez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794 damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days. These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.Lagartas de Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794 causam danos nas folhas da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp.. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar sua biologia e desenvolver uma técnica de criação, em condições de laboratório. Com os dados de biologia, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Para o estudo da técnica de criação, foram determinados o substrato para obten

  6. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  7. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627 Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Wanderley Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos às larvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered one of the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis were fungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower

  8. Whole-farm mating disruption to manage Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in diversified New Jersey orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Rucker, Ann; Shearer, Peter W

    2012-10-01

    Fruit orchards in New Jersey are usually isolated from neighboring farms and diversified, often containing separate plantings of peach (Prunus spp.) and apple (Malus spp.). These crops can suffer significant damage from oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This study evaluated the effect of managing G. molesta by using sex pheromone-based mating disruption applied to both peaches and apples (whole-farm mating disruption) rather than treating either crop alone. In year 1 of the experiment, G. molesta mating disruption applied to the adjacent peach and apple blocks provided better control than treating peaches or apples alone. During year 2, treating these adjacent blocks or only treating apples controlled G. molesta equally well. G. molesta populations were so low at the end of year 2 that mating disruption was not applied against this pest during year 3. This allowed us to determine whether applying mating disruption for two consecutive years controlled G. molesta well enough that it eliminated the need mating disruption for three consecutive years. The mean cumulative number of G. molesta captured in plots where both peaches and apples had been treated did not exceed two moths per trap in the third year of this experiment. In contrast, G. molesta capture rebounded during August in peaches and apples that had not been treated with mating disruption the previous 2 yr. Implications for managing G. molesta by using mating disruption as a "whole-farm" tactic as well applying it for two consecutive years and not a third year are discussed.

  9. Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.

  10. Preliminary studies on inherited sterility for field management of diamondback moth (plutella xylostella) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) on crucifiers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewusie, E.A.; Nkumsah, A.K.; Alimatu, S.; Osae, M.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) is the most destructive insect pest crucifiers in Ghana and the world over. It is estimated to cost about USD 1 billion to control annually worldwide. Reliance on chemicals as the sole control measure for diamondback moth has resulted in the development of a myriad of problems including resistance, high residue levels on produce, destruction of natural enemies and pest resurgence among others. Inherited sterility in Lepidoptera insects has a potential for suppressing DBM populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the use of the technique to manage the diamond back moth in Ghana. When 3 - 4 day old pupae were treated with 130 Gy and 150 Gy of gamma radiation, 47% and 46% respectively of the male pupae developed as normal adults while 40% and 17% respectively of the female pupae developed as normal adults. However, radiation-induced reductions in fecundity and egg viability were expressed in the parental and first filial (F 1 ) generations. Sterility exceeded 66% in the treated parental male and 92% in the treated parental female in both treatments as compared with 78% and 95% in treated F 1 male and female, respectively. The sex ratio was skewed in favour of males in the parental progeny. These results indicate the possibility of using inherited sterility for DBM control. (au)

  11. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  12. Phylogenetic systematics of Schacontia Dyar with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Goldstein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Schacontia Dyar (1914 is reviewed and revised to include eleven species. Schacontia replica Dyar, 1914, syn. n. and S. pfeifferi Amsel, 1956, syn. n. are synonymized with S. chanesalis (Druce, 1899 and eight new species are described: Schacontia umbra, sp. n., S. speciosa, sp. n., S. themis, sp. n., S. rasa, sp. n., S. nyx, sp. n., S. clotho, sp. n., S. lachesis, sp. n., and S. atropos, sp. n. Three species, S. medalba, S. chanesalis, and S. ysticalis, are re-described. An analysis of 64 characters (56 binary, 8 multistate; 5 head, 13 thoracic, 13 abdominal, 25 male genitalic, and 8 female genitalic scored for all Schacontia and three outgroup species (Eustixia pupula Hübner, 1823, Glaphyria sesquistrialis Hübner, 1823, and Hellula undalis (Fabricius, 1781 retrieved 8 equally most parsimonious trees (L=102, CI=71, RI=84 of which the strict consensus is: [[[[medalba + umbra] + chanesalis] + speciosa] + [ysticalis + [rasa + themis + [atropos + lachesis + nyx + clotho

  13. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Another new Lygodium-boring species of the musotimine genus Siamusotima (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamusotima disrupta Solis, n. sp., is a stem-boring musotimine from China. It was discovered in the stems of several Lygodium Sw. species (Lygodiaceae) during exploration for biological control agents of Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br., the Old World climbing fern. This is the second report of ...

  15. The diatraea complex (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Colombia’s Cauca River Valley: identity, distribution, and parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane stem borers Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and D. indigenella Dyar & Heinrich are common pests of sugarcane crops in Colombia’s Cauca river valley (CRV). In 2012, however, D. tabernella Dyar was recorded for the first time in northern CRV and just one year later D. busckella Dyar & H...

  16. A new species of Metaeuchromius (Lepidoptera, Crambidae from the Tibetan glacier area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaeuchromius glacialis Li, sp. n. is described from the Tibetan glacier area of China. The new species is similar to M. circe Bleszynski by the distal projection of costa exceeding the apex of valva, and the phallus with strong spine-like cornuti in the male genitalia. Images of male adult, tympanal and scent organs as well as genitalia of the new species are provided.

  17. Damage to Miconia calvescens and seasonal abundance of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco R. Badenes-Perez; Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered the most serious threat to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The success of M. calvescens as an invasive species is greatly owing to its shade tolerance and the shaded habitat it creates, where many native plant species that...

  18. Potential of endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller (Lepidoptera:Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Amatuzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the first assessment of endophytic fungi isolated from strawberry leaves and selection of isolates for the control of Duponchelia fovealis, a new pest of strawberries. A total of 400 strawberry leaves of the cultivar ‘Albion’ were collected in four commercial farms. Leaves were disinfected, cut in fragments, and placed on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar media with tetracycline and incubated for 30 days. Following this time, 517 fungal colonies were isolated, and thirteen genera were identified: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Bipolaris, Diaporthe, and Phoma. Eight isolates belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Diaporthe, Paecilomyces, and Cladosporium were selected for pathogenicity bioassays against third instar larvae of D. fovealis. Isolates of Paecilomyces induced the highest mortality rates.

  19. Aras kerusakan ekonomi (AKE larva Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae pada tiga fase pertumbuhan tanaman jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiadi Subiadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée is an important economic pest of corn and is widely distributed in the Asia-Pacific region, including Indonesia. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of infestation levels of O. furnacalis larvae per plant on corn grain yield reductions, and to determine economic injury levels (EIL of O. furnacalis larvae at three growth stages (V10, R1, and R2 of corn. The experiment was designed in a split-plot randomized complete block with blocks replicated three times. Differences in grain weight between the uninfested and highest infestation levels (six larvae per plant V10, R1, and R2 were 59.81; 58.76; and 49.20 g/plant, respectively. For each additional infestation by one larvae per plant at V10, R1, dan R2, there is reduction in grain weight of 4.94%, 4.56% and 3.76% respectively. The calculation of EILs was based on the proportion of yield loss per larvae per plant on three corn growth stages with the assumption that pesticide control reduced 67% of O. furnacalis population. The lowest EIL was 0.31 larvae per plant at V10 when the cost of control reaching Rp.125,000 per ha and crop value of Rp.12,000,000 per ha. The highest EIL of 1.24 larvae per plant was found at R2 with the cost of control of Rp.250,000 per ha and crop value of Rp.8,000,000 per ha.

  20. Immune response of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae to different entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaee, A; Malagoli, D

    2014-04-01

    The current study reports mortality and effects on cellular immune response of several entomopathogenic fungi including isoleates BB1, BB2 and BB3 of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Lecanicilium lecanii against larvae of Chilo suppressalis. Prohemocytes, granulocytes, plasmatocytes and oenocytoids were identified as the main circulating hemocytes in the hemolymph of larvae using Giemsa staining solution. Entomopathogenic fungi caused differential mortality on larvae: BB1, BB3, M. anisopliae lead to the highest mortality on larvae and L. lecanii caused the lowest mortality. The highest numbers of total hemocytes were observed 3 h post-injection of B. bassiana isolates and 6 h for the other treatments. The highest numbers of plasmatocytes were observed 3 h post-injection of BB1 and Tween 80, whereas BB2, BB3, M. anisopliae, I. fumosoroseus and L. lecani caused plasmatocyte increase 6 h post-injection. Similar results were obtained in case of granulocytes but only Tween 80 showed the highest number of hemocytes 3 h post-injection. The highest numbers of nodules were found at various time intervals after injection of fungal isolates and latex bead. The highest activities of phenoloxidase were observed 12 h post-injection by BbB1, BbB3, M. anisopliae and latex bead; 3-6 h post-injection by BbB2, 6 h post-injection by I. fumosoroseus and 3-6 h post-injection by L. lecanii. Our data demonstrate the possibility of utilizing different fungal extracts in the field to help reduce the risk of resistance evolution in C. suppressalis and encourage experimentations aimed to increase the number of biological control agent for insect pests such as the striped rice stem borer C. suppressalis.

  1. Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2004-08-01

    The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings.

  2. Management of insecticide resistance in Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Pree, David J; van Lier, Jennifer L; Walker, Gerald M

    2003-08-01

    The development of resistance in the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (azinphos-methyl and phosmet) is a serious threat to the tender fruit industry in Ontario (50% crop losses in 1994). Resistance to carbamate insecticides and increased survival of field-collected moths at diagnostic concentrations of pyrethroids were widespread. As a result, four different treatment regimes were tested to manage resistance in G molesta, and the changes in resistance frequencies under each treatment regime were monitored from 1996 to 1999. The data indicated that the levels of resistance were significantly influenced by the various treatment regimes. The seasonal pattern of resistance was similar for all treatment regimes, in that resistance peaked in mid-season and declined in the late season. Levels of resistance in G molesta to OPs decreased from 55% to 14% and that to pyrethroids declined from 30% to 10% from 1996 to 1999 under a treatment regime consisting of endosulfan-organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation. Similarly, under a treatment regime implemented in commercial orchards (organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation), resistance to OP insecticides declined from 50% to 12% and resistance to pyrethroids evolved to around 16%. The overall data indicated that resistance was unstable; a strategy based on rotation of insecticides by class for each generation of G molesta was successful in managing resistance to both OP and pyrethroid insecticides. The rotational strategy has been widely adopted by growers and is applied to ca 85% of the acreage.

  3. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica (Sapindale) sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae), Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) et Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera : Aphididae) du chou Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae) da.

  5. Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered.

  6. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... of the Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna...

  7. Interrelation of mating, flight, and fecundity in navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an economically important pest of nut crops in California. Improved management will require better understanding of insect dispersal, particularly relative to when mating occurs. A previous study demonstrated a more robus...

  8. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Totricidae – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bažok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitoring of grapevine and weekly adults catch. Developmental time with lower thermal threshold of 7 °C was calculated. The flight of the first generation was between 217.9 and 406.6 °C, second generation between 786.3 and 1329.8 °C, third generation between 1452.8 and 2108.2 °C.

  9. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  10. Evidence of sexual selection in Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): correlation of female moth genitalia and Solanaceae host fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is a Neotropical moth considered a quarantine pest in the family Solanaceae. In previous studies, this species has shown population genetic structure FST =0.57 (P<0.0001) based on host plant associations. This genetic differentiation is further demonstrated here based on ad...

  11. Morphological and molecular characterization of Brazilian populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the evolutionary relationship among Diatraea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer (or corn stalk borer), is a Diatraea ssp., polyphagous insect pest of important crops such corn, sorghum and sugarcane. Losses arising from attack of Diatraea species can be signigficant, with reductions of up to 0.25% in sugar, 0.20% in alcohol, and 0.77% of plant biomass for ev...

  12. Gangguan fisiologi dan biokimia Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae akibat perlakuan ekstrak campuran Tephrosia vogelli dan Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Chandra Lina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have been known to cause physiological and biochemical interferences against insect, such as feeding inhibitor, food assimilation, and changes on activity of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450. This study was carried out to examine the effect of the extracts mixture of Tephrosia vogeliiand : Piper aduncum (1 : 5 on the physiology of Crocidolomia pavonana (F. as well as extract of P. aduncum on biochemical of C. pavonana. The study showed that larvae of C. pavonana was experiencing a feeding inhibition until 94.82% after treated with extracts mixture on concentration 0.06% or equivalent to LC95. However, larvae treated with extracts mixture on LC25 and LC50 only experienced a relative growth disorders as a result of intrinsic toxicity of extracts mixture which enters into the body of insects. Insect adaptation to toxic plant compounds indicated by an increase in the digestibility of larvae approximately 11.11%. Furthermore, detoxification mechanism by larvae against active compounds of P. aduncum occured and shown by an increase of oxidative enzyme activity of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450, in in vivo and in vitro compared to control. This study provides an information about mode of action of extracts mixture of T. vogelii and P. aduncum (1 : 5 on larvae of C. pavonana and detoxification mechanism by larvae due to extract of P. aduncum 

  13. Comparison of mating disruption with pesticides for management of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North Carolina apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanci, Orkun B; Schal, Coby; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-08-01

    The efficacy of mating disruption by using Isomate-M 100 pheromone dispensers and two formulations of microencapsulated sprayable pheromone for management of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), was compared with conventional insecticides in large plot studies in Henderson County, North Carolina, in 2000 and 2001. In addition, experiments were conducted in small and large plots to test the response of oriental fruit moth males to different application rates of sprayable pheromone. Pheromone trap catches were significantly reduced in mating disruption blocks compared with conventional and abandoned orchards. Pheromone traps placed in the upper canopy captured significantly more moths than traps placed in the lower canopy across all treatments, and lures loaded with 100 microg of pheromone caught more moths than traps with 300 microg, but the difference between doses was statistically significant at only one location in 2001. Isomate-M 100 provided excellent trap shutdown and was significantly more effective than sprayable pheromone formulations. Fruit damage by oriental fruit moth larvae was very low (oriental fruit moth population pressure in large plot studies. Mating disruption proved to be an alternative to organophosphate insecticides for managing oriental fruit moth populations in North Carolina apple orchards.

  14. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  15. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  16. Analysis of evolution in the lower Lepidoptera (Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Lower Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Mutuura, Akira

    1991-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanism in Lepidoptera is discussed. As a result of the comparison of evolution between the Microptergidae and the typical Lepidoptera, two different kinds of evolution are recognized. ・・・

  17. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  18. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: influence of sampling parameters, and validation of binomial sequential sampling plans for the cabbage looper (Lepidoptera Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2009-10-01

    Populations of cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were sampled in experimental plots and commercial fields of cabbage (Brasicca spp.) in Minnesota during 1998-1999 as part of a larger effort to implement an integrated pest management program. Using a resampling approach and the Wald's sequential probability ratio test, sampling plans with different sampling parameters were evaluated using independent presence/absence and enumerative data. Evaluations and comparisons of the different sampling plans were made based on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions generated for each plan and through the use of a decision probability matrix. Values for upper and lower decision boundaries, sequential error rates (alpha, beta), and tally threshold were modified to determine parameter influence on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions. The following parameters resulted in the most desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions; action threshold of 0.1 proportion of plants infested, tally threshold of 1, alpha = beta = 0.1, upper boundary of 0.15, lower boundary of 0.05, and resampling with replacement. We found that sampling parameters can be modified and evaluated using resampling software to achieve desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions. Moreover, management of T. ni by using binomial sequential sampling should provide a good balance between cost and reliability by minimizing sample size and maintaining a high level of correct decisions (>95%) to treat or not treat.

  19. Developing the F1 sterility technique for the management of the carob moth ectomyelois ceratoniae zeller (Lepidoptera: pyralidae) in a pomegranate orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Jemaa, J. M. M.; Dhouibi, M. E. H.

    2012-12-01

    A pilot sterile insect release program was initiated for the control of the date moth ectromyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in a pomegranate orchard near Tunisia. The F1 sterility technique was tested against pest for four successive seasons. Moth adults were irradiated with an effective gamma dose of 400 Gy using a 6 0C o irradiator (dose rate of 46 Gy/min). Releases were done from June to September each year with a release ratio of 5 to 1 (irradiated to non-irradiated). The release assessment was measured in the treated field as the reduction of the percentage of fruit damage and the reduction of percentage of larvae in rotten fruits at harvest. Results showed that F1 sterility could be a potential method for the control of carob in pomegranate orcharch. In the treated field, the percent damage of pomegranates at harvest declined from 28% in first year to 6.5% last year in the treated plot against 32% and 33% in the control plots. The percent of rotten fruits in the treated area was respectively 26%, 5.5%, 3.25% and 1.25% against 32%, 30.5% 30% and 30.5% in the control area during 4 years. The percentage of larvae in rotten fruit was respectively 20%, 5.5%, 3.25% and 1.25% compared to 32%, 30.5%, 30% and 30.5% in the controls. (Author)

  20. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  1. Taxonomic review of the superfamily Pyraloidea in Bhutan (Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Irungbam, Jatishwor; Chib, M. S.; Wangdi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 355-382 ISSN 2287-884X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Crambidae * investigation * light trapping Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2287884X16300541

  2. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  3. Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean treated with resistance inducers. P Vinicius de Souza, BR Machado, M Mueller de Freitas, F Correa, A Cirilo de Sousa Almeida, FG de Jesus ...

  4. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  5. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  6. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalya G. Amarasekare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  7. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Shearer, Peter W

    2017-09-30

    This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola , in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella , negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, "natural enemy disrupt" (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth) and "natural enemy non-disrupt" four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci , syrphid flies, earwigs) revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  8. An Insight in the Reproductive Biology of Therophilus javanus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, and Agathidinae, a Potential Biological Control Agent against the Legume Pod Borer (Lepidoptera, Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibril Aboubakar Souna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20–80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential fecundity, and egg load in T. javanus, as well as the effect of factors such as age of the female and parasitoid/host size at oviposition on egg load. The number of ovarioles was found to be variable and significantly influenced by the age/size of the M. vitrata caterpillar when parasitized. Egg load also was strongly influenced by both the instar of M. vitrata caterpillar at the moment of parasitism and wasp age. The practical implications of these findings for improving mass rearing of the parasitoid toward successful biological control of M. vitrata are discussed.

  9. Aktivitas insektisida ekstrak buah Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae dan Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae serta campurannya terhadap larva Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yanuar Syahroni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crocidolomia pavonana is an important pest of Brassicaceous vegetable crops. Botanical insecticides are potential alternatives for the control of C. pavonana pest. Insecticidal activity of Piper aduncum and Sapindus rarak fruit extracts as well as their mixtures was evaluated against C. pavonana larvae in the laboratory. Ethyl acetate P. aduncum (EtPa extract as well as methanolic S. rarak (MeSr and aqueous S. rarak (AqSr extracts were tested separately and in mixtures against second-instar larvae C. pavonana by a leaf-residue feeding method. At the LC95 level - 72 hours after treatment (HAT, EtPa extract was about 14.5 and 12.8 times, respectively, more toxic to C. pavonana larvae than MeSr and AqSr extracts. At the LC95 level, EtPa + MeSr extract mixture (1 : 10 w/w was about 1.64 times more toxic to the test larvae than EtPa + AqSr extract mixture (1 : 10 w/w. Based on combination index at 48, 72, and 96 HAT, EtPa + MeSr extract mixture at LC50 level as well as EtPa + AqSr extract mixture at LC50 and LC95 levels had additive joint action, whereas EtPa + MeSr extract mixture at LC95 was weakly synergistic. In addition to lethal effect, the treatment with all test materials delayed the development of C. pavonana larvae from second-instar to fourth instar. Thus, EtPa, MeSr, and AqSr extracts as well as the mixtures between EtPa and S. rarak extracts are potential alternatives for the control of C. pavonana pest.

  10. An Insight in the Reproductive Biology of Therophilus javanus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, and Agathidinae), a Potential Biological Control Agent against the Legume Pod Borer (Lepidoptera, Crambidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboubakar Souna, Djibril; Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé; Ravallec, Marc; Cusumano, Antonino; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie; Tamò, Manuele

    2017-01-01

    Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20-80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential

  11. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  12. Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera:Crambidae: A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf-mining biology from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alma Solis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Albusambia elaphoglossumae Solis &Davis,a new genus and species,is described.It was discov- ered mining the fronds of the fern Elaphoglossum conspersum in Costa Rica (San José and Cartago Provinces, at elevations of 2300-3100 m.The type series was obtained by rearing of the immature stages in laboratory. The adult is defined by unique genital characters,and the pupa with a medial depression on the vertex and with two anterolateral horn-like structures on the prothorax.The larva is a gregarious leaf miner with its body flat- tened dorsoventrally and head prognathous; morphological adaptations to its leaf-mining habit are new to the Musotiminae.Fern-feeding musotimines are important to the discovery of new biological control agents for invasive ferns.Rev.Biol.Trop.53(3-4:487-501.Epub 2005 Oct 3.Se describen un género y especie nuevos de Musotiminae,Albusambia elaphoglossumae Solis and Davis,de Costa Rica.Esta especie mina las frondas del helecho Elaphoglossum conspersum .La serie tipo se obtuvo mediante la recolección de las minas y mediante crianza en laboratorio.El adulto se define por caracteres específicos en el aparato genital;la pupa se caracteriza por una depresión media en el vértex y por dos estructuras anterolaterales en forma de cuernos en el protórax.La larva es un minador gregario de la fronda,con su cuerpo aplanado dorsoventralmente y su cabeza prognata;ambas adaptaciones morfológicas para minar frondas (vistas por primera vez en Musotiminae. Actualmente,Musotiminae es de alta prioridad en la búsqueda de nuevos agentes para el control biológico de helechos invasores.

