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Sample records for leopard cats prionailurus

  1. Scotopic electroretinography in fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

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    Sussadee, Metita; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Phavaphutanon, Janjira; Thayananuphat, Aree

    2017-05-01

    To establish baseline normal scotopic electroretinograpic (ERG) parameters for two wild cat species: fishing cats (FC) and leopard cats (LC). Twelve normal, FC and eight LC kept in the Chiang Mai Night Safari Zoo, Thailand. The mean ages of FC and LC were 7.08 and 5.00 years, respectively. All animals were studied using a standard scotopic protocol of a portable, handheld, multi-species electroretinography (HMsERG). There were significant differences in the means of ERG b-wave amplitude of the rod response (Rod, 0.01 cd.s/m 2 ), a- and b-wave amplitudes of standard light intensity of rod and cone response (Std R&C, 3 cd.s/m 2 ) and b-wave amplitude of high light intensity of rod and cone response (Hi-int R&C, 10 cd.s/m 2 ) with LC having higher amplitudes than FC. There was no significant difference in a- and b- wave implicit time except for the b-wave of Hi-int (P=0.03). No significant differences were observed in b/a amplitude ratios. Data from this report provides reference values for scotopic ERG measurements in these two wild cat species. It showed that the normal scotopic ERG responses have some differences between the two species which might be due to the skull conformation, eye size or physiology of the retina. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Variations in leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences

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    Fernando L. Sicuro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792, is one of the most widespread Asian cats, occurring in continental eastern and southeastern Asia. Since 1929, several studies have focused on the morphology, ecology, and taxonomy of leopard cats. Nevertheless, hitherto there has been no agreement on basic aspects of leopard cat biology, such as the presence or absence of sexual dimorphism, morphological skull and body differences between the eleven recognized subspecies, and the biogeography of the different morphotypes. Twenty measurements on 25 adult leopard cat skulls from different Asian localities were analyzed through univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Skull and external body measurements from studies over the last 77 years were assembled and organized in two categories: full data and summary data. Most of this database comprises small samples, which have never been statistically tested and compared with each other. Full data sets were tested with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses; summary data sets (i.e., means, SDs, and ranges were analyzed through suitable univariate approaches. The independent analyses of the data from these works confirmed our original results and improved the overview of sexual dimorphism and geographical morphological variation among subspecies. Continental leopard cats have larger skulls and body dimensions. Skulls of Indochinese morphotypes have broader and higher features than those of continental morphotypes, while individuals from the Sunda Islands have skulls with comparatively narrow and low profiles. Cranial sexual dimorphism is present in different degrees among subspecies. Most display subtle sex-related variations in a few skull features. However, in some cases, sexual dimorphism in skull morphology is absent, such as in P. b. sumatranus and P. b. borneoensis. External body measurement comparisons also indicate the low degree of sexual dimorphism. Apart from the gonads

  3. Survival of a native mammalian carnivore, the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis Kerr, 1792 (Carnivora: Felidae, in an agricultural landscape on an oceanic Philippine island

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    M.R.P. Lorica

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about vulnerability of mammalian carnivores to extinction, especially on small islands, appear to conflict with prior reports of endemic populations of leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792 surviving in agricultural landscapes on oceanic islands. We investigated the persistence of the Visayan leopard cat (P. b. rabori in the sugarcane fields on Negros, an oceanic island in central Philippines. A population remained throughout the year at our study site on a sugarcane farm, and reproduction was noted. Non-native rodents form the bulk of the cat diet, followed by reptiles, birds, amphibians, and insects. Prey species identified from the samples commonly occur in agricultural areas in the Philippines. Prey composition did not vary significantly with respect to wet and dry season, or sugarcane harvest cycle. This study provides evidence that an intensively managed agricultural landscape on this oceanic island supports a native obligate carnivore that subsists primarily on exotic rats. This study supports a prior prediction that leopard cats will show flexibility in prey selection on islands with few or no native small mammal prey species, but in this case they do so not by switching to other vertebrates and invertebrates, but rather to exotic pest species of rodents.

  4. Low genetic variation in the MHC class II DRB gene and MHC-linked microsatellites in endangered island populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Japan.

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    Saka, Toshinori; Nishita, Yoshinori; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2018-02-01

    Isolated populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) on Tsushima and Iriomote islands in Japan are classified as subspecies P. b. euptilurus and P. b. iriomotensis, respectively. Because both populations have decreased to roughly 100, an understanding of their genetic diversity is essential for conservation. We genotyped MHC class II DRB exon 2 and MHC-linked microsatellite loci to evaluate the diversity of MHC genes in the Tsushima and Iriomote cat populations. We detected ten and four DRB alleles in these populations, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed DRB alleles from both populations to be closely related to those in other felid DRB lineages, indicating trans-species polymorphism. The MHC-linked microsatellites were more polymorphic in the Tsushima than in the Iriomote population. The MHC diversity of both leopard cat populations is much lower than in the domestic cat populations on these islands, probably due to inbreeding associated with founder effects, geographical isolation, or genetic drift. Our results predict low resistance of the two endangered populations to new pathogens introduced to the islands.

  5. Transitional cell carcinomas in four fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus).

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    Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Harvey, Catherine; Campbell, Mark; McAloose, Denise; Rideout, Bruce; Morris, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the urinary bladder were diagnosed in four related fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus). The major clinical sign in each case was persistent hematuria unresponsive to medical therapy. Cystotomy and biopsy provided an antemortem diagnosis in three of the fishing cats before euthanasia because of progression of clinical signs. The diagnosis was made in the fourth cat after euthanasia because of renal failure. Hematuria improved temporarily in one of the cats diagnosed antemortem and treated with piroxicam and carboplatin. Attempts to isolate a herpesvirus in two of the cats failed. Histopathologic appearance of the TCC was similar to that described for other species. TCC metastasis to the lungs was noted at necropsy in one cat; metastatic disease was not noted in the other fishing cats on gross or histopathologic examination. TCC of the urinary bladder appears to be more prevalent in fishing cats than in other species of domestic or nondomestic felids.

  6. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

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    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Hematologic, cytochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular findings of Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps).

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    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Narkkong, Nual-Anong; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Pattanarangsan, Rattapan

    2008-03-01

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia and is considered extremely endangered. Little is known about the hematologic values, blood cell morphology, or hemoparasites of this species in relation to other Felidae. The objective of this study was to report basic hematologic values and describe the light microscopic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in 2 wild-caught flat-headed cats. In addition, molecular analysis was done of a Hepatozoon organism found in the neutrophils of both cats. Blood samples were collected into EDTA from the cephalic vein. A CBC, manual differential count, manual reticulocyte count, cytochemical stains (Sudan black B [SBB], alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], and beta-glucuronidase), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were done using standard methods. HCT was slightly lower and reticulocyte counts and red cell distribution width were higher than the expected values for other species of cats. Hepatozoon organisms were found in the cytoplasm of neutrophils in both cats, but the number of infected neutrophils was very low (1%-2%). Neutrophils stained strongly positive for SBB, but were negative for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. Hepatozoon-infected neutrophils were negative for SBB, but focally positive for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. By transmission electron microscopy, gamonts of Hepatozoon sp were observed in neutrophils, and rarely free in plasma. Infected neutrophils had fewer specific granules and more mitochondria compared with noninfected neutrophils. PCR products of partial 18S rRNA revealed that the isolate of Hepatozoon in the flat-headed cats was closely related to that of the frog Hepatozoon sp. These results add to our understanding of hematologic values and blood cell morphology in Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats as well as the molecular analysis of the Hepatozoon organism, and may be useful for the health management and evaluation of

  8. Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite excretion in captive female fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus) in Thailand.

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    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on the endocrinology of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus), an endangered species in Southeast Asia, especially that pertaining to adrenal function. This study characterized faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female fishing cats housed at Chiang Mai Night Safari to investigate seasonal and age relationships in hormone patterns. Faecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from seven females ranging in age from 4.5 to 9.6 years. A corticosterone enzyme immunoassay was validated for fishing cats by showing increases (∼60%) in faecal glucocorticoid immunoactivity above pre-treatment baseline levels within 1-2 days after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone injection. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were not related to age (P > 0.05), but there was a seasonal effect, with concentrations being higher (P fishing cats, and we found that glucocorticoid metabolite production was influenced by seasonal factors, but not by age. We conclude that weather patterns should be taken into consideration in future studies of glucocorticoid activity in this endangered species, especially those studies aimed at improving captive management to create self-sustaining and healthy populations.

  9. Epidemiologic survey of feline leukemia virus in domestic cats on Tsushima Island, Japan: management strategy for Tsushima leopard cats.

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    Makundi, Isaac; Koshida, Yushi; Kuse, Kyohei; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Watanabe, Shinya; Kawamura, Maki; Odahara, Yuka; Miyake, Ariko; Yamamoto, Hanae; Kuniyoshi, Sawako; Onuma, Manabu; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2017-11-01

    The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC) Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, a subspecies of P. bengalensis, is designated a National Natural Monument of Japan, and lives only on Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. TLCs are threatened by various infectious diseases. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. Therefore, the transmission of FeLV from Tsushima domestic cats (TDCs) to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. We investigated the FeLV infection status of both TDCs and TLCs on Tsushima Island by screening blood samples for FeLV p27 antigen and using PCR to amplify the full-length FeLV env gene. The prevalence of FeLV was 6.4% in TDCs and 0% in TLCs. We also demonstrated that the virus can replicate in the cells of TLCs, suggesting its potential cross-species transmission. The viruses in TDCs were classified as genotype I/clade 3, which is prevalent on a nearby island, based on previous studies of FeLV genotypes and FeLV epidemiology. The FeLV viruses identified on Tsushima Island can be further divided into 2 lineages within genotype I/clade 3, which are geographically separated in Kamijima and Shimojima, indicating that FeLV may have been transmitted to Tsushima Island at least twice. Monitoring FeLV infection in the TDC and TLC populations is highly recommended as part of the TLC surveillance and management strategy.

  10. Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite excretion in captive female fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus) in Thailand

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    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on the endocrinology of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverinus), an endangered species in Southeast Asia, especially that pertaining to adrenal function. This study characterized faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female fishing cats housed at Chiang Mai Night Safari to investigate seasonal and age relationships in hormone patterns. Faecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from seven females ranging in age from 4.5 to 9.6 years. A corticosterone enzyme immunoassay was validated for fishing cats by showing increases (∼60%) in faecal glucocorticoid immunoactivity above pre-treatment baseline levels within 1–2 days after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone injection. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were not related to age (P > 0.05), but there was a seasonal effect, with concentrations being higher (P < 0.05) during the winter (1.54 ± 0.04 µg/g) and rainy season (1.43 ± 0.04 µg/g) compared with the summer (1.22 ± 0.05 µg/g). Significant relationships were found between faecal glucocorticoids and rainfall (positive) and day length (negative), but not a temperature–humidity index. This is the first study to assess adrenal steroidogenic activity in female fishing cats, and we found that glucocorticoid metabolite production was influenced by seasonal factors, but not by age. We conclude that weather patterns should be taken into consideration in future studies of glucocorticoid activity in this endangered species, especially those studies aimed at improving captive management to create self-sustaining and healthy populations. PMID:27293767

  11. Reproductive gonadal steroidogenic activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) assessed by fecal steroid analyses.

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    Santymire, Rachel M; Brown, Janine L; Stewart, Rosemary A; Santymire, Robb C; Wildt, David E; Howard, JoGayle

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive fecal steroid analyses were used to characterize gonadal activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus). Estrogen, progestagen and androgen metabolites were quantified in fecal samples collected for 12 months from four males and 10 females housed at seven North American zoological institutions. Male reproductive hormone concentrations did not vary (P>0.05) among season, and estrogen cycles were observed year-round in females and averaged (±SEM) 19.9±1.0 days. Mean peak estrogen concentration during estrus (460.0±72.6ng/g feces) was five-fold higher than baseline (87.3±14.0ng/g feces). Five of seven females (71.4%) housed alone or with another female demonstrated spontaneous luteal activity (apparent ovulation without copulation), with mean progestagen concentration (20.3±4.7μg/g feces), increasing nearly five-fold above baseline (4.1±0.8μg/g feces). The non-pregnant luteal phase averaged 32.9±2.5 days (n=13). One female delivered kittens 70 days after natural mating with fecal progestagen concentrations averaging 51.2±5.2μg/g feces. Two additional females were administered exogenous gonadotropins (150IU eCG; 100IU hCG), which caused hyper-elevated concentrations of fecal estrogen and progestagen (plus ovulation). Results indicate that: (1) male and female fishing cats managed in North American zoos are reproductively active year round; (2) 71.4% of females experienced spontaneous ovulation; and (3) females are responsive to exogenous gonadotropins for ovulation induction, but a regimen that produces a normative ovarian steroidogenic response needs to be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two new nematodes from the Iriomote cat, Prionailurus iriomotensis, from Okinawa: Uncinaria (Uncinaria) maya n. sp. (Ancylostomatoidea) and Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus n. subsp. (Trichostrongyloidea).

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    Hasegawa, H

    1989-12-01

    Uncinaria (Uncinaria) maya n. sp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) and Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus n. subsp. (Nematoda: Molineidae) are described from the Iriomote cat, Prionailurus iriomotensis, on Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Uncinaria (U.) maya resembles Uncinaria (Uncinaria) felidis Maplestone, 1939, from Prionailurus bengalensis of India but is distinguished in that the body is much smaller, the ventral rays are set closely with the lateral rays, and the externolateral ray is much shorter than other laterals. Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus differs from Molineus springsmithi springsmithi Inglis and Ogden, 1965, from Prionailurus bengalensis horsfieldi of East Nepal in that the body is much longer, whereas the esophagus is somewhat shorter and the spicules are divided more distally. Presence of the closely related nematodes in both the Iriomote cat and P. bengalensis suggests a close evolutionary relationship of the 2 hosts.

  13. Survey of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae) and some aspects impacting its conservation in India

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    S. Mukherjee; T. Adhya; P. Thatte; U. Ramakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is a medium sized cat that is widely but patchily distributed across Asia and strongly associated with wetlands. It is among the 15 felid species that inhabit India and like other smaller cat species it is very poorly understood. Apart from a few recent surveys in specific locations, no concerted effort has been made to assess its current distribution and threats to its persistence within India. In this study we collected scats from natural habitats,...

  14. On the occurrence of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennet, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae in coastal Kerala, India

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    R. Janardhanan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List and yet its distribution range within India is not resolved. In spite of its potential habitat being present in coastal Kerala, there are only a few, unsubstantiated records of the cat. Moreover, its occurrence in Sri Lanka strengthens the possibility of its presence (historical or current population in southern India, including Kerala. This survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of the Fishing Cat in coastal Kerala through personal informal interviews with local people and molecular analysis of scats. The study failed to find any evidence of the occurrence of Fishing Cat in the coastal areas of Kerala. We discuss two possibilities - one, of the species existing earlier but driven to extinction in recent decades, due to high levels of land conversion through anthropogenic activities in these areas and the other of the Fishing Cat having never occurred in coastal Kerala. A speculative reasoning for its absence from the region could be related to the difference in salinity levels between the eastern and western coasts of India which has already been documented. Moreover, fewer freshwater sources merge into the sea in coastal areas of Kerala as compared to the eastern coast of India. This could limit the distribution of the Fishing Cat. The argument was also supported by the lack of any authentic report till date or of local names for the Fishing Cat in the region.

  15. On the occurrence of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennet, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae) in coastal Kerala, India

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    R. Janardhanan; S. Mukherjee; P.V. Karunakaran; R. Athreya

    2014-01-01

    The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List and yet its distribution range within India is not resolved. In spite of its potential habitat being present in coastal Kerala, there are only a few, unsubstantiated records of the cat. Moreover, its occurrence in Sri Lanka strengthens the possibility of its presence (historical or current population) in southern India, including Kerala. This survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of the Fishing Ca...

  16. Survey of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae and some aspects impacting its conservation in India

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    S. Mukherjee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is a medium sized cat that is widely but patchily distributed across Asia and strongly associated with wetlands. It is among the 15 felid species that inhabit India and like other smaller cat species it is very poorly understood. Apart from a few recent surveys in specific locations, no concerted effort has been made to assess its current distribution and threats to its persistence within India. In this study we collected scats from natural habitats, through six states including five protected areas throughout India and performed informal interviews with locals to get a better overview of the current distribution and threats for Fishing Cats in India. Of the 114 scats used for molecular analysis, 37% were assigned to felids, including 19 Fishing Cats. We confirmed that Fishing Cat populations persisted in all locations where they were recorded before, including Keoladeo Ghana, from where it was reported in recent years that fishing cats are possibly extinct. Most populations face imminent threats with the worst being in the Howrah District of West Bengal where 27 dead individuals were traced during the study period of only one year. The major threats across populations include ecologically unbalanced land policies and land uses, direct persecution due to human-Fishing Cat conflicts as well as ritual hunts. To address these threats we recommend a stronger dialogue among scientists, policy makers, administrators, locals and other stake holders such as commercial fish and prawn cultivators. Further awareness campaigns for stakeholders, and surveys for monitoring fishing cat populations, studying their ecology and estimating economic losses to local people due to the Fishing Cat predation on livestock and poultry, is needed in order to design effective conservation strategies.

  17. Transitional cell carcinoma in fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus): pathology and expression of cyclooxygenase-1, -2, and p53.

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    Landolfi, J A; Terio, K A

    2006-09-01

    A high prevalence of urinary bladder transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC) has been noted in captive fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus). Of the 91 adult deaths between 1995 and 2004, 12 (13%) were attributed to TCC. To help elucidate mechanisms of carcinogenesis, archival sections of urinary bladder from 14 fishing cats were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for p53, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, and COX-2 expression. Ten cats had TCC, and 4 were unaffected. The average age at death was 10.8 years in affected individuals and 10.5 years in unaffected individuals. There was no sex predilection. Fishing cat TCCs were characterized histologically as papillary and infiltrating (n = 6), nonpapillary and infiltrating (n = 3), or carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Glandular and squamous metaplasia, necrosis, and lymphatic invasion were prominent histologic features. Two individuals had documented metastasis. p53 nuclear immunolabeling was detected in 4/10 (40%) TCCs. In two cases, immunolabeling was limited to less than 10% of the neoplastic cellular population and was comparable to staining of normal fishing cat bladder. Therefore, p53 gene mutation did not appear to be an essential component of TCC carcinogenesis in examined fishing cats. COX-1 immunohistochemistry was negative in all cases. All TCCs had some degree of COX-2 cytoplasmic immunolabeling, which was exclusively within the invasive portions of the neoplasms. Papillary portions were uniformly negative. COX-2 overexpression was a prominent feature in the majority of the examined fishing cat TCCs, suggesting that COX-2-mediated mechanisms of carcinogenesis are important in this species and that COX-inhibiting drugs may be of therapeutic benefit.

  18. The conservation status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae In Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal

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    Iain Rothie Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal was assessed by camera trapping and pugmark searches from 2011 to 2014.  The reserve is a highly dynamic and unstable snow-fed braided river system with many anabranches and islands.  Evidence of Fishing Cats was found throughout most of the reserve.  They were probably more abundant on the eastern side, among the islands of the main river channel, and in the adjacent buffer zone where there was a chain of fishponds and marsh areas fed by seepage from the main river channel.  Evidence of Fishing Cats was found up to 6km north of the reserve on the Koshi River but not beyond this.  The population is probably small and may be isolated but given the endangered status of the species, is significant.  The main likely threats identified are wetland and riparian habitat deterioration caused by over exploitation and illegal grazing by villagers, overfishing of wetlands and rivers within the reserve, and direct persecution arising from perceived conflicts with fish farming and poultry husbandry.  Required conservation actions are discussed. 

  19. Neurofibrillary tangles and the deposition of a beta amyloid peptide with a novel N-terminal epitope in the brains of wild Tsushima leopard cats.

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    James K Chambers

    Full Text Available Beta amyloid (Aβ deposits are seen in aged individuals in many of the mammalian species that possess the same Aβ amino acid sequence as humans. Conversely, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT, the other hallmark lesion of Alzheimer's disease (AD, are extremely rare in these animals. We detected Aβ deposits in the brains of Tsushima leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus that live exclusively on Tsushima Island, Japan. Aβ42 was deposited in a granular pattern in the neuropil of the pyramidal cell layer, but did not form argyrophilic senile plaques. These Aβ deposits were not immunolabeled with antibodies to the N-terminal of human Aβ. Sequence analysis of the amyloid precursor protein revealed an amino acid substitution at the 7th residue of the Aβ peptide. In a comparison with other mammalian animals that do develop argyrophilic senile plaques, we concluded that the alternative Aβ amino acid sequence displayed by leopard cats is likely to be related to its distinctive deposition pattern. Interestingly, most of the animals with these Aβ deposits also developed NFTs. The distributions of hyperphosphorylated tau-positive cells and the two major isoforms of aggregated tau proteins were quite similar to those seen in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the unphosphorylated form of GSK-3β colocalized with hyperphosphorylated tau within the affected neurons. In conclusion, this animal species develops AD-type NFTs without argyrophilic senile plaques.

  20. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

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    Wilting, Andreas; Cord, Anna; Hearn, Andrew J; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J W; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-03-17

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key

  1. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  2. Occurrence of Gnathostoma spinigerum in a leopard cat from Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, Dibya Ranjan; Johns, Joju; Gopi, Jyothimol; Chandy, George; Narayanan, Priya Manakkulamparambil; Kalarikkal, Deepa Chundayil; Ravindran, Reghu

    2016-06-01

    The post-mortem examination of a leopard cat from Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, died in a road accident, revealed presence of gastric tumours containing worms which were identified as Gnathostoma spinigerum based on morphological characteristics.