  13. IDENTIFICATION, CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF A CRY1AB CADHERIN RECEPTOR FROM EUROPEAN CORN BORER, OSTRINIA NUBILALIS (H&UUML;BNER ) (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE). (R829479C014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Pola Sebaran Kelompok Telur Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae pada Beberapa Fase Pertumbuhan Tanaman Jagung (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiadi Subiadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the distribution of egg masses of Ostrinia furnacalis on corn leaves and within corn field. The corn field was divided into three regions: the inner edge closed to other crops and outer edge closed to main road and the middle region. The numbers of egg masses laid were recorded entirely in all corn plants existed (census method. Egg laying period lasted for 34 days, with 11 days from initiation of egg laying to the peak of oviposition and 23 days from the peak to termination of egg laying. The egg masses laid on corn leaves were distributed in aggregation pattern. During eight-opened-leaf to twelve-opened-leaf stages, there were 847 egg masses found, and 80.9% was laid on the sixth-to-ninth leaves. From tasseling to blister stages there were 491 egg masses found of which approximately 80.7% was laid on the seventh-to-11 32.8, and 29.8% of those were found in the inner edge, middle, and outer edge of corn field, respectively. leaves. Egg masses laid within corn field varied, in which 37.4, 32.8, and 29.8% of those were found in the inner edge, middle, and outer edge of corn field, respectively.   Kajian lapang dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui pola sebaran peletakan kelompok telur ngengat Ostrinia furnacalis pada daun tanaman jagung dan penyebarannya pada lahan pertanaman jagung. Lahan penelitian dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok yaitu lahan pinggir dalam berdekatan dengan pertanaman lain, bagian tengah lahan, dan lahan pinggir luar berdekatan dengan jalan raya. Pengamatan kelompok telur dilakukan pada seluruh tanaman jagung (sensus. Periode peletakan telur berlangsung selama 34 hari, dengan periode inisiasi hingga puncak 11 hari dan periode setelah puncak hingga akhir peletakan telur 23 hari. Peletakan telur O. furnacalis pada daun tanaman jagung menyebar secara berkelompok. Pada fase 8 hingga 10 daun telah terbuka sempurna ditemukan sebanyak 847 kelompok telur, 80,9% diantaranya  ditemukan pada daun ke 6–9. Pada fase VT (bunga jantan hingga fase R2 (bunga betina telah kering ditemukan sebanyak 491 kelompok telur, 80,7% diantaranya ditemukan pada daun 7–11. Penyebaran kelompok telur pada bagian lahan terjadi secara berkelompok. Jumlah kelompok telur tertinggi berturut-turut dari bagian lahan pinggir dalam, bagian tengah lahan, dan bagian lahan pinggir luar masing-masing 37,4; 32,8; dan 29,8%.

  15. Influência do Fotoperíodo no Parasitismo de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santana

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Trichogramma species are an important group of parasitoids that attack especially lepidopteran eggs. The quality and performance of this natural enemy may be influenced by factors such as alternative host used in the massal rearing, and differences in the temperature and photoperiod. Based on this, this study aimed to evaluate the number of parasitized eggs, % of females that parasitized, % emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi per egg of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius in the presence and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (light and dark and 60 replications, being each experimental unit composed by 40 eggs of D. saccharalis which were placed in a glass tube with one female of T. galloi with age of 24 hours, previously fed with honey. The experiment was carried out at 25 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. In each one of the treatments, the parasitoid was removed from the tube after 12 hours. The highest number of parasitized eggs (12.9 and % of females that parasitized (83.3% was observed during the period with light. For the emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals per egg, there was no statistical difference. The results showed that the presence of light is essential for this biological control agent.

  16. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-12-01

    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F 1 F 0 ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Down-regulation of aminopeptidase N and ABC transporter subfamily G transcripts in Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac resistant Asian corn borer, Ostrina furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline protein (Cry) toxins cause mortality by a mechanism involving pore formation or signal transduction following toxin binding to receptors along the midgut lumen of susceptible insects, but this mechanism and mutations therein that lead to resistance remain poor...

  18. Colastomion Baker (Braconidae, Rogadinae): nine new species from Papua New Guinea reared from Crambidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quicke, D. L. J.; Smith, M. A.; Miller, S. E.; Hrček, Jan; Butcher, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, 28 AUG (2012), s. 85-121 ISSN 1070-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GAP505/10/0673; GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk ME09082 Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0841885; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0816749; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cytochrome oxidase I * DNA barcoding * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2012 http://www.pensoft.net/J_FILES/10/articles/3484/3484-G-3- layout .pdf

  19. The ecology of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Riverina region of south-eastern Australia and the implications for tactical and strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, S J; Steer, A P

    2006-12-01

    Decisions on the choice of appropriate tactical and strategic control techniques require an understanding of the seasonal distribution and ecology of the target species. To address this need, data were collected from 1997 to 2000 using crop surveys, field sampling and pheromone trapping to monitor the population trends of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and H. punctigera (Wallengren) in the Riverina region of south-eastern Australia. The data gathered are compared to predictions from the HElicoverpa Armigera and Punctigera Simulation (HEAPS) model, that simulates Helicoverpa population dynamics to assist in identifying the drivers of regional populations and provide a framework to make informed decisions. The results highlight the contrasting seasonal dynamics of H. punctigera and H. armigera within the region. Helicoverpa punctigera populations peak in the spring, driven by large scale spring migration into the region and subsequently decline. Helicoverpa armigera populations, conversely, are characterized by a period of spring recruitment of adults from overwintering pupae within the region, followed by a within-season population increase leading to severe late season pressure. The within-season increase of H. armigera is a result of the succession of crop and non-crop hosts with the main driver being sequentially sown, unsprayed maize. Tactical and strategic management options are discussed in light of these findings.

  20. How Do Landscape Structure, Management and Habitat Quality Drive the Colonization of Habitat Patches by the Dryad Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) in Fragmented Grassland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalarus, Konrad; Nowicki, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Most studies dealing with species distribution patterns on fragmented landscapes focus on the characteristics of habitat patches that influence local occurrence and abundance, but they tend to neglect the question of what drives colonization of previously unoccupied patches. In a study of the dryad butterfly, we combined classical approaches derived from metapopulation theory and landscape ecology to investigate the factors driving colonization from a recent refugium. In three consecutive transect surveys, we recorded the presence and numbers of imagos in 27 patches of xerothermic grassland and 26 patches of wet meadow. Among the predictors affecting the occurrence and abundance of the dryad, we considered environmental variables reflecting (i) habitat patch quality (e.g., goldenrod cover, shrub density, vegetation height); (ii) factors associated with habitat spatial structure (patch size, patch isolation and fragmentation); and (iii) features of patch surroundings (100-m buffers around patches) that potentially pose barriers or provide corridors. Patch colonization by the dryad was strongly limited by the distance from the species refugium in the region; there was a slight positive effect of shrub density in this respect. Butterfly abundance increased in smaller and more fragmented habitat patches; it was negatively impacted by invasive goldenrod cover, and positively influenced by the density of watercourses in patch surroundings. Nectar plant availability was positively related to species abundance in xerothermic grassland, while in wet meadow the effect was the reverse. We conclude that dryad colonization of our study area is very recent, since the most important factor limiting colonization was distance from the refugium, while the habitat quality of target patches had less relevance. In order to preserve the species, conservation managers should focus on enhancing the quality of large patches and should also direct their efforts on smaller and more

  1. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Mensah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp. against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109 of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 ´ 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha. Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production.

  2. Survival and Development of Spodoptera frugiperda and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Cotton and Implications for Resistance Management Strategies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) are important cotton pests and target of control of Bollgard II (Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab2) and WideStrike (Cry1Ac/Cry1F) cotton technologies. To subsidize an insect resistance management program, we conducted laboratory studies to evaluate the toxicity of these Bt cotton plants throughout larval development of S. frugiperda and C. includens. In bioassays with leaf disc, the efficacy of both Bt cotton plants against neonates was >80% for S. frugiperda and 100% for C. includens. However, S. frugiperda larvae that survived on Bt cotton had >76% of growth inhibition and stunting. In bioassays with S. frugiperda and C. includens larvae fed on non-Bt near-isoline during different time period (from 3 to 18 d) and then transferred to Bollgard II or WideStrike leaves showed that larval susceptibility decreased as larval age increased. For Bollgard II cotton, in all S. frugiperda instars, there were larvae that reached the pupal and adult stages. In contrast, on WideStrike cotton, a few larvae in fifth and sixth instar completed the biological cycle. For C. includens, some larvae in sixth instar originated adults in both Bt cotton plants. In conclusion, Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton technologies showed high efficacy against neonates of S. frugiperda and C. includens. However, the mortality of these species decreases as larval age increase, allowing insect survival in a possible seed mixture environment and favoring the resistance evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Novel Vip3A Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize approaches high-dose efficacy against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under field conditions: Implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Dively, Galen; Patton, Terry; Morey, Amy C; Hutchison, William D

    2010-01-01

    Sweet corn, Zea mays L., transformed to express a novel vegetative insecticidal protein, Vip3A (event MIR162, Syngenta Seeds, Inc..), produced by the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), was evaluated over four field seasons in Maryland and two field seasons in Minnesota for efficacy against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Hybrids expressing the Vip3A protein and pyramided in hybrids also expressing the Cry1Ab Bt protein (event Bt11, ATTRIBUTE(®), Syngenta Seeds, Inc.) were compared to hybrids expressing only Cry1Ab or to genetically similar non-Bt hybrids each year. In addition to H. zea efficacy, results for Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) are presented. Over all years and locations, the non-Bt hybrids, without insecticide protection, averaged between 43 and 100% ears infested with a range of 0.24 to 1.74 H. zea larvae per ear. By comparison, in the pyramided Vip3A x Cry1Ab hybrids, no larvae were found and only minimal kernel damage (likely due to other insect pests) was recorded. Hybrids expressing only Cry1Ab incurred a moderate level of H. zea feeding damage, with surviving larvae mostly limited to the first or second instar as a result of previously documented growth inhibition from Cry1Ab. These results suggest that the Vip3A protein, pyramided with Cry1Ab, appears to provide the first "high-dose" under field conditions and will be valuable for ongoing resistance management.

  4. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  5. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  6. Effects of adult feeding on the reproduction and longevity of Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae and Elachistidae species; Efeito da alimentacao da fase adulta na reproducao e longevidade de especies de Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae e Elachistidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, Jose R. P.; Consoli, Fernando L., E-mail: patmilano@gmail.co, E-mail: eberti@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: fconsoli@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Oda, Melissa L., E-mail: melissa.oda@gmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais

    2010-04-15

    This research evaluates the effect of the adult diet on the reproduction of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Heliothis virescens (Fabr.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Noctuidae), Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Crambidae), Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Tortricidae) and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Elachistidae). Adults of all species were fed either water or a 10% honey solution. The egg viability for the 1{sup st} and 2{sup n}d egg masses, adult fecundity, longevity, number of mating and the ovigeny index (OI) (degree of ovarian maturation) were evaluated. Fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens was drastically reduced when females were fed only on water. Egg viability from both 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} egg masses was variable between treatments. Females of A. gemmatalis, H. virescens and S. frugiperda, and males of some species had a reduced longevity when fed only on water. The number of matings was higher for A. gemmatalis and D. saccharalis when fed on water only. The OI was < 1.0 for all species evaluated indicating that all females may develop new oocytes as they age. Based on the OI and the reduced fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens, one observes that adult feeding is important for the reproduction of both species, and the IO is not a good parameter to indicate such condition. Spodoptera frugiperda, G. aurantianum, D. saccharalis and S. catenifer do not require any source of carbohydrates as adults to sustain their reproduction. (author)

  7. Mating disruption of the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using widely spaced, aerosol dispensers: is the pheromone blend the most efficacious disruptant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almonds and pistachios and is sometimes controlled using mating disruption as part of a program of integrated management. The formulation used has a single, non-attractive compound [(Z,Z)-11-13-hexadecadie...

  8. Application of high-resolution DNA melting for genotyping in lepidopteran non-model species: Ostrinia furnacalis (Crambidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FengBo Li

    Full Text Available Development of an ideal marker system facilitates a better understanding of the genetic diversity in lepidopteran non-model organisms, which have abundant species, but relatively limited genomic resources. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered within single-copy genes have proved to be desired markers, but SNP genotyping by current techniques remain laborious and expensive. High resolution melting (HRM curve analysis represents a simple, rapid and inexpensive genotyping method that is primarily confined to clinical and diagnostic studies. In this study, we evaluated the potential of HRM analysis for SNP genotyping in the lepidopteran non-model species Ostrinia furnacalis (Crambidae. Small amplicon and unlabeled probe assays were developed for the SNPs, which were identified in 30 females of O. furnacalis from 3 different populations by our direct sequencing. Both assays were then applied to genotype 90 unknown female DNA by prior mixing with known wild-type DNA. The genotyping results were compared with those that were obtained using bi-directional sequencing analysis. Our results demonstrated the efficiency and reliability of the HRM assays. HRM has the potential to provide simple, cost-effective genotyping assays and facilitates genotyping studies in any non-model lepidopteran species of interest.

  9. Datos biológicos de Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae en plantaciones de caña de azúcar y consumo de huevos de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en condiciones de laboratorio Biological traits of Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae in sugar-cane crops, and consumption rates against Diatraea saccharalis eggs (Lepidoptera: Crambidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys M Romero Sueldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. es considerada la principal plaga de la caña de azúcar en el noroeste argentino. El dermáptero Doru luteipes (Scudder desarrolla importantes poblaciones en dicho cultivo y ha sido descrito como predador de plagas en maíz, algodón y coles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue brindar información sobre algunos aspectos biológicos y estimar la capacidad de predación de las ninfas de Doru luteipes, a través de la tasa de consumo de huevos de Diatraea saccharalis. Se realizaron observaciones de campo y ensayos de laboratorio, en estos últimos se colocaron individualmente en tubos de ensayo, 50 ninfas de D. luteipes recién eclosionadas y se les ofrecía diariamente cien huevos de la plaga. La proporción de sexos de D. luteipes en campo fue de aproximadamente 1:1 y sus posturas presentaron una media de 31 huevos, con una tasa de emergencia cercana al 95%. El período de incubación se prolongó entre 6 y 10 días y el desarrollo de los estadios ninfales promedió los 37,6 días. Las ninfas pasaron por cuatro estadios y consumieron una media de 591,3 huevos de D. saccharalis. Estos resultados sugieren que D. luteipes desempeña un papel importante en el control natural de las poblaciones de D. saccharalis, por lo tanto, su presencia debería tenerse en cuenta al diseñar estrategias para controlar esta plaga.Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. is considered the key pest of sugarcane crops in the Argentine northwest. The earwig Doru luteipes (Scudder develops high populations on sugarcane, and in other regions it was depicted as a significant predator of diverse pest in corn, cotton, and cabbage crops. The aim of this contribution is to inform about different biological parameters of this Dermaptera, and to assess the predatory capacity of its nymphs by means of the estimation of consumption rates using Diatraea saccharalis eggs. Both field and laboratory observations were carried out. In the latter, 50 neonate nymphs were confined in glass tubes and 100 sugarcane borer eggs were provided daily. Information on different behavioral aspects is provided. In field conditions, the sex proportion is approximately 1:1; an average of 31 eggs were laid, and the emergence rate reached 95%. Egg incubation is complete within a range of 6-10 days, and pre-imaginal development has a mean duration of 37.6 days. Throughout the four nymphal instars, a single individual could consume an average of 591.3 sugarcane borer eggs. The potential implication of the given information in applied sugarcane borer control methodologies is discussed.

  10. Estimación de incidencia de daños provocados por larvas de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en tallos de maíz mediante evaluación de signos externos de infestación Estimating the incidence of corn stem damage produced by Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae larva through assessment of external infestation signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Serra

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diatraea saccharalis es la plaga del cultivo de maíz de mayor impacto económico en la región pampeana de la Argentina. Las larvas ocasionan pérdidas por daños de tipo fisiológico y mecánico. Las pérdidas por daño mecánico aumentan a medida que se retrasa la fecha de cosecha, y una de las medidas culturales para prevenirlas es la cosecha anticipada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la relación entre el número de entrenudos con galerías producidas por larvas grandes y el número de orificios por planta ocasionados por D. saccharalis. El estudio se realizó en Manfredi (Córdoba, Argentina durante la campaña agrícola 1999/2000. Se siguió un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas con cinco fechas de siembra y dos niveles de protección con insecticidas (protección total y libre infestación, como factores. Se evaluaron los ajustes a seis modelos mediante análisis de regresión lineal y no lineal. El porcentaje de plantas quebradas por debajo de la espiga varió de 3,4 a 30%. El modelo lineal explicó muy bien la relación entre el número de orificios por planta y el número de entrenudos con galerías del barrenador (R2 =0,95, y para fines predictivos resultó el más adecuado.Diatraea saccharalis is economically the most important pest to corn crops in the Pampa region in Argentina. The tunneling produced by the larvae has negative consequences due to both physiological and mechanical damage (stem falling and ear dislodging. Losses caused by mechanical injuries increase as harvest is delayed, so one of the cultural methods to prevent them is to anticipate harvest. The objective of this work was to study the relationship between the number of bored internodes and the number of holes produced by large D. saccharalis larvae in the stem. The study was perfomed in Manfredi (Córdoba, Argentina during the 1999/2000 growing season. It was carried out using a split plot design with five planting dates and protection category (with and without insecticide as treatments. Six models were evaluated by means of linear and non linear regression. The percentage of stems broken below the ear ranged from 3.4 to 30%. The linear model provided a good description of the relationship between the number of bored internodes and the number of holes per plant (R² =0.95 and resulted in the best option for predictive purposes.

  11. Post-embryonic development of Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with eggs of Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: CrambidaeDesenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com ovos de Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Amorim Pessoa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The lacewings (Ceraeochrysa cincta are important predators found associated to many pests in several agroecosystems. Eggs of Sitotroga cerealella and Anagasta kuehniella are used traditionally for massal rearing of these predators. Other foods can be used in substitution to the traditional ones, but little is known about the biology of lacewings and other alternative foods. So, this work was carried out to evaluate the effect of different diets on the post-embryonic development of C. cincta in laboratory. After been individualized in glass tubes, each larva was fed with S. cereallella and Diatraea saccharallis. It was evaluated the larvae duration, weight and viability in each instar, the duration, weight and viability of the pupa and pre-pupa stages and the duration of the post-embryonic period. It was adopted a completely randomized design with ten replications per treatment, each consisting of five eggs or larvae of C. cincta. Larvae were weighed 48 hours after hatching and 48 hours after each molt, and pre-pupae and pupae, 48 hours after starting these stages. There was no effect of the kind of food provided on the parameters evaluated. Therefore, D. saccharallis eggs can be used to feed C. cincta.Os crisopídeos são importantes predadores encontrados associados a diversos artrópodes-praga em diversos agroecossistemas. Para a criação massal desses predadores são utilizados tradicionalmente ovos de Sitotroga cerealella e de Anagasta kuehniella. Outros alimentos podem ser utilizados em substituição aos tradicionais, mas pouco se conhece sobre a biologia de crisopídeos e outros alimentos alternativos. Assim, este trabalho objetivou verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas sobre o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário dessa espécie em laboratório. Após a individualização em tubos de vidro, cada larva foi alimentada com ovos de S. cerealella e Diatraea saccharallis. Avaliou-se a duração, o peso e a viabilidade das larvas em cada ínstar, a duração o peso e viabilidade das fases de pré-pupa e pupa e a duração do período pós-embrionário. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições por tratamento, cada uma constituída por cinco ovos ou larvas de C. cincta. As larvas foram pesadas 48 horas após a eclosão e 48 horas após cada ecdise, e as pré-pupas e pupas, 48 horas após iniciarem esses estágios Não houve interferência do tipo de alimento fornecido sobre os parâmetros avaliados. Desta forma, ovos de D. saccharallis podem ser utilizados para alimentação de C. cincta.

  12. Resurgence of minor pests following the implementation of mating disruption against Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Sherry vineyards (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, A.; López, M. Á.; Lara, M.; Maistrello, L.; Molejón, A.; Ocete, R.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the mating disruption technique against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Sherry vineyards (Andalusia, South-western Spain) reduced the number of chemical treatments required to manage this serious pest. In order to verify the long term consequences of this type of management on the minor pests of vineyards, a study was carried out over nine years to compare the population leve...

  13. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  14. On genitalia of some southern African Phycitinae (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The male and female genitalia of 28 previously known species of sothern Africa phycilinae (Lepidoptera pyralidae) are describe. Two new species, characterized by their gentalia, are described; Epicrocis varri, and Trachypteryx victoriota.

  15. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  16. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  17. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  19. Use of molecular markers in biochemical taxonomy of Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera: Tischerioidea) and Elachistidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulavičiūtė, Brigita

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular biology has expanded greatly in the last ten years and currently many entomologists want to use this technology since it is a new level of carrying out studies of insect ecological systems and taxonomy. The study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences has become the method for a wide range of taxonomic, population and evolutionary investigations in Lepidoptera (Lunt et al, 1996). The increasing popularity of molecular taxonomy will undoubtedly exert a major impact on co...

  20. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Relationship between male moths of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milli?re) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) caught in sex pheromone traps and cumulative degree-days in vineyards in southern Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Vidart, Mar?a Valeria; Mujica, Mar?a Valentina; Calvo, Mar?a Victoria; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos Mar?a; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milli?re) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been known in Uruguay for 30 years and only in vineyards, despite being polyphagous. In recent years, this pest has caused sporadic but serious damage on some grapevine cultivars. Understanding the insect?s phenology and developing a monitoring program are essential aspects of integrated pest management. We monitored males using sexual pheromone traps on four cultivars of vine, Pinot noir, Tannat, Gew?rztraminer, and Cabernet Sauv...

  2. Moth Fauna of Gageodo Island in the Southwestern Sea, Korean Peninsula, including Seven Unrecorded Species (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013 and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and May, peaked in June and decreased to September and October. Seven moth species (Pyralidae: Herculia drabicilialis Yamanaka, Didia striatella (Inoue; Crambidae: Clupeosoma pryeri (Butler, Demobotys pervulgalis (Hampson, Yezobotys dissimilis (Yamanaka, Syllepte cissalis Yamanaka; Erebidae: Hypena sinuosa (Wileman are reported for the first time in Korea.

  3. LepNet: The Lepidoptera of North America Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Katja C; Cobb, Neil S; Gall, Lawrence F; Bartlett, Charles R; Basham, M Anne; Betancourt, Isabelle; Bills, Christy; Brandt, Benjamin; Brown, Richard L; Bundy, Charles; Caterino, Michael S; Chapman, Caitlin; Cognato, Anthony; Colby, Julia; Cook, Stephen P; Daly, Kathryn M; Dyer, Lee A; Franz, Nico M; Gelhaus, Jon K; Grinter, Christopher C; Harp, Charles E; Hawkins, Rachel L; Heydon, Steve L; Hill, Geena M; Huber, Stacey; Johnson, Norman; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kondratieff, Boris C; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Leblanc, Luc; Lee, Sangmi; Marshall, Christopher J; McCabe, Lindsie M; McHugh, Joseph V; Menard, Katrina L; Opler, Paul A; Palffy-Muhoray, Nicole; Pardikes, Nick; Peterson, Merrill A; Pierce, Naomi E; Poremski, Andre; Sikes, Derek S; Weintraub, Jason D; Wikle, David; Zaspel, Jennifer M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2017-03-23

    The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology.

  4. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Interação silício com inseticida regulador de crescimento no manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho Interaction of silicon with growth regulating insecticide in the management of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Kelly Pereira Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do silício aplicado via solo e foliar, bem como sua interação com o inseticida regulador de crescimento (lufenuron no manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda em plantas de milho, foi realizado um ensaio em casa-de-vegetação e em laboratório, constando de nove tratamentos com cinco repetições. No laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, avaliou-se a preferência das lagartas por folhas destacadas de plantas de milho provenientes dos diferentes tratamentos, bem como o consumo e a mortalidade dessa praga. Em casa-de-vegetação, foram avaliadas a intensidade das injúrias provocadas pelas lagartas nas folhas, utilizando uma escala visual de danos proposta por Davis & Williams (1989, bem como o número e a biomassa das lagartas vivas. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que os tratamentos não afetaram a preferência da lagarta-do-cartucho em teste de livre escolha. A interação silício e lufenuron no manejo de S. frugiperda é positiva em relação ao inseticida isolado, provavelmente devido a resistência mecânica conferida pelo silício as folhas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sprayed silicon via soil and leaf as well as its interaction with growth regulating insecticide (lufenuron in the management of Spodoptera frugiperda on corn plants. The trials were carried out in greenhouse and laboratory conditions and consisting of nine treatments with five replicates. In the laboratory, the preference of fall armyworms on detached leaves of corn plants from different treatments was evaluated, as well as the consumption and mortality of this pest. In the greenhouse, the damage caused by the insect on the leaves were evaluated by using a visual scale of injuries proposed by Davis & Williams (1989. In the greenhouse on the control treatment, both the number and weight of the larval were also determined. According to the results, silicon, the insecticide

  6. north indian fauna of genus macrobathra meyrick (lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gs

    Lepidopterorum Catalogus, 79: 630p. Meyrick E. 1910. Descriptions of Indian microlepidoptera. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 20: 143–168, 435–462, 706–736. Meyrick E. 1914a. Descriptions of Indian microlepidoptera. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 23: 18–130. Meyrick E. 1914b. Lepidoptera : Heterocera,. Family Heliodinidae.

  7. Conservation of silk genes in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yonemura, N.; Mita, K.; Tamura, T.; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2009), s. 641-653 ISSN 0022-2844 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : silk evolution * Trichoptera * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2009

  8. Male secondary sexual characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bálint, Zsolt; Heath, Alan; Katona, Gergely; Kertész, Krisztián; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera). Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  9. DNA Barcodes of Lepidoptera Reared from Yawan, Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Rosati, M. E.; Gewa, B.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Herbert, P. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2015), s. 247-250 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04258S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : DNA barcodes * Lepidoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2015

  10. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  11. Response of Males of Maruca vitrata Fabricius(Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of bean in Mauritius. Their larvae feed within flowers and pods and are thus well protected from insecticidal sprays. To achieve effective control, farmers spray their bean fields on a prophylactic basis. This has consequently led to undesirable problems that ...

  12. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P...

  13. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  14. Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, including one new species from Marenji Forest in southeast ... Journal of East African Natural History ... from Morogoro (Uluguru Mountains) and Ortharbela cliftoni spec. nov. from Amani (East Usambara Mountains).

  15. Male secondary sexu al characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint, Zsolt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera. Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  16. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  17. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  18. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  19. Antibiosis in Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is one of the main insect pests of kale. The study was done to identify kale varieties resistant to A. monuste orseis by the antibiosis resistance mechanism. Kale genotypes (26) were evaluated in experiments performed at the Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology of Goiano ...

  20. Dagvlinders in 1998: nog steeds onder druk (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, K.

    1999-01-01

    Butterflies in the Netherlands still under pressure (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) New information on the Dutch Rhopalocera fauna since the distribution atlas of Tax (1989) is presented. Coenonympha pamphilus was common in large parts of the Netherlands, but has declined dramatically. C. arcania is now

  1. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  2. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  3. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas

  4. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  5. The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) For several years I have been collecting data concerning changes in the ranges of European insects, especially Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The vast majority of those species which have

  6. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  7. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  9. A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Parra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera. The adult and larva of Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The larvae seem to be associated with sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. The larvae make a protective case from of a piece of leaf. The name phylloikos is proposed for this form of larval case. A review of the morphology and bionomics of this species are provided.Uma nova mariposa Adelidae (Lepidoptera construtora de casulo do Chile. O adulto e a larva de Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. são descritos e ilustrados. As larvas parecem estar associadas à mata esclerófila do Chile central. A larva utiliza um pedaço de folha para construir uma estrutura protetora denominada phylloikos. Comentários sobre aspectos morfológicos e bionômicos da espécie são apresentados.

  10. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  11. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  12. DNA barcodes of caterpillars (Lepidoptera) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Hrček, Jan; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2013), s. 107-109 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2013

  13. Notes on the life history of Acraea encedon l. (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of Acraea encedon (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) was completed in 40.3 + 2.64 days at a mean daily temperature of 27.91 + 0.440C and relative humidity of 84.8 + 2.62%. The duration of the developmental period of the different life stages of the insect are: embryonic development, 7.5 + 0.54 days; 1st instar, 10.4 + ...

  14. New data on the Pterophoridae fauna of Liberia (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-03-27

    There have been no special studies on plume moths of Liberia until recently. In the World Catalogue of Insects (Gielis 2003) only two species are reported from Liberia: Agdistis tamaricis (Zeller, 1847) and Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius, 1794) despite its well-known richness for other Lepidoptera groups (Fox et al. 1965, Larsen 2005) and its biogeographic position in the centre of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

  15. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Greg; Anweiler, Gary; Schmidt, Christian; Kondla, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence s...

  16. The richness and diversity of Lepidoptera species in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Nymphalidae was the most dominant one in the parc with 32.48%. The diversity index (H' and H'max) and the equitability (E) calculated for the 6 types of habitats is H'= 2,74 bits, H'max = 4,09 bits and E = 0,67 bits, meaning that the Lepidoptera species are at equilibrium with the different types of habitat which ...

  17. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  18. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  19. Controle químico da Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae na cultura do pessegueiro Chemical control of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa oriental Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é a principal praga da cultura do pessegueiro no Brasil. O controle do inseto depende basicamente do emprego de inseticidas de alta toxicidade e baixa seletividade aos inimigos naturais. Este trabalho avaliou os inseticidas etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 e 150mL 100L-1, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 e 15g 100L-1 + óleo mineral (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC, 40 e 60mL 100L-1 e spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 e 25mL 100L-1 para o controle da G. molesta na cultura do pessegueiro. No experimento de laboratório, somente o etofemprox apresentou baixa mortalidade (±50% de lagartas. Em pomar comercial, todos os inseticidas e doses testadas reduziram o nível de injúria nos ponteiros em nível superior a 80%. Os inseticidas avaliados apresentam características desejáveis para uso no manejo integrado da G. molesta, destacando-se a baixa toxicidade e reduzida dose de aplicação, o que minimiza os riscos ao homem e ambiente.Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the most important peach pest in Brazil. Pest management is based on chemical control using insecticides with high toxicity and low selectivity to natural enemies. Etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 and 150mL 100L-1, emamectin benzoato (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 and 15g 100L-1 associated to mineral oil (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC 40 and 60mL 100L-1, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 and 25mL 100L-1 and fosmet (Imidan 500 PM, 200g 100L-1 were evaluated in laboratory and field conditions to G. molesta control. In laboratory, only etofemprox resulted in low mortality (± 50% in residual bioassay. In commercial peach orchards, all insecticides reduced pest damage (> 80%. All insecticides shows characteristics for use in the integrated management of G. molesta including low toxicity and reduced application dose.

  20. The effect of nitrogen fertilizer application to maize and sorghum on the bionomics of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the performance of its larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Schulthess, F

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory and field trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of plant species (maize, sorghum), plant age (young, middle, old) and four different nitrogen fertilization levels (N0-N3) on the bionomics of the invasive crambid Chilo partellus and the performance of its braconid larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes. Plant N varied significantly between N0 and N1-N3, but the differences among the latter were not significant. Intrinsic rates of increase and net-reproductive rates of C. partellus followed the same trends: they were lowest with N0 and similar among the other treatments. On maize only, mortality of C. partellus and parasitism by C. flavipes tended to decrease with age of the plant while the percentage of borers reaching adulthood (i.e. pupation) increased. Borer mortality and parasitism was lower and pupation higher on sorghum than on maize. On both host plants, percent dry matter content of frass, which could affect ingress of the parasitoid into the borer tunnel, did not vary with nitrogen level but varied with age of the host plants: on maize, it was highest on young plants and on sorghum on old plants. Tunnels were shorter on young maize and sorghum plants; longer tunnels on older plants indicated compensatory feeding by the larva as a result of lower nutritive value of the food source. Consequently, larval weight was lower on older than younger plants. The level of nitrogen fertilization had no effect on food conversion efficiency of C. partellus. Nitrogen did not affect number of C. flavipes progeny while egg load of progeny increased significantly with nitrogen level, on both plant species. Differences in egg load between sorghum and maize were mostly not significant. It was concluded that on depleted soils only, an increase in nitrogen via mulching, rotation with a leguminous crop or fertilization would increase survival of C. partellus on both maize and sorghum and an increase in acreage of maize and in application of nitrogen fertilizer in an area would also increase the parasitism of C. flavipes.

  1. El papel de la densidad y la proporción sexual de adultos en la fecundidad de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en jaulas de cría masiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar MEDINA PEREYRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La cría de insectos para control biológico aumentativo requiere conocer los factores que afectan la fecundidad para optimizar la producción masiva. En ge - neral, las prácticas empleadas se basan en los resultados de experiencias exitosas. Sin embargo, en muchos casos la verificación de esas prácticas en condiciones dis - tintas a las de su origen carece de soporte cuantitativo publicado y suele pasar por alto la variación derivada del manejo de los operarios (condición estándar. El ob - jetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la fecundidad del barrenador de la caña de azúcar Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius, en función del número de adultos y de la proporción sexual (número de hembras / número de adultos en jaulas de cría, en condiciones de producción estándar. En 25 jaulas se registraron número y sexo de las mariposas y número de huevos obtenido. Los resultados mostraron que la fecundidad óptima se obtiene con valores intermedios de densidad y con proporción sexual sesgada a machos. Se sugiere que el control conjunto de densidad y proporción sexual incre - menta la eficiencia en las posturas de huevos. El presente trabajo es el primero en cuantificar ambos factores en condiciones de cría masiva y revela que las prácticas comúnmente extendidas necesitan de estudios de mayor profundidad.

  2. Effect of temperature on the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa under warmer temperatures through the development of life-table parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadioli, N; Tonnang, Z E H; Muchugu, E; Ong'amo, G; Achia, T; Kipchirchir, I; Kroschel, J; Le Ru, B

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple food in Africa. However, maize production is severely reduced by damage caused by feeding lepidopteran pests. In East and Southern Africa, Chilo partellus is one of the most damaging cereal stem borers mainly found in the warmer lowland areas. In this study, it was hypothesized that the future distribution and abundance of C. partellus may be affected greatly by the current global warming. The temperature-dependent population growth potential of C. partellus was studied on artificial diet under laboratory conditions at six constant temperatures (15, 18, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32 and 35 °C), relative humidity of 75±5% and a photoperiod of L12:L12 h. Several non-linear models were fitted to the data to model development time, mortality and reproduction of the insect species. Cohort updating algorithm and rate summation approach were stochastically used for simulating age and stage structure populations and generate life-table parameters. For spatial analysis of the pest risk, three generic risk indices (index of establishment, generation number and activity index) were visualized in the geographical information system component of the advanced Insect Life Cycle modeling (ILCYM) software. To predict the future distribution of C. partellus we used the climate change scenario A1B obtained from WorldClim and CCAFS databases. The maps were compared with available data on the current distribution of C. partellus in Kenya. The results show that the development times of the different stages decreased with increasing temperatures ranging from 18 to 35 °C; at the extreme temperatures, 15 and 38 °C, no egg could hatch and no larvae completed development. The study concludes that C. partellus may potentially expands its range into higher altitude areas, highland tropics and moist transitional regions, with the highest maize potential where the species has not been recorded yet. This has serious implication in terms of food security since these areas produce approximately 80% of the total maize in East Africa.

  3. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  4. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezen, Jean-Michel; Josse, Thibaut; Bézier, Annie; Gauthier, Jérémy; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses), have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens. PMID:29120392

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  6. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Drezen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses, have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens.

  7. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Higbee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  8. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S; Larsen, Thomas E

    2014-07-22

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  10. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  11. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  12. Parasitoid communities attacking externally feeding folivorous Lepidoptera in New Guinea rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    HRČEK, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The host - parasitoid community of externally feeding folivorous Lepidoptera and their parasitoids was studied on 45 focal tree species in a New Guinea rainforest. The patterns of parasitation rate, parasitoid species richness and parasitoid host specificity are described.

  13. De valkruidmineervlinder Digitivalva arnicella in Nederland: herontdekking en behoud (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Digitivalva arnicella in the Netherlands: rediscovery and conservation (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae) Digitivalva arnicella (Heyden, 1863), previously only known from two localities before 1902, has been rediscovered in eight localities in the northern part of the

  14. Annotated check list of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera) of America North of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Brian G; Solis, M Alma

    2015-01-01

    An annotated check list of Pyraloidea of North America north of Mexico is presented, including 861 Crambidae and 681 Pyralidae with 1542 total species. It includes all new species described, tropical species with new records in the United States, and species introduced from Europe and Asia since 1983. The Notes section provides the seminal citations, data and/or commentary to all changes since 1983 for easy and future reference. In addition, this list proposes seven new generic combinations, the transfer of a phycitine species, Salebria nigricans (Hulst), to Epipaschiinae and its syn. n. with Pococera fuscolotella (Ragonot), and three new records for the United States. Purposefully, no new taxa are described here, but we found a gradual increase of 10% in the number of species described since 1983. Finally, we also include a list of thirteen species not included or removed from the MONA list. Many higher-level changes have occurred since 1983 and the classification is updated to reflect research over the last 30 years, including exclusion of Thyrididae and Hyblaeidae from the superfamily and recognition of Crambidae and Pyralidae as separate families. The list includes multiple changes to subfamilies based on morphology such as the synonymization of the Dichogamini with the Glaphyriinae, but also incorporating recent molecular phylogenetic results such as the synonymization of the Evergestinae with the Glaphyriinae.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acleris fimbriana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Liang; Wu, Yu-Peng; Su, Tian-Juan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    The yellow tortrix, Acleris fimbriana belongs to Tortricidae in Lepidoptera. We described the complete mitogenome of A. fimbriana, which is typical circular duplex molecules and 15,933 bp in length containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A + T-rich region with macro-repeat sequences. All the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) which lacks the DHU arm. The A. fimbriana mitochondrial genome has the same gene order with other lepidopterans.

  16. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  17. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  18. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  19. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil). In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape. PMID:27907051

  20. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P F Bentivenha

    Full Text Available The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil. In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape.

  1. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Bueno dos Reis; Dias Filho, Manoel Martins; Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae). The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae) were obtained. Seven species of Ichneu...

  2. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  3. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade; Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects). The most abundant ...

  4. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  5. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  6. New Pyrethroids for Use Against Tuta Absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their Toxicity and Control Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Silvério, Flaviano O; Picanço, Marcelo C; Alvarenga, Elson S; Pereira, Renata R; Santana Júnior, Paulo A; Silva, Gerson A

    2017-09-01

    Insect pests are responsible for major losses in crop productivity, and insecticides are the main tools used to control these organisms. There is increasing demand for new products for pest management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of pyrethroids with acid moiety modifications to measure the insecticidal activity of these compounds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). First, we synthesized E/Z mixtures of five pyrethroids: [9], [10], [11], [12], and [13]. Then, we separated the cis and trans pyrethroid isomers of [9], [10], [11], and [12]. We assessed the toxicity of these compounds against T. absoluta. The E/Z mixtures of the five pyrethroids (30 µg of substance per mg-1 of insect) caused high (100%) and rapid (pyrethroid [10] was the most toxic to T. absoluta, causing mortality similar to permethrin. The other isomers were less powerful than permethrin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  8. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  10. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  11. Primeiro registro de Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae em plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Nota Científica. First record of Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: geometridae in Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claubert Wagner Guimarães de MENEZES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a oviposição e o desenvolvimento de uma nova espécie de lepidóptera associada à Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Ovos, imaturos e adultos de Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram encontrados em plantas de E. cloeziana no município de Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho é o primeiro registro desse desfolhador em plantas de eucalipto. Ninfas de Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae foram também observadas predando as lagartas de F. sartinaria, isto indica que este predador poderá ser um potencial agente de controle biológico da espécie. A ocorrência de F. sartinaria ovipositando e se desenvolvendo em plantas de E. cloeziana mostra que este lepidóptero pode se tornar um desfolhador importante da espécie, sendo recomendável sua inclusão em monitoramentos de pragas do eucalipto visando seu manejo integrado.The aim of this study was to record the oviposition and development of a new species of lepidopteran pests of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Eggs, immatures and adults of Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were found in plants of E. cloeziana in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work is the first record of this defoliator in eucalyptus plants. Nymphs of the Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have also been observed preying on the larvae of F. sartinaria, this indicates that this predator is a probable potential biological control agent of the species. The occurrence of F. sartinaria developing and laying eggs on plants of E. cloeziana shows that this insect can become an important defoliator and it is recommended its inclusion in monitoring pest of eucalyptus for integrated pest management.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa Toxin Resistance in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Brian R; Gulzar, Asim; Ferré, Juan; Wright, Denis J

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory selection with Vip3Aa of a field-derived population of Heliothis virescens produced >2,040-fold resistance in 12 generations of selection. The Vip3Aa-selected (Vip-Sel)-resistant population showed little cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Resistance was unstable after 15 generations without exposure to the toxin. F 1 reciprocal crosses between Vip3Aa-unselected (Vip-Unsel) and Vip-Sel insects indicated a strong paternal influence on the inheritance of resistance. Resistance ranged from almost completely recessive (mean degree of dominance [ h ] = 0.04 if the resistant parent was female) to incompletely dominant (mean h = 0.53 if the resistant parent was male). Results from bioassays on the offspring from backcrosses of the F 1 progeny with Vip-Sel insects indicated that resistance was due to more than one locus. The results described in this article provide useful information for the insecticide resistance management strategies designed to overcome the evolution of resistance to Vip3Aa in insect pests. IMPORTANCE Heliothis virescens is an important pest that has the ability to feed on many plant species. The extensive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops or spray has already led to the evolution of insect resistance in the field for some species of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. The development of resistance in insect pests is the main threat to Bt crops. The effective resistance management strategies are very important to prolong the life of Bt plants. Lab selection is the key step to test the assumption and predictions of management strategies prior to field evaluation. Resistant insects offer useful information to determine the inheritance of resistance and the frequency of resistance alleles and to study the mechanism of resistance to insecticides. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. The second Afrotropical Lepidoptera Workshop in Uganda – A contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of Kibale National Park and the Mpanga Forest Reserve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, T.; Akite, P.; Barnett, M.; Collins, S. C.; Dobson, J.; Fric, Zdeněk; Henning, G.; Kühne, L.; Mey, W.; Ochse, M.; Przybylowicz, L.; Sáfián, S.; Schutte, R.; Selb, H.; Ward, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2017), s. 77-105 ISSN 0013-8843 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Uganda * Lepidoptera * Afrotropical Region https://www. dropbox .com/s/qqt4jqut03sljqi/Baron_2017_Uganda.pdf?dl=0

  14. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207800

  15. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  16. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  17. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  18. New Records of Seven Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from Korea

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    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eupithecia Curtis is the largest taxon in Lepidoptera (more than 1,500 species worldwide and the adults of the genus are characterized by small in size, cryptically colored grayish and brownish forewing, and indistinct basal, ante- and postmedial transverse lines mostly with a definite discal spot on the forewing. Forty-four species have been reported so far in Korea. Herein, we present the first report on seven species of Eupithecia: Eupithecia rufescens Butler (1878, Eupithecia costiconvexa Inoue (1979, Eupithecia daemionata Dietze (1904, Eupithecia persuastrix Mironov (1990, Eupithecia actaeata Walderdorff (1869, Eupithecia suboxydata Staudinger (1897 and Eupithecia costimacularia Leech (1897. Diagnosis, descriptions and figures of the available species are provided.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianing; Xu, Chang; Li, Jialian; Lei, Ying; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is 15,221 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.9%). All PCGs are initiated by classical ATN codon, with the exception of COI, which begins with TTA codon. Nine PCGs harbor the complete stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND4 and ND5 stop with incomplete codons, single T or TA. All tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A + T content of AT-rich region is 95.2%, same to the highest one in the known species in Pieridae.

  20. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José Manuel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Vukusic, Pete

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  1. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chen, Minghan; He, Haiyan; Yu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) was determined. The 15,392 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number KM981865 contained 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. The overall base composition was 39.7% A, 40.7% T, 7.7% G and 11.9% C, with a high A + T content (80.4%). This complete mitogenome of P. nascens provides a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics.

  2. Costs of insecticide resistance in Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Joanna K; Scott, Ian M; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2012-06-01

    The obvious benefits associated with insecticide resistance for pest species may come at a cost to other life-history traits. In this study, we compared the larval and pupal developmental times, pupal mass wing surface area and wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in insecticide resistant and control strains of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), collected from apple (Malus spp.) orchards in central Canada. Resistant strains had significantly longer larval developmental times and lower pupal masses compared with the susceptible strain. Although the forewings of resistant moths were smaller in resistant than control strain, no difference in wing FA was detected. Longer developmental times could increase exposure time to natural enemies, and reduced adult size could affect longevity and total reproductive output.

  3. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D N

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species.

  4. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.

  5. The Relationship Between Ants and Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) at Concord Pine Barrens, NH, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Elizabeth G; Thiet, Rachel K

    2016-04-22

    The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is a federally listed, endangered species that has experienced dramatic decline over its historic range. In surviving populations, Karner blue butterflies have a facultative mutualism with ants that could be critically important to their survival where their populations are threatened by habitat loss or disturbance. In this study, we investigated the effects of ants, wild blue lupine population status (native or restored), and fire on adult Karner blue butterfly abundance at the Concord Pine Barrens, NH, USA. Ant frequency (the number of times we collected each ant species in our pitfall traps) was higher in restored than native lupine treatments regardless of burn status during both Karner blue butterfly broods, and the trend was statistically significant during the second brood. We observed a positive relationship between adult Karner blue butterfly abundance and ant frequency during the first brood, particularly on native lupine, regardless of burn treatment. During the second brood, adult Karner blue butterfly abundance and ant frequency were not significantly correlated in any treatments or their combinations. Our findings suggest that a combination of native and restored lupine is important for supporting both Karner blue butterflies and ants at the Concord Pine Barrens, and that burning does not affect the mutualism. Thus, scientists and managers at the site may wish to target their habitat management activities to best support both Karner blue butterflies and the particular ant species that provide the greatest benefit to their survival. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5, Isocitr......We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5...