  3. Evaluation of cheetah and leopard spermatozoa developmental capability after interspecific ICSI with domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Sestelo, A J; Salamone, D F

    2014-08-01

    The ICSI procedure is potentially of great value for felids, and it has not been extensively studied in these species. The objectives of this work were to determine the best conditions for ICSI in the domestic cat (DC) to generate interspecific embryos by injecting cheetah (Ch) and leopard (Leo) spermatozoa. Firstly, DC oocytes were matured with insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) or without it (MM) and cultured using atmospheric (21%) or low (5%) oxygen tension after ICSI. The group ITS-5%O2 showed the highest blastocyst rate (p cheetah and leopard spermatozoa were able to generate blastocysts without artificial activation, which suggests that developmental capacity of wild felid spermatozoa can be evaluated by interspecific ICSI. This technique should be used to assist wild felid reproduction. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Assessment of basic seminal characteristics, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous in vitro fertilisation in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtum, Khongsak; Swanson, William F; Howard, JoGayle; Tunwattana, Wanchai; Tongthainan, Dakara; Wichasilpa, Wisid; Patumrattanathan, Pornchai; Pinyopoommintr, Tanu

    2006-01-01

    Conservation of the fishing cat, a threatened south-east Asian felid, could benefit from effective ex situ genetic management and breeding programmes, including the use of assisted reproduction. The aims of the present study were to: (1) characterise basal seminal traits of fishing cats in Thailand zoos; and (2) investigate the effect of cryopreservation on sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and in vitro function. Seminal traits were evaluated in electroejaculates collected from eight males. Spermatozoa were diluted in n-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid Tris (TEST)-yolk buffer (TYB) without glycerol, then diluted further with TYB with glycerol (4% final concentration) at either 25 degrees C or after slow cooling to 5 degrees C and frozen in straws over liquid nitrogen vapour. After thawing, sperm function was assessed by insemination of viable domestic cat oocytes. Fishing cat ejaculates averaged (+/- s.e.m.) 43.6 +/- 14.2 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa with 33.5 +/- 6.8% normal sperm morphology. Semen processing had a negligible effect (P > 0.05) on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity, but values were reduced (P cat oocytes, with 62.1% (36/58) of mature oocytes cleaving. Glycerol addition at 5 degrees C resulted in higher (P fishing cats and their spermatozoa exhibit adequate function after cryopreservation for in vitro fertilisation procedures.

  5. How the leopard hides its spots: ASIP mutations and melanism in wild cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    Full Text Available The occurrence of melanism (darkening of the background coloration is documented in 13 felid species, in some cases reaching high frequencies at the population level. Recent analyses have indicated that it arose multiple times in the Felidae, with three different species exhibiting unique mutations associated with this trait. The causative mutations in the remaining species have so far not been identified, precluding a broader assessment of the evolutionary dynamics of melanism in the Felidae. Among these, the leopard (Panthera pardus is a particularly important target for research, given the iconic status of the 'black panther' and the extremely high frequency of melanism observed in some Asian populations. Another felid species from the same region, the Asian golden cat (Pardofelis temminckii, also exhibits frequent records of melanism in some areas. We have sequenced the coding region of the Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP gene in multiple leopard and Asian golden cat individuals, and identified distinct mutations strongly associated with melanism in each of them. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detected among the P. pardus individuals was caused by a nonsense mutation predicted to completely ablate ASIP function. A different SNP was identified in P. temminckii, causing a predicted amino acid change that should also induce loss of function. Our results reveal two additional cases of species-specific mutations implicated in melanism in the Felidae, and indicate that ASIP mutations may play an important role in naturally-occurring coloration polymorphism.

  6. Personality structure in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus), Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris grampia), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and African lion (Panthera leo): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Although the study of nonhuman personality has increased in the last decade, there are still few studies on felid species, and the majority focus on domestic cats. We assessed the structure of personality and its reliability in five felids-domestic cats, clouded leopards, snow leopards, African lions, and previous data on Scottish wildcats-and compared the results. In addition to the benefits of understanding more about this taxon, comparative studies of personality structure have the potential to provide information on evolutionary relationships among closely related species. Each of the species studied was found to have three factors of personality. Scottish wildcats' factors were labeled Dominance, Agreeableness, and Self Control; domestic cats' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism; clouded leopards' factors were Dominance/Impulsiveness, Agreeableness/Openness, and Neuroticism; snow leopards' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness/Openness, and Neuroticism; and African lions' factors were Dominance, Impulsiveness, and Neuroticism. The Neuroticism and Impulsiveness factors were similar, as were two of the Dominance factors. A taxon-level personality structure also showed three similar factors. Age and sex effects are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Perspectives provided by leopard and other cat genomes: how diet determined the evolutionary history of carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Bhak, Jong; O’Brian, Stephen J.; Yeo, Joo-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled humans to generate and investigate the genomes of wild species. This includes the big cat family, such as tigers, lions, and leopards. Adding the first high quality leopard genome, we have performed an in-depth comparative analysis to identify the genomic signatures in the evolution of felid to become the top predators on land. Our study focused on how the carnivore genomes, as compared to the omnivore or herbivore genomes, shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with nutrient metabolism, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for hunting and meat digestion. We found genetic evidence that genomes represent what animals eat through modifying genes. Highly conserved genetically relevant regions were discovered in genomes at the family level. Also, the Felidae family genomes exhibited low levels of genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes, presumably because of their strict diet, suggesting their vulnerability and critical conservation status. Our findings can be used for human health enhancement, since we share the same genes as cats with some variation. This is an example how wildlife genomes can be a critical resource for human evolution, providing key genetic marker information for disease treatment. PMID:28042784

  8. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts.

  9. Snow Leopard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adult females (dimorphic); a male on average weighing between. 45–55 kg, while a .... performance of wild prey, eventually leading to a decline in their population. Research .... working towards enhancing knowledge on snow leopard ecology.

  10. An adaptable but threatened big cat: density, diet and prey selection of the Indochinese leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) in eastern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostro-García, Susana; Kamler, Jan F; Crouthers, Rachel; Sopheak, Keo; Prum, Sovanna; In, Visattha; Pin, Chanratana; Caragiulo, Anthony; Macdonald, David W

    2018-02-01

    We studied the Indochinese leopard ( Panthera pardus delacouri ) in eastern Cambodia, in one of the few potentially remaining viable populations in Southeast Asia. The aims were to determine the: (i) current leopard density in Srepok Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS) and (ii) diet, prey selection and predation impact of leopard in SWS. The density, estimated using spatially explicit capture-recapture models, was 1.0 leopard/100 km 2 , 72% lower than an estimate from 2009 at the same site, and one of the lowest densities ever reported in Asia. Dietary analysis of 73 DNA confirmed scats showed leopard consumed 13 prey species, although ungulates comprised 87% of the biomass consumed (BC). The overall main prey (42% BC) was banteng ( Bos javanicus ), making this the only known leopard population whose main prey had adult weight greater than 500 kg. Consumption of wild pig ( Sus scrofa ) was also one of the highest ever reported (22% BC), indicating leopard consistently predated on ungulates with some of the largest adult weights in SWS. There were important differences in diet and prey selection between sexes, as males consumed mostly banteng (62% BC) in proportion to availability, but few muntjac ( Muntiacus vaginalis ; 7% BC), whereas females selectively consumed muntjac (56% BC) and avoided banteng (less than 1% BC). Predation impact was low (0.5-3.2% of populations) for the three ungulate species consumed. We conclude that the Indochinese leopard is an important apex predator in SWS, but this unique population is declining at an alarming rate and will soon be eradicated unless effective protection is provided.

  11. Molecular Evidence for Species-Level Distinctions in Clouded Leopards

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley-Beason, Valerie A.; Johnson, Warren E.; Nash, Willliam G.; Stanyon, Roscoe; Menninger, Joan C.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Howard, JoGayle; Bush, Mitch; Page, John E.; Roelke, Melody E.; Stone, Gary; Martelli, Paolo P.; Wen, Ci; Ling, Lin; Duraisingam, Ratna K.

    2006-01-01

    Among the 37 living species of Felidae, the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the Panthera lineage of great cats [1–5]. This secretive, mid-sized (16–23 kg) carnivore, now severely endangered, is traditionally subdivided into four southeast Asian subspecies (Figure 1A) [4–8]. We used molecular genetic methods to re-evaluate subspecies partitions and to quantify patterns of population genetic variation among 109 clouded leopards of known ...

  12. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... pets CDC Podcasts Zoonoses in the Bedroom CDC People Can Catch Diseases from Their Pets CDC Helpful books and references Cat-associated outbreaks ...

  13. LEOPARD-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Risby, Kirsten; Bygum, Anette

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 12-year-old boy with a typical phenotype of the LEOPARD syndrome (LS). The diagnosis was confirmed in the boy and his mother, who both had a mutation in the PTPN11 gene at Thr468Met (c.1403C > T). Several other members of the maternal family are suspected also to have the LEOPARD sy...... syndrome. We discuss the clinical characteristics of LS, the need for follow-up and genetic counselling, and the molecular-genetic background as well as the relationship to the allelic disease Noonan syndrome. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-26......We describe a 12-year-old boy with a typical phenotype of the LEOPARD syndrome (LS). The diagnosis was confirmed in the boy and his mother, who both had a mutation in the PTPN11 gene at Thr468Met (c.1403C > T). Several other members of the maternal family are suspected also to have the LEOPARD...

  14. Molecular evidence for species-level distinctions in clouded leopards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Johnson, Warren E; Nash, Willliam G; Stanyon, Roscoe; Menninger, Joan C; Driscoll, Carlos A; Howard, JoGayle; Bush, Mitch; Page, John E; Roelke, Melody E; Stone, Gary; Martelli, Paolo P; Wen, Ci; Ling, Lin; Duraisingam, Ratna K; Lam, Phan V; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2006-12-05

    Among the 37 living species of Felidae, the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the Panthera lineage of great cats. This secretive, mid-sized (16-23 kg) carnivore, now severely endangered, is traditionally subdivided into four southeast Asian subspecies (Figure 1A). We used molecular genetic methods to re-evaluate subspecies partitions and to quantify patterns of population genetic variation among 109 clouded leopards of known geographic origin (Figure 1A, Tables S1 ans S2 in the Supplemental Data available online). We found strong phylogeographic monophyly and large genetic distances between N. n. nebulosa (mainland) and N. n. diardi (Borneo; n = 3 individuals) with mtDNA (771 bp), nuclear DNA (3100 bp), and 51 microsatellite loci. Thirty-six fixed mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide differences and 20 microsatellite loci with nonoverlapping allele-size ranges distinguished N. n. nebulosa from N. n. diardi. Along with fixed subspecies-specific chromosomal differences, this degree of differentiation is equivalent to, or greater than, comparable measures among five recognized Panthera species (lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, and snow leopard). These distinctions increase the urgency of clouded leopard conservation efforts, and if affirmed by morphological analysis and wider sampling of N. n. diardi in Borneo and Sumatra, would support reclassification of N. n. diardi as a new species (Neofelis diardi).

  15. Take control of customizing Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Neuburg, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Come up to speed quickly on Leopard's new features! So, what's new in Leopard? What's all the fuss about? This book shows you, through a hands-on guided tour of the adjustments, tweaks, and customizations you can make in the System and the Finder. Apple boasts of 300 new features in Leopard, but to make the most of those features, turn to Matt Neuburg for a road map on how to customize Leopard so it's right for you. Matt shows you how to protect your data with Time Machine, including instructions for searching through previous files with Spotlight. You'll also learn how to peek at files with

  16. Interspecies Transmission of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from the Domestic Cat to the Tsushima Cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Yuko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Hamachi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirotoshi; Koga, Susumu; Komori, Mitsuru; Fushuku, Seigo; Ushinohama, Kanji; Akuzawa, Masao; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild. PMID:10438892

  17. A panel of microsatellites to individually identify leopards and its application to leopard monitoring in human dominated landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Velu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leopards are the most widely distributed of the large cats, ranging from Africa to the Russian Far East. Because of habitat fragmentation, high human population densities and the inherent adaptability of this species, they now occupy landscapes close to human settlements. As a result, they are the most common species involved in human wildlife conflict in India, necessitating their monitoring. However, their elusive nature makes such monitoring difficult. Recent advances in DNA methods along with non-invasive sampling techniques can be used to monitor populations and individuals across large landscapes including human dominated ones. In this paper, we describe a DNA-based method for leopard individual identification where we used fecal DNA samples to obtain genetic material. Further, we apply our methods to non-invasive samples collected in a human-dominated landscape to estimate the minimum number of leopards in this human-leopard conflict area in Western India. Results In this study, 25 of the 29 tested cross-specific microsatellite markers showed positive amplification in 37 wild-caught leopards. These loci revealed varied levels of polymorphism (four-12 alleles and heterozygosity (0.05-0.79. Combining data on amplification success (including non-invasive samples and locus specific polymorphisms, we showed that eight loci provide a sibling probability of identity of 0.0005, suggesting that this panel can be used to discriminate individuals in the wild. When this microsatellite panel was applied to fecal samples collected from a human-dominated landscape, we identified 7 individuals, with a sibling probability of identity of 0.001. Amplification success of field collected scats was up to 72%, and genotype error ranged from 0-7.4%. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the selected panel of eight microsatellite loci can conclusively identify leopards from various kinds of biological samples. Our methods can be used to

  18. The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-Ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-Uk; Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Turner, Jason A; Marker, Laurie; Harper, Cindy; Miller, Susan M; Jacobs, Wilhelm; Bertola, Laura D; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sunghoon; Zhou, Qian; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Xu, Xiao; Gadhvi, Priyvrat; Xu, Pengwei; Xiong, Yingqi; Luo, Yadan; Pan, Shengkai; Gou, Caiyun; Chu, Xiuhui; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Sanyang; He, Jing; Chen, Ying; Yang, Linfeng; Yang, Yulan; He, Jiaju; Liu, Sha; Wang, Junyi; Kim, Chul Hong; Kwak, Hwanjong; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hwang, Seungwoo; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Chang-Bae; Kim, Sangtae; Bayarlkhagva, Damdin; Paek, Woon Kee; Kim, Seong-Jin; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong

    2013-01-01

    Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world's most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats' hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species.

  19. Prey preference of snow leopard (Panthera uncia in South Gobi, Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Shehzad

    Full Text Available Accurate information about the diet of large carnivores that are elusive and inhabit inaccessible terrain, is required to properly design conservation strategies. Predation on livestock and retaliatory killing of predators have become serious issues throughout the range of the snow leopard. Several feeding ecology studies of snow leopards have been conducted using classical approaches. These techniques have inherent limitations in their ability to properly identify both snow leopard feces and prey taxa. To examine the frequency of livestock prey and nearly-threatened argali in the diet of the snow leopard, we employed the recently developed DNA-based diet approach to study a snow leopard population located in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. After DNA was extracted from the feces, a region of ∼100 bp long from mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified, making use of universal primers for vertebrates and a blocking oligonucleotide specific to snow leopard DNA. The amplicons were then sequenced using a next-generation sequencing platform. We observed a total of five different prey items from 81 fecal samples. Siberian ibex predominated the diet (in 70.4% of the feces, followed by domestic goat (17.3% and argali sheep (8.6%. The major part of the diet was comprised of large ungulates (in 98.8% of the feces including wild ungulates (79% and domestic livestock (19.7%. The findings of the present study will help to understand the feeding ecology of the snow leopard, as well as to address the conservation and management issues pertaining to this wild cat.

  20. The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-Ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-uk; Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E.; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Turner, Jason A.; Marker, Laurie; Harper, Cindy; Miller, Susan M.; Jacobs, Wilhelm; Bertola, Laura D.; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sunghoon; Zhou, Qian; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Xu, Xiao; Gadhvi, Priyvrat; Xu, Pengwei; Xiong, Yingqi; Luo, Yadan; Pan, Shengkai; Gou, Caiyun; Chu, Xiuhui; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Sanyang; He, Jing; Chen, Ying; Yang, Linfeng; Yang, Yulan; He, Jiaju; Liu, Sha; Wang, Junyi; Kim, Chul Hong; Kwak, Hwanjong; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hwang, Seungwoo; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Chang-Bae; Kim, Sangtae; Bayarlkhagva, Damdin; Paek, Woon Kee; Kim, Seong-Jin; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong

    2013-01-01

    Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world’s most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats’ hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species. PMID:24045858

  1. First report of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Mr; Hoseini, Sh; Hoseini, Sm; Zaheri, Ba; Tabari, M Abouhosseini

    2010-03-01

    Ancylostoma tubaeforme was originally described as a separate species parasitizing the cat. The adults of A. tubaeforme are 7 to 12 mm long. A. tubaeforme can be differentiated from the adults of A. braziliense and A. ceylanicum by the presence of three teeth. Here we describe the first report of A. tubaeforme in a Persian young female leopard, 2-3 years old, with head and trunk length 120 centimeters, length of tail 98 centimeters and body weight 35 kilograms.

  2. First report of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor)

    OpenAIRE

    Youssefi, MR; Hoseini, SH; Hoseini, SM; Zaheri, BA; Tabari, M Abouhosseini

    2010-01-01

    Ancylostoma tubaeforme was originally described as a separate species parasitizing the cat. The adults of A. tubaeforme are 7 to 12 mm long. A. tubaeforme can be differentiated from the adults of A. braziliense and A. ceylanicum by the presence of three teeth. Here we describe the first re­port of A. tubaeforme in a Persian young female leopard, 2-3 years old, with head and trunk length 120 centimeters, length of tail 98 centimeters and body weight 35 kilograms.

  3. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations. Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population. Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  4. Mac OS X Snow Leopard pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Seiblod, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're new to the Mac or a longtime user, this handy book is the quickest way to get up to speed on Snow Leopard. Packed with concise information in an easy-to-read format, Mac OS X Snow Leopard Pocket Guide covers what you need to know and is an ideal resource for problem-solving on the fly. This book goes right to the heart of Snow Leopard, with details on system preferences, built-in applications, and utilities. You'll also find configuration tips, keyboard shortcuts, guides for troubleshooting, lots of step-by-step instructions, and more. Learn about new features and changes s

  5. Anchoring and adjusting amidst humans: Ranging behavior of Persian leopards along the Iran-Turkmenistan borderland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S Farhadinia

    Full Text Available Understanding the space use and movement ecology of apex predators, particularly in mosaic landscapes encompassing different land-uses, is fundamental for formulating effective conservation policy. The top extant big cat in the Middle East and the Caucasus, the Persian leopard Panthera pardus saxicolor, has disappeared from most of its historic range. Its spatial ecology in the areas where it remains is almost unknown. Between September 2014 and May 2017, we collared and monitored six adult leopards (5 males and 1 female using GPS-satellite Iridium transmitters in Tandoureh National Park (355 km2 along the Iran-Turkmenistan borderland. Using auto-correlated Kernel density estimation based on a continuous-time stochastic process for relocation data, we estimated a mean home range of 103.4 ± SE 51.8 km2 for resident males which is larger than has been observed in other studies of Asian leopards. Most predation events occurred in core areas, averaging 32.4 ± SE 12.7 km2. Although neighboring leopards showed high spatiotemporal overlap, their hunting areas were largely exclusive. Five out of six of leopards spent some time outside the national park, among human communities. Our study suggests that a national park can play an 'anchoring' role for individuals of an apex predator that spend some time in the surrounding human-dominated landscapes. Therefore, we envisage that instead of emphasizing either land sharing or land sparing, a combined approach can secure the viability of resilient large carnivores that are able to coexist with humans in the rugged montane landscapes of west and central Asia.

  6. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Scott

    2009-01-01

    You're smart and savvy, but also busy. This comprehensive guide to Apple's Mac OS X 10.6, Snow Leopard, gives you everything you need to know to live a happy, productive Mac life. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard will have you up and connected lickity split. With a minimum of overhead and a maximum of useful information, you'll cover a lot of ground in the time it takes other books to get you plugged in. If this isn't your first experience with Mac OS X, skip right to the "What's New in Snow Leopard" sections. You may also find yourself using this book as a quick refresher course or a way

  7. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  8. Take Control of Fonts in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Install, organize, and use fonts with ease in Leopard! In this essential ebook, long-time Mac author Sharon Zardetto reveals all the details about how fonts work in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard. She explains what folders your fonts reside in, in what order they load, and how to deal with font duplication. You'll also learn the ins and outs of different font installation methods; how to use Font Book to manage, validate, and organize fonts; how to make the most of character-rich Unicode fonts; and more. Whether you work in a font-intensive profession, use Unicode fonts for non-Roman languages, or wa

  9. Take control of permissions in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Permissions problems got you down? Turn to Unix expert Brian Tanaka's unique guide to the permissions in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard that control access to your files, folders, and disks. You'll learn how to keep files private, when to set Ignore Permissions, what happens when you repair permissions, how to delete stuck files, and the best ways to solve permissions-related problems. Advanced concepts include the sticky bit, Leopard's more-important access control lists, bit masks, and symbolic versus absolute ways to set permissions. The book covers how to take control of permissions via the Finder

  10. First report of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Youssefi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma tubaeforme was originally described as a separate species parasitizing the cat. The adults of A. tubaeforme are 7 to 12 mm long. A. tubaeforme can be differentiated from the adults of A. braziliense and A. ceylanicum by the presence of three teeth. Here we describe the first re­port of A. tubaeforme in a Persian young female leopard, 2-3 years old, with head and trunk length 120 centimeters, length of tail 98 centimeters and body weight 35 kilograms.