  7. Note on gynandromorphism in the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S. Bernardino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown moth Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is an important pest in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. A gynandromorph individual of T. arnobia was found in a population of this pest in a laboratory rearing and it is described.A mariposa marrom Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae é uma praga importante em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil. Um indivíduo ginandromorfo de T. arnobia foi encontrado em uma população desta praga em criação de laboratório e descrito nesta nota.

  8. Predicting the emergence of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on a degree-day scale in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Hilton, Richard; Brunner, Jay F; Bentley, Walt J; Alston, Diane G; Barrett, Bruce; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Hull, Larry A; Walgenbach, James F; Coates, William W; Smith, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut production in North America. Management programs are based on preventing larval entry into the fruit or nut and are typically timed by heat-driven models that are synchronized to field populations by first capture of overwintering moths in pheromone traps. Unfortunately, trap capture is affected by a range of environmental parameters as well as by the use of mating disruption, which makes detecting first flight difficult, thus complicating implementation of management programs. The present goal was to evaluate data collected from a broad range of locations across North America to see whether average first spring emergence times could be predicted. Average emergence time on a degree-day scale from 1 January was predictable using latitude and elevation. Sites at elevations of <400 m fit a simple quadratic equation using latitude, but, when higher elevations were included, a multiple regression using elevation was required. The present models can be used to simplify management programs for codling moth in areas where heat-driven models that require extensive trapping to synchronize with emergence are currently used. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  10. Worldwide host plants of the highly polyphagous, invasive Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, E G; Suckling, D M; Ecroyd, C E; Wagstaff, S J; Raabe, M C; Dowell, R V; Wearings, C H

    2011-10-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a highly successful biological invader. It was accidentally introduced to several countries including New Zealand, Hawaii, England, and California. Light brown apple moth attacks a wide range of crop plants and other woody and herbaceous plants, but a more comprehensive analysis of its host range is needed for risk assessments, to evaluate the likely economic and environmental impacts, and to enable targeting of particular plant species for detection surveys and treatments. We reviewed and synthesized the host range and host selection behavior of light brown apple moth by using information from Australia and invaded countries. The host range of light brown apple moth is determined by the behavior of both adult females and larvae. Females use visual, chemical and physical cues to choose host plants. Larvae are capable of limited active dispersal by walking and longer range dispersal by ballooning on silken strands; therefore, larvae also may need to select host plants. We review larval performance indicators across a range of plants. Based on our review, there are at least 545 plant species in 363 genera from 121 families that have been reported as hosts of light brown apple moth. Some plants were reported only once and need verification. Nevertheless, many host plant species and their wide phylogenetic range (from ferns to higher dicotyledons) indicates that light brown apple moth is one of the most polyphagous insects known. This information and our categorization of frequency of host use are valuable for incursion response and pest management activities.

  11. Fusarium graminearum Mycotoxins in Maize Associated With Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jocelyn L; Limay-Rios, Victor; Hooker, David C; Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2018-03-14

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has become a key pest of maize, Zea mays (L.), in Ontario, Canada which is challenging to control due to its lack of susceptibility to most Bt-maize events. Injury by S. albicosta may exacerbate Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe; Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) infection through provision of entry points on the ear. The objectives of this study were to: investigate the relationship between injury by S. albicosta and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation; evaluate non-Bt and Bt-maize hybrids, with and without insecticide and fungicide application; and determine optimal insecticide-fungicide application timing for reducing S. albicosta injury and DON accumulation. The incidence of injury by S. albicosta and ear rot severity were found to increase DON concentrations under favorable environmental conditions for F. graminearum infection. Incidence of S. albicosta injury was more important than severity of injury for DON accumulation which may be due to larval consumption of infected kernels. The Vip3A × Cry1Ab event provided superior protection from the incidence and severity of S. albicosta injury compared to non-Bt or Cry1F hybrids. Insecticide application to a Vip3A × Cry1Ab hybrid did not reduce injury further; however, lower severity of injury was observed for non-Bt and Cry1F hybrids when pyrethroids or diamides were applied at early VT or R1 stages. DON concentrations were reduced with application of prothioconazole fungicide tank-mixed with insecticide at late VT (before silk browning) or when insecticide was applied at early VT followed by prothioconazole at R1. The application of an insecticide/fungicide tank-mix is the most efficient approach for maize hybrids lacking high-dose insecticidal proteins against S. albicosta and F. graminearum tolerance. Results demonstrate that reducing the risk of DON accumulation requires a strategic approach to manage complex associations among S. albicosta, F

  12. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Marasmia exigua (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Ju Liao

    Full Text Available Marasmia exigua (Butler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the major rice leaffolders negatively affecting the rice production in the world. The growth and development of M. exigua was studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. The results showed that M. exigua eggs failed to hatch at 10°C and the larvae could not complete development at 15 and 35°C. The developmental times of each stage, survival rates of pre-adult, adult longevity, fecundities and oviposition days of M. exigua at 20, 25, 27 and 30°C were investigated using age-stage, two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development time decreased with the increase in temperature decreasing from 61.58 days at 20°C to 28.94 days at 30°C. The highest survival rate was observed at 25°C (73%. Male adult longevities were generally longer than that of females, except at 30°C. The highest mean fecundity, age-stage specific fecundity and age-specific fecundity peak values were all observed at 27°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase r and finite rate of increase λ were observed at 27°C, while the maximum net reproduction rate R0 was observed at 25°C. The longest mean generation time occurred at 20°C and the shortest at 27°C. These results provide better understanding on the development, reproduction and dynamic of M. exigua populations, their distribution, and might be utilized to forecast and manage M. exigua outbreaks in China.

  14. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; van Nieukerken, E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  15. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  16. A new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae from northern Chile Uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae do norte do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female adults of a new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae are described and illustrated. Immature stages are associated with Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. The species was collected in two localities of northern Chile: near sea level in the Azapa valley, in the coastal desert of Arica Province and at 3000 m elevation in Socoroma, Parinacota Province.Os adultos macho e fêmea de uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae são descritos e ilustrados. Os estágios imaturos estão associados com Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. A espécie foi coletada em duas localidades do norte do Chile: vale de Azapa, perto do nível do mar, no deserto litoral da Província de Arica, e aos 3000 m de altitude em Socoroma, na Província de Parinacota.

  17. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  18. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-191 ISSN 0342-7536 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Koramius charltonius * Lepidoptera * Central Asia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  20. Mass migration of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper, 1789) in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 125 (2004), s. 19-22 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Noctuidae * Chrysodeixis chalcites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  2. PECULIARITIES OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE NOCTUIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLAND OF CHECHEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the species composition of the noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae of the island of Chechen of the North-West Caspian sea, their spatial distribution,  dissemination  and analysis of the most common and indigenous species.

  3. Een ontdekking in de Peel: de uil Xestia stigmatica nieuw voor Nederland (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, F.A.H.E.

    2007-01-01

    A discovery in De Peel: the noctuid moth Xestia stigmatica new for the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Xestia stigmatica is present all over Europe, but was not recorded in the Netherlands. In 2001 a single female was caught at light, in the commune of Deurne (province of Noord-Brabant). The

  4. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Renata O; Via, Allegra; Brandão, Marcelo M; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-03-01

    Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic L-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarsky, Oleg; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Stenoloba from the olivacea species group, Stenoloba solaris, sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is described from Yunnan, China. Illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba albistriata Kononenko & Ronkay, 2000, Stenoloba olivacea (Wileman, 1914), and Stenoloba benedeki Ronkay, 2001 (Fig. 4). PMID:23805047

  6. A new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Pekarsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stenoloba from the olivacea species group, S. solaris, sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, is described from Yunnan, China. Illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba albistriata Kononenko & Ronkay, 2000, Stenoloba olivacea (Wileman, 1914, and Stenoloba benedeki Ronkay, 2001 (Fig. 4.

  7. Eurema brigitta (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) – a new record of butterfly for Socotra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Rindoš, Michal; Hula, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 221-225 ISSN 0374-1036 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Rhopalocera * Papilionoidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/AEMNP/article/view/35064

  8. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...

  9. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  10. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  11. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2009 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2010-01-01

    ; Coleophoridae 118; Tortricidae 383 and of Pyralidae 196; this results in a total of 1560 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 962, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2522 species....

  12. The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transtilla (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) discovered in northeastern Mexico feeding on Sapindaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is an important pest of a wide variety fruits and their seeds. We discovered and report for the first time A. transitella feeding on Sapindaceae in wild populations of U. speciosa (Endl.) in northeastern Mexico. We provid...

  13. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  14. Laboratory Assessment of the Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on Native Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Peacock; Dale F. Schweitzer; Jane L. Carter; Normand R. Dubois

    1998-01-01

    The effect of 2 formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Foray 48B and Dipel 8AF) was evaluated on 42 species of native Lepidoptera in laboratory bioassays using instars that are present in the field at the time of gypsy moth suppression applications. Mortality was significant for 27 of the 42 species evaluated...

  15. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits in many countries, including the United States. The distribution of this pest is concentrated in areas receiving higher than lower rainfall. It prefers sites where stone fruits and apple...

  16. Additional three new species of Anarsia Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) from Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2017-04-12

    Three new species of the genus Anarsia Zeller (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) are described: A. huensis Park, sp. nov. from Vietnam, and A. pursatica Park, sp. nov. and A. degeneralis Park, sp. nov. from Cambodia. Images of adults and genitalia for the new species are illustrated. A check list of the known species from both countries is provided.

  17. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2010 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    ; Tortricidae 384; Epermeniidae 7; Pterophoridae 46 and Pyralidae 197; this results in a total of 1574 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 965, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total...

  18. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  19. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Antonio Rog?rio Bezerra do; Fresia, Pablo; C?nsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expr...

  1. [Accidents due to Lepidoptera: Hylesia nigricans (Berg, 1875) or "mariposa negra"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Silvia; Spera, Marina; de Roodt, Adolfo

    2014-04-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies, caterpillars and moths) biologic features make possible the contact between different instars and humans. The moth Hylesia nigricans is responsible for epidemic outbreaks in our country. It is called erucism when the contact is with caterpillars and lepidopterism when the contact is with moths. We perform an update of these important medical lepidopters.

  2. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early and late stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untr...

  3. A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Male and female adults of a new species of Eupithecia Curtis from the Arica Province, Chile are described and illustrated. The species is compared with E. yubitzae Vargas & Parra, 2004, from the same locality, and E. galapagosata Landry & Rindge 1995, from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

  4. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  5. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  6. Extrafloral nectar feeding by Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vila

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Adults of the dry area specialist Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini are here recorded feeding on extrafloral nectar of the large cactus Neoraimondia arequipensis var. gigantea (Werdermann & Backeberg Ritter. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to lycaenid survival in a xeric environment, pollination and mate location.

  7. On the status and position of Melitaea minerva var. palamedes Groum-Grshimailo, 1890 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 177 (2017), s. 17-22 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Melitaea palamedes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  9. Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varga, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin Ecologically transitional regions are characterised by high species diversity due to the overlap of species with different geographical origins caused by dispersal processes along gradients, e.g.

  10. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  12. Effect of insecticide on the irradiated tropical warehouse moth,Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruki, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroids, Fenom(r) on the gamma- irradiated Tropical Warehouse Moth, Cadra cautella (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) larvae have been studied. Both theinsecticide and gamma irradiation either singly or in combination,significantly increased larval mortality and developmental periods.The pupation and adult eclosion, reproductive potential and longevity of the adults from treated larvae were significantly decreased

  13. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  14. Field Experiment of a Three-Chemical Controlled-Release Dispensers to Attract Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Landolt, Peter J

    2018-03-13

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide. We found that acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide can be combined into one device without decreasing C. pomonella trap catches and that there is minimal pear release rate before trap catch is negatively affected. A sachet-based controlled-release system of pear ester, acetic acid, n-butyl sulfide is a cost-effective alternative to a vial and septa controlled-release system and allows for easier quantification of ideal release rates. A reduction in material costs associated with management are important in promoting the adoption of attract-and-kill and mass-trapping paradigms for C. pomonella management. These findings also have important consequences in interpreting studies that use different loads of pear ester, and emphasize the need to better understand the release rates of attractants.

  15. Development of Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Cranberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Erin E.; Guédot, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    Sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a serious pest of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), a native North American fruit cultivated in northern regions of the United States and southeastern Canada. This study assessed antibiosis in several cranberry cultivars commonly grown in Wisconsin. Five cultivars previously shown to host different levels of populations of S. sulfureana in commercial cranberry were assessed in this study to evaluate the performance of S. sulfureana amongst these cultivars. We measured growth and time to developmental stages of newly emerged larvae to adulthood on selected cranberry cultivars in the laboratory. There was no difference in the rates of survival to pupation and to adult emergence among any of the cultivars tested. Mid-instar larvae that fed on the cultivar ‘Ben Lear’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘GH-1’, ‘Stevens’, or ‘HyRed’, and larvae that fed on ‘Mullica Queen’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘HyRed’. However, there were no significant differences in pupal weights or in the number of days from neonate to adult emergence among varieties. Therefore, this study did not provide evidence of antibiosis among the cultivars tested, and found that larval weight was not correlated with other measurements of performance. PMID:29301287

  16. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  18. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Pohl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence status, provincial distribution (according to ecoclimatic region, and adult phenology. The most recent taxonomic references are given, and common names are listed for butterflies and conspicuous moth species. The sources of specimen- and literature-based records are provided for each species. An additional 138 species whose occurrence in Alberta is probable are appended to the list. For 1524 of the listed species and subspecies, annotations are given, with selected information on taxonomy, nomenclature, distribution, habitat, and biology. An additional section provides details on 171 species erroneously reported from Alberta in previous works. Introductory sections to the volume provide a general overview of the order Lepidoptera and review the natural regions of Alberta, the state of knowledge of their Lepidoptera faunas, and the history and current state of knowledge of Alberta Lepidoptera. Each of the 63 families (and selected subfamilies occurring in Alberta is briefly reviewed, with information on distinguishing features, general appearance, and general biology. A bibliography and an index of genus-level, species-level, and subspecies-level names are provided. The list is accompanied by an appendix of proposed nomenclature changes, consisting of revised status for 25 taxa raised from synonymy to species level, and new synonymy for 20 species-level and one genus-level taxa here considered to be subjective synonyms, with resultant revised synonymy for one

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parnassiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang; Chen, Yanhong; Xia, Chenchen; Xia, Xueqin; Chen, Xiao; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Parnassiinae) is a circular molecule of 15,424 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes and one non-coding A + T-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopteran species. Some PCGs use standard TAA, while others use TAG (nad1) or incomplete codon T (cox1 and cox2), as their termination codons. 15 intergenic spacers (175 bp in total) and 10 overlapping sequences (29 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The 491 bp long A+ T-rich region contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)6 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. In addition, a 36 bp sequence stretch potential to form stem-loop structures is also found in the A+ T-rich region.

  20. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  1. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA Ser (AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA) 8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  3. New insights on Lepidoptera of Southern Italy with description of the male of Coenotephria antonii Hausmann 2011 (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Infusino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Italy is of particular biogeographic interest due to the location at the center of the Mediterranean Basin and its great environmental heterogeneity. Despite the faunistic interest of this territory, many insect taxa are still little investigated. Among insects, Lepidoptera have a relatively well known fauna, significantly increased in recent years, but there are still some gaps of knowledge in several habitats. The aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the Macrolepidoptera of Southern Italy, focusing our study in Calabria, and to offer some thoughts on the role played by the Mediterranean mountain forests for the biodiversity conservation. Samplings were carried out in three mountainous areas of Calabria (Pollino Massif, Sila Massif and Serre Mountains in May-November 2015 and in April-November 2016, using UV-LED light traps. We found ten species of high faunistic interest. Three species, Nebula senectaria, Perizoma lugdunaria and Acasis appensata, were for the first time recorded from Southern Italy, while seven were for the first time recorded from Calabria: Coenotephria antonii, Thera obeliscata, Triphosa dubitata, Trichopteryx carpinata, Asteroscopus sphinx, Lithophane semibrunnea and Sideridis reticulata. Of great interest was the discovery of the first male certainly attributable to Coenotephria antonii, endemic of Southern Italy, here described for the first time. The results exposed confirm that the fauna of Southern Italy is of great conservation value, hosting endemisms and several relict populations of European and Asiatic species with differentiated genetic lineages highly vulnerable to the climate change expected for the coming decades.

  4. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  5. Segmental duplications: evolution and impact among the current Lepidoptera genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Dongna; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2017-07-06

    results provide a valuable resource beyond the genetic mutation to explore the genome structure for future Lepidoptera research.

  6. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  7. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  8. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  9. Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs.

  10. Control of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) in peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli, Aldomario Santo; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Dolinski, Claudia; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is considered a major pest in temperate fruit trees, such as peach and apple. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are regarded as viable for pest management control due to their efficiency against tortricid in these trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of native EPNs from Rio Grande do Sul state against pre-pupae of G. molesta under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, pre-pupae of G. molesta were placed in corrugated cardboard sheets inside glass tubes and exposed to 17 different EPNs strains at concentrations of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 IJs/cm(2) and maintained at 25 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 16 h. Insect mortality was recorded 72 h after inoculation of EPNs. Steinernema rarum RS69 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora RS33 were the most virulent strains and selected for field application (LC95 of 70.5 and 53.8 IJs/cm(2), respectively). Both strains were highly efficient under field conditions when applied in aqueous suspension directed to larvae on peach tree trunk, causing mortality of 94 and 97.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenyl Propionate and Sex Pheromone for Monitoring Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Presence of Mating Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Charles S; Kuenen, L P S Bas; Daane, Kent M

    2016-04-01

    The recent availability of sex pheromone lures for the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), improves options for monitoring this key pest in conventionally managed almonds. These lures are, however, minimally effective in the presence of mating disruption. Experiments were conducted to determine if phenyl propionate (PPO), an attractant for the navel orangeworm, acts in an additive or synergistic manner when presented together with the pheromone. In the absence of mating disruption, traps baited with PPO captured significantly fewer adults than traps baited with a sex pheromone lure. There was no difference in the number of adults captured in traps with both attractants when mating disruption was not used. In the presence of mating disruption, pheromone traps were completely suppressed, yet traps with both pheromone and PPO captured significantly more adults than traps baited with only PPO. Traps with only PPO captured equal numbers of both sexes, whereas traps with both attractants had significantly more males. These findings demonstrate that PPO is likely to be useful for monitoring navel orangeworm in fields treated with mating disruption.

  12. Management of semi-natural grasslands benefiting both planbt and insect diversity: The importance of heterogeneity and tradition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonari, G.; Fajmon, K.; Malenovský, I.; Zelený, D.; Holuša, J.; Jongepierová, I.; Kočárek, P.; Konvička, Ondřej; Uřičář, J.; Chytrý, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, AUG 01 (2017), s. 243-252 ISSN 0167-8809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Carabidae * conservation management * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880917302530

  13. Reduced-risk insecticides for control of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-06-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape (Vitis spp.) farms to evaluate insect management programs for control of the grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies. At each farm, one vineyard received only reduced-risk insecticides for control of second and third generation P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received conventional insecticides. Both vineyards received a conventional insecticide application for control of first generation P. viteana and other insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between programs in the total number of adult male moths trapped in vineyards, and oviposition by P. viteana was similar between the two programs in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation, both programs had a similar percentage of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In eight of the nine berry samples, survival of larvae was significantly lower in berries collected from vineyards managed under the reduced-risk insecticide program compared with the conventional program. Parasitism of P. citeana larvae in these samples was not consistently different between the two insecticide programs over 3 yr, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two programs throughout the study. Our results indicate that integrated pest management programs incorporating reduced-risk insecticides for control of P. viteana can obtain similar or greater control of P. viteana compared with programs based solely on conventional insecticides, but they may not lead to measurable long-term increases in parasitism of P. viteana.

  14. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects. The most abundant species were Godartiana muscosa , Mechanitis lysimnia , Hermeuptychia sp and Mechanitis polymnia casabranca , which are bio-indicators of disturbed and/or urban environments. On the other hand, it was found rare species, such as Notascea brevispula . Different species were constant and others occurred in only a short period of the year. The diversity and abundance were higher in hot and rainy months. The diversity index Shannon-Wiener and Simpsom indicate a median diversity and equitability index point absence of dominance.

  15. Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  17. Parasitism and Food Web Structure in Defoliating Lepidoptera - Parasitoid Communities on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, D S; Mangeaud, A; Valladares, G R

    2016-12-01

    Food webs are usually regarded as snapshots of community feeding interactions. Here, we describe the yearly and cumulative structure of parasitoid-caterpillar food webs on soybean in central Argentina, analyzing parasitism rates and their variability in relation to parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability in the system. Lepidoptera larvae were collected along four seasons from soybean crops and reared in laboratory to obtain and identify adults and parasitoids. Eleven species of defoliating Lepidoptera and ten parasitoid species were recorded. Food web statistics showed rather low annual variability, with most variation coefficients in the order of 0.20 and generality showing the most stable values. Parasitism showed the highest variability, which was independent of parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability, although parasitism rates were negatively related to parasitoid richness. Our study highlights the need to consider food web structure and variability in order to understand the functioning of ecological communities in general and in extensive agricultural ecosystems in particular.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong-Qiang; Ma, Chuan; Chen, Ji-Yue; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-06-22

    Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45-48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif 'ATAGA' and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis exhibit unusual features compared with the previously determined

  19. Development of genetic sexing strains in Lepidoptera: from traditional to transgenic approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Neven, L. G.; Robinson, A. S.; Vreysen, M.; Goldsmith, M. R.; Nagaraju, J.; Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2005), s. 248-259 ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007307 Grant - others:IAEA(AT) 12055/R; IAEA(AT) 12619/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * codling moth * sterile insect technique Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2005

  20. Parasitoids and Hyperparasitoids of Erannis Defoliaria CL. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in Oak Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Glavendekić, Milka

    2010-01-01

    The research on biology and ecology of Mottled Umber Moth–Erannis defoliaria Cl. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) was carried out in the period 1985–2009 in oak forests in Serbia. Mottled Umber Moth was mainly in the latency during the investigation. Only at the locality Miroč in East Serbia and in Forest unit Zlatica (National Park Djerdap), it was dominant in the complex of early defoliators. Natural enemies ofE. defoliariaand especially parasitoids and hyperparasitoids are important mortality fa...

  1. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2011 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This article reports and comments on interesting Danish Microlepidoptera collected in 2011 and include remarkable findings from previous years. The classification and nomenclature follow the new Danish checklist (Karsholt & Stadel Nielsen, in press). Ten species are reported as new to the Danish ...... the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2551 species. There are moreover 10 species on the so-called observation list, containing species of uncertain status, which was erected in 2009....

  2. Silk recycling in larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Mishra, Archana; Sehnal, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, JAN 27 (2017), s. 61-65 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 907 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Pyralidae * silk recycling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2017/01/09.pdf

  3. The taxonomic placement and provenance of Hypopyra inconspicua Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Thyrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor O. Becker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic placement and provenance of Hypopyra inconspicua Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Thyrididae. Tanyodes inconspicua (Herrich-Schäffer comb. nov. is transferred from Spirama Guenée (Noctuidae, Catocalinae to Striglininae (Thyrididae, as a senior synonym of Ortogramma rufitibia R. Felder & Rogenhofer syn. nov. and Tanyodes ochracea Möschler syn. nov., and from the African to the Neotropical fauna.

  4. Imaturos de Sarsina violascens (Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Lymantriinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moraes C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaturos de Sarsina violascens (Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Lymantriinae. Sarsina violascens é uma espécie polífaga que eventualmente se alimenta de P. cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae durante sua fase larval. Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e o comportamento dos imaturos, com ilustrações, fotografias e imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

  5. Description of male of the rarest European Carpenter-moth Stygioides persephone (Reisser, 1962) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenhöle, Arthur; Friedrich, Egbert; Yakovlev, Roman V

    2017-12-12

    Despite the generally good knowledge of the European fauna of Cossidae, several new species (Lepidoptera) have been described in recent years: Dyspessa kostyuki Yakovlev, 2005 (type locality Ukraine, [Lugansk region], "Proval'skaya Stepp" Naturschutsgebiete), D. aphrodite Yakovlev & Witt, 2007 (type locality Greece, Peloponnes, Mega Spileon), and Stygia nilssoni Saldaitis & Yakovlev, 2008 (type locality Islas Canarias, Gran Canaria, Puerto de Mogan) (Yakovlev 2005; Yakovlev & Witt 2007; Saldaitis & Yakovlev 2008). However, a number of European cossids are still poorly known.

  6. First records of Hypolycaena anara Larsen, 1986 from Cameroon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Leština, D.; Janšta, P.; Brattström, O.; Espeland, M.; Sáfián, Sz.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 170 (2015), s. 235-239 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Lycaenidae * faunistics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2015 http://www.redalyc.org/ articulo .oa?id=45541421008

  7. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of ...

  8. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Sam

    Full Text Available We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171 of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33 of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4 fed on single family, 6% (3 on single genus and 17% (8 were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts. Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis.

  9. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  10. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that 10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  11. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens.

  12. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  13. Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morphology of egg and last instar larvae Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morfologia do ovo e da larva de último ínstar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Poletto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to knowledge of the immature instars of Neotropical Lepidoptera, this study details the morphology of the egg and last instar larvae of Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, emphasising the structures of the corium and the chaetotaxy. There is also a report of the occurrence of entomopathogenic action of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson fungi on the larva.Este estudo objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento dos estágios imaturos dos lepidópteros neotropicais. Nele é feito o detalhamento da morfologia das fases de ovo e de larva de Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, dando ênfase ao estudo das estruturas do córion e da quetotaxia da larva de último ínstar. Além disso é relatada a ocorrência da ação entomopatogênica do fungo Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson sobre suas larvas.

  14. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control; Perspectiva de utilizacao da Tecnica do Inseto Esteril para lagarta da maca Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e lagarta do velho mundo Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) na cultura do algodoeiro como um metodo alternativo de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-07-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  15. Combination Phenyl Propionate/Pheromone Traps for Monitoring Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Almonds in the Vicinity of Mating Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Charles S

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating monitoring and management of this key pest. Phenyl propionate is an attractant used to capture adults in the presence of mating disruption, completely suppressing pheromone traps, and lures combining phenyl propionate with a pheromone lure (PPO-combo lure) synergize trap capture in the presence of mating disruption. In this study, laboratory and field trials of different phenyl propionate dispensers indicate a useful life of six weeks. Controlled experiments found similar numbers of adults captured in phenyl propionate and PPO-combo lures in the presence of varying levels of mating disruption intensity. A subsequent trial compared monitoring of field plots at various distances from fields under commercial mating disruption for much of the growing season with pheromone and PPO-combo lures. Although there was some evidence of partial suppression of capture in PPO-combo traps closer to mating disruption compared with lures farther away, there was no failure of detection as occurred with pheromone lures. The ratio of adults in pheromone and PPO-combo traps varied with proximity from treated fields. These results indicate that, in addition to monitoring in mating disruption plots, phenyl propionate lures can be useful for insuring against failure of detection of navel orangeworm pressure in areas where mating disruption is widely used. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  17. Molecular evidence of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) is an Asian origin endo-larval parasitoid of cereal stemborers in the genera of Chilo, Sesamia and others. It was introduced into Kenya mainly for the control of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from India, and North and South Pakistan. After introduction, the parasitoid was ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pringle, K L. Vol 30, No 1 (2007) - Articles Biological control of the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0379-2897. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. Larval Preference and Performance of Amyelois transitella (Navel Orangeworm, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Relation to the Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampt, Eline A; Bush, Daniel S; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2016-02-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is a polyphagous pest of California nut crops and is responsible for extensive losses in the United States. It directly damages crops by feeding and contaminating nuts with frass and webbing and vectors saprophytic fungi that infect crops. The navel orangeworm is commonly associated with Aspergillus species, including the toxigenic Aspergillus flavus, which causes crop loss by producing carcinogens, including aflatoxin B1. This lepidopteran-fungus association is the most economically serious pest complex in Central Valley orchards, and evidence indicates that this relationship is mutualistic. We assessed preference and performance of navel orangeworm larvae associated with A. flavus in behavioral bioassays in which neonates were allowed to orient within arenas to media with or without fungal tissue, and performance bioassays in which larvae were reared with and without A. flavus on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and a semidefined almond PDA diet to evaluate effects on development and pupal weight. Navel orangeworm larvae were attracted to A. flavus and developed faster in its presence, indicating a nutritional benefit to the caterpillars. Larvae reached pupation ∼33% faster on diet containing A. flavus, and pupal weights were ∼18% higher for males and ∼13% higher for females on this diet. Our findings indicate that A. flavus plays an important role in larval orientation and development on infected hosts. The preference-performance relationship between navel orangeworms and Aspergillus flavus is consistent with a facultative mutualism that has broad implications for pest management efforts and basic understanding of Lepidoptera-plant interactions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) adults related to age, gender, and wing size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Burks, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangeworm of ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d posteclosion was examined using flight mills. As a group, females flew farther and longer than males, but the differences were not statistically significant. Flight speed did not differ between sexes. Flight duration and distance did not differ with age, except that 7-d-old adults performed worse for these parameters than did 1- and 2-d-old adults. Females began their flights ≍1.5 h after the onset of dusk, and ≍1.5 h earlier in the night than males. Flight capacity and propensity were substantial for both sexes and all age classes tested. At least 20% of adults (except 7-d-old males) made a continuous flight ≥5.5 h, and median total distances flown during the 10.5-h night ranged from 7 to 15 km depending on age class. Thus navel orangeworm flight mill performance was greater than that of most pests tested from the families Pyralidae and Tortricidae. Surface area and length of forewings and hindwings were greater in females than males, but had little effect on flight performance. The results are generally consistent with field observations of navel orangeworm dispersal, but it will be important to characterize the effects of mating on flight, and flight on fecundity.

  1. Spatially Targeted Applications of Reduced-Risk Insecticides for Economical Control of Grape Berry Moth, Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith S; Roubos, Craig R; Teixeira, Luis A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-07-19

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key economic pest of vineyards in eastern North America, and prevention of fruit infestation is particularly challenging along vineyard borders that are adjacent to wooded areas containing wild grape (Vitis spp.). For three years, infestation and damage in vineyards where reduced-risk insecticides were applied to borders at timings based on a degree day model (Integrated Pest Management program) were compared to that in vineyards where broad-spectrum insecticides were applied across the whole vineyard (Standard program). Infestation at vineyard borders immediately prior to harvest was consistently lower in IPM vineyards than in Standard program vineyards, and in two of the years this was also true at veraison (fruit coloring). Grape berry moth infestation was similar between treatments at vineyard interiors throughout the study, despite no insecticide applications to the interiors of the IPM program vineyards. Populations of two other key vineyard pests, the eastern grape leafhopper, Erythroneura comes (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were not significantly different between programs, and natural enemy captures on yellow sticky traps were also similar. The per hectare cost of insecticides applied in the IPM program was consistently lower than for the Standard program, with a significant difference in the third year of this study. We demonstrate how spatially selective applications of reduced-risk insecticides can provide improved control of grape berry moth at lower cost than standard broad-spectrum insecticide-based programs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  3. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha -1 , along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  5. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  6. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, ten apple cultivars viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  7. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaryd A Ridgeway

    Full Text Available Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick, Cydia pomonella (L. and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick. Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  8. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.En América Latina y el Caribe, algunas especies que son fuente de maderas preciosas, como las caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp., son seriamente dañadas por la larva de Hypsipyla grandella, la cual barrena el brote principal de los árboles. En experimentos previos orientados

  9. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  10. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  11. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  13. First record Cydia alazon (Diakonoff, 1976) from La Palma Islands (Canary Islands, Spain) with taxonomic and ecological notes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 136 (2006), s. 371-378 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Tortricidae * Cydia alazon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Genetic divergence and evidence for sympatric host-races in the highly polyphagous brown tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.F.; Wang, H.L.; Svensson, G.P.; Frago Clols, E.; Anderbrant, O.

    2014-01-01

    The brown tail moth (BTM) Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a forest and ornamental pest in Europe and the United States. Its extreme polyphagy, and documented phenological shift associated with host use suggest the presence of distinct host-races. To test this

  15. Sphragis in Parnassius mnemosyne (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): male-derived insemination plugs loose efficiency with progress of female flight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Konvička, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2009), s. 1206-1211 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Apollo butterflies * insect behaviour * Lepidoptera ecology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  16. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  17. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The small heat shock protein (sHsp family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3 was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  18. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  19. Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryrholm, N.

    2003-01-01

    Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)? In order to assess the influence of climatic changes on the distribution of insects, the ranges of nonmigratory European butterfly species have been studied. This study

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  1. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  2. Biology, herbivory, and host specificity of Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. R. Badenes-Perez; M. T. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered one of the greatest threats to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The potential for using the defoliator Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a biological control agent of M. calvescens was evaluated in...

  3. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  4. Influence of the irradiated diet on the longevity and reproduction of Cyric cephalonic a (Stain ton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: parlayed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Graziela dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims to irradiate diets with multiple doses, as recommended by the Decree DINAL n.o 09 of 08/03/1985 to disinfestation of insects, which means, the dose of 1,0 kGy and observes the longevity and reproduction of C. cephalonica (Staint., 1865) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

  5. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  6. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  7. Management

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    La globalisation des activités avec son lot de relocalisations, d’alliances stratégiques par-delà les frontières, défie les pratiques traditionnelles du management, nécessairement construites sur les systèmes nationaux. Cas pratiques à l’appui (dont Aventis, BASF, Novartis ou Siemens), les auteurs, tous deux professeurs de management international, détaillent en les analysant les nouveaux impératifs de management et d’organisation que doivent affronter les entreprises. Ils distinguent clairem...

  8. Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ughetto , Pascal

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Quand il s'agit de rendre compte du travail et de ses conditions, le management exerce autant un fort pouvoir de séduction que de répulsion. Le travail d'aujourd'hui est directement confronté à l'empire des dispositifs de gestion. Il importe de reconstituer les mondes sociaux du management - le top management, les directions spécialisées, les cadres de terrain - si l'on veut comprendre où et comment se jouent les marges de manoeuvre accordées à l'activité de travail ou...

  9. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  10. A morphology based key to the genera of the tribe Nemoriini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan

    2017-02-23

    A diagrammatic key to the genera of the Nemoriini tribe (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) is presented and illustrated. The genera studied exhibit two main character sets, corresponding to the Nemoria lineage and the Phrudocentra lineage. The spatulate type of uncus is associated with multicolor wing markings on both hemispheres. A rod-shaped uncus, often slightly bulbed at its tip, is common in the Neotropics, the genera involved having their wing markings reduced to white lines or brown-grey vein marks on a plain green ground color.

  11. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  12. Two new species of Utetheisa Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Roque-Albelo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species, Utetheisa connerorum and Utetheisa henrii (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae are described from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The latter inhabits the highlands of San Cristobal Island while the former is widely distributed on most of the islands of the archipelago. Their habitus and genitalia are illustrated. Based on a study of the holotype, Utetheisa galapagensis (Wallengren was found to be restricted to San Cristobal Island, contrary to previous reports, and is redescribed here. A key is provided to separate all six Galapagos species of Utetheisa based on external characters.

  13. Rapid assessment of the sex of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs and larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbová, Iva; Neven, L. G.; Bárcenas, N. M.; Gund, N. A.; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2009), s. 249-261 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 58-5352-4-F004; International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R; Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food(DE) 05OE023/2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * molecular markers * period gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2009

  14. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  15. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  16. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  17. Elusive Parnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae: habitat selection, sex determination and sex ratio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Bartoňová, Alena; Marec, František; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 180 (2017), s. 561-569 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA AV ČR IAA600960925; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13713S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Papilionidae * habitat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  18. Reproducción de Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae en Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Calvo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A group of Annona cherimolia (Mill:Annonaceae trees was studied in Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica (June 1991-August 1992 to record egg-laying sites of the butterfly Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae. Used fruits often dehydrated and fell before maturity. Eggs are laid in fruits independently of fruit ontologic state and of height above ground. Tree parts less frequently used to lay eggs are flower primordia, leaves and stems, but the larvae move to fruits when food reserves are depleted. Pupation occurs outside the fruit. Pupae emit sound, possible for defence.

  19. Theoretical study of electromagnetic transport in Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus wing scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sackey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the electromagnetic energies developed in the scales of the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus. The Green tensor method was used to calculate and simulate the energies at specific wavelengths. Scattering of electromagnetic waves within the scales was simulated at different wavelengths (λ with the corresponding maximum energy occurred at λ = 0.45 μm. The study shows that the design of wing’s cross-ribs maximizes the eigenmode of electromagnetic energy. This shows promising applications in bio-sensors of Solar light and likewise in waveguide for photonic transmission.

  20. Relationship between male moths of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) caught in sex pheromone traps and cumulative degree-days in vineyards in southern Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Calvo, María Victoria; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been known in Uruguay for 30 years and only in vineyards, despite being polyphagous. In recent years, this pest has caused sporadic but serious damage on some grapevine cultivars. Understanding the insect's phenology and developing a monitoring program are essential aspects of integrated pest management. We monitored males using sexual pheromone traps on four cultivars of vine, Pinot noir, Tannat, Gewürztraminer, and Cabernet Sauvignon, in two vine-growing establishments in the Department of Canelones and compiled data on the accumulated effective temperatures for the southern area of Uruguay. We determined that this species undergoes three generations per year and overwinters without diapause as larvae on dried grapes remaining after harvest. Using the proportion of cumulative male moths caught from December to May from 2003-2007 on the four cultivars and the sum of effective temperatures above two previously-published lower-threshold temperatures for development, 12.26°C and 13°C, statistically significant logistic models were estimated. Predictions based on the resulting models suggested that they would be acceptable tools to improve the efficiency of integrated management of this pest in Uruguay.

  1. Comparisons of genetic diversity in captive versus wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Pratt, Gordon F.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.

  2. Effects of a naturally occurring and a synthetic synergist on toxicity of three insecticides and a phytochemical to navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guodong; Pollock, Henry S; Lawrance, Allen; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-04-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive lepidopteran pest of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] and pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) in California and is a serious problem in figs (Ficus carica L.) and walnuts (Juglans spp.). In addition to direct damage, larval feeding leaves nuts vulnerable to infection by Aspergillus spp., fungi that produce toxic aflatoxins. A potentially safe and sustainable approach for managing navel orangeworm in orchards may be to use natural essential oil synergists to interfere with this insect's ability to detoxify insecticides and phytochemicals. We tested the effects of a naturally occurring plant-derived chemical, myristicin, and a synthetic inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), piperonyl butoxide, on the toxicity of three insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and methoxyfenozide [Intrepid]) and a phytochemical (xanthotoxin) to A. transitella. Piperonyl butoxide significantly synergized alpha-cypermethrin and tau-fluvalinate, whereas myristicin synergized only alpha-cypermethrin. Piperonyl butoxide synergized the toxicity of xanthotoxin as early as 72 h after exposure, whereas myristicin synergized xanthotoxin after 120 h. In view of these findings and the limited availability of environmentally safe synthetic insecticides for sustainable management, particularly in organic orchards, myristicin is a potential field treatment in combination with insecticides to reduce both navel orangeworm survival and aflatoxin contamination of nuts. In addition, this study demonstrates that in A. transitella the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide is not detoxified by P450s.

  3. Assessing moth migration and population structuring in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at the regional scale: example from the Darling Downs, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kirsten D; Lawrence, Nicole; Lange, Corinna L; Scott, Leon J; Wilkinson, Kendle S; Merritt, Melissa A; Miles, Melina; Murray, David; Graham, Glenn C

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of gene flow and migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in a major cropping region of Australia identified substantial genetic structuring, migration events, and significant population genotype changes over the 38-mo sample period from November 1999 to January 2003. Five highly variable microsatellite markers were used to analyze 916 individuals from 77 collections across 10 localities in the Darling Downs. The molecular data indicate that in some years (e.g., April 2002-March 2003), low levels of H. armigera migration and high differentiation between populations occurred, whereas in other years (e.g., April 2001-March 2002), there were higher levels of adult moth movement resulting in little local structuring of populations. Analysis of populations in other Australian cropping regions provided insight into the quantity and direction of immigration of H. armigera adults into the Darling Downs growing region of Australia. These data provide evidence adult moth movement differs from season to season, highlighting the importance of studies in groups such as the Lepidoptera extending over consecutive years, because short-term sampling may be misleading when population dynamics and migration change so significantly. This research demonstrates the importance of maintaining a coordinated insecticide resistance management strategy, because in some years H. armigera populations may be independent within a region and thus significantly influenced by local management practices; however, periods with high migration will occur and resistance may rapidly spread.

  4. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  5. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitoids of Lepidoptera caterpillars feeding on Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae

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    Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae were obtained. Seven species of Ichneumonidae were reared from leaf rollers: Meniscomorpha sp. (Banchinae and Leurus caeruliventris (Cresson (Metopiinae from Dichomeris sp. (Gelechiidae; Mesochorus sp.1 (Mesochorinae [as a parasitoid of Hypomicrogaster sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae], Campoplex sp. (Campopleginae and Leurus sp. from Olethreutinae sp. (Tortricidae; Sphelodon annulicornis Morley (Banchinae and Eutanygaster brevipennis Cameron (Cremastinae were also reared from two unidentified species of Gelechiidae. The other eight species were reared from the larvae of exposed feeders: Diradops sp. (Banchinae from Miselia albipuncta Hampson (Noctuidae, Casinaria sp. (Campopleginae from Hymenomima conia Prout (Geometridae, Charops sp. (Campopleginae from Bagisara paulensis Schaus (Noctuidae and Oxydia vesulia (Cramer (Geometridae, two species of Hyposoter Förster (Campopleginae from Semaeopus sp. (Geometridae and H. conia, two species of Microcharops Roman (Campopleginae from B. paulensis and an unidentified species of Limacodidae and Mesochorus sp. 2 [reared from what was probably Aleiodes sp. (Braconidae, Rogadinae] from an unidentified species of Noctuidae.Parasitóides da família Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera foram obtidos durante um inventário de larvas de Lepidoptera sobre Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. As larvas de Lepidoptera foram coletadas sobre as plantas que ocorrem nas bordas de caminhos em três áreas preservadas de mata do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Quinze esp

  6. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  7. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  8. Patrones de diversidad de la fauna de mariposas del Parque Nacional de Cabañeros y su entorno (Ciudad Real, España central (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea

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    Jiménez-Valverde, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns of the butterfly fauna of the Parque Nacional de Cabañeros and its surroundings (Ciudad Real, Central Spain (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea The butterfly species richness and faunistic composition in six plots with different land uses and dissimilar environmental diversity is studied in the Parque Nacional de Cabañeros and its surroundings (Ciudad Real, Central Spain. The holm-oak forest is the richest sampling plot, with a butterfly species composition that clearly differs from the rest of more humanized sampling plots. The pine plantation has the lowest values of species richness and abundances, with a faunistic composition quite similar to those of the sampling plots with a dominance of hostile habitats for butterflies (grasslands and crops, so the need to create clearings is emphasised. The importance of environmental diversity in humanized habitats and the need for proper management and conservation of woodlands is stressed in order to conserve butterfly biodiversity

  9. Eucalyptus cloeziana AS A NEW HOST TO Hylesia paulex (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

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    Alexandre Igor Azevedo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified Lepidoptera species was found defoliating Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae in a cerrado area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pupae of this insect, collected in the area, were brought to the laboratory and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 cm x 1.5 cm under 25 ± 2oC, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and 12 hours photophase to obtain adults and eggs. This insect was identified as Hylesia paulex Dognin (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, and, in that way, the objective of the present study was to register for the first time its herbivory in E. cloeziana plants. Newly-emerged caterpillars were reared in 10 plastic pots (500ml, with 30 caterpillars per pot and fed, daily, with fresh leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae. The egg incubation period of H. paulex was 32.00 ± 1.19 days. The total duration of the seven instars of this insect was 67.83 ± 0.84 days. Hylesia paulex completed its life cycle with E. cloeziana plants, what proves its adaptability to this kind of exotic Myrtaceae in Brazil.