  11. Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Dajun; Yin, Hang; Zhaxi, Duojie; Jiagong, Zhala; Schaller, George B; Mishra, Charudutt; McCarthy, Thomas M; Wang, Hao; Wu, Lan; Xiao, Lingyun; Basang, Lamao; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhou, Yunyun; Lu, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia, including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China's Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km(2) of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km(2) lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve's core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km(2) ) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve's core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders' attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Diagnosis, Surgical Treatment, Recovery, and Eventual Necropsy of a Leopard (Panthera pardus with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Malmlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old, male, castrated, captive-born leopard (Panthera pardus presented to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-week history of regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound revealed a well-differentiated cranioventral mediastinal mass measuring 7.5 × 10 × 5.5 cm, impinging the esophagus. A sternotomy followed by mass excision was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an ectopic thyroid carcinoma. The leopard recovered from surgery with minimal complications and returned to near-normal activity levels for just under 6 months before rapidly declining. He had an acute onset of severe dyspnea and lethargy and was euthanized. On postmortem examination the tumor was found to involve the lung, liver, thyroid, parietal pleura, bronchial lymph nodes, and the internal intercostal muscles. This case report describes the history, diagnosis, surgical treatment, postoperative care, and recovery as well as the eventual decline, euthanasia, and necropsy of a leopard with thyroid carcinoma. When compared to thyroid carcinomas of domestic animals, the leopard’s disease process more closely resembles the disease process seen in domestic canines compared to domestic cats.

  13. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the fishing cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae resembleda a well in shape. The filiform papillae on the anterior part of the lingual body were large and cylindrical in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of a large conical papilla. The filiform papillae on the central part of the lingual body were large and conical. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of a large main process and some secondary processes. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae did not have processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papillae had a rough surface with no spines.

  14. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos ( Eublepharis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of ...

  15. Helminth parasites of cats from the Vientiane Province, Laos, as indicators of the occurrence of causative agents of human parasitoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz T.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 55 domestic cats (Felis calus f. domestico and one wild (Bengal cat (Prionailurus bengalensis from the Vientiane Province, central Laos, were examined for helminth parasites with emphasis given to potential human parasites. The following species were found (parasites infective to man marked with an asterisk: Opisthorchis viverrini*, Haplorchis pumilio*,H. laichui*,H. yokogawai*, Stellantchasmus falcatus* (Digenea; Spirometra sp.*, Dipylidium caninum*, Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda; Capillariidae gen. sp., Toxocara canis*, T. cati*, Ancylostoma ceylanicum*, A. tubaeforme, Gnathostoma spinigerum*, Physaloptera preputials (Nematoda; and Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala. This study demonstrated that examination of cats may provide useful data on the occurrence of helminths which are potential causative agents of human diseases.

  16. Leopard in a tea-cup: A study of leopard habitat-use and human-leopard interactions in north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshettry, Aritra; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Athreya, Vidya

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples' lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order to understand the ecology of leopards in a human use landscape and the nature of human-leopard interactions, we studied (i) the spatial and temporal distribution and the characteristics of leopard attacks on people, (ii) the spatial variability in the pattern of habitat use by the leopard, and (iii) the spatial relationship between attack locations and habitat use by leopards. The study site, located in northern West Bengal, India, is a densely populated mixed-use landscape of 630 km2, comprising of forests, tea plantations, agriculture fields, and human settlements. A total of 171 leopard attacks on humans were reported between January 2009 and March 2016, most of which occurred within the tea-gardens. None of the attacks was fatal. We found significant spatial clustering of locations of leopard attacks on humans. However, most of the attacks were restricted to certain tea estates and occurred mostly between January and May. Analysis of habitat use by leopards showed that the probability of use of areas with more ground vegetation cover was high while that of areas with high density of buildings was low. However, locations of leopard attacks on people did not coincide with areas that showed a higher probability of use by leopards. This indicates that an increased use of an area by leopards, by itself, does not necessarily imply an increase in attacks on people. The spatial and temporal clustering of attack locations allowed us to use this information to prioritize areas to focus

  17. Leopard in a tea-cup: A study of leopard habitat-use and human-leopard interactions in north-eastern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritra Kshettry

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples' lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order to understand the ecology of leopards in a human use landscape and the nature of human-leopard interactions, we studied (i the spatial and temporal distribution and the characteristics of leopard attacks on people, (ii the spatial variability in the pattern of habitat use by the leopard, and (iii the spatial relationship between attack locations and habitat use by leopards. The study site, located in northern West Bengal, India, is a densely populated mixed-use landscape of 630 km2, comprising of forests, tea plantations, agriculture fields, and human settlements. A total of 171 leopard attacks on humans were reported between January 2009 and March 2016, most of which occurred within the tea-gardens. None of the attacks was fatal. We found significant spatial clustering of locations of leopard attacks on humans. However, most of the attacks were restricted to certain tea estates and occurred mostly between January and May. Analysis of habitat use by leopards showed that the probability of use of areas with more ground vegetation cover was high while that of areas with high density of buildings was low. However, locations of leopard attacks on people did not coincide with areas that showed a higher probability of use by leopards. This indicates that an increased use of an area by leopards, by itself, does not necessarily imply an increase in attacks on people. The spatial and temporal clustering of attack locations allowed us to use this information to prioritize

  18. PSU-LEOPARD, Program LEOPARD in PFMP System, Fast Neutron and Thermal Neutron Spectra Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.G.; Smuc, T.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: LEOPARD is a unit cell code for generating two and/or four group constants for PWR fuel assemblies. It assumes that the fuel assembly consists of a large array of identical unit cells, each unit cell being composed of a fuel pin and cladding, surrounded by a moderator. A non-lattice part of the fuel assembly is accounted for by introducing an 'extra' region. The most important feature of PSU-LEOPARD is the capability to fit the group constants as polynomials in burnup and soluble boron concentration, providing easily accessible data for in-core fuel management calculations. The polynomial coefficients are stored in a file called ADD (Assembly Data Description) in a Format compatible with the MCRAC code. RBI version 90.1 of PSU-LEOPARD (PC, IBM mainframe and VAX versions) includes a restart option, numerically more stable polynomial fit, PC and VAX timing routines, and a few other new options. 2 - Method of solution: LEOPARD is a spectrum dependent non-spatial depletion code, based on the modified MUFT and SOFOCATE models. The MUFT model, dividing the fast energy range into 54 energy groups, calculates the fast constants by utilizing the B1 and Grueling-Goertzel approximations. The SOFOCATE model, representing the thermal energy range by 172 energy levels, calculates the thermal constants averaged over the Wigner-Wilkins spectrum. ABH method is used to homogenize the unit cell for each energy level to provide the equivalent homogeneous macroscopic Cross sections for use with Wigner-Wilkins spectrum. The LEOPARD energy range is from zero eV to 10 MeV with a 0.625 eV cutoff between the fast and thermal groups. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: PSU-LEOPARD works with Nuclides commonly used in water reactors. Thorium and U-238 chains are allowed

  19. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangying YU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques, olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden. These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator, prey, and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards, we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans, feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment, eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors, cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration, followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more

  20. FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS’ CATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O’Brien1, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host. PMID:19926144

  1. Is the Zanzibar leopard ( Panthera pardus adersi ) extinct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zanzibar leopard, Panthera pardus adersi (Pocock, 1932), is a little-known island endemic assumed by some authorities to be extinct. In 1996 a survey of local practices, beliefs and knowledge about the leopard was conducted on Unguja Island. Data were collected through interviews with Zanzibaris in villages across ...

  2. Patient with confirmed LEOPARD syndrome developing multiple melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Colmant, Caroline; Franck, Deborah; Marot, Liliane; Matthijs, Gert; Sznajer, Yves; Blomme, Sandrine; Tromme, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    LEOPARD syndrome, also known as Gorlin syndrome II, cardiocutaneous syndrome, lentiginosis profusa syndrome, Moynahan syndrome, was more recently coined as Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), inside the RASopathies. Historically, the acronym LEOPARD refers to the presence of distinctive clinical features such as: lentigines (L), electrocardiographic/conduction abnormalities (E), ocular hypertelorism (O), pulmonary stenosis (P), genital abnormalities (A), retardation of growth (R)...

  3. Introduction of gadolinium in the library of Leopard code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Menezes, A.

    1989-12-01

    The materials Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156 and Gd-157 were included in the LEOPARD code library at the request of FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A. Results from comparison of LEOPARD and WIMSD/4 codes for a typical cell with 7 burnup steps, are presented. (author) [pt

  4. Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ( Stigmochelys pardalis Bell, 1828) on farmland in the Nama-Karoo, South Africa. ... that activity is also initiated by the time since sunrise. Key words: Stigmochelys pardalis, leopard tortoise, activity patterns, activity behaviour, Nama-Karoo Biome, time of day, season.

  5. Comparison of carnivore, omnivore, and herbivore mammalian genomes with a new leopard assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Chung, Oksung; Kim, Hyunho; Jho, Sungwoong; Seomun, Hong; Kim, Jeongho; Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Changmu; An, Junghwa; Bae, Chang Hwan; Bhak, Youngjune; Jeon, Sungwon; Yoon, Hyejun; Kim, Yumi; Jun, JeHoon; Lee, HyeJin; Cho, Suan; Uphyrkina, Olga; Kostyria, Aleksey; Goodrich, John; Miquelle, Dale; Roelke, Melody; Lewis, John; Yurchenko, Andrey; Bankevich, Anton; Cho, Juok; Lee, Semin; Edwards, Jeremy S; Weber, Jessica A; Cook, Jo; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Hang; Manica, Andrea; Lee, Ilbeum; O'Brien, Stephen J; Bhak, Jong; Yeo, Joo-Hong

    2016-10-11

    There are three main dietary groups in mammals: carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics insight into the evolution of dietary specializations in mammals. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, we were able to perform in-depth whole genome analyses of representatives of these three dietary groups. We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous dietary specializations, focusing on Felidae (domestic cat, tiger, lion, cheetah, and leopard), Hominidae, and Bovidae genomes. We generated a new high-quality leopard genome assembly, as well as two wild Amur leopard whole genomes. In addition to a clear contraction in gene families for starch and sucrose metabolism, the carnivore genomes showed evidence of shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with diet, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for successful hunting and meat consumption. Additionally, an analysis of highly conserved regions at the family level revealed molecular signatures of dietary adaptation in each of Felidae, Hominidae, and Bovidae. However, unlike carnivores, omnivores and herbivores showed fewer shared adaptive signatures, indicating that carnivores are under strong selective pressure related to diet. Finally, felids showed recent reductions in genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes, which may be due to the inflexible nature of their strict diet, highlighting their vulnerability and critical conservation status. Our study provides a large-scale family level comparative genomic analysis to address genomic changes associated with dietary specialization. Our genomic analyses also provide useful resources for diet-related genetic and health research.

  6. Mac OS X for Unix Geeks (Leopard)

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, Ernest E; Rosen, Rich

    2009-01-01

    If you've been lured to Mac OS X because of its Unix roots, this invaluable book serves as a bridge between Apple's Darwin OS and the more traditional Unix systems. The new edition offers a complete tour of Mac OS X's Unix shell for Leopard and Tiger, and helps you find the facilities that replace or correspond to standard Unix utilities. Learn how to compile code, link to libraries, and port Unix software to Mac OS X and much more with this concise guide.

  7. Take control of upgrading to Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Installing a major new version of Mac OS X should be exciting and fun, but without proper guidance you may find it nerve-wracking or even risk losing valuable files. Fortunately, many thousands of people have upgraded Mac OS X calmly and successfully with Joe Kissell's previous best-selling Take Control of Upgrading... titles. Joe's friendly, expert steps-developed over innumerable test installations-help you to avoid trouble, understand what's going on when you install Snow Leopard, and easily recover from problem

  8. Take control of font problems in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Are you suffering from mysterious font problems using Microsoft Office, the Adobe Creative Suite, or other programs in Mac OS X Leopard? Help is at hand, with troubleshooting steps and real-world advice that help you solve problems fast. If you've experienced seemingly inexplicable trouble with characters displaying incorrectly, being unable to type a particular character, fonts missing from Font menus, Font Book crashing, or Character Palette misbehaving, turn to font expert Sharon Zardetto for help. Read this ebook to find the answers to questions such as: Where do fonts belong on my hard

  9. The moderization of the Leopard library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Cunha Menezes Filho, A. da.

    1983-07-01

    The LEOPARD library is updated and tested for typical PWR unit cells with enrichment ranging from 1.0 to 4.%(W/o) and H 2 O:U ratio varying from 1.0 to 10.0. A reasonably good agreement with experimental values for some spectral indices is obtained if the fission cross section of U-235 is reduced by .6% in the thermal range and by 20% in the epithermal range; the epithermal capture cross section for U-238 is increased by about 20% and the number of neutrons per fission in the thermal range of U-235 is increased by .8%. (Author) [pt

  10. Genetically based low oxygen affinities of felid hemoglobins: lack of biochemical adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia in the snow leopard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Jan E.; Nielsen, Simone S. E.; Andersen, Sidsel D.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Weber, Roy E.; Anderson, Trevor; Storz, Jay F.; Fago, Angela

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetically based modifications of hemoglobin (Hb) function that increase blood–O2 affinity are hallmarks of hypoxia adaptation in vertebrates. Among mammals, felid Hbs are unusual in that they have low intrinsic O2 affinities and reduced sensitivities to the allosteric cofactor 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG). This combination of features compromises the acclimatization capacity of blood–O2 affinity and has led to the hypothesis that felids have a restricted physiological niche breadth relative to other mammals. In seeming defiance of this conjecture, the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) has an extraordinarily broad elevational distribution and occurs at elevations above 6000 m in the Himalayas. Here, we characterized structural and functional variation of big cat Hbs and investigated molecular mechanisms of Hb adaptation and allosteric regulation that may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of the snow leopard. Experiments revealed that purified Hbs from snow leopard and African lion exhibited equally low O2 affinities and DPG sensitivities. Both properties are primarily attributable to a single amino acid substitution, β2His→Phe, which occurred in the common ancestor of Felidae. Given the low O2 affinity and reduced regulatory capacity of feline Hbs, the extreme hypoxia tolerance of snow leopards must be attributable to compensatory modifications of other steps in the O2-transport pathway. PMID:26246610

  11. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome or LEOPARD Syndrome? A clinical dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF, Noonan syndrome (NS, and LEOPARD syndrome are all autosomal dominant conditions, each being a distinct clinical entity by itself. Rarely, one encounters cases with features of NF and NS and is termed as the ′Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome′ (NF-NS. The authors report a clinical dilemma with major clinical features of the NF-NS syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome co-existing in the same patient. Also, features of Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome are compared with the case reported.

  13. Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, John

    2009-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. Mac OS® X Snow Leopard Server for Dummies. Learn to::;. Set up and configure a Mac network with Snow Leopard Server;. Administer, secure, and troubleshoot the network;. Incorporate a Mac subnet into a Windows Active Directory® domain;. Take advantage of Unix® power and security. John Rizzo. Want to set up and administer a network even if you don't have an IT department? Read on!. Like everything Mac, Snow Leopard Server was designed to be easy to set up and use. Still, there are so many options and features that this book will save you heaps of time and effort. It wa

  14. Hiatal hernia and diaphragmatic eventration in a leopard (Panthera pardus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, K S; Jones, M P; Bright, R M; Toal, R; DeNovo, R; Orosz, S

    2000-09-01

    A 1-yr-old male leopard (Panthera pardus) presented for intermittent anorexia, emaciation, and generalized muscle wasting. Plain radiographs, ultrasonography, and esophageal endoscopy led to a diagnosis of diaphragmatic eventration with probable concurrent hiatal hernia. An exploratory laparotomy confirmed both diagnoses, and surgical repair and stabilization were performed. After surgery, the leopard was maintained on small liquid meals for 4 days, with a gradual return to normal diet over 2 wk. By 4 wk after surgery, the leopard was eating well and gaining weight, and it showed no recurrence of clinical signs for 2 yr subsequently, becoming mildly obese.

  15. Personality assessment in snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of individual personality is a useful tool in animal husbandry and can be used effectively to improve welfare. This study assessed personality in snow leopards (Uncia uncia) by examining their reactions to six novel objects and comparing them to personality assessments based on a survey completed by zookeepers. The objectives were to determine whether these methods could detect differences in personality, including age and sex differences, and to assess whether the two methods yielded comparable results. Both keeper assessments and novel object tests identified age, sex, and individual differences in snow leopards. Five dimensions of personality were found based on keepers' ratings: Active/Vigilant, Curious/Playful, Calm/Self-Assured, Timid/Anxious, and Friendly to Humans. The dimension Active/Vigilant was significantly positively correlated with the number of visits to the object, time spent locomoting, and time spent in exploratory behaviors. Curious/Playful was significantly positively correlated with the number of visits to the object, time spent locomoting, and time spent in exploratory behaviors. However, other dimensions (Calm/Self-Assured, Friendly to Humans, and Timid/Anxious) did not correlate with novel-object test variables and possible explanations for this are discussed. Thus, some of the traits and behaviors were correlated between assessment methods, showing the novel-object test to be useful in assessing an animal's personality should a keeper be unable to, or to support a keeper's assessment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genome - wide variation and demographic history of small cats with a focus on Felis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhab Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the 38 known cat species are classified as small and they inhabit five of the seven continents. They survive in a vast range of habitats but still 12 out of the 18 threatened felids are small cats. However, there has not been enough progress in the field of small cat research as they generally get overshadowed by the charismatic big cats. Here we attempt to create a resource for small cat research especially of the genus Felis which has six species out of which two are classified as vulnerable by IUCN and at least one more is at risk. We collected tissue samples of four Felis chaus (Jungle cat from central India and used available whole genome sequences of nine individuals from four other Felis species, two individuals of Prionailurus bengalensis and an Otocolobus manul. These whole genome sequences were filtered and aligned with the already published domestic cat (Felis catus genome assembly. Felids are closely related species and reads from all species in our study aligned with the domestic cat genome with a rate of at least 93%. We estimated the existing genomic variation by calculating heterozygous SNP encounter rate. So far, it seems that all wild cats have more genetic variation than Felis catus species. This can be attributed to the inbreeding in these cats. Among the wild cats, Felis silvestris seems to have the highest level of genetic variation. To understand the reasons behind the distribution of genetic variation in small cats, we estimated the demographic histories of each of the species using PSMC. This method can only detect demographic changes more than 1000 generations ago. We observe that roughly all species share a parallel history in terms of population increase. The most interesting and important feature might be that all wild small cat population sizes increased exponentially around twenty thousand years ago as opposed to domestic cat and big cats which declined around this time. Another interesting feature of

  17. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  18. Congenital ankyloblepharon in a leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Franck

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old leopard gecko with unilateral partially fused eyelids since birth was presented for examination. A diagnosis of congenital ankyloblepharon was made and surgical correction was performed successfully. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. The Leopard Tortoise in the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Grobler

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 69 leopard tortoises Geochelone pardalis babcocki (Loveridge 1935 were captured, marked, sexed, weighed and released. The results of this exercise together with other field data are presented and discussed.

  20. Eesti tankivalikud: Abrams või Leopard 2 / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Ametlikku otsust kaitseväele tankide ostmiseks veel ei ole, kuid kui Eesti kaitsevägi asub tanke ostma, siis tõenäoliselt hakatakse valima Leopard 2 ja Abrams vahel. Tankidega seotud kuludest ja olukorrast Norras

  1. A LEOPARD SEAL FROM HOUT BAY, SOUTH AFRICA Division of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 14 October 1969 a leopard seal Hydrurga leptonyx came ashore alive at Hout Bay, Cape. Province .... 5 mm in diameter: on histological examination these proved to be small nematodes Para- filaroides sp. ... Seals, sea lions and walruses.

  2. LEOPARD syndrome: You could be the first one to diagnose!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Urs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leopard syndrome is a rare genetic disease complex associated with multiple anomalies. The main anomalies are summarized in the acronym LEOPARD in which each letter corresponds to mnemonic for the major features of this disorder:multiple Lentigines, ECG conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonic stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, and sensory neural Deafness. A Four year old male patient reported with the chief complaint of decayed anterior tooth without any relevant past medical history. Based on the clinical features; the child was subjected to genetic and general physical appraisal which helped in identifying Leopard syndrome. A multidisciplinary approach by the pedodontist and medical consultants aided in the identification and management of this rare syndrome. LEOPARD syndrome has been rarely reported in the diseases associated with oro-dental or craniofacial anomalies. In this case report we describe these anomalies and discuss the relationship between them and the proposed etiology of the disease.

  3. Status of Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 (Carnivora: Felidae in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashi Dhendup

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Golden Cat is a Near Threatened wild cat species as listed by the IUCN. Being a lesser studied species, there is a general paucity of data and hence, global assessment of its true status has been very difficult. In Bhutan, available information on this species is mainly from biodiversity surveys on big mammals such as Tiger and Snow Leopard. A modest attempt has been made to review all available literature on Asiatic Golden Cat in Bhutan and abroad to describe the current status of the species in the country and the need for further studies. 

  4. Calcitonin produces hypercalcemia in leopard sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, J; O'Sullivan, J; Miller, M; Wilkie, D W; Deftos, L J

    1985-02-01

    Calcitonin was detected by RIA in sera from four marine species, leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata), horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci), thornback rays (Platyrhinoides triseriata), and kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus). These animals have levels of calcitonin and calcium higher than freshwater and terrestrial species have. The administration of salmon calcitonin to bass (4 micrograms/kg BW) produced hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia as has been reported for other bony vertebrates. In marked contrast, calcitonin produced a prompt hypercalcemia in sharks; the average was 9.8% increase in serum calcium in nine animals with no attendant change in phosphorus. These findings demonstrate that calcitonin can increase serum calcium in sharks. Because shark skeleton is composed of cartilage, this hypercalcemic effect of calcitonin does not require a bony skeleton.

  5. Updating of the LEOPARD data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrique Claro, L.; Cunha Menezes Filho, A. da

    1984-01-01

    The LEOPARD library is being updated and tested for typical PWR unit cells with enrichments ranging from 1.0 to 4.1%(W/o) and H 2 O:U ratios varying from 1.0 to 10.0. A reasonably good agreement with experimental values for some spectral indices is obtained if the fission cross-section of 235 U is reduced by 0.6% in the thermal range and by 20% in the epithermal range, the epithermal capture cross-section for 235 U is increased by about 20% and the number of neutrons per fission in the thermal range of 235 U is increased by 0.8%. (author)

  6. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  7. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Li, Gang; Murphy, William J

    2010-07-01

    The pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern Felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus Panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. A significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. Despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed Panthera with the same topology. These evolutionary relationships remain unresolved partially due to the recent and rapid radiation of pantherines in the Pliocene, individual speciation events occurring within less than 1 million years, and probable introgression between lineages following their divergence. We provide an alternative, highly supported interpretation of the evolutionary history of the pantherine lineage using novel and published DNA sequence data from the autosomes, both sex chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. New sequences were generated for 39 single-copy regions of the felid Y chromosome, as well as four mitochondrial and four autosomal gene segments, totaling 28.7 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of these new data, combined with all published data in GenBank, highlighted the prevalence of phylogenetic disparities stemming either from the amplification of a mitochondrial to nuclear translocation event (numt), or errors in species identification. Our 47.6 kb combined dataset was analyzed as a supermatrix and with respect to individual partitions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, in conjunction with Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) which accounts for heterogeneous gene histories. Our results yield a robust consensus topology supporting the monophyly of lion and leopard, with jaguar sister to these species, as well as a sister species relationship of tiger and snow leopard. These results highlight new avenues for the study of speciation genomics and

  8. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII . Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus,caracals (Caracal caracal, African wild cats (Felis lybica, black-footed cats (Felis nigripes, a serval (Leptailurus serval, lions(Panthera leo, and leopards (Panthera pardus were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province,South Africa.

  9. Evidence of leopard predation on bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Danielle E; Hohmann, Gottfried; Fruth, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Current models of social organization assume that predation is one of the major forces that promotes group living in diurnal primates. As large body size renders some protection against predators, gregariousness of great apes and other large primate species is usually related to other parameters. The low frequency of observed cases of nonhuman predation on great apes seems to support this assumption. However, recent efforts to study potential predator species have increasingly accumulated direct and indirect evidence of predation by leopards (Panthera pardus) on chimpanzees and gorillas. The following report provides the first evidence of predation by a leopard on bonobos (Pan paniscus). Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Leopard spot retinal pigmentation in infancy indicating a peroxisomal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, C J; Castano, G; McCormick, A Q; Applegarth, D

    2004-02-01

    Neonatal adrenoleucodystrophy (NALD) is a rare disorder resulting from abnormal peroxisomal biogenesis. Affected patients present in infancy with developmental delay, hypotonia, and seizures. Blindness and nystagmus are prominent features. The authors suggest a characteristic leopard spot pigmentary pattern in the peripheral retina to be diagnostic. Three patients are reported with this presentation; the characteristic retinal appearance resulted in early diagnosis for one of these. Leopard spot retinopathy in an infant with hypotonia, seizures, developmental delay, with or without dysmorphic features and hearing impairment, is a clue to the diagnosis of NALD.

  11. The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, M H

    1989-04-01

    Dissections were made of the larynges of 14 species of the cat family, with representative specimens from all genera. It was found that the vocal folds of the larynx of genus Panthera (with the exception of the snow leopard) form the basic structure of a sound generator well-designed to produce a high acoustical energy. Combined with an efficient sound radiator (vocal tract) that can be adjusted in length, a Panthera can use its vocal instrument literally to blow its own horn with a 'roar'. Also, it is proposed that laryngeal morphology can be used as an anatomical character in mammalian taxonomy.

  12. The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hast, M H

    1989-01-01

    Dissections were made of the larynges of 14 species of the cat family, with representative specimens from all genera. It was found that the vocal folds of the larynx of genus Panthera (with the exception of the snow leopard) form the basic structure of a sound generator well-designed to produce a high acoustical energy. Combined with an efficient sound radiator (vocal tract) that can be adjusted in length, a Panthera can use its vocal instrument literally to blow its own horn with a 'roar'. A...

  13. Katsvanga, CAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  14. Face Value: Towards Robust Estimates of Snow Leopard Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine S Alexander

    Full Text Available When densities of large carnivores fall below certain thresholds, dramatic ecological effects can follow, leading to oversimplified ecosystems. Understanding the population status of such species remains a major challenge as they occur in low densities and their ranges are wide. This paper describes the use of non-invasive data collection techniques combined with recent spatial capture-recapture methods to estimate the density of snow leopards Panthera uncia. It also investigates the influence of environmental and human activity indicators on their spatial distribution. A total of 60 camera traps were systematically set up during a three-month period over a 480 km2 study area in Qilianshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province, China. We recorded 76 separate snow leopard captures over 2,906 trap-days, representing an average capture success of 2.62 captures/100 trap-days. We identified a total number of 20 unique individuals from photographs and estimated snow leopard density at 3.31 (SE = 1.01 individuals per 100 km2. Results of our simulation exercise indicate that our estimates from the Spatial Capture Recapture models were not optimal to respect to bias and precision (RMSEs for density parameters less or equal to 0.87. Our results underline the critical challenge in achieving sufficient sample sizes of snow leopard captures and recaptures. Possible performance improvements are discussed, principally by optimising effective camera capture and photographic data quality.

  15. Occurrence and activity budget of the leopard tortoise, Geochelone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and activity budget of the leopard tortoise, Geochelone pardalis were studied in northern Tanzania between October 1993 and June 1996. Tortoises occurred most frequently in short grass (51.5%) and along roads and track verges (33.9%), but only occasionally in the bush undergrowth (6.7%) and shambas ...

  16. Fragmented populations of leopards in West-Central Africa: Facing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leopard populations were found to be associated with lions and hyaenas but they avoided human disturbances. Regarding potential breeding dispersal, the Gaussian representation showed a clear fragmentation among populations, suggesting that long-term survival of the species could be threatened. We found no area ...

  17. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia: regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lyngdoh

    Full Text Available The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, argali (Ovis ammon and marmots (Marmota spp. The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  18. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  19. Evidences Dependent Population Distribution Patterns of Tiger and Leopard in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Ranjan Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tiger (Panthera tigris is an endangered carnivore with uncertain demographic status spanning 13 Asian countries. Due to its larger body size and carnivorous diet in nature it always occurs at low population densities. Further prey depletion due to overhunting (Karanth & Stith, 1998, poaching, habitat shrinkage (Kenny et al., 1995, Wcs, 1995 and direct killing altogether have also become a major factor for depletion of wild tiger populations tiger. Monitoring the abundance and its alteration is always important for the effective management of endangered species. Tiger is categorized as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2008 and listed under Schedule-I of Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 in India and Appendix-I of the CITES. Leopard (Panthera pardus is also included in the Schedule- I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and is placed under “Least Concern” category of 2002 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. Similipal Tiger Reserve is one of the largest Tiger Reserves of India with an area of 2750 km2. Therefore we have to depend mainly on the direct sightings and evidence records of the animals to analysis the status and distribution pattern of these two big cats in the core area of this Tiger Reserve.

  20. The presence of tick-borne diseases in domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIKUYA, Mao; TATENO, Morihiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; ENDO, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The Iriomote cat and Tsushima leopard cat are endangered wildcats in Japan and inhabit only Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands, respectively. Domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands were surveyed to clarify the interrelationship between wildcats and domestic animals regarding tick-borne disease transmission. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Babesia gibsoni was detected in dogs of Iriomote-jima, and Hepatozoon felis and hemoplasmas were detected in domestic cats of Tsushima. Because the H. felis detected in this study was closely related to that isolated from wildcats, we suspect that common H. felis is harbored and transmitted among wildcats and domestic cats via ticks in Tsushima. PMID:28484147

  1. Cheetahs have a stronger constitutive innate immunity than leopards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sonja K; Hofer, Heribert; Courtiol, Alexandre; Melzheimer, Jörg; Dehnhard, Martin; Czirják, Gábor Á; Wachter, Bettina

    2017-03-23

    As a textbook case for the importance of genetics in conservation, absence of genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to endanger species viability, since it is considered crucial for pathogen resistance. An alternative view of the immune system inspired by life history theory posits that a strong response should evolve in other components of the immune system if there is little variation in the MHC. In contrast to the leopard (Panthera pardus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has a relatively low genetic variability at the MHC, yet free-ranging cheetahs are healthy. By comparing the functional competence of the humoral immune system of both species in sympatric populations in Namibia, we demonstrate that cheetahs have a higher constitutive innate but lower induced innate and adaptive immunity than leopards. We conclude (1) immunocompetence of cheetahs is higher than previously thought; (2) studying both innate and adaptive components of immune systems will enrich conservation science.

  2. Cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis in a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Shannon N S; Thompson, Michelle E; Corner, Sarah M; Swinford, Amy K; Coke, Rob L

    2013-09-01

    A 16-yr-old male clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) was presented for lethargy and anorexia. A cutaneous abdominal mass extending from the pubis to just caudal to the xiphoid process was present. A biopsy revealed histologic lesions consistent with an atypical mycobacterial infection consisting of diffuse, severe, pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis, with clear vacuoles and 3-5 microm, intravacuolar, faintly eosinophilic, filamentous bacilli that stained positively with FiteFaraco modified acid-fast stain. The clouded leopard had biochemical findings suggestive of chronic renal failure and euthanasia was elected. Histological evaluation of tissues collected at postmortem examination revealed multicentric B-cell lymphoma involving the oral cavity, liver, spleen, and multiple lymph nodes, bilateral testicular seminomas, thyroid follicular cell adenoma, thyroid C cell adenoma, and biliary cystadenomas. Bacterial culture and molecular sequencing identified the causative agent of the cutaneous abdominal mass as belonging to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group.

  3. CANINE DISTEMPER IN A VACCINATED SNOW LEOPARD ( PANTHERA UNCIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Kinsel, Michael J; Adkesson, Michael J; Terio, Karen

    2017-12-01

    A 6-yr-old male snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) presented with acute seizures, hyperthermia, and tachypnea. Because of a diagnosis of anuric renal failure, the animal was euthanized. On histopathologic examination, numerous intralesional intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions were found in the lungs, lymph nodes, and stomach. Positive immunohistochemical staining for canine distemper virus (CDV) was found in the lungs and, to a lesser extent, in the lymph nodes and brain. Molecular testing yielded a CDV H gene sequence that was closely related to CDV isolates concurrently found in wild raccoons from adjacent forested areas. The leopard had been vaccinated once against CDV with the use of a recombinant canarypox-vectored live vaccine during a routine wellness examination 12 wk prior to death. Serial serum neutralization titers performed on banked serum collected between vaccination and death showed poor serologic response to the vaccine. This case demonstrates a probable failure of protection against naturally occurring CDV.

  4. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dellarupe; J.M. Unzaga; G. Moré; M. Kienast; A. Larsen; C. Stiebel; M. Rambeaud; M.C. Venturini

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varani...

  5. Ultrasonographic anatomy of reproductive female leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojean, Ophélie; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Masseau, Isabelle

    2018-02-19

    Captive leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) often present to the exotic clinic for gastrointestinal impactions, follicular stasis, or dystocia. To our knowledge, normal ultrasonographic anatomy of these lizards has not been described. The objectives of this prospective, anatomic, analytical study were to develop ultrasound techniques for this species and to describe the normal sonographic anatomy of the head, coelomic cavity, and tail. Eleven, healthy, female leopard geckos were included. A linear array 13-18 MHz transducer was used. Geckos were sedated and restrained in dorsal recumbency for coelomic structure examination and in ventral recumbency for head and tail examinations. Sagittal and transverse images were acquired and authors recorded qualitative and quantitative ultrasonographic characteristics of anatomic structures. The ventral surface of the lungs, liver, gallbladder, caudal vena cava, portal vein, ventral abdominal vein, aorta, ovarian follicles, fat bodies, tail, and brain were visualized in 10 of 11 individuals. In one individual, molt precluded ultrasonographic examination. The heart, kidneys, urinary bladder, spleen, and pancreas were not visualized. The digestive tract was observed in 10 individuals but was too small to be measured. Findings from the current study could be used as a reference for future studies of leopard geckos. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Patient with confirmed LEOPARD syndrome developing multiple melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Caroline; Franck, Deborah; Marot, Liliane; Matthijs, Gert; Sznajer, Yves; Blomme, Sandrine; Tromme, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    LEOPARD syndrome, also known as Gorlin syndrome II, cardiocutaneous syndrome, lentiginosis profusa syndrome, Moynahan syndrome, was more recently coined as Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), inside the RASopathies. Historically, the acronym LEOPARD refers to the presence of distinctive clinical features such as: lentigines (L), electrocardiographic/conduction abnormalities (E), ocular hypertelorism (O), pulmonary stenosis (P), genital abnormalities (A), retardation of growth (R), and sensorineural deafness (D). This condition is identified in 85% of patients with phenotype hallmarks caused by presence a germline point mutation in PTPN11 gene. Association of melanoma to NSML seems to be rare: to our knowledge, two patients so far were reported in the literature. We herein present a patient diagnosed with LEOPARD syndrome, in whom molecular investigation confirmed the presence of the c.1403C>T mutation in exon 12 of the PTPN11 gene, who developed four superficial spreading melanomas and three atypical lentiginous hyperplasias. Three of the melanomas were achromic or hypochromic, three were in situ, and one had a Breslow index under 0.5 mm. Dermoscopic examination showed some characteristic white structures in most of the lesions, which were a signature pattern and a key for the diagnosis.

  7. Radiographic examinations of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, S.M.

    2002-11-01

    The anatomy of the Leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, and the technique and the diagnostic possibilities of the radiologic and computed-tomographic examination of lizards are summarized in a bibliography. Some aspects of the topographic anatomy of this species are illustrated by one necropsy. The various parts of the gastrointestinal system were identified by histological examinations. 15 preparations of wild captured Leopard geckos were examined radiographically to describe the physiological appearance of the skeleton.15 patients received plain radiographs. 8 different boxes for the immobilization of geckos were tested for practical use. The skeleton and the respiratory tract were fully visible on all x-ray images. The differentiation of the gastrointestinal tract was increased when containing radioopaque material like sand. Eggs with calcified shells were the only detectable parts from the urogenital tract. 2 patients with anorexia and weight loss were administered 0,5 ml of a Gastrografin-water mixture in the ratio 1:3. The dosage was 2,9 or 4,9 ml Gastrografin/kg respectively. The gastrointestinal tract and the surface of the mucous membrane could be visualized very well. The first excretion of the contrast medium resulted 18 - 34 or 28 - 45 hours respectively after the administration. On one dead Leopard gecko a computed tomographic examination was done. This allowed the 3D-reconstruction of the skeleton. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fixation techniques are discussed. The possibilities of radiologic diagnostic imaging techniques for geckos are described. (author)

  8. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Schroedinger's cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubkin, E [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1979-08-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a matrix format (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and Schroedinger's cat symbolizes this broader perspective.

  10. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  11. The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard Uncia uncia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Allen, P.; McCarthy, T.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Bayarjargal, A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2003-01-01

    Pastoralists and their livestock share much of the habitat of the snow leopard ( Uncia uncia) across south and central Asia. The levels of livestock predation by the snow leopard and other carnivores are high, and retaliatory killing by the herders is a direct threat to carnivore populations.

  12. Leopard-men of the Congo in literature and popular imagination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Anyoto leopard-men, a society from eastern Congo, operated between approximately 1890 and 1935. Until now the history of the leopard-men has inspired representations of Central Africa as a barbaric and disorderly place, and the idea that a secret association of men attacked innocent people and ate their limbs ...

  13. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  14. LEOPARD syndrome is not linked to the Marfan syndrome and the Watson syndrome loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rass-Rothchild, A.: Abeliovitch, D.; Kornstein, A. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)]|[Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    1994-09-01

    The acronym LEOPARD stands for a syndromic association of Lentigines, Eletrocardiographic changes, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonic stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth and sensorineural Deafness. Inheritance is autosomal dominant with high penetrance and variable expressivity. In 1990 Torok et al. reported on the association of LEOPARD and Marfan syndrome. In addition a clinical similarity (cardiac and cutaneous involvement) exists with the Watson syndrome (neurofibromatosis and pulmonic stenosis) which is linked to the marker D17S33 on chromosome 17. We studied possible linkage of LEOPARD syndrome to the Marfan syndrome locus on chromosome 15 (D15S1, MF13, and (TAAAA)n repeats) and to the NF-1 locus on chromosome 17 in a family with 9 cases of LEOPARD syndrome. Close linkage between LEOPARD syndrome and both the Marfan locus on chromosome 15 and the NF-1 locus on chromosome 17 was excluded (lod score <-2.0 through {theta} = 0.1).

  15. Bone accumulation by leopards in the Late Pleistocene in the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sauqué

    Full Text Available Eating habits of Panthera pardus are well known. When there are caves in its territory, prey accumulates inside them. This helps to prevent its kill from being stolen by other predators like hyenas. Although the leopard is an accumulator of bones in caves, few studies have been conducted on existing lairs. There are, however, examples of fossil vertebrate sites whose main collecting agent is the leopard. During the Late Pleistocene, the leopard was a common carnivore in European faunal associations. Here we present a new locality of Quaternary mammals with a scarce human presence, the cave of Los Rincones (province of Zaragoza, Spain; we show the leopard to be the main accumulator of the bones in the cave, while there are no interactions between humans and leopards. For this purpose, a taphonomic analysis is performed on different bone-layers of the cave.

  16. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarupe, A; Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Kienast, M; Larsen, A; Stiebel, C; Rambeaud, M; Venturini, M C

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum). This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  17. ASPECTS OF LEOPARD CORAL GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus) REPRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Retno Andamari; Sari Budi Moria Sembiring; Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2007-01-01

    Leopard coral grouper, Plectropomus leopardus is one of the most economically important finfish fish in Indonesia and the demand for the grouper is rapidly increasing in Asia and the Pacific. Grouper exports from Bali were 1,613 mt in 2001, 2,082 mt in 2002 and 2,861 mt in 2003. Understanding the reproductive biology of fishes is an important component in developing mariculture and in the management of capture fisheries. This study reports on the reproductive biology of 86 coral groupers coll...

  18. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dellarupe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum. This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  19. Enterprise Mac Security Mac OS X Snow Leopard Security

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Stephen Charles; Hunter, Beau; Sullivan, Gene; LeBlanc, Dee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    A common misconception in the Mac community is that Mac's operating system is more secure than others. While this might be true in certain cases, security on the Mac is still a crucial issue. When sharing is enabled or remote control applications are installed, Mac OS X faces a variety of security threats. Enterprise Mac Security: Mac OS X Snow Leopard is a definitive, expert-driven update of the popular, slash-dotted first edition and was written in part as a companion to the SANS Institute course for Mac OS X. It contains detailed Mac OS X security information, and walkthroughs on securing s

  20. On the status of Snow Leopard Panthera uncial (Schreber, 1775 in Annapurna, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Ale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a status-survey on Snow Leopard Panthera uncia and its main prey, the Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur, in the Mustang District of Nepal’s Annapurna Conservation Area, in 2010 and 2011. Sign transects, covering a total linear distance of 19.4km, revealed an average density of 5.8 signs per kilometer, which compares with those from other Snow Leopard range countries. This also roughly corresponded with the minimum number of three adult Snow Leopards we obtained from nine remote cameras, deployed to monitor areas of c. 75km2 in extent. We obtained 42 pictures of Snow Leopards during nine capture events. We conclude that Mustang harbors at least three adult Snow Leopards, and probably more, along with a healthy Blue Sheep population (a total of 528 individuals, along 37.6km of Snow Leopard transect lines. We suggest that people-wildlife conflicts exist but that the local people tolerate Snow Leopards based on their Buddhist socio-religious values.

  1. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Chetri

    Full Text Available Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57, collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples, whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%. Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%, but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%, and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%. The sexual difference agrees with

  2. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous

  3. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Madhu; Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous

  4. Conflict to Coexistence: Human – Leopard Interactions in a Plantation Landscape in Anamalai Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Sidhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When leopards are found in human-dominated landscapes, conflicts may arise due to attacks on people or livestock loss or when people retaliate following real and perceived threats. In the plantation landscape of the Valparai plateau, we studied incidents of injury and loss of life of people and livestock over time (15 – 25 y and carried out questionnaire surveys in 29 plantation colonies and eight tribal villages to study correlates of livestock depredation, people's perception of leopards, and preferred management options for human – leopard interactions. Leopards were implicated in an average of 1.3 (± 0.4 SE incidents/year (1990 – 2014 involving humans and 3.6 (± 0.8 SE incidents/year (1999 – 2014 involving livestock, with no statistically significant increasing trend over time. Most incidents of injury or loss of life involved young children or unattended livestock, and occurred between afternoon and night. At the colony level, livestock depredation was positively related to the number of livestock, but decreased with the distance from protected area and number of residents. Half the respondents reported seeing a leopard in a neutral situation, under conditions that resulted in no harm. All tribal and 52% of estate respondents had neutral perceptions of leopards and most (81.9%, n = 161 respondents indicated changing their own behaviour as a preferred option to manage negative interactions with leopards, rather than capture or removal of leopards. Perception was unrelated to livestock depredation, but tended to be more negative when human attacks had occurred in a colony. A combination of measures including safety precautions for adults and children at night, better livestock herding and cattle-sheds, and building on people's neutral perception and tolerance can mitigate negative interactions and support continued human – leopard coexistence.