  10. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  11. Variable wing venation in Agathiphaga (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae) is key to understanding the evolution of basal moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Details of the ancestral groundplan of wing venation in moths remain uncertain, despite approximately a century of study. Here, we describe a 3-branched subcostal vein, a 5-branched medial vein and a 2-branched cubitus posterior vein on the forewing of Agathiphaga vitiensis Dumbleton 1952 from Vanuatu. Such veins had not previously been described in any Lepidoptera. Because wing veins are typically lost during lepidopteran evolutionary history, rarely—if ever—to be regained, the venation of A. vitiensis probably represents the ancestral character state for moths. Wing venation is often used to identify fossil insects as moths, because wing scales are not always preserved; the presence of a supposedly trichopteran 3-branched subcostal vein in crown Lepidoptera may decrease the certainty with which certain amphiesmenopteran fossils from the Mesozoic can be classified. And because plesiomorphic veins can influence the development of lepidopteran wing patterns even if not expressed in the adult wing, the veins described here may determine the location of wing pattern elements in many lepidopteran taxa. PMID:27853559

  12. De Novo characterization of transcriptomes from two North American Papaipema stem-borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Sara J; Feindt, Wiebke; DeSalle, Rob; Goldstein, Paul Z

    2018-01-01

    Stem-borers in the genus Papaipema (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) range from highly polyphagous agricultural pests to specialists on more than 20 families of flowering plants, many of them highly toxic. Papaipema is the largest genus of noctuids endemic to North America and provides an excellent study system for the evolution of noctuid host plant use. To improve the availability of genomic resources for such investigations, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly for two specialist Papaipema with unusual larval hosts: P. speciosissima, which is associated with ferns, and the undescribed P. "sp. 4," which is associated with bamboo. The resulting transcriptomes were similar in terms of completeness, gene count, and gene identity, but we identified some 8,000 genes (~17% of each transcriptome) not shared between the two species. While some of these have identifiable orthologs in other Lepidoptera, ~5% of each transcriptome consists of species-specific genes. We examine the function of these genes and find that almost half have retrotransposon-related functional domains. The potential role of species-specific genes is discussed, and the expansion of certain retrotransposon families in Papaipema is examined.

  13. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae, in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify the parasitoids of P. xylostella and to determine their influence on larva and pupa mortality. Weekly collections of larvae and pupae were randomly conducted in cabbage crops during spring 2006 and 2007. The immature forms collected were classified according to their developmental stage: L1 and L2 (Ls = small larvae, L3 (Lm = medium larvae, L4 (Ll = large larvae, pre-pupae and pupae (P. Each individual was observed daily in the laboratory until the adult pest or parasitoid emergence. We identified parasitoids, the number of instar and the percentage of mortality of P. xylostella for each species of parasitoid. Parasitoids recorded were: Diadegma insulare (Cresson, 1875 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and an unidentified species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera. Besides parasitoids, an unidentified entomopathogenic fungus was also recorded in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the most successful parasitoids were D. insulare and O. sokolowskii, while in 2007 only D. insulare exerted a satisfactory control and it attacked the early instars of the pest.

  15. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

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    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  16. Management

    OpenAIRE

    Daft, Richard L.; Kendrick, Martyn; Vershinina, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    The market-leading textbook for principles of management courses reaches a new level with Richard L. Daft being joined by Martyn Kendrick and Natalia Vershinina (both Leicester Business School) to provide an unparalleled resource for students in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). After listening to the requirements of lecturers, the authors have maintained the same comprehensive coverage and structure of the original work but carefully threaded in new EMEA and wider global examples an...

  17. The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Cyantraniliprole on the Development, Fecundity and Nutritional Physiology of the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Zhengqun; Cui, Kaidi; Zhao, Yunhe; Han, Jingkun; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), several studies were carried out to investigate sublethal effects on development stages, population parameters, feeding indices and nutrient content of A. ipsilon. The result of a bioassay showed that cyantraniliprole had high toxicity against A. ipsilon fourth-instar larvae with an LC50 of 0.354 μg.g-1 using an artificial diet. Compared with controls, sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole at LC5, LC20 and LC40 levels prolonged larval and pupal duration and extended mean generation time and total preovipositional period. In addition, survival rate, reproductive value, intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproduction rate declined significantly. Meanwhile, cyantraniliprole had markedly antifeedant effects; decreased the relative growth rate (RGR), the relative consumption rate (RCR), the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD); and increased the approximate digestibility (AD) significantly. This phenomenon contributed to the decrease of nutrient contents, including lipids, protein and carbohydrates, to the point that insufficient energy was available for normal growth. Therefore, sublethal concentrations of cyantraniliprole decreased growth speed and reduced population reproduction of A. ipsilon. This result provides information useful in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for A. ipsilon.

  19. TRPA5, an Ankyrin Subfamily Insect TRP Channel, is Expressed in Antennae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Multiple Splice Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Bengtsson, Jonas Martin; Montagné, Nicolas; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Salvagnin, Umberto; Bassoli, Angela; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are an ancient family of cation channels, working as metabotropic triggers, which respond to physical and chemical environmental cues. Perception of chemical signals mediate reproductive behaviors and is therefore an important target for sustainable management tactics against the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, olfactory behavior strongly depends on diel periodicity and correlation of chemical with physical cues, like temperature, and physical cues thus essentially contribute to the generation of behavioral response. From an antennal transcriptome generated by next generation sequencing, we characterized five candidate TRPs in the codling moth. The coding DNA sequence of one of these was extended to full length, and phylogenetic investigation revealed it to be orthologous of the TRPA5 genes, reported in several insect genomes as members of the insect TRPA group with unknown function but closely related to the thermal sensor pyrexia Reverse transcription PCR revealed the existence of five alternate splice forms of CpTRPA5. Identification of a novel TRPA and its splice forms in codling moth antennae open for investigation of their possible sensory roles and implications in behavioral responses related to olfaction. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  1. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole A; Robinson, Courtney J; McMahon, Matthew D; Holt, Jonathan; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2009-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L.), Manduca sexta (L.), Pieris rapae (L.) and Heliothis virescens (F.) treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel), and Lymantria dispar (L.) treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII). Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII) following antibiotic treatment

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-11-21

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expression between lufenuron-resistant (LUF-R) and susceptible (LUF-S) S. larvae in an attempt to identify the molecular basis behind the resistance mechanism(s) of S. frugiperda to this insecticide. A transcriptome was assembled using approximately 19.6 million 100 bp-long single-end reads, which generated 18,506 transcripts with a N50 of 996 bp. A search against the NCBI non-redundant database generated 51.1% (9,457) functionally annotated transcripts. A large portion of the alignments were homologous to insects, with the majority (45%) being similar to sequences of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Moreover, 10% of the alignments were similar to sequences of various species of Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with 3% of them being similar to sequences of S. frugiperda. A comparative analysis of the gene expression between LUF-R and LUF-S S. frugiperda larvae identified 940 differentially expressed transcripts (p ≤ 0.05, t-test; fold change ≥ 4). Six of them were associated with cuticle metabolism. Of those, four were overexpressed in LUF-R larvae. The machinery involved with the detoxification process was represented by 35 differentially expressed transcripts; 24 of them belonging to P450 monooxygenases, four to glutathione-S-transferases, six to carboxylases and one to sulfotransferases. RNA-Seq analysis was validated for a number of selected candidate transcripts by using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). The gene expression profile of LUF-R larvae of S. frugiperda differs from LUF-S larvae. In general, gene expression is much

  3. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia First record of Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae on pear trees and poplars in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dapoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.The Alto Valle of Río Negro and Neuquén is the main production zone of pomme fruits from Argentina. The main pest is Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Changes operated in control strategies in the last years have brought changes in the biodiversity of fruit orchards. During the season 2008/09, Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was detected in a fruit establishment of Vista Alegre (Neuquén under organic production causing serious damages on fruits and leaves of pear trees and in the leaves of Populus spp. Hypercompe indecisa is reported for the first time in Patagonia and is the first record of this species on Populus spp.and Pyrus communis L.

  4. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes, and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...

  5. Cluster biodiversity as a multidimensional structure evolution strategy: checkerspot butterflies of the group Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Bolshakov, L. V.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 441-457 ISSN 0307-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphydryas aurinia * biodiversity * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12167/abstract

  6. Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryrholm, N.

    2003-01-01

    Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)? In order to assess the influence of climatic changes on the distribution of insects, the ranges of nonmigratory European butterfly species have been studied. This study revealed that the northern limits of 32 (64%) of 52 species have expanded northwards during the 20th century. The southern limits of ten (25%) of 40 species have retracted northwards. The example ...

  7. Primeira ocorrência de fitofagia de frutos e sementes de Orchidaceae por Hyphilaria thasus Stoll. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉ RODRIGO RECH; YARA BRITO CHAIM JARDIM ROSA; EDGARD JARDIM ROSA JUNIOR

    2008-01-01

    Em um levantamento para identificação de espécies nativas da mata ciliar do Rio Dourados, Dourados (MS), observou-se a fitofagia em frutos de Brassavola cebolleta e Oncidium jonesianum por larvas de Hyphilaria thasus (Stoll, 1780) (Lepidoptera). Este é o primeiro relato da fitofagia de frutos e sementes nessas duas espécies de Orchidaceae no Brasil.

  8. Primeira ocorrência de fitofagia de frutos e sementes de Orchidaceae por Hyphilaria thasus Stoll. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉ RODRIGO RECH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Em um levantamento para identificação de espécies nativas da mata ciliar do Rio Dourados, Dourados (MS, observou-se a fitofagia em frutos de Brassavola cebolleta e Oncidium jonesianum por larvas de Hyphilaria thasus (Stoll, 1780 (Lepidoptera. Este é o primeiro relato da fitofagia de frutos e sementes nessas duas espécies de Orchidaceae no Brasil.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on phases of evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera pyralidae) in artificial diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.A.D.

    1991-04-01

    The effects of the increase in the gamma radiation ( 60 Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera Pyraliade) are studied. A cobalt 60 source type gamma beam 650 was used and the activity was of approximately 2.91 x 10 14 Bq. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with temperature at 25 ± 2 0 C and relative humidity of 70 ± 10%. (M.A.C.)

  10. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  11. More complex than expected: Cold hardiness and the concentration of cryoprotectants in overwintering larvae of five Erebia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Zahradníčková, Helena; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, NOV 02 (2017), s. 470-480 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Satyrinae Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 https://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2017/01/60.pdf

  12. Espécies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Alfredo Di Mare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on literature, collections and sampled butterflies, a list of twelve species of Adelpha Hübner occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State is presented, including host plants. Adelpha epizygis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha falcipennis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha goyama Schaus, 1902 and Adelpha isis (Drury, 1782 are new reports to Rio Grande do Sul. The species are illustrated and keyed.

  13. Pengaruh Umur Buah Dan Faktor Iklim Terhadap Serangan Penggerek Buah Jeruk Citripestis Sagitiferella Mr. (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    -, Muryati

    2007-01-01

    . Muryati. 2007. The Effect of Fruit Maturity and Climatic Factors on Damage Intensity of Citrus Fruit by Fruit borer Citripestis sagitiferella (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae).The objective of this research was to understand the effect of fruit maturity and climatic factors on damage intensity of citrus fruit by fruit borer C. sagitiferella. The experiment was conducted at Batu, Malang from August 2001 to July 2002. The experiment to observe the fruit damage by citrus fruit borer on several fruit mat...

  14. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and Compartmentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh; Siavash Salimian Rizi

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to...

  15. First report of Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on African mahogany Khaya ivorensis

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    Ronald Zanetti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller is an important economic pest in all American tropical forests, because it prevents monoculture of valuable timber trees species like mahogany and cedar. The shoot borer damages several tree structures, especially the apical shoots, impairing the formation of the commercial stem. This pest can attack the plants during the year and one larva per plant is enough to cause significant damage. In infested areas, the attack can reach up to 100 % of the trees. The Australian cedar and African mahogany have been cultivated in Brazil for timber production, because they are considered resistant to H. grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae attack. However, in this work we report for the first time the H. grandella attack to African mahogany Khaya ivorensis.

  16. Os predadores no controlo natural de Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Jorge R.; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1999-01-01

    IV Encontro Nacional de Protecção Integrada, 3 – 4 Outubro, 1997, Angra do Heroísmo, Açores. Nos Açores, durante as três últimas décadas, o aumento da monocultura de pastagem e as condições abióticas favoráveis ao desenvolvimento de Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth)(Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contribuíram para que este insecto se tornasse numa das principais pragas agrícolas da região. A utilização da luta biológica depende da instalação de um bom sistema de predição das populações da praga, im...

  17. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  18. Response of Larval Lepidoptera and Their Avian Predators to Experimental Ice Storms in a Northeastern Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Wendy M.

    Experimental ice storms of varying severity were applied to replicate plots of mature northern hardwoods to quantify effects of this extreme weather event on forests. I investigated effects of ice storm treatments on larval Lepidoptera and their avian predators, both key contributors to ecosystem function. I conducted feeding assays to assess caterpillar growth and used point counts to measure insectivorous bird activity. Plasticine model caterpillars were deployed to estimate predation. Caterpillar growth rates positively correlated with treatment severity. Birds responded to ice storm treatments as a single diffuse disturbance. Caterpillar predation was not affected by treatments. I conclude that ice storms increased food quality for caterpillars and increased avian habitat use in the treated area. I created a lesson plan based on the plasticine caterpillar experiment. This lesson is simple and accessible for students to investigate ecological principles and scientific inquiry, and has been successfully implemented at two schools.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese skipper, Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chang, Yuan; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jianqing; Yu, Weidong; Jiang, Weibin

    2016-07-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) has been presented in this article. It is 15,353 bp in length, with an A + T content of 80.9% containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a noncoding control region (D-loop). All of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. All protein-coding genes started with ATN as a start codon except for the gene COX1 that uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Five protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codon TA or T, while the others use TAA as stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. Nucleotide composition is similar to other insects, showing a high bias toward A + T. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genome sequence of P. jigongi is close to Hesperiidae.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Baiyun (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Li, Fengbo; Zhu, Xinrong; Meng, Zhiqi

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Baiyun (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was determined in this study. The genome was 15,629 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. Its gene content and order were identical to those of other lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons except for the COI gene, which began with CGA codon. Eleven PCGs stopped with termination codon TAA, whereas the COI and COII genes ended with single T. All the tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures. The 496 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8 and (AT)9 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  1. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East.

  2. Huevo, larva en primer estadio y aparato genital femenino de la mariposa Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela A Rodríguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el huevo, larva de primer estadio y aparato genital de la hembra de Chabuata castanea con material proveniente de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile y de huevos obtenidos en laboratorio. Se fotografiaron los huevos con microscopia electrónica de barrido para analizar las variaciones entre micropila, celdas primarias y secundarias, concluyéndose que las diferencias permiten una identificación al nivel de especie.Egg, first larval stage and female genitalia of the moth Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Egg, first larval stage, and female genitalia of the widely distributed moth Chabuata castanea are described, based on material from Talcahuano, VIII region, Chile. Egg microestructures are illustrated with scannig electron microscope images which show that egg morphology allows identification to species level. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 659-664. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  3. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  4. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Olguín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I and aristolactam-II (AL-II present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  5. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-10-11

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  6. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

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    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  7. The endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): biology, management considerations, and data gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    1993-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov, became federally listed as endangered in 1992 and is thus afforded protection under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. This insect has a very discontinuous range, with 1992 populations found in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, and New Hampshire. Karner blue...

  8. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  9. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  10. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-jun; Shi, Bao-cai; Kang, Zong-jiang; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-jun

    2012-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) currently is one of the economically most destructive pest species of stone and pome fruits worldwide. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,776 bp long, with an A + T content of 81.24%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All gene are arranged as hypothesized ancestral gene order of insects except for trnM, which was shuffled from 3' downstream of trnQ to 5' upstream of trnI. cox1 gene uses unusual CGA start codon, as that in all other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genome. The secondary structures for the two rRNA genes were predicted. All helices typically present in insect mitochondrial rRNA genes are generated. A microsatellite sequence was inserted into the region of H2347 in rrnL in G. molesta and two other sequenced tortricid mitochondrial genomes, indicating that the insertion event in this helix might occurred anciently in family Tortricidae. All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes have a typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairings in the DHU arm are absent. An intergenic sequence is present between trnQ and nad2 as well as in other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, which was presumed to be a remnant of trnM gene and its boundary sequences after the duplication of trnM to the upstream of trnI in Lepidoptera. The A + T-rich region is 836 bp, containing six repeat sequences of "TTATTATTATTATTAAATA(G)TTT."

  12. Molecular diversity of Wolbachia in Lepidoptera: Prevalent allelic content and high recombination of MLST genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2017-04-01

    Wolbachia are common endosymbiotic bacteria of Arthropoda and Nematoda that are ordinarily transmitted vertically in host lineages through the egg cytoplasm. Despite the great interest in the Wolbachia symbiont, many issues of its biology remain unclear, including its evolutionary history, routes of transfer among species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the symbiont's effect on its host. In this report, we present data relating to Wolbachia infection in 120 species of 13 Lepidoptera families, mostly butterflies, from West Siberian localities based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the wsp locus and perform a comprehensive survey of the distribution of Wolbachia and its genetic diversity in Lepidoptera worldwide. We observed a high infection incidence in the studied region; this finding is probably also true for other temperate latitude regions because many studied species have broad Palearctic and even Holarctic distribution. Although 40 new MLST alleles and 31 new STs were described, there was no noticeable difference in the MLST allele content in butterflies and probably also in moths worldwide. A genetic analysis of Wolbachia strains revealed the MLST allele core in lepidopteran hosts worldwide, viz. the ST-41 allele content. The key finding of our study was the detection of rampant recombination among MLST haplotypes. High rates of homologous recombination between Wolbachia strains indicate a substantial contribution of genetic exchanges to the generation of new STs. This finding should be considered when discussing issues related to the reconstruction of Wolbachia evolution, divergence time, and the routes of Wolbachia transmission across arthropod hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  14. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Jenis Kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di Sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestia Dewi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan jenis kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi. Sampel  diambil dari 5 stasiun yang ditentukan secara purposif. Pada Masing-masing stasiun dibuat transek sepanjang 140 m, lalu dibuat 10 plot dengan ukuran 5x5 m dengan jarak antar plot yang sama (10 m. Parameter pengamatan meliputi keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan jenis. Selain itu diamati pula kondisi lingkungan yang meliputi intensitas cahaya, suhu udara dan kelembaban udara. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ditemukan 143 individu dari 5 famili yaitu famili Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae dan Hesperiidae dengan indeks keanekaragaman jenis yaitu 2,153. Hasil perhitungan kelimpahan jenis menunjukkan banyak jenis yang ditemukan dengan kelimpahan yang rendah yaitu dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,006 (1 individu. Adapun jenis kupu-kupu yang ditemukan melimpah adalah jenis Junonia orithya dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,160  (23 individu, diikuti oleh Acraea terpsicore dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,132(19 individu dan Eurema hecabe dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,118 (17 individu. Kondisi lingkungan yaitu intensitas cahaya (16780-92170 Lux, suhu udara (31,6-34,2 oC dan kelembaban udara (63,8-80,8%. Dari hasil penelitian, keanekaragaman jenis kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi menunjukkan tingkat yang sedang dengan nilai berkisar antara 1,5-3,5. Disarankan untuk dapat dilakukan penelitian sejenis dengan lokasi yang lebih luas, dan dengan berbagai kondisi musim sehingga mendapatkan hasil yang lebih luas.   Kata kunci: kupu-kupu, keanekaragaman, kelimpahan, Universitas Jambi.

  15. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae oviposition on macadamia nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6 939. E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.Se determinó la distribución vertical de los huevos del barrenador de la nuez de macadamia Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y los sitios de preferencia de oviposición en los árboles y entre clones de macadamia. Se detectó la presencia de huevos de E. torticornis en todo el árbol, sin embargo, se encontró un menor número de huevos en la parte alta de la corona que en la parte media e inferior. La diferencia en la distribución horizontal de los huevos fue no significativa, a pesar de encontrarse un mayor número de huevos en las posiciones externas. El número de huevos entre clones fue similar, sugiriendo que la polilla del barrenador no tiene preferencias de oviposición entre clones.

  16. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  17. Estimation of genetic divergence in rice (oryza sativa l) germplasms on the basis of paddy yield and rice stem borer's (pyralidae: lepidoptera) resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field trials were carried out to estimate resistance along with paddy yield in 55 rice germplasm lines (35 aromatic and 20 non-aromatic genotypes) for rice stem borers (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) to expose their potential in pest management approach. The results expressed significant differences for pest damage build-up and paddy yield among the rice germplasm lines. The findings clearly portrayed that based upon the percentage of pest invasions (dead hearts and white heads damage), no genotype was exclusively resistant to stem borers damage under field conditions. Two aromatic genotypes, Jajai-15A/97 and Basmati-Cr-34, exhibited least borers prevalence and amplified paddy yield while Sonehri Sugdasi (P) and Sada Gulab (P) pointed out a peak pest invasion and declined paddy yield. The estimation of pest incidence build-up and paddy productivity within non-aromatic genotypes confirmed that IR8 (P), IR6-15-2 and IR6 (P) were mainly proficient for bearing condensed pest invasion and augmented paddy yield. IR8-2.5-4, IR6-15-10 and IR6-20-9 demonstrated elevated pest susceptibility and gave poor yield. Rest of the germplasms appeared to be least tolerant or vulnerable to pest build-up and reduced paddy production. The tolerant and high yielding genotypes should be popularised in rice borers endemic areas and can be used in varietals resistance breeding strategy. The outcome of current studies necessitates the integration of existing host plant tolerance along with other management strategies to accomplish a suitable control of rice stem borers and enhance paddy yield. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F 1 progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F 1 sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F 1 sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are under way in Tunisia

  19. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  20. Phototaxis of Grapholitha molesta (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) to Different Light Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-X; Tian, A; Zhang, X-B; Zhao, Z-G; Zhang, Z-W; Ma, R-Y

    2014-10-01

    The Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) causes substantial damage to stone and pome fruit crops worldwide. Light-based traps offer a potential means for pest monitoring and management. In this study, we tested the preference of G. molesta for the following light sources: monochromatic light produced from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, and white), specific wavelengths of light produced from filters (405, 450, 480, 512, 540, 576, and 610 nm), and polychromatic light produced by different numbers (0, 12, 24, and 36) of green, blue, and violet LEDs. The arrangement of polychromatic lights was based on an orthogonal design matrix of L16 (4(3)). Based on the results of former studies, we further determined the optimal number of green and violet LEDs. The results showed that: 1) G. molesta strongly preferred the green, violet, and blue LEDs; 2) G. molesta significantly preferred light at 405 nm, followed by 540 nm, and showed no phototaxis to 480 nm; 3) for the polychromatic light configuration, violet and green were the factors that determined the preference of G. molesta, and the lamp with 12 violet LEDs captured the most moths; and 4) for the lamps with different light intensities, 36 violet LEDs or 12 green LEDs attracted the most moths, with the former performing better. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  1. Aplicación de un cebo insecticida para el control de adultos de Tecia solanivora (Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae en papa Application of an insecticidal bait to control adults of Tecia solanivora (Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra Lenna