  5. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.; Roberts, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  6. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory persecution by pastoralists are worldwide conservation concerns. Poor understanding of the ecological and social underpinnings of this human¿wildlife conflict hampers effective conflict management programs. The endangered snow leopard

  7. Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase Grey, Julia N; Kent, Vivien T; Hill, Russell A

    2013-01-01

    Populations of large carnivores can persist in mountainous environments following extensive land use change and the conversion of suitable habitat for agriculture and human habitation in lower lying areas of their range. The significance of these populations is poorly understood, however, and little attention has focussed on why certain mountainous areas can hold high densities of large carnivores and what the conservation implications of such populations might be. Here we use the leopard (Panthera pardus) population in the western Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, as a model system and show that montane habitats can support high numbers of leopards. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis recorded the highest density of leopards reported outside of state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This density represents a temporally high local abundance of leopards and we explore the explanations for this alongside some of the potential conservation implications.

  8. Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia N Chase Grey

    Full Text Available Populations of large carnivores can persist in mountainous environments following extensive land use change and the conversion of suitable habitat for agriculture and human habitation in lower lying areas of their range. The significance of these populations is poorly understood, however, and little attention has focussed on why certain mountainous areas can hold high densities of large carnivores and what the conservation implications of such populations might be. Here we use the leopard (Panthera pardus population in the western Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, as a model system and show that montane habitats can support high numbers of leopards. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR analysis recorded the highest density of leopards reported outside of state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This density represents a temporally high local abundance of leopards and we explore the explanations for this alongside some of the potential conservation implications.

  9. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chetri, Madhu; Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in ...

  10. Historical mitochondrial diversity in African leopards (Panthera pardus) revealed by archival museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anco, Corey; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Henschel, Philipp; Cunningham, Seth W; Amato, George; Hekkala, Evon

    2018-04-01

    Once found throughout Africa and Eurasia, the leopard (Panthera pardus) was recently uplisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Historically, more than 50% of the leopard's global range occurred in continental Africa, yet sampling from this part of the species' distribution is only sparsely represented in prior studies examining patterns of genetic variation at the continental or global level. Broad sampling to determine baseline patterns of genetic variation throughout the leopard's historical distribution is important, as these measures are currently used by the IUCN to direct conservation priorities and management plans. By including data from 182 historical museum specimens, faecal samples from ongoing field surveys, and published sequences representing sub-Saharan Africa, we identify previously unrecognized genetic diversity in African leopards. Our mtDNA data indicates high levels of divergence among regional populations and strongly differentiated lineages in West Africa on par with recent studies of other large vertebrates. We provide a reference benchmark of genetic diversity in African leopards against which future monitoring can be compared. These findings emphasize the utility of historical museum collections in understanding the processes that shape present biodiversity. Additionally, we suggest future research to clarify African leopard taxonomy and to differentiate between delineated units requiring monitoring or conservation action.

  11. Schrodinger's scat: a critical review of the currently available tiger (Panthera Tigris) and leopard (Panthera pardus) specific primers in India, and a novel leopard specific primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroju, Pranay Amruth; Yadav, Sonu; Kolipakam, Vishnupriya; Singh, Shweta; Qureshi, Qamar; Jhala, Yadvendradev

    2016-02-09

    Non-invasive sampling has opened avenues for the genetic study of elusive species, which has contributed significantly to their conservation. Where field based identity of non-invasive sample is ambiguous (e.g. carnivore scats), it is essential to establish identity of the species through molecular approaches. A cost effective procedure to ascertain species identity is to use species specific primers (SSP) for PCR amplification and subsequent resolution through agarose gel electrophoresis. However, SSPs if ill designed can often cross amplify non-target sympatric species. Herein we report the problem of cross amplification with currently published SSPs, which have been used in several recent scientific articles on tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) in India. Since these papers form pioneering research on which future work will be based, an early rectification is required so as to not propagate this error further. We conclusively show cross amplification of three of the four SSPs, in sympatric non-target species like tiger SSP amplifying leopard and striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena), and leopard SSP amplifying tiger, lion (Panthera leo persica) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), with the same product size. We develop and test a non-cross-amplifying leopard specific primer pair within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region. We also standardize a duplex PCR method to screen tiger and leopard samples simultaneously in one PCR reaction to reduce cost and time. These findings suggest the importance of an often overlooked preliminary protocol of conclusive identification of species from non-invasive samples. The cross amplification of published primers in conspecifics suggests the need to revisit inferences drawn by earlier work.

  12. Efficacy of ivermectin as an anthelmintic in leopard frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, J; Glade, M

    1992-02-15

    Ivermectin administered cutaneously at dosages of 2 mg/kg of body weight eliminated nematode infections in leopard frogs. Three clinical trials were conducted. In the first trial, 5 groups of 11 frogs were given ivermectin IM at dosages of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 2, or 20 mg/kg. All frogs given ivermectin IM at dosages of 2.0 mg/kg or greater died. In trial 2, 44 frogs, allotted to 5 groups, were given ivermectin cutaneously at 0, 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg. Cutaneously administered ivermectin was not toxic at dosages up to 20 mg/kg. In trial 3, nematode infections were eliminated in all 10 frogs treated cutaneously with ivermectin at 2.0 mg/kg.

  13. Draft genome of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zijun; Li, Fang; Li, Qiye; Zhou, Long; Gamble, Tony; Zheng, Jiao; Kui, Ling; Li, Cai; Li, Shengbin; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Guojie

    2016-10-26

    Geckos are among the most species-rich reptile groups and the sister clade to all other lizards and snakes. Geckos possess a suite of distinctive characteristics, including adhesive digits, nocturnal activity, hard, calcareous eggshells, and a lack of eyelids. However, one gecko clade, the Eublepharidae, appears to be the exception to most of these 'rules' and lacks adhesive toe pads, has eyelids, and lays eggs with soft, leathery eggshells. These differences make eublepharids an important component of any investigation into the underlying genomic innovations contributing to the distinctive phenotypes in 'typical' geckos. We report high-depth genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation for a male leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius (Eublepharidae). Illumina sequence data were generated from seven insert libraries (ranging from 170 to 20 kb), representing a raw sequencing depth of 136X from 303 Gb of data, reduced to 84X and 187 Gb after filtering. The assembled genome of 2.02 Gb was close to the 2.23 Gb estimated by k-mer analysis. Scaffold and contig N50 sizes of 664 and 20 kb, respectively, were comparable to the previously published Gekko japonicus genome. Repetitive elements accounted for 42 % of the genome. Gene annotation yielded 24,755 protein-coding genes, of which 93 % were functionally annotated. CEGMA and BUSCO assessment showed that our assembly captured 91 % (225 of 248) of the core eukaryotic genes, and 76 % of vertebrate universal single-copy orthologs. Assembly of the leopard gecko genome provides a valuable resource for future comparative genomic studies of geckos and other squamate reptiles.

  14. ASPECTS OF LEOPARD CORAL GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus REPRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Andamari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Leopard coral grouper, Plectropomus leopardus is one of the most economically important finfish fish in Indonesia and the demand for the grouper is rapidly increasing in Asia and the Pacific. Grouper exports from Bali were 1,613 mt in 2001, 2,082 mt in 2002 and 2,861 mt in 2003. Understanding the reproductive biology of fishes is an important component in developing mariculture and in the management of capture fisheries. This study reports on the reproductive biology of 86 coral groupers collected from various locations in Indonesia. The length and weight of these fish were recorded and related to gonad development. There was a strong relationship between length and weight; weight being proportional to the length raised to the power (b value 3.2. As the value of b was greater than 3, this suggests that growth is allometric. Histological analysis 73% of the fish were immature, 19% were in transition from females to males, only 4% were male, and only 2 fish (2% had mature gonads: these were female. The sex of 2 fish could not be determined. From these data it can be seen that the leopard coralgrouper has asynchronous gonad development. The two fish that were mature contained 343,980 and 429,259 oocytes and three distinct sizes of oocytes could be found. This suggests that the grouper is a multiple spawner. If fish are required for brood stock, this study has shown that only those with a length greater than 35 cm in standard length should be taken from the wild.

  15. SPOTS, Library Generator for Program LEOPARD from Cross-Sections Data. LEOPARD, Fast and Thermal Neutron Spectra from Temperature and Geometry with Depletion Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, R.F.; Krug, H.E P. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: LEOPARD is a unit cell homogenization and spectrum generation (MUFT-SOFOCATE type) program with a fuel depletion option. 2 - Method of solution: The MUFT-SOFOCATE homogeneous medium spectrum analyses with heterogeneous corrections are used. The monoenergetic Amouyal-Benoist thermal disadvantage factor is applied at each of 172 SOFOCATE energy levels up to 0.625 eV. The U-238 resonance integral is forced to agree with a generalized Hellstrand correlation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: LEOPARD works with nuclides commonly used in water reactors. Thorium and U-238 fuel chains are allowed

  16. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in a leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frangipane di Regalbono Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine heartworm (cHW disease is now recognised as potential cause of serious disease in cats and other felids, especially in endemic areas. In March 2009, a 23-years-old male African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park located in the Province of Padova (Veneto Region, a cHW endemic area of the north-eastern Italy, died and was immediately necropsied. A cloth completely occluding the pyloric lumen was considered the presumptive cause of death. During necropsy, six nematodes (4 males and 2 females were found within the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery. Diagnosis of HW (Dirofilaria immitis infection was carried out by morphological features of adult worms and microfilariae, and then confirmed by detection of circulating HW antigens using a commercial SNAP kit (IDEXX Laboratories inc., USA. D. immitis infection was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal spacer region, performed on worm fragments and microfilaraemic blood samples obtained from the right ventricle of the heart. A glomerulonephritis of immuno-mediated origin and most likely associated with the HW infection is also reported. HW chemoprophylaxis and annual serological testing on wild felids housed outdoors in endemic cHW disease areas are recommended. This is the first diagnosis of D. immitis infection in an exotic felid in Italy.

  17. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  18. Megaesophagus in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Mahaffey, M B; Parnell, P G; Styles, M E

    1990-03-01

    Megaesophagus was diagnosed in 2 cats. Both had a history of regurgitation, and one was dyspneic. Radiography of the thorax and abdomen revealed generalized megaesophagus and gastric distention with gas. There was no esophageal motility during fluoroscopic observation. The prognosis for cats with megaesophagus is guarded. Although they may be satisfactory pets, cats with this condition should not be used for breeding because the condition is believed to be inherited through recessive genes.

  19. Shp2 knockdown and Noonan/LEOPARD mutant Shp2-induced gastrulation defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Jopling

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shp2 is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that is essential for normal development. Activating and inactivating mutations have been identified in humans to cause the related Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes, respectively. The cell biological cause of these syndromes remains to be determined. We have used the zebrafish to assess the role of Shp2 in early development. Here, we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of Shp2 in zebrafish resulted in defects during gastrulation. Cell tracing experiments demonstrated that Shp2 knockdown induced defects in convergence and extension cell movements. In situ hybridization using a panel of markers indicated that cell fate was not affected by Shp2 knock down. The Shp2 knockdown-induced defects were rescued by active Fyn and Yes and by active RhoA. We generated mutants of Shp2 with mutations that were identified in human patients with Noonan or LEOPARD Syndrome and established that Noonan Shp2 was activated and LEOPARD Shp2 lacked catalytic protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity. Expression of Noonan or LEOPARD mutant Shp2 in zebrafish embryos induced convergence and extension cell movement defects without affecting cell fate. Moreover, these embryos displayed craniofacial and cardiac defects, reminiscent of human symptoms. Noonan and LEOPARD mutant Shp2s were not additive nor synergistic, consistent with the mutant Shp2s having activating and inactivating roles in the same signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that Shp2 is required for normal convergence and extension cell movements during gastrulation and that Src family kinases and RhoA were downstream of Shp2. Expression of Noonan or LEOPARD Shp2 phenocopied the craniofacial and cardiac defects of human patients. The finding that defective Shp2 signaling induced cell movement defects as early as gastrulation may have implications for the monitoring and diagnosis of Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome.

  20. Baseline hematology and serum biochemistry results for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Muliya, Sanath Krishna; Deshmukh, Ajay; Suresh, Sujay; Nath, Anukul; Kalaignan, Pa; Venkataravanappa, Manjunath; Jose, Lyju

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the baseline hematology and serum biochemistry values for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca), and to assess the possible variations in these parameters based on age and gender. Materials and Methods: Hemato-biochemical test reports from a total of 83 healthy leopards, carried out as part of routine health evaluation in Bannerghatta Biological Park and Manikdoh Leopard Rescue Center, were used to establish baseline hematology and serum biochemistry parameters for the subspecies. The hematological parameters considered for the analysis included hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration. The serum biochemistry parameters considered included total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus. Results: Even though few differences were observed in hematologic and biochemistry values between male and female Indian leopards, the differences were statistically not significant. Effects of age, however, were evident in relation to many hematologic and biochemical parameters. Sub-adults had significantly greater values for Hb, TEC, and TLC compared to adults and geriatric group, whereas they had significantly lower MCV and MCH compared to adults and geriatric group. Among, serum biochemistry parameters the sub-adult age group was observed to have significantly lower values for TP and ALT than adult and geriatric leopards. Conclusion: The study provides a comprehensive analysis of hematologic and biochemical parameters for Indian leopards. Baselines established here will permit better captive management of the subspecies, serve as a guide to assess the health and physiological status of the free ranging leopards, and may contribute valuable information for making effective

  1. Baseline hematology and serum biochemistry results for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Attur Shanmugam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the baseline hematology and serum biochemistry values for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca, and to assess the possible variations in these parameters based on age and gender. Materials and Methods: Hemato-biochemical test reports from a total of 83 healthy leopards, carried out as part of routine health evaluation in Bannerghatta Biological Park and Manikdoh Leopard Rescue Center, were used to establish baseline hematology and serum biochemistry parameters for the subspecies. The hematological parameters considered for the analysis included hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count (TEC, total leukocyte count (TLC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration. The serum biochemistry parameters considered included total protein (TP, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus. Results: Even though few differences were observed in hematologic and biochemistry values between male and female Indian leopards, the differences were statistically not significant. Effects of age, however, were evident in relation to many hematologic and biochemical parameters. Sub-adults had significantly greater values for Hb, TEC, and TLC compared to adults and geriatric group, whereas they had significantly lower MCV and MCH compared to adults and geriatric group. Among, serum biochemistry parameters the sub-adult age group was observed to have significantly lower values for TP and ALT than adult and geriatric leopards. Conclusion: The study provides a comprehensive analysis of hematologic and biochemical parameters for Indian leopards. Baselines established here will permit better captive management of the subspecies, serve as a guide to assess the health and physiological status of the free ranging leopards, and may contribute valuable information for making

  2. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... to have CSD and spread it to people, persons with a weakened immune system should ... Play rough with your pets because they may scratch and bite. Allow cats ...

  4. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  5. Chiricahua leopard frog status in the Galiuro Mountains, Arizona, with a monitoring framework for the species' entire range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones; Michael J. Sredl

    2005-01-01

    The Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) was historically widespread in suitable habitat throughout its range. Reports of recent population declines led to inventories of Chiricahua leopard frog localities. Surveys reported here establish a new baseline of occurrence in the Galiuros: only two of 21 historical localities were found to be...

  6. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS IN A WILD FAR EASTERN LEOPARD ( PANTHERA PARDUS ORIENTALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulikhan, Nadezhda S; Gilbert, Martin; Blidchenko, Ekaterina Yu; Naidenko, Sergei V; Ivanchuk, Galina V; Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Yu; Alshinetskiy, Mikhail V; Shevtsova, Elena I; Goodrich, John M; Lewis, John C M; Goncharuk, Mikhail S; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Rozhnov, Vyatcheslav V; Shedko, Sergey V; McAloose, Denise; Miquelle, Dale G

    2018-01-01

    The critically endangered population of Far Eastern leopards ( Panthera pardus orientalis) may number as few as 60 individuals and is at risk from stochastic processes such as infectious disease. During May 2015, a case of canine distemper virus (CDV) was diagnosed in a wild leopard exhibiting severe neurologic disease in the Russian territory of Primorskii Krai. Amplified sequences of the CDV hemagglutinin gene and phosphoprotein gene aligned within the Arctic-like clade of CDV, which includes viruses from elsewhere in Russia, China, Europe, and North America. Histologic examination of cerebral tissue revealed perivascular lymphoid cuffing and demyelination of the white matter consistent with CDV infection. Neutralizing antibodies against CDV were detected in archived serum from two wild Far Eastern leopards sampled during 1993-94, confirming previous exposure in the population. This leopard population is likely too small to maintain circulation of CDV, suggesting that infections arise from spillover from more-abundant domestic or wild carnivore reservoirs. Increasing the population size and establishment of additional populations of leopards would be important steps toward securing the future of this subspecies and reducing the risk posed by future outbreaks of CDV or other infectious diseases.

  7. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  8. Patterns of Snow Leopard Site Use in an Increasingly Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Shanti Alexander

    Full Text Available Human population growth and concomitant increases in demand for natural resources pose threats to many wildlife populations. The landscapes used by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia and their prey is increasingly subject to major changes in land use. We aimed to assess the influence of 1 key human activities, as indicated by the presence of mining and livestock herding, and 2 the presence of a key prey species, the blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, on probability of snow leopard site use across the landscape. In Gansu Province, China, we conducted sign surveys in 49 grid cells, each of 16 km2 in size, within a larger area of 3392 km2. We analysed the data using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models that explicitly account for imperfect detection and spatial auto-correlation between survey transect segments. The model-averaged estimate of snow leopard occupancy was high [0.75 (SE 0.10], but only marginally higher than the naïve estimate (0.67. Snow leopard segment-level probability of detection, given occupancy on a 500 m spatial replicate, was also high [0.68 (SE 0.08]. Prey presence was the main determinant of snow leopard site use, while human disturbances, in the form of mining and herding, had low predictive power. These findings suggest that snow leopards continue to use areas very close to such disturbances, as long as there is sufficient prey. Improved knowledge about the effect of human activity on large carnivores, which require large areas and intact prey populations, is urgently needed for conservation planning at the local and global levels. We highlight a number of methodological considerations that should guide the design of such research.

  9. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  12. Biventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Child with LEOPARD Syndrome: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blesneac Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: LEOPARD syndrome is a complex dysmorphogenetic disorder of inconstant penetrance and various morphologic expressions. The syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease that features multiple lentigines, electrocardiographic changes, eye hypertelorism, pulmonary valve stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, genital malformations, and a delayed constitutional growth hearing loss, which can be associated with rapidly progressive severe biventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. No epidemiologic data are available on the real incidence of LEOPARD syndrome; however, this seems to be a rare disease, being often underdiagnosed, as many of its features are mild.

  13. Prey Preferences of the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia): Regional Diet Specificity Holds Global Significance for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P.; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W.; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based o...

  14. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  15. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  16. Tracing the geographic origin of traded leopard body parts in the indian subcontinent with DNA-based assignment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Sridhar, Vanjulavalli; Yadav, Prasanjeet; Gubbi, Sanjay; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-04-01

    Illicit trade in wildlife products is rapidly decimating many species across the globe. Such trade is often underestimated for wide-ranging species until it is too late for the survival of their remaining populations. Policing this trade could be vastly improved if one could reliably determine geographic origins of illegal wildlife products and identify areas where greater enforcement is needed. Using DNA-based assignment tests (i.e., samples are assigned to geographic locations), we addressed these factors for leopards (Panthera pardus) on the Indian subcontinent. We created geography-specific allele frequencies from a genetic reference database of 173 leopards across India to infer geographic origins of DNA samples from 40 seized leopard skins. Sensitivity analyses of samples of known geographic origins and assignments of seized skins demonstrated robust assignments for Indian leopards. We found that confiscated pelts seized in small numbers were not necessarily from local leopards. The geographic footprint of large seizures appeared to be bigger than the cumulative footprint of several smaller seizures, indicating widespread leopard poaching across the subcontinent. Our seized samples had male-biased sex ratios, especially the large seizures. From multiple seized sample assignments, we identified central India as a poaching hotspot for leopards. The techniques we applied can be used to identify origins of seized illegal wildlife products and trade routes at the subcontinent scale and beyond. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  18. PZR coordinates Shp2 Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome signaling in zebrafish and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper Overman, Jeroen; Yi, Jae-Sung; Bonetti, Monica; Soulsby, Matthew; Preisinger, Christian; Stokes, Matthew P; Hui, Li; Silva, Jeffrey C; Overvoorde, John; Giansanti, Piero; Heck, Albert J R; Kontaridis, Maria I; den Hertog, Jeroen; Bennett, Anton M

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by activating mutations in the PTPN11 gene encoding Shp2, which manifests in congenital heart disease, short stature, and facial dysmorphia. The complexity of Shp2 signaling is exemplified by the observation that LEOPARD syndrome (LS)

  19. Molecular cloning of P450 aromatase from the leopard gecko and its expression in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we identified the cDNA of P450 aromatase in the leopard gecko, a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. The cDNA encodes a putative protein of 505 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of leopard gecko aromatase cDNA showed 80% identity with that of turtles, 70% with humans and 77% with chickens. This is the first report of the identification of P450 aromatase cDNA in squamata species. It has been reported that this gene is expressed in different layers of cells in the ovary of mammalian species and avian species. Thus, we also investigated cells expressing the mRNA of this gene in the ovary of the leopard gecko by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The mRNA expression of leopard gecko P450 aromatase was localized in both the thecal and granulosa cell layers in the ovary. The expression in thecal and granulosa cell layers was examined in the largest follicle, second largest follicle and third largest follicle by RT-PCR. A higher level of mRNA expression was observed in the granulosa cell layer of the second largest follicle than in other cell layers. This result may reflect the characteristics of follicles in species with automonochronic ovulation.

  20. Diversity and evolutionary patterns of immune genes in free-ranging Namibian leopards (Panthera pardus pardus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Melzheimer, Joerg; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Sommer, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a key component of the mammalian immune system and have become important molecular markers for fitness-related genetic variation in wildlife populations. Currently, no information about the MHC sequence variation and constitution in African leopards exists. In this study, we isolated and characterized genetic variation at the adaptively most important region of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB genes in 25 free-ranging African leopards from Namibia and investigated the mechanisms that generate and maintain MHC polymorphism in the species. Using single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing, we detected 6 MHC class I and 6 MHC class II-DRB sequences, which likely correspond to at least 3 MHC class I and 3 MHC class II-DRB loci. Amino acid sequence variation in both MHC classes was higher or similar in comparison to other reported felids. We found signatures of positive selection shaping the diversity of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB loci during the evolutionary history of the species. A comparison of MHC class I and MHC class II-DRB sequences of the leopard to those of other felids revealed a trans-species mode of evolution. In addition, the evolutionary relationships of MHC class II-DRB sequences between African and Asian leopard subspecies are discussed.

  1. Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome in zebrafish : molecular mechanisms and cardiac development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonetti, Monica; Paardekooper Overman, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of zebrafish to study Noonan-(NS) and LEOPARD syndromes (LS), two autosomal dominant disorders with overlapping symptoms, caused by mutations in protein-tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11). Intriguingly, while NS mutations result in a more ‘active’ state

  2. Abundance and Ecology of Leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Rasmus Gren

    habitats such as rainforests. The Udzungwa Mountains in South Central Tanzania are covered in both rainforest and more familiar African habitats, holds an incredible number of mammal species and a completely unknown population of leopards. In this study I used automatic camera traps that took photos of all...

  3. Evaluation of use of tiletamine/zolazepam for anesthesia of bullfrogs and leopard frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, J; Durante, R

    1995-07-01

    Use of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride (1:1 fixed ratio combination) as an anesthetic agent in 2 anuran species was studied. A dosage of 5 mg/kg of body weight, administered IM, resulted in variable weak tranquilization. Intramuscular administration at dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg induced variable states of tranquilization or anesthesia in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and bullfrogs (R catesbeiana). The dosages of 50 mg/kg induced anesthesia with greater consistency than lower dosages in bullfrogs, but resulted in mortalities. The same dosage was uniformly fatal in leopard frogs. Neither gross nor histologic lesions were identified in the frogs that died. Depth and duration of anesthesia was dosage related. At the 20 and 50 mg/kg dosages, leopard frogs attained a greater depth of anesthesia and remained anesthetized for a significantly greater duration than did bullfrogs; however, at the 5 and 10 mg/kg dosages, bullfrogs developed greater tranquilization for longer periods than did leopard frogs. Results of this study revealed profound intraspecies variation in depth and duration of effect of tiletamine/zolazepam; therefore, the drug does not appear to be a suitable injectable anesthetic in anurans.

  4. Anterior segment dysgenesis (Peters' anomaly) in two snow leopard (Panthera uncia) cubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    remnant of the hyaloid artery. The male had hydrocephalus and thus some of the features of Peters' plus syndrome (Peters' anomaly in addition to systemic malformations). The histological findings in the eyes of these snow leopard siblings are identical with those described in humans with Peters' anomaly....

  5. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  6. Flexibility in the duration of parental care: Female leopards prioritise cub survival over reproductive output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Guy A; Robinson, Hugh S; Pitman, Ross T; Hunter, Luke T B

    2017-09-01

    Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction. We also examined the demographic and ecological factors affecting the duration of care in the light of five explanatory hypotheses: litter size, sex allocation, resource limitation, timing of independence and terminal investment. Duration of care exhibited by female leopards varied markedly, from 9 to 35 months. Mothers did not appear to suffer any short- or long-term survival costs from caring for cubs, but extending care reduced the number of litters that mothers could produce during their lifetimes. Interestingly, the duration of care did not appear to affect the post-independence survival or reproductive success of offspring (although it may have indirectly affected offspring survival by influencing dispersal distance). However, results from generalised linear mixed models showed that mothers prolonged care during periods of prey scarcity, supporting the resource limitation hypothesis. Female leopards also cared for sons longer than daughters, in line with the sex-allocation hypothesis. Cub survival is an important determinant of the lifetime reproductive success in leopards. By buffering offspring against environmental perturbation without jeopardising their own survivorship, female leopards apparently "hedge their bets" with current offspring rather than

  7. Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Staniland, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90?125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12?16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the ?escapement? due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species

  8. Bell inequalities with Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the Schrodinger cat gedanken experiment a ''cat'' is in a quantum superposition of two macroscopically distinct states. There is the apparent interpretation that the ''cat'' is not in one state or the other, ''alive'' or ''dead''. Here this interpretation is proved objectively. I propose the following definition of macroscopic reality: first, that the ''cat'' is either dead or alive, the measurement revealing which; second, that measurements on other ''cats'' some distance away cannot induce the macroscopic change, ''dead'' to ''alive'' and vice versa, to the ''cat''. The predictions of quantum mechanics are shown to be incompatible with this premise. (orig.)

  9. Effects of CFT Legumine (5% Rotenone) on tadpole survival and metamorphosis of Chiricahua leopard frogs Lithobates chiricahuensis, Northern leopard frogs L. pipiens, and American bullfrogs L. catesbeianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Guillermo; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Kruse, Carter G.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians may experience collateral effects if exposed to CFT Legumine (5% rotenone), a piscicide that is used to remove invasive fish. A series of 48-h static toxicity tests assessed the acute effects of CFT Legumine on multi-aged tadpoles of the federally listed Chiricahua leopard frog Lithobates chiricahuensis, the widespread northern leopard frog L. pipiens, and the increasingly invasive American bullfrog L. catesbeianus. At the earliest Gosner stages (GS 21–25), Chiricahua leopard frogs were more sensitive to CFT Legumine (median lethal concentration [LC50] = 0.41–0.58 mg/L) than American bullfrogs (LC50 = 0.63–0.69 mg/L) and northern leopard frogs (LC50 = 0.91 and 1.17 mg/L). As tadpoles developed (i.e., increase in GS), their sensitivity to rotenone decreased. In a separate series of 48-h static nonrenewal toxicity tests, tadpoles (GS 21–25 and GS 31–36) of all three species were exposed to piscicidal concentrations of CFT Legumine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/L) to assess postexposure effects on metamorphosis. In survivors of all three species at both life stages, the time to tail resorption was nearly doubled in comparison with that of controls. For example, mid-age (GS 31–36) Chiricahua leopard frog tadpoles required 210.7 h to complete tail resorption, whereas controls required 108.5 h. However, because tail resorption is a relatively short period in metamorphosis, the total duration of development (days from posthatch to complete metamorphosis) and the final weight did not differ in either age-group surviving nominal concentrations of 0.5-, 1.0-, and 2.0-mg/L CFT Legumine relative to controls. This research demonstrates that the CFT Legumine concentrations commonly used in field applications to remove unwanted fish could result in considerable mortality of the earliest stages of Lithobates species. In addition to acute lethality, piscicide treatments may result in delayed tail resorption, which places the tadpoles at risk by increasing

  10. Scent Lure Effect on Camera-Trap Based Leopard Density Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Richard Braczkowski

    Full Text Available Density estimates for large carnivores derived from camera surveys often have wide confidence intervals due to low detection rates. Such estimates are of limited value to authorities, which require precise population estimates to inform conservation strategies. Using lures can potentially increase detection, improving the precision of estimates. However, by altering the spatio-temporal patterning of individuals across the camera array, lures may violate closure, a fundamental assumption of capture-recapture. Here, we test the effect of scent lures on the precision and veracity of density estimates derived from camera-trap surveys of a protected African leopard population. We undertook two surveys (a 'control' and 'treatment' survey on Phinda Game Reserve, South Africa. Survey design remained consistent except a scent lure was applied at camera-trap stations during the treatment survey. Lures did not affect the maximum movement distances (p = 0.96 or temporal activity of female (p = 0.12 or male leopards (p = 0.79, and the assumption of geographic closure was met for both surveys (p >0.05. The numbers of photographic captures were also similar for control and treatment surveys (p = 0.90. Accordingly, density estimates were comparable between surveys (although estimates derived using non-spatial methods (7.28-9.28 leopards/100km2 were considerably higher than estimates from spatially-explicit methods (3.40-3.65 leopards/100km2. The precision of estimates from the control and treatment surveys, were also comparable and this applied to both non-spatial and spatial methods of estimation. Our findings suggest that at least in the context of leopard research in productive habitats, the use of lures is not warranted.

  11. Sympatric Asian felid phylogeography reveals a major Indochinese-Sundaic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Zhang, Yue; Johnson, Warren E; Miao, Lin; Martelli, Paolo; Antunes, Agostinho; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The dynamic geological and climatological history of Southeast Asia has spawned a complex array of ecosystems and 12 of the 37 known cat species, making it the most felid-rich region in the world. To examine the evolutionary histories of these poorly studied fauna, we compared phylogeography of six species (leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, fishing cat P. viverrinus, Asiatic golden cat Pardofelis temminckii, marbled cat P. marmorata, tiger Panthera tigris and leopard P. pardus) by sequencing over 5 kb of DNA each from 445 specimens at multiple loci of mtDNA, Y and X chromosomes. All species except the leopard displayed significant phylogenetic partitions between Indochina and Sundaland, with the central Thai-Malay Peninsula serving as the biogeographic boundary. Concordant mtDNA and nuclear DNA genealogies revealed deep Indochinese-Sundaic divergences around 2 MYA in both P. bengalensis and P. marmorata comparable to previously described interspecific distances within Felidae. The divergence coincided with serial sea level rises during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, and was probably reinforced by repeated isolation events associated with environmental changes throughout the Pleistocene. Indochinese-Sundaic differentiations within P. tigris and P. temminckii were more recent at 72-108 and 250-1570 kya, respectively. Overall, these results illuminate unexpected, deep vicariance events in Southeast Asian felids and provide compelling evidence of species-level distinction between the Indochinese and Sundaic populations in the leopard cat and marbled cat. Broader sampling and further molecular and morphometric analyses of these species will be instrumental in defining conservation units and effectively preserving Southeast Asian biodiversity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Scale dependence of felid predation risk: Identifying predictors of livestock kills by tiger and leopard in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susana Rostro-Garcia; Lhendup Tharchen; Leandro Abade; Christos Astaras; Samuel A. Cushman; David W. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Livestock predation by tiger and leopard in Bhutan is a major threat to the conservation of these felids. Conflict mitigation planning would benefit from an improved understanding of the spatial pattern of livestock kills by the two predators.

  13. Use of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride for immobilization of wild leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Athreya, Vidya R

    2010-06-01

    In India, leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) inhabit human-dominated landscapes, resulting in encounters that require interventions to prevent harm to people, as well as the leopards. Immobilization is a prerequisite for any such intervention. Such emergency field immobilizations have to be carried out with limited tools, often amidst large uncontrollable crowds. An effective and practicable approach is discussed, based on 55 wild leopard immobilizations undertaken between January 2003 and April 2008. A xylazine hydrochloride (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/kg)--ketamine hydrochloride (5 +/- 2 mg/kg) mixture was used for immobilization of leopards, based on estimated body weight. When weight could not be estimated, a standard initial dose of 50 mg of xylazine--150 mg of ketamine was used. Supplemental doses (50-75 mg) of only ketamine were used as required. No life-threatening adverse effects of immobilization were documented for at least 1 mo postimmobilization.

  14. Use of ETOG and ETOT computer codes for preparating the Library of LEOPARD with data from ENDFIB-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Menezes Filho, A. da.

    1983-01-01

    The modifications carried out in the ETOT-3 and ETOG-3 computer codes used for preparating the thermal (172 energy groups) and epithermal (54 energy groups) libraries, respectivelly, of LEOPARD computer code, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 3v Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states

  16. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  17. Sociosexual Investigation in Sexually Experienced, Hormonally Manipulated Male Leopard Geckos: Relation With Phosphorylated DARPP-32 in Dopaminergic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, VICTORIA; HEMMINGS, HUGH C.; CREWS, DAVID

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. In this study, we exposed hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures to conspecifics and measured their socio...

  18. Juvenile hyperthyroidism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jana M; Ehrhart, E J; Sisson, D D; Jones, M A

    2003-01-01

    An 8-month-old, male domestic shorthaired cat presented for chronic weight loss, intermittent dyspnea, chronic diarrhea, hyperactivity, and weakness. The cat had a palpable thyroid nodule and increased serum total thyroxine and 3,5,3' triiodothyronine levels. The cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, and a unilateral thyroidectomy was performed followed by radioactive iodine at a later date. The clinical signs resolved following radioactive iodine, and the cat subsequently developed clinical hypothyroidism.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Janice; Narayan, Edward J; Dileep Kumar, R; Thenmozhi, K; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2017-01-01

    India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly

  20. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Vaz

    Full Text Available India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12% than leopards (7% during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g. Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was

  1. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  2. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aparicio, F.J.; Fjeld, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  3. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  4. Characterization of sucrose-negative Pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Grimmig; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    To validate the identification of Pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpoB and infB genes...... showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of P. multocida. The sucrose-negative strains formed two groups, one related to reference strains of P. multocida and the other related to a separate species-like group (taxon 45 of Bisgaard). DNA-DNA hybridization further...... and the reference strains of P. multocida. Two strains isolated from leopard bite wounds were related to the type strain of P. dagmatis; however, they represented a new taxon (taxon 46 of Bisgaard), in accordance with their distinct phenotypic and genotypic identifications. The present study documents that sucrose-negative...

  5. Dermatitis and cellulitis in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplon, D E; Terrell, S P; Sigler, L; Jacobson, E R

    2013-07-01

    An epizootic of ulcerative to nodular ventral dermatitis was observed in a large breeding colony of 8-month to 5-year-old leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) of both sexes. Two representative mature male geckos were euthanized for diagnostic necropsy. The Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) was isolated from the skin lesions, and identification was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Histopathology revealed multifocal to coalescing dermal and subcutaneous heterophilic granulomas that contained septate fungal hyphae. There was also multifocal epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, and similar hyphae were present within the stratum corneum, occasionally with terminal chains of arthroconidia consistent with the CANV. In one case, there was focal extension of granulomatous inflammation into the underlying masseter muscle. This is the first report of dermatitis and cellulitis due to the CANV in leopard geckos.

  6. Proliferative enteritis in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) associated with Cryptosporidium sp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Scott P; Uhl, Elizabeth W; Funk, Richard S

    2003-03-01

    Twenty-three leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) with various clinical histories of weight loss, anorexia, lethargy, and diarrhea were submitted either intact or as biopsy specimens to the University of Florida Anatomic Pathology Service. Gross necropsy findings in the intact geckos included marked reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue stores at the tail base and mild thickening and reddening of the small intestine. Histologic examination revealed Cryptosporidium sp. infection associated with hyperplasia and mononuclear inflammation of the small intestine in all geckos. Parasites and lesions were only rarely observed in the stomach and large intestine of geckos. The histologic and ultrastructural lesions in the small intestine of leopard geckos infected with Cryptosporidium sp. have not been well characterized previously. This report implicates Cryptosporidium sp. as the cause of disease in the geckos and describes the range of histologic lesions observed.

  7. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment of moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bostwick, E F

    1999-01-01

    Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. The geckos were lethargic and moderately to severely emaciated, weighing on average 36% of the baseline body weight value. Seven gastric HBC treatments at 1-week intervals each decreased the relative output of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and the prevalence of oocyst-positive fecal specimens. Histologically, after 8 weeks of therapy, seven out of 12 geckos had only single developmental stages of Cryptosporidium sp. in the intestinal epithelium, and three, one and one geckos had low, moderate and high numbers, respectively, of the pathogen developmental stages. The HBC therapy was efficacious in decreasing the parasite load in moribund geckos. Morphometric and immunologic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst isolates originating from Leopard geckos (E. macularius) demonstrated differences between gecko-derived oocyst isolates and isolates of C. serpentis recovered from snakes.

  8. Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

    2010-10-01

    The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives.

  9. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  10. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-01-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of ...

  11. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    OpenAIRE

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs wer...

  12. Detection of testudinid herpesvirus type 4 in a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, Ekaterina; Mittenzwei, Frank; Marschang, Rachel E

    2016-08-17

    Several animals from a mixed species collection of tortoises in Germany died unexpectedly. Some of the affected leopard tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis) from this group showed respiratory signs. Samples were collected from one of the ill tortoises, and a Mycoplasma spp. and a herpesvirus were detected by PCR. Sequencing of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene of the herpesvirus showed 99% identity with testudinid herpesvirus 4, previously described only once in a bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata) in the United States.

  13. Mapping black panthers: Macroecological modeling of melanism in leopards (Panthera pardus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas G da Silva

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution and habitat association of most mammalian polymorphic phenotypes are still poorly known, hampering assessments of their adaptive significance. Even in the case of the black panther, an iconic melanistic variant of the leopard (Panthera pardus, no map exists describing its distribution. We constructed a large database of verified records sampled across the species' range, and used it to map the geographic occurrence of melanism. We then estimated the potential distribution of melanistic and non-melanistic leopards using niche-modeling algorithms. The overall frequency of melanism was ca. 11%, with a significantly non-random spatial distribution. Distinct habitat types presented significantly different frequencies of melanism, which increased in Asian moist forests and approached zero across most open/dry biomes. Niche modeling indicated that the potential distributions of the two phenotypes were distinct, with significant differences in habitat suitability and rejection of niche equivalency between them. We conclude that melanism in leopards is strongly affected by natural selection, likely driven by efficacy of camouflage and/or thermoregulation in different habitats, along with an effect of moisture that goes beyond its influence on vegetation type. Our results support classical hypotheses of adaptive coloration in animals (e.g. Gloger's rule, and open up new avenues for in-depth evolutionary analyses of melanism in mammals.

  14. Mapping black panthers: Macroecological modeling of melanism in leopards (Panthera pardus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lucas G; Kawanishi, Kae; Henschel, Philipp; Kittle, Andrew; Sanei, Arezoo; Reebin, Alexander; Miquelle, Dale; Stein, Andrew B; Watson, Anjali; Kekule, Laurence Bruce; Machado, Ricardo B; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The geographic distribution and habitat association of most mammalian polymorphic phenotypes are still poorly known, hampering assessments of their adaptive significance. Even in the case of the black panther, an iconic melanistic variant of the leopard (Panthera pardus), no map exists describing its distribution. We constructed a large database of verified records sampled across the species' range, and used it to map the geographic occurrence of melanism. We then estimated the potential distribution of melanistic and non-melanistic leopards using niche-modeling algorithms. The overall frequency of melanism was ca. 11%, with a significantly non-random spatial distribution. Distinct habitat types presented significantly different frequencies of melanism, which increased in Asian moist forests and approached zero across most open/dry biomes. Niche modeling indicated that the potential distributions of the two phenotypes were distinct, with significant differences in habitat suitability and rejection of niche equivalency between them. We conclude that melanism in leopards is strongly affected by natural selection, likely driven by efficacy of camouflage and/or thermoregulation in different habitats, along with an effect of moisture that goes beyond its influence on vegetation type. Our results support classical hypotheses of adaptive coloration in animals (e.g. Gloger's rule), and open up new avenues for in-depth evolutionary analyses of melanism in mammals.

  15. Genetic diversity of six isolated populations of the leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dolati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae, is an important pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs including walnut and apple across the world. The natural populations of the leopard moth in different geographical areas of Iran show significant differences in some of their biological characteristics such as time of emergence, generation time and host specificity. So, we hypothesized that these populations may represent different subspecies that move toward a speciation event in their evolutionary route. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of six different geographically isolated populations of the leopard moth using the sequence alignment of cytochrome oxidase c subunit one (COI. A fragment of 642 base pairs was amplified in all six populations and the phylogenetic tree was created based on sequenced fragments. Our results revealed significant differences in the nucleotide sequence of COI gene in these populations. Differences in climatic conditions of these regions seem to be the most powerful force driving this diversity among the studied populations.

  16. Leopard (Panthera pardus status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Jacobson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The leopard’s (Panthera pardus broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard’s status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750 and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25–37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor account for 97% of the leopard’s extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km2 of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected.