    2001-12-01

    porcentaje de mortalidad acumulado mayor (72,5% y un porcentaje de eficacia del producto de 69,4%, además se obtuvo un menor porcentaje de infestación del daño de los tubérculos (11,3%. No hubo diferencias significativas entre la aplicación por aspersión y en trampa.
    In order to measure the effect of the application of an
    insecticide bait with the help of a sugary substance to control
    adults of Tecia solanivora (Povolny (Lepidoptera:
    Gelechiidae, tests were carried out in laboratory and under
    greenhouse, at the Agronomy School at the National
    University of Colombia, in Bogotá. A breeding was managed
    in the Laboratory of Entomology to obtain the entomology
    material for the different tests. Four attractants were
    evaluated: Sugar, molasses, honey and panela (a kind of brown sugar. Honey resulted as the most attractive substance. Three insecticides (with and without honey as a bait were tested in the laboratory trial: Beta-cyfluthrin EC 0,25; Chlorpyrifos-Betacyfluthrin EC 450 and Chlorpyrifos-
    Betacyfluthrin EC 262,5, with two doses each: 0,5 cmvl, and
    1,0 cml/l.; with the best two insecticides (Chlorpyrifos-
    Betacyfluthrin EC 450 and Chlorpyrifos-Betacyfluthrin EC
    262,5 we did a greenhouse trial, caging four plants ofpotato,
    variety "parda pastusa", and placing 20 adults of T.
    solanivora (10 females and 10 males inside each cage. Two
    methods were used to apply the treatments: a spray to the
    inferior third of one of the four plants and a recipient trap
    containing the insecticide bait. The design was a completely
    randomized block (RCB with four replications. The variables
    evaluated were per cent mortality to calculate percent
    effectiveness with the Schneider-Orelli method, per cent
    incidence ofthe tubers and per cent infestation ofthe tubers.
    In the greenhouse experiment Chlorpyrifos-Betacyfluthrin EC
    450 (1 ,Ocm3/L with honey gave the highest per cent

  2. Aspectos biológicos de Halysidota pearsoni (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae com folhas de amoreira Biological aspects of Halysidota pearsoni (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae fed with leaves of morus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos biológicos de Halysidota pearsoni Watson, 1980 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. Lagartas de H. pearsoni foram criadas com folhas de Morus alba L. em potes plásticos até a fase de pupa. Dez casais desse lepidóptero foram individualizados em gaiolas para obtenção de ovos à temperatura de 25 ± 2 °C, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Halysidota pearsoni teve período de oviposição de 3,5 ± 0,17 com 141,00 ± 9,18 ovos por fêmea, período de incubação de 7,5 ± 0,17 dias e viabilidade de ovos de 53,34 ± 5,24%. A fase larval de H. pearsoni teve seis estádios, com duração total de 28 dias, viabilidade de 91,78 ± 3,24%. A duração e a viabilidade dos períodos pré-pupal e pupal de H. pearsoni foram, respectivamente, de 7,0 ± 00 e 19,39 ± 0,74 dias e de 70,15 ± 5,63 e 93,62 ± 3,60%. O peso médio de suas pupas foi de 464,17 ± 7,70 mg e a razão sexual e de 0,45. A longevidade (dias de machos e fêmeas de H. pearsoni, com folhas de M. alba, foi de 7,40 ± 0,34 e 9,50 ± 0,45, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to study biological aspects of Halysidota pearsoni Watson, 1980 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. Caterpillars of H. pearsoni were fed with leaves of Morus alba L. in plastic pots until pupation. Ten pairs of this insect were individualized in cages for obtain eggs at the temperature of 25 ± 2° C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and photo phase of 12 hours. Halysidota pearsoni had an oviposition period of 3.5 ± 0.17 with 141.00 ± 9.18 eggs per female; an incubation period of 7.5 ± 0.17 days and an egg viability of 53.34 ± 5.24%. The larva stage of H. pearsoni had six instars with a total duration of 28 days and viability of 91.78 ± 3.24%. The duration and the viability of the pre-pupa and pupa periods of H. pearsoni was 7.0 ± 0.0 and 19.39 ± 0.74 days and 70.15 ± 5.63 and 93.62 ± 3.60% respectively. The pupae mean weight was 464.17 ± 7.70 mg and sex

  3. Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

    2004-08-01

    A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed.

  4. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

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    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea from Corrientes city, Argentina. Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae

  5. Mating Disruption of the Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Using Widely Spaced, Aerosol Dispensers: Is the Pheromone Blend the Most Efficacious Disruptant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S; Cardé, Ring T

    2017-10-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almonds and pistachios and is sometimes controlled using mating disruption as part of a program of integrated management. The formulation used has a single, nonattractive compound [(11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal] as the active ingredient that is emitted from timed aerosol dispensers. This study compared this nonattractive, single-compound formulation with two aerosol formulations also containing two additional compounds [(11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-tricosapentaene] that are found in the pheromone glands, and that in combination with the aldehyde are attractive in wind-tunnel and field-attraction trials. An experiment in pistachios found 97% to 99% suppression of males captured in female-baited traps and 82-93% suppression of mating in sentinel females. Both assays revealed a trend to greater suppression by the more complete pheromone formulations. In almonds, where the abundance of navel orangeworm was lower, all three formulations suppressed males captured in traps and mating in sentinel females by >99%. Each of the formulations significantly reduced damage to Nonpareil almonds. In almonds, there were no significant differences among the formulations in disruption of sexual communication or in damage. These findings suggest that it may be possible to make mating disruption more cost-effective and to achieve higher levels of mating disruption by using attractive aerosol formulations to reduce the number of dispenser per ha. Such a formulation, however, would be more expensive to register in the United States than pheromones meeting the definition of straight-chain lepidopteran pheromone, including the currently used aldehyde-only formulation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

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    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  7. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  8. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

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    Johansson Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0 into (Z-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone

  9. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternative hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas; Simone Martins Mendes; José Magid Waquil; Geraldo Wilson Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, ut...

  10. Mechanitis polymnia casabranca and Ithomia lichyi lichyi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Solanaceae

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    Wagner de Souza Tavares

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Zona da Mata region is located in southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil with fauna and flora diversified, including herbivorous insects and Solanaceae plants. Ithomiinae caterpillars were observed damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, used for different purposes and abundant in secondary forest. The objective of this study was to identify defoliating caterpillars of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil and review host plants of Mechanitis polymnia L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae. Thirteen caterpillars found damaging a tree of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of UFV were collected and maintained in the Laboratório de Controle Biológico de Insetos (LCBI from UFV until adult emergence. These caterpillars were of two species, being ten of the first and three of the second species. Adult specimens of the latter species were identified as Ithomia lichyi lichyi D'Almeida, 1939 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil and of the group of ten caterpillars as Mechanitis polymnia casabranca Haensch, 1905 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the Museu de Zoologia of Universidade de São Paulo (USP in São Paulo State, Brazil. This is the first report of M. polymnia casabranca and I. lichyi lichyi together damaging plant of S. granuloso-leprosum in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil and 57 plants are recorded as host of M. polymnia.

  11. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  12. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  13. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  14. Three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Depressariidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 from Costa Rica: R. annemayae Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov., R. eowilsoni Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. and R. philipmayi Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. We used a data set of DNA COI-barcodes accumulated for Lepidoptera collected at Area de Conse...

  15. Evaluation of the effects of light entensity and time interval after the start of scotophase on the female flight propensity of Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

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    Fang Chen; Juan Shi; Melody Keena

    2016-01-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one...

  16. Two psammophilic noctuids (Lepidoptera) newly associated with beach plum Prunus maritima: The Dune Noctuid (Sympistis riparia) and Coastal Heathland Cutworm (Abagrotis nefascia) in Northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach Plum Prunus maritima Marshall 1785 not Wangenh. 1787 (Rosaceae) represents both a new crop under development and an under-acknowledged host plant for several Lepidoptera rthat have undergone declines in the Northeastern USA. The Coastal Heathland Cutworm Abagrotis nefascia (Smith) and the Dune...

  17. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  18. The leafmining Leurocephala schinusae (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae): Not suitable for the biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales Anacardiaceae)in continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurocephala schinusae Davis & Mc Kay (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The host range was determined by ...

  19. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF THE NOCTUIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE IN THE ISLANDS TULENY, CHECHEN, NORDOVY IN NORTHWESTERN PART OF CASPIAN SEA

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    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of our research fauna of the islands of the Dagestan part of the Caspian Sea found 69 species of the Noctuidae (Lepidopte-ra, Noctuidae, of which 57 species belong to the island Tulenei, 39 species belong to the island Chechnya, 20 species belong to the island Nordovy.

  20. Expanze zavíječe bahenního Ostrinia palustralis v České republice (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Michal; Fric, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jiří; Konvička, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, 1-2 (2013), s. 95-105 ISSN 1210-6100 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * distribution * faunistics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Conserved Patterns of Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Lepidoptera (WZ/ZZ): Insights from a Moth Neo-Z Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James R.; Knipple, Douglas C.

    2017-01-01

    Where previously described, patterns of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) have several unusual characteristics. Other female-heterogametic (ZW/ZZ) species exhibit female Z-linked expression that is reduced compared with autosomal expression and male Z expression. In the Lepidoptera, however, Z expression typically appears balanced between sexes but overall reduced relative to autosomal expression, that is Z ≈ ZZ Cydia pomonella, which is a species from the earliest diverging lepidopteran lineage yet examined for dosage compensation and has a neo-Z chromosome resulting from an ancient Z:autosome fusion. While supported by intraspecific analyses, the Z ≈ ZZ pomonella neo-Z genes in outgroup species. In contrast, dosage compensation appears to be absent in reproductive tissues. We thus argue that inclusion of reproductive tissues may explain the incongruence from a prior study on another moth species and that patterns of dosage compensation are likely conserved in the Lepidoptera. Notably, this pattern appears convergent with patterns in eutherian mammals (X ≈ XX < AA). Overall, our results contribute to the notion that the Lepidoptera present challenges both to classical theories regarding the evolution of sex chromosome dosage compensation and the emerging view of the association of dosage compensation with sexual heterogamety. PMID:28338816

  2. (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-Pentacosapentaene and (Z) -11-Hexadecenyl Acetate: sex attractant blend for Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Miller; Jocelyn Millar; Alex Mangini; Christopher Crowe; Gary Grant

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2008, we tested (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (pentaene) with the pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), as sex attractants for four sympatric species of coneworms, Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and...

  3. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  4. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  5. Acrea wigginsi occidentalis (Bethune-Baker, 1926), a new butterfly for Nigeria, with remarks on its habitat and known distribution (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Jansta, P.; Leština, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 161 (2013), s. 163-165 ISSN 0300-5267 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) GA JU 144/2010/P; National Geographic Society(US) W163-11 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Acraeini Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.304, year: 2013

  6. Ooencyrtus marcelloi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) on passion vines (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrieri, E.; Huigens, M.E.; Estrada, C.; Woelke, J.B.; Rijk, de M.; Fatouros, N.E.; Aiello, A.; Noyes, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    A new species belonging to the genus Ooencyrtus Ashmead is described. Ooencyrtus marcelloi sp. nov. has been reared from eggs of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) collected in Panama on Passiflora spp. The new species is compared with its closest Ooencyrtus species, i.e. O. caligo

  7. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  8. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  9. Efeito de extratos de annonáceas sobre a lagarta falsa medideira Chrysodeixis includens(Walker 1857)(Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Massaroli, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Chrysodeixis (=Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ou lagarta falsa medideira, como é conhecida popularmente, é praga desfolhadora de diversas culturas de importância econômica. Seu controle é feito quase exclusivamente através de inseticidas químicos, que nem sempre são eficientes devido ao hábito da lagarta em permanecer na face abaxial das folhas no terço médio da planta. Além disso, os agrotóxicos trazem inúmeras desvantagens como a contaminação ambiental, su...

  10. Pertumbuhan dan Produktivitas Ulat Sutera Bombyx Mori L. (Lepidoptera : Bombicidae) yang Diberi Vitamin B1 Pada Daun Murbei Morus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Umi Kalsum

    2014-01-01

    The effect of mulberry leaves that contain B1 on the growth and productivity of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.; Lepidoptera; Bombicidae) was conducted in the Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Sumatera Utara Medan. This study used an experimental method to completely randomized design (RAL). The treatments were vitamine B1 0.0mg/100ml; 0.1mg/100ml, 0.2mg/100ml, 0.3mg/100ml; 0.4 mg/100ml with 3 replications each replication consi...

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

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    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  12. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: egg and damage distribution and parasitism A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: distribuição de ovos e de danos e parasitismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals. has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as on the role of natural enemies to define strategies to control the pest. Samples were taken biweekly and consisted of 20 fruits collected randomly (10 from the upper half and 10 from the lower half of the plant in ten plants, cv. Margarida, in a commercial avocado grove in Arapongas and Cambé regions, PR, from October/2001 to September/2002. Laboratory determinations of the percentage of damaged fruit per plant region, location and number of bored fruit sites, and the number and location of the fruit borer eggs, including parasitized ones, were performed. The results showed that S. catenifer preferred to oviposit and attack fruits located on the upper half of the trees. The majority of the eggs were laid on the fruit pedicel whereas the damage was mainly located on the lower half of the fruits. Trichogrammatids were the most constant and abundant parasitoids found in both localities throughout the study period.A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae, continua sendo fator limitante para o cultivo do abacate em vários estados do Brasil, nos últimos anos. Isso se deve a falta de métodos seguros e viáveis para reduzir os prejuízos causados pela praga. Com o intuito de obter informações sobre a sua bioecologia e ação de inimigos naturais, para auxiliar na elaboração de estratégias de controle, realizaram-se coletas quinzenais de 20 frutos ao acaso (10 da metade superior e 10 da metade inferior em 10 plantas, em pomar comercial, cv. Margarida, nos municípios de Arapongas e Cambé, PR, durante os meses de outubro/2001 a setembro/2002. Em laboratório determinaram-se a porcentagem

  13. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

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    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  14. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates entomopathogenic for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    V. Gobatto

    Full Text Available Samples of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were collected from soil and insects. Eight isolates were selected from rural soil, 15 from urban soil and 11 from insects. These were evaluated for entomopathogenicity against larvae of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The pathogenicity tests showed that a higher percentage of isolates were active against A. gemmatalis (60% compared to C. quinquefasciatus (31%. Probit analysis (LC50 indicated that against A. gemmatalis four of the isolates presented values similar to the reference strain against A. gemmatalis, while against C. quinquefasciatus one isolate showed an LC50 similar to the reference strain (IPS-82. SDS-PAGE characterisation of two isolates showed a 27 kDa protein fraction related to the Bt subspecies israelensis cytolytic toxin (cyt gene. One 130 kDa protein, possibly related to the Bt crystal inclusions (cry1 gene, was identified in the other two isolates, which were more toxic for lepidoptera; another isolate presented a protein of 100 kDa. Some new local Bt isolates had similar LC50 probit values to the reference strains.

  16. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  17. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  18. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  19. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: a polyphagous armyworm

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    A Specht

    Full Text Available We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena(Herrich-Schäffer, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee. In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  2. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Shen, Qing-Qing

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was assembled from Illumina sequencing reads (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome is a double-stranded circular molecule of 15 205 bp, comprising 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one control region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, except for COX1 with the putative CGA initiation codon. Six PCGs (COX1, COX2, CYTB, ND2, ND3, and ND4) harbor an incomplete termination codon T, while all the others are terminated with TAA (ATP6, ATP8, COX3, ND1, ND4, and ND6) or TAG (ND4L). The base composition is highly biased (37.9% A, 12.6% C, 7.8% G, and 41.7% T) with an overall A + T content of 79.6%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A. transitella is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from the family Crabidae.

  4. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  5. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts. PMID:22408378

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Dai, Hanyang; Bai, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest in many cotton-growing countries of the world. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pink bollworm P. gossypiella was determined, which is 15,202 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KM225795) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order of P. gossypiella mtDNA was different from the insect ancestral gene order in the translocation of trnM, as shared by previously sequenced lepidopteran mtDNAs. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) have typical mitochondrial start codons ATN, with the exception of COI, Nad5, which uses the start codons CGA, GTT. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Like other insects, the control region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 309 bp and an A + T content of 94.8%, which is the most AT-rich region and comparatively simple, with little evidence of long tandem repeats, but harbors a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 18-bp poly-T stretch.

  7. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  8. Temperature effects on development and fecundity of Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Su, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the impacts of temperature on the development and reproductivity of the sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in sweet potato leaves under laboratory conditions. We determined developmental time of B. macroscopa larval, pupal, and pre-adult stage at different temperatures. Male and female longevity, male and female lifespan, mortality of immature stages, oviposition period of B. macroscopa were also investigated under six constant temperatures (21°C, 24°C, 27°C, 30°C, 33°C, 36°C), based on age-stage, two-sex life tables. The results revealed that eggs in 36°C were unable to hatch. At temperatures between 21°C -33°C, the duration of the pre-adult period, as well as the adult lifespan both for males and females, were shortened by increasing temperatures. The lowest larval mortality rate (15.33%) occurred at 27°C. The age-stage-specific fecundity rates with the greatest number were, in order, 30°C, 27°C, 21°C, 24°C and 33°C. The results show that B. macroscopa population levels could reach highest at the temperature of 27℃.

  9. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  12. Assessment of resistance risk in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to chlorantraniliprole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tiancai; Su, Jianya

    2011-11-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of numerous cultivated crops. Chlorantraniliprole, the first commercialised ryanodine receptor insecticide from the anthranilic diamide class, has exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of lepidopteran pests. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance of S. exigua to chlorantraniliprole in the laboratory. A field-collected population of S. exigua was selected after repeated exposure to chlorantraniliprole to determine the risk of resistance evolution. After 22 generations of selection, there was a 12.0-fold increase in LC(50) . The realised heritability (h(2)) of resistance was estimated as 0.1082 by using threshold trait analysis. The projected rate of resistance evolution indicated that, if h(2) = 0.1082 and 70% of the population was killed at each generation, then a tenfold increase in LC(50) would be expected in 21.7 generations for chlorantraniliprole. These results show that the risk of resistance development to chlorantraniliprole exists in S. exigua after continuous application. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BIJI TANAMAN MINDI MELIA AZEDARACH (L. TERHADAP SPODOPTERA LITURA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    Hamdani .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of Melia azedarach (L. seed extract against armyworm Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectivenes and biological activity of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae seed extract against armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. The first instar larvae were fed extract-treated cotton leaves for 2 days, then were maintained on untreated leaves until the third instar stage. Records were kept in regard to the larvae mortality and developmental time of surviving larvae from first instar to third instar. The result showed that Melia azedarach L. seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae (43.33 - 68.33% mortality. Addition of detergen at 0.2% to extract did not increase insecticidal activity of the extract. However, boiling seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% during 10 until 20 minutes increased insecticidal activity of extract (66.67 - 68.33% mortality. Generally, M. azedarach seed extract treatment did not affect  developmental time of  S. litura larvae.

  14. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma

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    Akito Kawahara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: H. ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, H. makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Maui and H. tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of H. inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, H. auropurpurea Walsingham and H. nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, the CAD primer sequences for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  15. Mating behaviors of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as influenced by sex pheromone in electrostatic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J

    2010-12-01

    Entostat is an electrostatically charged wax powder that can adhere strongly to insect cuticle, making it an ideal carrier to deliver pheromone for pheromone-based confusion techniques. We investigated the attractiveness of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males treated with pheromone-laden Entostat powder to naive conspecifics as well as mating behaviors of males after such treatment in a laboratory flight tunnel. Male moths exposed to Entostat containing 1% E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) acquired and retained the largest amount of the powder and became more attractive as point sources to naive moths compared with those treated with powder containing 5 or 10% codlemone. All Entostat-exposed males remained as attractive as a 0.1-mg codlemone lure for up to 24 h in flight tunnel investigations. Male moth orientation to normally attractive sources of codlemone was completely disrupted directly after treatment with Entostat powder. Males' ability to orient to 0.1-mg lures recovered progressively over a 6-d postexposure interval; however, their responses never reached the levels observed with untreated control moths. Entostat-exposed moths retained detectable amounts of codlemone up to 4 d. Our laboratory flight tunnel results suggest that the mode of action of Entostat powder as an autodissemination control tactic may be due to creating both attractive false point sources after exposure to the powder as well as directly inhibiting contaminated males' capability to orient to pheromone.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi; Arthur, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ±5 deg C and 70 ±5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  17. Two new Brazilian isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    LM. Fiuza

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium used for biopesticides production and pest-resistant plants due to the synthesis of protein crystals by cry genes, which are effective in controlling several insect orders such as Lepidoptera. This work aimed at the evaluation and characterisation of two new B. thuringiensis isolates active against A. gemmatalis (Hübner 1818 larvae, which is the soybean major pest. The results showed that Bt117-4 isolate amplified fragments corresponding to cry2 and cry9 genes, and synthesised protein fragments equivalent to 130, 90 and 45 kDa. The Bt3146-4 isolate amplified DNA fragments corresponding to cry9 gene and synthesised protein fragments of 70, 58 and 38 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of protein crystals in both isolates. CL50 with Cry purified proteins from Bt117-4 and Bt3146-4, corresponded to 0.195 and 0.191 µg larvae-1, respectively. The two B. thuringiensis isolates selected in this study were effective to control velvetbean caterpillar at laboratory conditions. Field tests should be carried on to develop new biopesticides formulation as well for cry genes resource for Anticarsia gemmatalis resistant transgenic plants.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Zhou, Shan-Yi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), which is considered as an endemic species in China. It is listed as a vulnerable species by International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List and also a first class endangered species in China. The complete mtDNA from T. aureus guangxiensis was 15,235 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The T. aureus guangxiensis genes were in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. All PCGs of T. aureus guangxiensis mitogenome start with a typical ATN codon and terminate in the common stop codon TAA, except that ND1 gene uses TTA, ND3 gene uses ATT, and ND4 and ND4L gene use TAA. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed with the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs of the mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic results confirmed that Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae are monophyletic clades.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Nai-Xin; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2010-12-01

    The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was sequenced for its nucleotide sequence of 13,964 bp. The genome has a typical gene order identical to other lepidopteran species. All tRNAs showed same stable canonical clover-leaf structure as those of other insects, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. Anomalous initiation codons have been observed for the cox1 gene, where the ATTACG hexa-nucleotide was believed to be involved in the initiation signaling. Twelve mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequence data were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the insect orders. Even though the number of insect orders represented by complete mitochondrial genomes is still limited, several well-established relationships are evident in the phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequences. Monophyly of the Homometabola was not supported in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, Papilionoidea and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea and Papilionoidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). Bombycoidea (Bombyx mandarina and Antheraea pernyi) and Papilionoidea (P. xuthus and Coreana raphaelis) formed a sister group.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Shao, Lili; Cheng, Chunhui; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionodae) is a circular molecule of 15,226 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with typical ATN codons, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon. Ten PCGs use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the COI, COII and ND5 genes end with single T. Twelve intergenic spacers (82 bp in total), and 11 overlapping regions (30 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 403 bp long and contains some conserved structures characteristic of the butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 13-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)12 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  1. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunliang; Zuo, Ni; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae) is a circular molecule of 15,266 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. Ten PCGs terminate in the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas the COI, COII and ND4 genes end with single T. Ten intergenic spacers (73 bp in total), and 12 overlapping regions (28 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 405 bp long and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 12-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)14 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Additionally, a 11-bp poly-T sequences and a microsatellite-like (AT)7 repeated elements are detected in this region.