  17. Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns and identify hotspots of livestock/human depredation. We also evaluated management responses like removals of 'problem' leopards through capture and translocations. Leopards occupied around 84,000 km2 or 47% of the State's geographic area, outside designated national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Their presence was facilitated by extent of vegetative cover- including irrigated croplands, rocky escarpments, and prey base in the form of feral and free-ranging dogs. Higher probabilities of livestock/human attacks by leopards were associated with similar ecological features as well as with capture/removals of leopards. Of the 56 cases of leopard removals reported, 91% did not involve human attacks, but followed livestock predation or only leopard sightings. The lack of knowledge on leopard ecology in human-use areas has resulted in unscientific interventions, which could aggravate the problem rather than mitigating it. Our results establish the presence of resident, breeding leopards in human-use areas. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices like removal and translocation of leopards, to proactive measures that ensure safety of human lives and livelihoods.

  18. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  19. Comparison of Subjective Well-Being and Personality Assessments in the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia), and African Lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of subjective well-being in nonhuman animals is growing in the field of psychology, but there are still only a few published studies and the focus is on primates. To consider whether the construct of subjective well-being could be found in another mammal, this study aimed to assess subjective well-being in felids and to examine its association with personality. Personality is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of well-being in humans. This relationship could have important implications for other species, because personality has also been shown to affect health outcomes including stress, morbidity, and mortality. As in previous studies in nonhuman animals, the study results revealed that subjective well-being was related to agreeableness/openness and neuroticism in clouded leopards, neuroticism in snow leopards, and impulsiveness and neuroticism in African lions. The implications of these results for health outcomes and the welfare of animals in captivity are discussed. More research on any direct links among personality, subjective well-being, and these outcomes is important to advancing this field and adding another tool for improving captive animals' lives.

  20. Development of a PCR Assay to detect Papillomavirus Infection in the Snow Leopard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Curtis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papillomaviruses (PVs are a group of small, non-encapsulated, species-specific DNA viruses that have been detected in a variety of mammalian and avian species including humans, canines and felines. PVs cause lesions in the skin and mucous membranes of the host and after persistent infection, a subset of PVs can cause tumors such as cervical malignancies and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in humans. PVs from several species have been isolated and their genomes have been sequenced, thereby increasing our understanding of the mechanism of viral oncogenesis and allowing for the development of molecular assays for the detection of PV infection. In humans, molecular testing for PV DNA is used to identify patients with persistent infections at risk for developing cervical cancer. In felids, PVs have been isolated and sequenced from oral papillomatous lesions of several wild species including bobcats, Asian lions and snow leopards. Since a number of wild felids are endangered, PV associated disease is a concern and there is a need for molecular tools that can be used to further study papillomavirus in these species. Results We used the sequence of the snow leopard papillomavirus UuPV1 to develop a PCR strategy to amplify viral DNA from samples obtained from captive animals. We designed primer pairs that flank the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes and amplify two DNA fragments encompassing these genes. We detected viral DNA for E6 and E7 in genomic DNA isolated from saliva, but not in paired blood samples from snow leopards. We verified the identity of these PCR products by restriction digest and DNA sequencing. The sequences of the PCR products were 100% identical to the published UuPV1 genome sequence. Conclusions We developed a PCR assay to detect papillomavirus in snow leopards and amplified viral DNA encompassing the E6 and E7 oncogenes specifically in the saliva of animals. This assay could be utilized for the molecular

  1. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  2. Predicting the distributions of predator (snow leopard) and prey (blue sheep) under climate change in the Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Achyut; Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Ji, Weihong; Ale, Som B; Shrestha, Sujata; Ingty, Tenzing; Maraseni, Tek; Cockfield, Geoff; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-06-01

    Future climate change is likely to affect distributions of species, disrupt biotic interactions, and cause spatial incongruity of predator-prey habitats. Understanding the impacts of future climate change on species distribution will help in the formulation of conservation policies to reduce the risks of future biodiversity losses. Using a species distribution modeling approach by MaxEnt, we modeled current and future distributions of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and its common prey, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), and observed the changes in niche overlap in the Nepal Himalaya. Annual mean temperature is the major climatic factor responsible for the snow leopard and blue sheep distributions in the energy-deficient environments of high altitudes. Currently, about 15.32% and 15.93% area of the Nepal Himalaya are suitable for snow leopard and blue sheep habitats, respectively. The bioclimatic models show that the current suitable habitats of both snow leopard and blue sheep will be reduced under future climate change. The predicted suitable habitat of the snow leopard is decreased when blue sheep habitats is incorporated in the model. Our climate-only model shows that only 11.64% (17,190 km(2)) area of Nepal is suitable for the snow leopard under current climate and the suitable habitat reduces to 5,435 km(2) (reduced by 24.02%) after incorporating the predicted distribution of blue sheep. The predicted distribution of snow leopard reduces by 14.57% in 2030 and by 21.57% in 2050 when the predicted distribution of blue sheep is included as compared to 1.98% reduction in 2030 and 3.80% reduction in 2050 based on the climate-only model. It is predicted that future climate may alter the predator-prey spatial interaction inducing a lower degree of overlap and a higher degree of mismatch between snow leopard and blue sheep niches. This suggests increased energetic costs of finding preferred prey for snow leopards - a species already facing energetic constraints due to the

  3. Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) at a veterinary teaching hospital: 52 cases (1985-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggans, K Tomo; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Reilly, Christopher M; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Kass, Philip H; Hollingsworth, Steven R

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 112 of 144 (78%) leopard geckos that were evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital in January 1985 through October 2013 and for which sufficient medical record information was available. PROCEDURES Information from medical records was used to identify leopard geckos with ophthalmic disease, characterize cases, and determine risk factors for the presence of ophthalmic disease. RESULTS Of the 112 leopard geckos, 52 (46%) had ophthalmic disease (mainly corneal or conjunctival disease). Female geckos were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, and there was a positive association between increasing age and ophthalmic disease. Use of a paper towel substrate, absence of any heat source, and lack of vitamin A supplementation were positively associated with a diagnosis of ophthalmic disease. Head dysecdysis was the only concurrent disorder significantly associated with ophthalmic disease. At necropsy, 5 affected leopard geckos had squamous metaplasia of the conjunctivae. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that ophthalmic disease is a common finding in leopard geckos. The cause of ocular surface disease in leopard geckos may be multifactorial, and hypovitaminosis A may be an important risk factor. Although animals receiving supplemental vitamin A were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, further understanding is required regarding the metabolism of and nutritional requirements for vitamin A in leopard geckos.

  4. Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmacharya Dibesh B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA in the east. Nineteen (27% scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53% of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females and five (2 males and 3 females in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.

  5. Spatio-temporal separation between lions and leopards in the Kruger National Park and the Timbavati Private Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakedi W. Maputla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the underlying processes that drive coexistence among apex predators is of great importance to landscape managers overseeing their persistence. Two pressing questions stand out. These questions relate to whether space use by subordinate carnivores is a function of resource distribution and shifts in resource availability or fine scale movement associations with sympatric top predators that dominate them. We hypothesized that leopard movements were primarily resource-driven and secondarily, competition driven. Using data from leopards and lions collared in the Kruger National Park (Kruger and the neighboring Timbavati Private Nature Reserve (Timbavati, we investigated the associations between leopard GPS fixes and resource distribution. We built landscapes of movement activities of lions to investigate the relationships with leopard movements. Results suggested that leopard movements were strongly resource-driven. Lion influence did not come out strongly on leopards collared in the Kruger. In the Timbavati however, lion movements appeared to strongly influence the male leopard movements. We concluded that resources were the main driver of leopard movement behavior and that differences in observed behaviors between Kruger and Timbavati were as a result of different management regimes practiced in the two reserves.

  6. Identification of the reptilian prolactin and its receptor cDNAs in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Keisuke; Ikemoto, Tadahiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2005-02-14

    In spite of their physiological significance, there is no available information about the nucleotide sequences of prolactin (PRL) and its receptor in reptilian species. In order to fill this gap, PRL and its receptor cDNAs were identified in a reptilian species, the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius. The deduced leopard gecko PRL polypeptide showed high identities with the corresponding polypeptides of other reptiles. The leopard gecko PRL receptor (PRLR) was estimated to have tandem repeated regions in its extracellular domain, which had been originally found in avian PRLR. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that these tandem repeated regions were generated by the duplication of the extracellular region in the latest common ancestor among reptiles and birds. In addition, tissue distributions of PRL and PRLR in the leopard gecko were examined by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PRLR mRNA was detected in all tissues examined and highly expressed in the whole brain, pituitary, intestine, kidney, ovary, oviduct and testis. Whereas, PRL mRNA was expressed in the whole brain, pituitary, ovary and testis. The co-expressions of PRL and its receptor in some extrapituitary organs suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine/paracrine factor in such organs of the leopard gecko.

  7. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  8. Diprosopia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camón, J; Ruberte, J; Ordóñez, G

    1990-05-01

    A diprosopic cat is described. In the head, two snouts, three eyes and two pinnae were present. The mandible was single and immobile because labial skin of both upper lips and single lower lip was partly fused. Superimposition of upper and lower dental arches was impossible and the mouths remained permanently open. Two incomplete oral cavities were present and the two tongues were joined at their base. The brain was duplicated in part. In the cranium only occipital and temporal bones were normal, the basisphenoid was bifurcated and the remaining bones were duplicated. Embryological mechanisms are discussed.

  9. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  10. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  11. ZZ TEMPEST/MUFT, Thermal Neutron and Fast Neutron Multigroup Cross-Section Library for Program LEOPARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Do; Lee, Jong Tai

    1986-01-01

    Description of problem or function: Format: TEMPEST and MUFT; Number of groups: 246 thermal groups in TEMPEST Format and 54 fast groups in MUFT Format. From this library, the program SPOTS4 generates a 172-54 group library as input to the code LEOPARD. Nuclides: H, O, Zr, C, Fe, Ni, Al, Cr, Mn, U, Pu, Th, Pa, Xe, Sm, B and D. Origin: ENDF/B-4; Weighting spectrum: 1/E + U 235 fission spectrum. Data library of thermal and fast neutron group Cross sections to generate input to the program LEOPARD. The data is based on ENDF/B-4 and consists of two parts: (1) 246 thermal groups in TEMPEST Format. (2) 54 fast groups in MUFT Format. From this library, the program SPOTS4 generates a 172-54 group library as input to the code LEOPARD (NESC0279)

  12. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  13. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  14. Vigorous dynamics underlie a stable population of the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia in Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koustubh Sharma

    Full Text Available Population monitoring programmes and estimation of vital rates are key to understanding the mechanisms of population growth, decline or stability, and are important for effective conservation action. We report, for the first time, the population trends and vital rates of the endangered snow leopard based on camera trapping over four years in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. We used robust design multi-season mark-recapture analysis to estimate the trends in abundance, sex ratio, survival probability and the probability of temporary emigration and immigration for adult and young snow leopards. The snow leopard population remained constant over most of the study period, with no apparent growth (λ = 1.08+-0.25. Comparison of model results with the "known population" of radio-collared snow leopards suggested high accuracy in our estimates. Although seemingly stable, vigorous underlying dynamics were evident in this population, with the adult sex ratio shifting from being male-biased to female-biased (1.67 to 0.38 males per female during the study. Adult survival probability was 0.82 (SE+-0.08 and that of young was 0.83 (SE+-0.15 and 0.77 (SE +-0.2 respectively, before and after the age of 2 years. Young snow leopards showed a high probability of temporary emigration and immigration (0.6, SE +-0.19 and 0.68, SE +-0.32 before and after the age of 2 years though not the adults (0.02 SE+-0.07. While the current female-bias in the population and the number of cubs born each year seemingly render the study population safe, the vigorous dynamics suggests that the situation can change quickly. The reduction in the proportion of male snow leopards may be indicative of continuing anthropogenic pressures. Our work reiterates the importance of monitoring both the abundance and population dynamics of species for effective conservation.

  15. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  16. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  17. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  18. Breeding of a leopard gecko in a kindergarden and it's utilization for awakening and intensifying children's interest in nature

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the theme of the reciprocal action of animals and pre-school children. It introduces us to the breeding of leopard geckos in kindergartens (with its benefits and disadvantages). Based on case studies, it describes a leopard gecko's influence on preschool children's personalities in kindergarten. The main method of research involves observing individual children as well as a group of children in a one- room kindergarten, Lísteček. Kindergarten Lísteček enrolls childre...

  19. A survey of blood and other tissue parasites of leopard frogs Rana pipiens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N D; Nye, R R

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of blood and other tissue parasites from 137 leopard frogs, Rana pipiens complex, purchased from 13 commercial vendors in 8 states in the United States, Trypanosoma pipientis was found in 2 R. p. berlandieri, Toxoplasma ranae in 1 R. pipiens, Isospora lieberkuehni in 1 leopard frog, Haemogregarina magna in 44, Lankesterella minima in 3, Leptotheca ohlmacheri in 3 and microfilariae of Foleyella sp. in 6. The report of I. lieberkuehni is presumably a new host record. Haemogregarina temporariae (Nöller,, 1920) nov. comb. is established as a new combination for Nematopsis temporariae.

  20. Generation of nuclear constants of the TRIGA reactor with the Leopard code; Generacion de constantes nucleares del reactor TRIGA con el codigo Leopard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F; Perusquia del C, R [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1983-09-15

    The reactor core was divided in 12 regions, this was made in function of the composition and temperature and its are: 1) central thimble, 2) B ring, 3) C ring, 4) D ring, 5) E ring, 6) F ring, 7) G ring, 8) superior caps of fuel elements (E.C. s) standard, 9) inferior caps of E.C.'s standard, 10) superior and inferior reflector of the core, 11) lateral reflector and 12) superior and inferior caps of the E.C.'s graphite. Likewise the constants of the followers' of fuel cell, of the empty follower and of the conduits of the gamma camera were obtained. For the obtaining of the enter data of the LEOPARD the dimensions and the composition of the different regions are required, this is consigned in the IT/E21-83 report. (Author)

  1. Effects of testosterone on sexual behavior and morphology in adult female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Ross, J; Crews, D

    1999-10-01

    The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko.

  2. Normally occurring intersexuality and testosterone induced plasticity in the copulatory system of adult leopard geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Putz, Oliver; Crews, David; Wade, Juli

    2005-04-01

    The copulatory neuromuscular system of lizards is highly sexually dimorphic. Adult males possess bilateral penises called hemipenes, which are independently controlled by two muscles, the retractor penis magnus (RPM) and transversus penis (TPN). These structures are not obvious in adult females. However, in adult female leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius), testosterone induces hemipene growth. We investigated whether these structures develop de novo in adulthood or are histologically present as rudimentary structures in the female leopard gecko. We also investigated the extent of sexual dimorphisms and plasticity in the associated neuromuscular components. To do this, we compared copulatory morphology (sizes of hemipenes, RPM and TPN muscle fibers, and associated motoneurons, as well as motoneuron and RPM fiber number) in adult females treated with testosterone, control females, and control males. All of the geckos possessed hemipenes, RPMs and TPNs, but these structures were indeed vestigial in control females. Testosterone induced striking increases in hemipene and copulatory muscle fiber size in females, but not to levels equivalent to control males. In parallel, males with increased levels of androgenic activity had larger hemipenes, suggesting naturally occurring steroid-induced plasticity. Copulatory motoneurons were not sexually dimorphic in size or number, and these measures did not respond to testosterone. The data demonstrate that the copulatory system of leopard geckos, in which gonadal sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, differs from that of many species (both reptilian and mammalian) with genotypic sex determination. Indeed, the system is remarkable in that adult females have normally occurring intersex characteristics and they exhibit substantial steroid-induced morphological plasticity in adulthood.

  3. Differences induced by incubation temperature, versus androgen manipulation, in male leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Crews, David

    2012-08-20

    A fundamental tenet of sexual selection is that in sexually dimorphic traits, there is variation within a sex. In leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, embryonic temperature contributes both to sex determination and polymorphisms within each sex. In this study we report that males from different incubation temperatures, one hitherto untested, exhibit significant differences in behavior even when castrated. Further, treatment with dihydrotestosterone increases scent marking, a territorial behavior. This supports previous results indicating that temperature has a direct organizing action on brain and sociosexual behavior independent of gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. First Report of Taenia taeniaeformis in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Esfandiari and M. R.Youssefi1*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taenia taeniaeformis is synonym of Taenia infantis, Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Multiceps longihamatus. It has worldwide distribution. The leopard, a young female 2-3 years and body weight of 35 Kg, was shot unwillingly in a frighteningly close encounter with villagers in Ahovan County, Damghan city, Iran. One cestode obtained was identified as Taenia taeniaeformis. The worm was white, thick bodied and about 15 cm in length. The rostellum was short and armed with a double row of 28 hooks of two sizes.

  5. Mac OS X Snow Leopard for Power Users Advanced Capabilities and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Granneman, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Mac OS X Snow Leopard for Power Users: Advanced Capabilities and Techniques is for Mac OS X users who want to go beyond the obvious, the standard, and the easy. If want to dig deeper into Mac OS X and maximize your skills and productivity using the world's slickest and most elegant operating system, then this is the book for you. Written by Scott Granneman, an experienced teacher, developer, and consultant, Mac OS X for Power Users helps you push Mac OS X to the max, unveiling advanced techniques and options that you may have not known even existed. Create custom workflows and apps with Automa

  6. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  7. Genome-wide signatures of complex introgression and adaptive evolution in the big cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró, Henrique V.; Li, Gang; Trindade, Fernanda J.; Assis, Juliana; Pais, Fabiano; Fernandes, Gabriel; Santos, Sarah H. D.; Hughes, Graham M.; Komissarov, Aleksey; Antunes, Agostinho; Trinca, Cristine S.; Rodrigues, Maíra R.; Linderoth, Tyler; Bi, Ke; Silveira, Leandro; Azevedo, Fernando C. C.; Kantek, Daniel; Ramalho, Emiliano; Brassaloti, Ricardo A.; Villela, Priscilla M. S.; Nunes, Adauto L. V.; Teixeira, Rodrigo H. F.; Morato, Ronaldo G.; Loska, Damian; Saragüeta, Patricia; Gabaldón, Toni; Teeling, Emma C.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The great cats of the genus Panthera comprise a recent radiation whose evolutionary history is poorly understood. Their rapid diversification poses challenges to resolving their phylogeny while offering opportunities to investigate the historical dynamics of adaptive divergence. We report the sequence, de novo assembly, and annotation of the jaguar (Panthera onca) genome, a novel genome sequence for the leopard (Panthera pardus), and comparative analyses encompassing all living Panthera species. Demographic reconstructions indicated that all of these species have experienced variable episodes of population decline during the Pleistocene, ultimately leading to small effective sizes in present-day genomes. We observed pervasive genealogical discordance across Panthera genomes, caused by both incomplete lineage sorting and complex patterns of historical interspecific hybridization. We identified multiple signatures of species-specific positive selection, affecting genes involved in craniofacial and limb development, protein metabolism, hypoxia, reproduction, pigmentation, and sensory perception. There was remarkable concordance in pathways enriched in genomic segments implicated in interspecies introgression and in positive selection, suggesting that these processes were connected. We tested this hypothesis by developing exome capture probes targeting ~19,000 Panthera genes and applying them to 30 wild-caught jaguars. We found at least two genes (DOCK3 and COL4A5, both related to optic nerve development) bearing significant signatures of interspecies introgression and within-species positive selection. These findings indicate that post-speciation admixture has contributed genetic material that facilitated the adaptive evolution of big cat lineages. PMID:28776029

  8. CAT-D-T tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Blue, T.; Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The domains of plasma fuel cycles bounded by the D-T and Cat-D, and by the D-T and SCD modes of operation are examined. These domains, referred to as, respectively, the Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation, are characterized by the number (γ) of tritons per fusion neutron available from external (to the plasma) sources. Two external tritium sources are considered - the blankets of the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) reactors and fission reactors supported by the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) driven hybrid reactors. It is found that by using 6 Li for the active material of the control elements of the fission reactors, it is possible to achieve γ values close to unity. Cat-D-T tokamaks could be designed to have smaller size, higher power density, lower magnetic field and even lower plasma temperature than Cat-D tokamaks; the difference becomes significant for γ greater than or equal to .75. The SCD-T mode of operation appears to be even more attractive. Promising applications identified for these Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation include hybrid reactors, fusion synfuel factories and fusion reactors which have difficulty in providing all their tritium needs

  9. Low leopard populations in protected areas of Maputaland: a consequence of poaching, habitat condition, abundance of prey, and a top predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Tharmalingam; Kalle, Riddhika; Rosenlund, Havard; Downs, Colleen T

    2017-03-01

    Identifying the primary causes affecting population densities and distribution of flagship species are necessary in developing sustainable management strategies for large carnivore conservation. We modeled drivers of spatial density of the common leopard ( Panthera pardus ) using a spatially explicit capture-recapture-Bayesian approach to understand their population dynamics in the Maputaland Conservation Unit, South Africa. We camera-trapped leopards in four protected areas (PAs) of varying sizes and disturbance levels covering 198 camera stations. Ours is the first study to explore the effects of poaching level, abundance of prey species (small, medium, and large), competitors (lion Panthera leo and spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta ), and habitat on the spatial distribution of common leopard density. Twenty-six male and 41 female leopards were individually identified and estimated leopard density ranged from 1.6 ± 0.62/100 km 2 (smallest PA-Ndumo) to 8.4 ± 1.03/100 km 2 (largest PA-western shores). Although dry forest thickets and plantation habitats largely represented the western shores, the plantation areas had extremely low leopard density compared to native forest. We found that leopard density increased in areas when low poaching levels/no poaching was recorded in dry forest thickets and with high abundance of medium-sized prey, but decreased with increasing abundance of lion. Because local leopard populations are vulnerable to extinction, particularly in smaller PAs, the long-term sustainability of leopard populations depend on developing appropriate management strategies that consider a combination of multiple factors to maintain their optimal habitats.