  3. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

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    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.

  4. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

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    Stanislav K. Korb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae is distributed in the mountains of Central Asia. We analysed genetic and phylogeographic patterns throughout the western part of its range using a mitochondrial marker (COI. We also analysed the wing pattern using multivariate statistics. We found that the species contains several unique haplotypes in the west and shared haplotypes in the east. The haplotype groups do not correspond to the wing pattern and also the described subspecies do not correspond to either the haplotypes or the groups circumscribed by the wing pattern. Currently, there are more than ten subspecies of K. charltonius in Central Asia; based on our analyses we suggest a reduction to only five of them. The following nomenclatural changes are applied: (1 K. charltonius aenigma Dubatolov & Milko, 2003, syn. n., K. charltonius sochivkoi Churkin, 2009, syn.n., and K. charltonius alrashid Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius romanovi (Grum-Grshimailo, 1885; (2 K. charltonius marusya Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n., K. charltonius eugenia Churkin, 2009, syn. n., K. charltonius anjuta Stshetkin & Kaabak, 1985, syn. n., and K. charltonius mistericus Kaabak, Sotchivko & Titov, 1996, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius vaporosus (Avinov, 1913; and (3 K. charltonius safronovi Korb, Shaposhnikov, Zatakovoy & Nikolaev, 2013, syn. n. is a new synonym of K. charltonius voigti (Bang-Haas, 1927.

  5. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  6. Flight attraction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae to cotton headspace and synthetic volatile blends

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    Felipe eBorrero-Echeverry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system discriminates odor signals of different biological relevance, which drive innate behavior. Identification of stimuli that trigger upwind flight attraction towards host plants is a current challenge, and is essential in developing new, sustainable plant protection methods, and for furthering our understanding of plant-insect interactions. Using behavioral, analytical and electrophysiological studies, we here show that both females and males of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, use blends of volatile compounds to locate their host plant, cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvales, Malvaceae. Female S. littoralis were engaged in upwind orientation flight in a wind tunnel when headspace collected from cotton plants was delivered through a piezoelectric sprayer. Although males took off towards cotton headspace significantly fewer males than females flew upwind towards the sprayed headspace. Subsequent assays with antennally active synthetic compounds revealed that a blend of nonanal, (Z-3 hexenyl acetate, (E-β-ocimene, and (R-(+-limonene was as attractive as cotton headspace to females and more attractive to males. DMNT and (R-(--linalool, both known plant defense compounds may have reduced the flight attraction of both females and males; more moths were attracted to blends without these two compounds. Our findings provide a platform for further investigations on host plant signals mediating innate behavior, and for the development of novel insect plant protection strategies against S. littoralis.

  7. Taxonomy of Mechanitis (f.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the west Colombian Andes: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Uribe, S I

    2012-12-01

    Species identification in the butterfly genus Mechanitis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) becomes difficult when it is based only on wing color patterns, a common practice in butterfly taxonomy. Difficulties in Mechanitis taxonomy are related to the widespread mimicry and polymorphism among species belonging to this genus. Species recognition and inventories of Mechanitis genus in geographic areas as the Andean region of Colombia are of particular interest and the use of more than one character for taxonomic identification is desirable. In this study, we included morphological, ecological, and mitochondrial DNA data to identify the occurring species in this region. Species of Mechanitis were studied from ecological, morphological, and molecular perspectives considering host plant identification, oviposition behavior, and life cycles under laboratory conditions. Immature morphology, patterns of wing color, and genital structures of adults were also studied. The genetic barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene was sequenced and used to verify the limits between species previously defined by the other characters and to validate its usefulness for species delimitation in this particular genus. The integrative approach combining independent datasets successfully allowed species identification as compared to the approach based on a single dataset. Three well-differentiated species were found in the studied region, Mechanitis menapis (Hewitson), Mechanitis polymnia (Linnaeus), and Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius). New valuable characters that could improve taxonomic identification in this genus are considered.

  8. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a polyphagous armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Iltchenco, J; Fronza, E; Roque-Specht, V F; Luz, P C; Montezzano, D G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee). In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal) diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  9. The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ocampo, V.; Leon, J.B. de

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiating male Helicoverpa armigera with a substerilizing dose (100 Gy) of gamma radiation on the growth, development and reproduction of subsequent generations was studied in the laboratory. This dose of gamma radiation had no significant detrimental effects on larval and pupal weights or on the duration of the pupal period in the F 1 progeny. However, it lengthened the duration of the larval period by two days. In the F 2 generation, the progeny of the Tf 1 FxTf 1 M cross had significantly lighter pupae. The effects of this substerilizing dose of radiation and of the resulting inherited sterility on the reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera were similar to those described for other species of Lepidoptera. No detrimental effects on P 1 and F 1 female fecundity were recorded. Crosses involving Tf 1 females laid only about one half the number of eggs laid by the controls, however the range in the number of eggs laid by these females fell within the normal range for Helicoverpa armigera. Fertility of crosses involving P 1 males was greatly affected; fertility in these females was only 61% of that exhibited by the controls. This deleterious effect was inherited in the F 1 and F 2 generations and was maximally expressed when F 1 progeny of the NFxTM cross were inbred. Egg hatch was almost completely inhibited in sibling crosses while outcrosses of the F 1 progeny showed a 64-70% reduction in egg hatch when compared to controls. (author)

  10. Larval Biology of Anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza A. P.; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B.; Morais, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius , Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha . Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius ; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed “bungee jumping” behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius , K. syllis , M. azia , Pai. aphaca , P. polibetes , Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha , and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  11. Genetic structure of Proclossiana eunomia populations at the regional scale (Lepidoptera, nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nève, G; Barascud, B; Descimon, H; Baguette, M

    2000-06-01

    Populations of Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) occur in middle Europe in patchy habitats of hay meadows along valleys or peat bogs. Samples of P. eunomia populations from the Ardennes region (northern France and southern Belgium) were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis. Patches isolated by more than 2 km of mature forests proved genetically distinct from their neighbouring populations. Mantel tests and regression analysis showed that the degree of genetic differentiation between the 26 studied populations is related to the geographical distances between them. Autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I ) showed that allele frequencies are positively correlated for populations up to 13 km apart and that the genetic neighbourhood of individuals is in the range of 0.9 km, which is in accordance with movement studies in this species conducted in the same area. Analysis using Wright's F-statistics revealed that the highest differentiation occurs between populations of the same subregion, whereas the whole Ardennes region is not genetically partitioned into subregions. This is probably because the connectivity of the network of suitable habitats has significantly weakened only since the 1950s, and thus subregional differentiation has not yet occurred.

  12. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Grethe Aarnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  13. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  14. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  15. Suitability of various turfgrass species and cultivars for development and survival of black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S C; Williamson, R C

    2006-06-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), feeding bioassays were conducted on young and mature turfgrass species to determine their potential resistance. Measures of resistance included larval weight, survival rate, instar development, pupal weight, duration of pupation, and days to pupation and adult emergence. Black cutworm reared on Poa pratensis 'Midnight', Poa arachnigera 'Tejas', and Poa pratensis X Poa arachnigera 'Reveille' exhibited slower development, lower weight, and higher overall mortality than those fed upon other turfgrasses tested. Larvae reared on Reveille did not survive to pupation and all died within 14 d. Black cutworm larvae reared on Midnight died within 17 d in trial 1 but attained pupation in trial 2. However, development of black cutworm larvae was slower on Poa pratensis Midnight compared with other susceptible turfgrass species such as Agrostis stolonifera 'Penncross', Poa annua ('DW194', 'Q98-4-6', and 'Q98-6-18'), Lolium perenne, and Poa supina 'Supranova'. Generally, larval performance on young plant tissues was better than on mature plant tissues. Larvae reared on P. pratensis 'Midnight' exhibited the most distinctive difference on young versus mature plant tissue. These results suggest that plant age may play an important role in turfgrass susceptibility and resistance.

  16. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  17. Aquatic respiration as a potential survival mechanism of Brephidium pseudofea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larvae to intertidal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, V; Daniels, J C; Hahn, D A

    2011-10-01

    The eastern pygmy blue, Brephidium pseudofea (Morrison) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae), inhabits intertidal environments that are periodically flooded. The immature stages are subject to salt or brackish water inundation during this time and therefore must endure many stressors, including respiratory limitation and salt exposure. Our goal was to investigate possible mechanisms used by the larval stages of B. pseudofea to endure periodic tidal inundation by using physiological and morphological analyses in comparison with several species of terrestrial lepidopteran larvae. A review of tidal charts showed that the immature stages of B. pseudofea would be prone to complete inundation two to five times per month during the summer months (May to August) and partial submersion for up to 20 d per month during the rest of the year. Larvae of several terrestrial lepidopteran species studied consumed oxygen under water for a limited period, but B. pseudofea demonstrated substantially higher oxygen consumption. Light microscopy of B. pseudofea larvae revealed small air pockets in and around the spiracles when submerged in tap water; these air pockets disappeared when exposed to detergent solution. The resulting air pockets may function as a diffusion layer for oxygen to be absorbed from the surrounding water or may act in conjunction with trans-cuticular gas exchange to meet the larva's respiratory needs. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that B. psudofea larvae have distinctively small, clavate setae that appear insufficient to effectively support a functional plastron.

  18. Squamocin induce histological and ultrastructural changes in the midgut cells of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz, Muhammad; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Costa, Marilza da Silva; Cossolin, Jamile Fernanda Silva; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Gonçalves, Wagner Gonzaga; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2018-07-30

    Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Results revealed that the maximum damage to midgut cells was found under LC 90 where it showed digestive cells with enlarged basal labyrinth, highly vacuolated cytoplasm, damaged apical surface, cell protrusions to the gut lumen, autophagy and cell death. The midgut goblet cells showed a strong disorganization of their microvilli. Likewise, in insects treated with squamocin, mitochondria were not marked with Mitotracker fluorescent probe, suggesting some molecular damage in these organelles, which was reinforced by decrease in the respiration rate in these insects. These results demonstrate that squamocin has potential to induce enough morphological changes in midgut through epithelial cell damage in A. gemmatalis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of the spiracles in gas exchange during development of Samia cynthia (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetz, Stefan K

    2007-12-01

    Spiracles and the tracheal system of insects allow effective delivery of respiratory gases. During development, holometabolous insects encounter large changes in the functional morphology of gas exchange structures. To investigate changes in respiratory patterns during development, CO2-release was measured in larvae, pre-pupae and pupae of Samia cynthia (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Gas exchange patterns showed great variability. Caterpillars had high metabolic rates and released carbon dioxide continuously. Pre-pupae and pupae showed typical discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGC) at reduced metabolic rates. Changes in gas exchange patterns can partly be explained with low metabolic rates during pupation. Sequential blocking of spiracles in pre-pupae and pupae reduced spiracle conductance with tracheal conductance remaining unaffected. Analysis of gas exchange patterns indicates that caterpillars and pre-pupae use more than 14 spiracles simultaneously while pupae only use 8 to 10 spiracles. Total conductance is not a simple multiple of single spiracles, but may be gradually adaptable to gas exchange demands. Surprisingly, moth pupae showed a DGC if all except one spiracle were blocked. The huge conductance of single spiracles is discussed as a pre-adaptation to high metabolic demands at the beginning and the end of the pupal as well as in the adult stage.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae is an insect pest of 60 economically important crops, including sugarcane, wheat, soybean, rice, beans, sorghum, peanuts, and cotton. The aim of this work was to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with insecticidal activity against E. Lignosellus that could be used as an alternative method of control. Selective bioassays were done to evaluate the toxicity of 47 isolates against first instar larvae of E. lignosellus. For the most toxic bacterial strains, the lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated and morphological, biochemical and molecular methods were used to characterize the isolates. Among the 47 isolates tested, 12 caused mortality above 85% and showed LC50 values from 0.038E+8 to 0.855E+8 spores mL-1. Isolates BR83, BR145, BR09, BR78, S1534, and S1302 had the lowest LC50 values and did not differ from the standard HD-1 strain; the exception was BR83.The protein profiles produced bands with molecular masses of 60-130 kDa. The genes cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 were identified in the molecular characterization. The morphological analysis identified three different crystal inclusions: bipyramidal, spherical and cuboidal. Among the tested isolates, 12 isolates have potential for biotechnological control of E. Lignosellus by development of new biopesticides or genetically modified plants.

  1. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Syahputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  2. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  3. Modelling reproduction of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): climate change may modify pest incidence levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, C A; Foerster, L A

    2012-08-01

    Temperature is considered to be an important abiotic factor influencing insect reproduction. Despite the importance of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as a pest of brassicaceous crops worldwide, the effects of temperature on its reproduction are not well understood. We evaluated the effect of constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 32.5°C on the reproduction of P. xylostella and developed an oviposition model for the species. The model combined temperature-dependent parameters of total fecundity, age-specific oviposition rate and age-specific survival. Additionally, we modelled population growth as a function of temperature. The estimated parameters allowed us to discuss the possible consequences of global warming on P. xylostella distribution. Temperature affected the length of pre-oviposition after adult emergence, oviposition period, longevity, total fecundity and egg viability. The model predicted that both daily egg production and length of oviposition period decreased at temperatures below 15°C and above 25°C. Population growth increased linearly with temperature in a range from 10°C to 25°C; however, the model predicted a reduction in population growth at temperatures above 28.6°C. Data suggested that temperature plays a critical role in P. xylostella reproduction, and subtle differences in average temperature could have an impact on its population growth. This is especially important in the context of global climate change, which in turn could alter the distribution and abundance of the pest in some regions of the world.

  4. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  5. Estimate of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae development with nonlinear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate which nonlinear model [Davidson (1942, 1944, Stinner et al. (1974, Sharpe & DeMichele (1977, and Lactin et al. (1995] best describes the relationship between developmental rates of the different instars and stages of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, and temperature. A. argillacea larvae were fed with cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum L., race latifolium Hutch., cultivar CNPA 7H at constant temperatures of 20, 23, 25, 28, 30, 33, and 35ºC; relative humidity of 60 ± 10%; and photoperiod of 14:10 L:D. Low R² values obtained with Davidson (0.0001 to 0.1179 and Stinner et al. (0.0099 to 0.8296 models indicated a poor fit of their data for A. argillacea. However, high R² values of Sharpe & DeMichele (0.9677 to 0.9997 and Lactin et al. (0.9684 to 0.9997 models indicated a better fit for estimating A. argillacea development.

  6. Lioptilodes friasi (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae) Niche Breadth in the Chilean Mediterranean Matorral Biome: Trophic and Altitudinal Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Rasmann, Sergio; Ramirez-Verdugo, Pamela; Villagra, Cristian A

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the factors driving the diet breadth of phytophagous insects remains one of the main questions in ecological research. In this study we explored the diet breadth and plant-insect associations in the plume moth Lioptilodes friasi Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae). This phytophagous insect was originally described in association with a single host species, Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae), a native shrub of the Chilean Mediterranean matorral. In order to address the breadth of host plant choice, we surveyed other Haplopappus species growing along the elevation gradient of central Chile from sea level to 2600 m. We were able to obtain L. friasi adults from five additional Haplopappus species: Haplopappus chrysantemifolius and Haplopappus decurrens from the coastal zone, Haplopappus multifolius and Haplopappus schumanii from the mid-elevation zone, and Haplopappus scrobiculatus at high elevation. Our results demonstrate that the genus-specialized endophagous herbivore L. friasi has a wider distribution and climatic tolerance than previously described. Its biogeographical range extends from the lowland coastal habitats up to the Andean subnival level. We propose that shared flower phenotypic traits such as morphology and chemical composition may have allowed the colonization of closely related Haplopappus species in central Chile, the expansion of which is limited by the harsh high elevation conditions.

  7. Vegetative insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis BLB459 and its efficiency against Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukedi, Hanen; Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Hadhri, Rania; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strain BLB459 supernatant showed a promising activity against Lepidopteran pests with extremely damages in the larvae midgut. Investigations of the genes that encode secreted toxin demonstrated that this strain harbored a vip3-type gene named vip3(459). Based on its original nucleotide and amino acid sequences, this gene was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified and tested against different insects and interestingly the novel toxin demonstrated a remarkable activity against the stored products pest Ephestia kuehniella and the polyphagous insects Spodoptera littoralis and Agrotis segetum. As demonstrated, the acute activity of Vip3(459) protein against A. segetum can be due to its original amino acids sequence and the putative receptors of this toxin in the larvae midgut. These results demonstrated that this Vip3 toxin showed a wide spectrum of activity against Lepidoptera and support its use as a biological control agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  9. Study on the Hymenoptera parasitoid associated with Lepidoptera larvae in reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste) São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,A. G.; Silva,R. B.; Dias,M. M.; Penteado-Dias,A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the local fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with Lepidoptera larvae in areas of reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP, Brazil). Lepidoptera larvae collected with entomological umbrella were kept in the laboratory until emergence of adults or their parasitoids. From those collected in the agrosilvopastoral system, emerged 267 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids belo...

  10. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Major Detoxification Gene Families and Insecticide Targets in Grapholita Molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Chai, Yanping; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Zhiguo; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ma, Ruiyan

    2017-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important pest of most stone and pome fruits and causes serious damage to the fruit industry worldwide. This insect pest has been primarily controlled through the application of insecticides; as a result, G. molesta has developed resistance to many different types of insecticides. To identify detoxification genes, we have, de novo, sequenced the transcriptome of G. molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and yielded 58,970 unigenes of which 26,985 unigenes matched to known proteins. In total, 2,040 simple sequence repeats have been identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set has permitted us to identify members of important gene families related to detoxification in G. molesta, including 77 unigenes of putative cytochrome P450s, 28 of glutathione S-transferases, 46 of Carboxylesterases, and 31 of insecticide targets. Orthologs of some of these unigenes have shown to play a pivotal role in insecticide resistance in other insect species and those unigenes likely have similar functions in G. molesta. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William R.; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks. PMID:25340822

  12. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia

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    Graciela DAPOTO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez a H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.

  13. Tarsal morphology and attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bitar, Loris; Voigt, Dagmar; Zebitz, Claus P W; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2009-11-01

    Despite several studies on the attachment ability of different insect taxa, little is known about this phenomenon in adult Lepidoptera. In this study we combined morphological and experimental analyses of tarsal adhesive devices and the attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces. Pretarsi of C. pomonella attach to smooth substrates by means of their smooth, flexible and well developed arolia. Using the centrifugal force measurement technique, friction forces of males and females were assessed on hydrophobic and hydrophilic glass surfaces. Adults of both sexes generated similar forces in spite of the noticeable difference in their body masses. That is why males showed significantly higher safety factors (attachment force divided by body weight) compared to those of females. Hydrophobicity of the substrate had no considerable effect on friction forces. For females, friction forces (sliding parallel to the substrate plane) were compared with adhesive forces (pulling off perpendicularly from the substrate plane) measured on Plexiglas surfaces. It can be concluded that the attachment system of C. pomonella is rather robust against physico-chemical properties of the substrate and is able to achieve a very good attachment on vertical and horizontal substrata.

  14. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

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    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  15. The economic value of releasing parasitoid for the control of maize stemborers in East and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kipkoech, Anderson Kipruto; Schulthess, Fritz; Yabann, Wilson K.; Maritim, Henry K.; Muchugu, Erick; Mithofer, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    The braconid larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cameron was introduced from Asia into East and Southern African region starting in 1993 to control the invasive exotic maize stemborer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). A quasi-experiment was constructed using farmers that applied sublethal dosages of pesticide in assessing the counterfactual for the impact of the establishment of the introduced parasitoid in five countries in the region. Logistic regression method was used to ...

  16. Effects of croton urucurana extracts and crude resin on Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Luciana Barboza Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of plant species have been studied in order to find out the active ingredient responsible for their insecticidal activity against the pests of economic importance. To verify the insecticidal activity in the husk of stem of Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae against Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, the methanolic (EMeOH extract, dichloromethane fraction (FDM, ethyl acetate fraction (FAE and crude resin, incorporated into an artificial diet were evaluated. EMeOH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% and crude resin (2.0% interfered with neither the weight nor the survival of fourth instar larvae and other analyzed parameters. FDM (2.0% fraction caused mortality of 65%, and the artificial diet containing 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5% FAE caused 100, 55 and 68% mortality respectively when compared with the control, confirming the least efficiency rates of food conversion for FDM(2.0% and FAE(1.0%. The tryptic analysis performed with the midgut fluid of fourth-instar larvae demonstrated that tryptic and chymiotryptic activities for the larvae fed artificial diet containing EMeOH and crude resin were not different.Atualmente centenas de plantas são investigadas para se conhecer os princípios ativos responsáveis pela atividade inseticida contra as diversas pragas de importância econômica. Com o objetivo de verificar a atividade inseticida das cascas do caule de Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae em relação a Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, avaliou-se o extrato metanólico (EMeOH, fração diclorometano (FDM, a fração acetato de etila (FAE e a resina in natura, os quais foram adicionados à dieta artificial. O EMeOH (0,5, 1,0 e 20,% e a resina in natura (2,0%, não interferiram no peso, sobrevivência das larvas de 4ª ínstar, bem como nos demais parâmetros analisados. A fração FDM (2,0% causou mortalidade de 65%, e a dieta artificial contendo 2,0, 1,0, e 0,5% de FAE causou 100, 55 e 68% de

  17. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory

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    Débora Goulart Montezano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001. However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002 and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 x 10(25 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.193, per week

  19. Susceptibility of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. Mortality was assessed after 96 h. Two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from Rutgers University and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern Illinois (Calhoun County) field population-were tested. We used probit and logit analyses to compare the responses of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus spp.) with those of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., diet. We also compared the responses of Calhoun colony neonates with those of Rutgers colony neonates (all from parents reared on apples). LC50s (ppm in diet) for Calhoun colony progeny of adults reared on apples were 0.08, 0.06, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively, for chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, acetamiprid, and spinosad. Parental food source (apples versus lima bean diet) did not consistently influence the concentration-mortality relationships for neonates. Based on LC50s and toxicity ratio tests, Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to spinetoram and acetamiprid than were Rutgers colony neonates. Similarly, LC90s and toxicity ratio tests indicated that Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole as well. However, toxicity ratios (Calhoun/Rutgers) were low in all instances, and the highest ratio was 1.73 at LC90 for chlorantraniliprole. Overall, the two colonies responded similarly to these insecticides. Results reported here provide baseline data for future monitoring of resistance development.

  20. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.