  10. Sonography of cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Complex spatial dynamics maintain northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) genetic diversity in a temporally varying landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Chen, Yongjiu; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most local amphibian populations, northeastern populations of the Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) have displayed uncharacteristically high levels of genetic diversity that have been attributed to large, stable populations. However, this widely distributed species also occurs in areas known for great climatic fluctuations that should be reflected in corresponding fluctuations in population sizes and reduced genetic diversity. To test our hypothesis that Northern Leopard Frog genetic diversity would be reduced in areas subjected to significant climate variability, we examined the genetic diversity of L. pipiens collected from 12 sites within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. Despite the region's fluctuating climate that includes periods of recurring drought and deluge, we found unexpectedly high levels of genetic diversity approaching that of northeastern populations. Further, genetic structure at a landscape scale was strikingly homogeneous; genetic differentiation estimates (Dest) averaged 0.10 (SD = 0.036) across the six microsatellite loci we studied, and two Bayesian assignment tests (STRUCTURE and BAPS) failed to reveal the development of significant population structure across the 68 km breadth of our study area. These results suggest that L. pipiens in the Prairie Pothole Region consists of a large, panmictic population capable of maintaining high genetic diversity in the face of marked climate variability.

  12. Scar-free cutaneous wound healing in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Hanna M; Gilbert, Emily A B; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal with two possible outcomes: scarification or near-perfect integumentary restoration. Whereas scar formation has been intensively investigated, less is known about the tissue-level events characterising wounds that spontaneously heal scar-free, particularly in non-foetal amniotes. Here, a spatiotemporal investigation of scar-free cutaneous wound healing following full-thickness excisional biopsies to the tail and body of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) is provided. All injuries healed without scarring. Cutaneous repair involves the development of a cell-rich aggregate within the wound bed, similar to scarring wounds. Unlike scar formation, scar-free healing involves a more rapid closure of the wound epithelium, and a delay in blood vessel development and collagen deposition within the wound bed. It was found that, while granulation tissue of scarring wounds is hypervascular, scar-free wound healing conspicuously does not involve a period of exuberant blood vessel formation. In addition, during scar-free wound healing the newly formed blood vessels are typically perivascular cell-supported. Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread expression of both the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A and the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 within the healing wound. It was found that scar-free wound healing is an intrinsic property of leopard gecko integument, and involves a modulation of the cutaneous scar repair program. This proportional revascularisation is an important factor in scar-free wound healing. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  13. Characterization of TGFβ signaling during tail regeneration in the leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Richard W D; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Viloria-Petit, Alicia M

    2013-07-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/activin signaling pathway has a number of documented roles during wound healing and is increasingly appreciated as an essential component of multi-tissue regeneration that occurs in amphibians and fish. Among amniotes (reptiles and mammals), less is known due in part to the lack of an appropriate model organism capable of multi-tissue regeneration. The leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius is able to spontaneously, and repeatedly, regenerate its tail following tail loss. We examined the expression and localization of several key components of the TGFβ/activin signaling pathway during tail regeneration of the leopard gecko. We observed a marked increase in phosphorylated Smad2 expression within the regenerate blastema indicating active TGFβ/activin signaling. Interestingly, during early regeneration, TGFβ1 expression is limited whereas activin-βA is strongly upregulated. We also observe the expression of EMT transcription factors Snail1 and Snail2 in the blastema. Combined, these observations provide strong support for the importance of different TGFβ ligands during multi-tissue regeneration and the potential role of TGFβ/activin-induced EMT programs during this process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identification and characterization of a reptilian GnRH receptor from the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, T; Enomoto, M; Park, M K

    2004-02-12

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproductive functions through interactions with its specific receptor. We describe the first molecular cloning and characterization of a full-length GnRH receptor (GnRHR) from the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius. It has a distinct genomic structure consisting of five exons and four introns, compared with all the other reported GnRHR genes. A native GnRH form, cGnRH-II, stimulated inositol phosphate (IP) production in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the GnRHR, in a dose dependent manner. The mRNA was expressed in all the tissues and organs examined. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned GnRHR belongs to the type 2/nonmammalian I GnRHR. Low-expression levels were observed from the pituitary glands of reproductively active leopard geckos, indicating the possibility that there is at least one more type of GnRHR highly expressed in the pituitary gland for the gonadotropin secretion in this reptile.

  15. Expression of sex steroid hormone-related genes in the embryo of the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2008-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones are known to play a central role in vertebrate sex determination and differentiation. However, the tissues in which they are produced or received during development, especially around the period of sex determination of the gonads, have rarely been investigated. In this study, we identified the cDNA sequence, including the full-length of the coding region of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), from the leopard gecko; a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. Embryonic expression analysis of two steroidogenic enzymes, P450scc and P450 aromatase (P450arom), and four sex steroid hormone receptors, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and beta, and progesterone receptor, was subsequently conducted. mRNA expression of both steroidogenic enzymes was observed in the brain and gonads prior to the temperature-sensitive period of sex determination. The mRNAs of the four sex steroid hormone receptors were also detected in the brain and gonads at all stages examined. These results suggest the existence of a gonad-independent sex steroid hormone signaling system in the developing leopard gecko brain.

  16. Body mass dynamics in hand reared clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) cubs from birth to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, Fernando; Brown, Janine; Wildt, David E; Virolle, Laurie; Kongprom, Urarikha; Revuelta, Luis; Goodrowe-Beck, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To study the dynamics of body mass changes in hand reared clouded leopards, we analyzed 3,697 weight data points during the first 3 months of life in 49 cubs from 24 zoo-born litters from 2003 through 2012. All cubs were fed the same formula mixture after a similar weaning protocol. The hand rearing process was divided into three periods based on feeding protocols: Stage 1: formula only (Days 1-28; Day 0 = day of birth); Stage 2, formula supplemented with protein (e.g., turkey baby food; Days 29-42); Stage 3, formula in decreasing amounts supplemented with meat (chicken and/or beef; Days 43-90). Weights at birth were 11.2% higher (P weight gain was slowest (P  0.05) growth and weaning weights compared to healthy counterparts. These are the first data documenting, on a large scale, the growth patterns for zoo born, hand reared clouded leopard cubs. Findings are valuable as an aid in managing this rare species, including for helping identify early onset of medical issues and further determining key factors regulating the first 3 months of development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Minimally invasive versus open distal pancreatectomy (LEOPARD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Vogel, Jantien A; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; de Boer, Marieke T; Boerma, Djamila; van den Boezem, Peter B; Bonsing, Bert A; Bosscha, Koop; Coene, Peter-Paul; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; van Eijck, Casper H; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H; Dejong, Cees H; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J; Lips, Daan J; Luyer, Misha D; Molenaar, I Quintus; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Patijn, Gijs A; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J; van der Schelling, George P; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan; Wijsman, Jan H; Abu Hilal, Moh'd; Busch, Olivier R; Besselink, Marc G

    2017-04-08

    Observational cohort studies have suggested that minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) is associated with better short-term outcomes compared with open distal pancreatectomy (ODP), such as less intraoperative blood loss, lower morbidity, shorter length of hospital stay, and reduced total costs. Confounding by indication has probably influenced these findings, given that case-matched studies failed to confirm the superiority of MIDP. This accentuates the need for multicenter randomized controlled trials, which are currently lacking. We hypothesize that time to functional recovery is shorter after MIDP compared with ODP even in an enhanced recovery setting. LEOPARD is a randomized controlled, parallel-group, patient-blinded, multicenter, superiority trial in all 17 centers of the Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group. A total of 102 patients with symptomatic benign, premalignant or malignant disease will be randomly allocated to undergo MIDP or ODP in an enhanced recovery setting. The primary outcome is time (days) to functional recovery, defined as all of the following: independently mobile at the preoperative level, sufficient pain control with oral medication alone, ability to maintain sufficient (i.e. >50%) daily required caloric intake, no intravenous fluid administration and no signs of infection. Secondary outcomes are operative and postoperative outcomes, including clinically relevant complications, mortality, quality of life and costs. The LEOPARD trial is designed to investigate whether MIDP reduces the time to functional recovery compared with ODP in an enhanced recovery setting. Dutch Trial Register, NTR5188 . Registered on 9 April 2015.

  18. Accelerated hatching of southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) eggs in response to the presence of a crayfish Procambarus nigrocinctus predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; James B. Johnson; Cory K. Adams; Gage H. Dayton

    2003-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, such as morphological and behavioral changes in response to predators, is common in larval anurans. Less is known about inducible defenses in the embryonic stages of development. We investigated the predation risk imposed by crayfish (Procambarus nigrocinctus) on southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)...

  19. Phosphoproteomics-mediated identification of Fer kinase as a target of mutant Shp2 in Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper Overman, Jeroen; Preisinger, Christian; Prummel, Karin; Bonetti, Monica; Giansanti, Piero; Heck, Albert; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS) cause congenital afflictions such as short stature, hypertelorism and heart defects. More than 50% of NS and almost all of LS cases are caused by activating and inactivating mutations of the phosphatase Shp2, respectively. How these biochemically

  20. A Communal Sign Post of Snow Leopards (Panthera uncia and Other Species on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The snow leopard is a keystone species in mountain ecosystems of Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau. However, little is known about the interactions between snow leopards and sympatric carnivores. Using infrared cameras, we found a rocky junction of two valleys in Sanjiangyuan area on the Tibetan Plateau where many mammals in this area passed and frequently marked and sniffed the site at the junction. We suggest that this site serves as a sign post to many species in this area, especially snow leopards and other carnivores. The marked signs may also alert the animals passing by to temporally segregate their activities to avoid potential conflicts. We used the Schoener index to measure the degree of temporal segregation among the species captured by infrared camera traps at this site. Our research reveals the probable ways of both intra- and interspecies communication and demonstrates that the degree of temporal segregation may correlate with the degree of potential interspecies competition. This is an important message to help understand the structure of animal communities. Discovery of the sign post clarifies the importance of identifying key habitats and sites of both snow leopards and other species for more effective conservation.

  1. The effects of smoke derivatives on in vitro seed germination and development of the leopard orchid Ansellia africana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papenfus, H. B.; Naidoo, D.; Pošta, Martin; Finnie, J. F.; van Staden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2016), s. 289-294 ISSN 1435-8603 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ansellia africana * developmental rate index * germination rate index * karrikinolide * leopard orchid * smoke-water * trimethylbutenolide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.106, year: 2016

  2. Predicting the Distribution of Asiatic Cheetah, Persian Leopard and Brown Bear in Response to EnvironmentalFactors in Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hemami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution modelling is important for assessing threats and conservation status of species and for planning conservation programs. We studied the distribution of suitable habitats of Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor and brown bear (Ursus arctos in Isfahan province within and outside the protected areas. Suitable habitats of the three studied carnivores in Isfahan province were mapped in relation to climatic, topographic and anthropogenic variables using MAXENT. Assessing the developed model using the area under the ROC function showed that predictions for the three carnivore species were significantly better than random. Potential suitable habitats of Asiatic cheetah, Persian leopard and brown bear constituted 5.2%, 12% and 3.4% of the Isfahan province area, respectively. Slope was the most important factor determining Persian leopard habitat suitability, while climatic factors (mainly mean autumn and mean annual precipitation were the most important determinants of Asiatic cheetah and brown bear distribution. The protected area network within the province covers 55.7%, 23.7%, and 11.6% of the suitable habitats for Asiatic cheetah, Persian leopard and brown bear, respectively. Parts of suitable habitats of the three species are located outside the protected areas, which could be considered in planning conservation programs as potential movement corridors.

  3. Habitat selection, movement patterns, and hazards encountered by northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Melinda G.; Herner-Thogmartin, Jennifer H.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Nelson, John

    2018-01-01

    Telemetry data for 59 Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens) breeding in ponds in Houston and Winona Counties, MN; 2001-2002. Agricultural intensification is causing declines in many wildlife species, including Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Specific information about frog movements, habitat selection, and sources of mortality can be used to inform conservation-focused land management and acquisition. We studied Northern Leopard Frogs in southeastern Minnesota, part of the Driftless Area ecoregion, characterized by hills and valleys and a mix of agriculture, forests, small towns and farmsteads. In this area, small farm ponds, originally built to control soil erosion are used by the species for breeding and wintering in addition to riparian wetlands. But, this agricultural landscape may be hazardous for frogs moving between breeding, feeding, and wintering habitats. We surgically implanted transmitters into the peritoneal cavity of 59 Northern Leopard Frogs and tracked them from May to October 2001-2002. The total distance traveled by radio-tagged frogs ranged from 12 to 3316 m, the 95% home range averaged 5.3 ± 1.2 (SE) ha, and the 50% core area averaged 1.05 ± 0.3 (SE) ha. As expected, Northern Leopard Frogs selected wetlands over all other land cover classes and row crops were generally avoided at all levels of selection. Only a few tracked frogs were successful at dispersing (n = 6). Most frogs attempting to disperse (n =31) ended up missing (n = 14), died due to mowing (n = 8), or were recorded as transmitter failure (n = 2) or unknown mortalities (n = 1). For the conservation of Northern Leopard Frogs in this agricultural setting, we must consider both the aquatic and the terrestrial needs of this species. Conservation agencies that restore, manage, and acquire wetlands should consider the hazards posed by land uses adjacent to frog breeding and wintering sites and plan for movement corridors between these locations. For example

  4. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  5. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  6. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  7. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen causes serious problems as toxication in cats in spite of being an effective and reliable analgesic and antipyretic in humans. A six months-old female cat suffering from cough was presented to examination to International Pet Hospital/Tirana/Albania when no result was obtained after one  acetaminophen tablet had been administered in order to heal the disease. Depression, grey and cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypothermia were primary clinical sign...

  8. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Omar, Z.M.

    1995-09-01

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  9. A complex approach to study the Amur leopard using camera traps in Protected Areas in the southwest of Primorsky krai (Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Vitkalova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology and preliminary results of a complex camera trap study of the Amur leopard. The main studies were concentrated on protected areas: the Land of the Leopard National Park with its buffer zone and the Kedrovaya Pad' Biosphere Reserve, a total area of 3600 sq.km. The first results of the 2014–2015 survey period are presented. According to spatial capture-recapture analysis at least 57 adult Amur leopards occupied the Russian protected areas with the density of about 0.98 individuals/100 sq.km. The sex ratio (male : female was 1:1.2. Five breeding females with 11 cubs were registered in 2014 and 9 females with 16 cubs in 2015. The basis was founded for long-term monitoring of and fundamental research on the Amur leopard in the protected areas in Primorsky Krai.

  10. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of subcutaneous dexmedetomidine-midazolam versus alfaxalone-midazolam sedation in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Fink, Dustin M; Sladky, Kurt K; Mans, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    To compare dexmedetomidine-midazolam with alfaxalone-midazolam for sedation in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). Prospective, randomized, blinded, complete crossover study. Nine healthy adult leopard geckos. Geckos were administered a combination of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg kg -1 ) and midazolam (1.0 mg kg -1 ; treatment D-M) or alfaxalone (15 mg kg -1 ) and midazolam (1.0 mg kg -1 ; treatment A-M) subcutaneously craniodorsal to a thoracic limb. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (f R ), righting reflex, palpebral reflex, superficial and deep pain reflexes, jaw tone and escape response were assessed every 5 minutes until reversal. Conditions for intubation and response to needle prick were evaluated. Antagonist drugs [flumazenil (0.05 mg kg -1 ) ± atipamezole (1.0 mg kg -1 )] were administered subcutaneously, craniodorsal to the contralateral thoracic limb, 45 minutes after initial injection, and animals were monitored until recovery. HR, but not f R , decreased significantly over time in both treatments. HR was significantly lower than baseline at all time points in D-M and for all but the 5 and 10 minute time points in A-M. HR was significantly higher in A-M at all time points after drug administration when compared with D-M. Sedation scores between protocols were similar for most time points. All animals in A-M lost righting reflex compared with seven out of nine (78%) geckos in D-M. Geckos in A-M lost righting reflex for significantly longer time. Mean ± standard deviation time to recovery after antagonist administration was 6.1 ± 2.2 minutes for D-M and 56 ± 29 minutes for A-M, and these times were significantly different. Combination D-M or A-M provided sedation of a level expected to allow physical examinations and venipuncture in leopard geckos. A-M provided a faster onset of sedation compared with D-M. Recovery was significantly faster following antagonist reversal of D-M, compared with A-M. Copyright © 2017 Association of

  12. Reversible immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards (panthera uncia) with a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Örjan; Malmsten, Jonas; Mishra, Charudutt; Lkhagvajav, Purevjav; McCarthy, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Conservation and research of the elusive snow leopard (Panthera uncia) have been hampered by inadequate knowledge about its basic life history. Global positioning system (GPS) collars can provide useful information, but there has been limited information available on safe capture methods, drug doses, and efficacy for effective immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We describe a drug protocol using a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam for the chemical immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We also describe physiologic responses to immobilization drugs, including rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and relative hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) recorded every 10 min. Our study was carried out in the Tost Mountains adjacent to the Great Gobi Desert, in southern Mongolia, between August 2008 and April 2012. Eighteen snow leopards were captured or recaptured with foot-snares on 42 occasions and anesthetized for marking with GPS collars. The snow leopards received on average (±SD) 0.020±0.04 mg/kg body mass medetomidine and 2.17±0.45 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam. The duration of ensuing anesthesia was 69±13 min, including an induction period of 10 (±4) min. Anesthesia was reversed with 4 mg (0.10±0.04 mg/kg) atipamezole administered intramuscularly. The mean value for SpO2 for the 37 captures where we could record physiologic values was 91±4. The SpO2 increased significantly during anesthesia (+0.06±0.02%/min), whereas rectal temperature (average 38.1±0.7 C/min, change -0.04±0.003 C/min), heart rate (average 97±9 beats/min, change -0.20±0.03 beats/min), and respiratory rate (average 26±6 breaths/min, change -0.11±0.03 breaths/min) decreased significantly. A dose of 80 mg tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg body weight) and 0.72 mg medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg body weight) safely immobilized all adult and subadult snow leopards (weight 25-45 kg) in our study. All measured physiologic values remained within clinically

  13. Temperature-dependent sex determination in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, B E; Tousignant, A; Ewert, M A; Nelson, C E; Crews, D

    1993-05-01

    The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Previous reports have shown that females are produced predominantly at cool incubation temperatures and males are produced predominantly at warm incubation temperatures (Pattern Ib). We report here that incubation at even higher temperatures (34 and 35 degrees C) produces mostly females (Pattern II). The lethal maximum constant incubation temperature for this species appears to be just above 35 degrees C. Although a previous study indicated that females from a warm incubation temperature (32 degrees C) failed to lay eggs, we found that 12 of 14 mature females incubated at 32.5 degrees C, and 5 of 6 mature females incubated at 34 degrees C produced fertile eggs and viable hatchlings.

  14. Power distribution and fuel depletion calculation for a PWR, using LEOPARD and CITATION codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    By modifying LEOPARD a new program, LEOCIT, has been developed in which additional subroutines prepare cross-section libraries in 1, 2 or 4 energy groups and subsequently record these on disc or tape in a format appropriate for direct input to the CITATION code. Use of LEOCIT in conjunction with CITATION is demonstrated by simulating the first depletion cycle of Angra Unit 1. In these calculations two energy groups are used in 1/4, X - Y geometry to give the soluble boron curve, the fuel depletion and the point to point power distribution in Angra 1. Finally relevant results obtained here are compared with those published by Westinghouse, CNEN and Furnas and recommendations are made to improve the system of neutronic calculation developed in this work. (Author) [pt

  15. UNSEDATED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR DIAGNOSIS OF PELVIC CANAL OBSTRUCTION IN A LEOPARD GECKO (EUBLEPHARIS MACULARIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCourcy, Kelly; Hostnik, Eric T; Lorbach, Josh; Knoblaugh, Sue

    2016-12-01

    An adult leopard gecko ( Eublepharis macularius ) presented for lethargy, hyporexia, weight loss, decreased passage of waste, and a palpable caudal coelomic mass. Computed tomography showed a heterogeneous hyperattenuating (∼143 Hounsfield units) structure within the right caudal coelom. The distal colon-coprodeum lumen or urinary bladder was hypothesized as the most likely location for the heterogeneous structure. Medical support consisted of warm water and lubricant enema, as well as a heated environment. Medical intervention aided the passage of a plug comprised centrally of cholesterol and urates with peripheral stratified layers of fibrin, macrophages, heterophils, and bacteria. Within 24 hr, a follow-up computed tomography scan showed resolution of the pelvic canal plug.

  16. Femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty in a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Adam D

    2013-12-01

    Cases of femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty are infrequently reported in reptiles, and details of surgical technique and clinical outcome in chelonia are lacking. An adult female leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis) was presented with chronic non-weight-bearing lameness of the left hind limb. Examination and radiography were consistent with coxofemoral luxation, and as a result of the chronic presentation, surgical intervention was recommended. A cranial approach to the joint via the prefemoral fossa afforded good surgical exposure. A depressed lytic acetabular lesion was noted during the procedure, postulated to be a result of abnormal wear from the luxated femoral head. A fiberglass prop was used during recovery to allow extension of the limb without full weight-bearing. Lameness persisted postoperatively, but limb usage significantly improved.

  17. Body size development of captive and free-ranging Leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Julia; Hammer, Catrin; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The growth and weight development of Leopard tortoise hatchings (Geochelone pardalis) kept at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Qatar, was observed for more than four years, and compared to data in literature for free-ranging animals on body weight or carapace measurements. The results document a distinctively faster growth in the captive animals. Indications for the same phenomenon in other tortoise species (Galapagos giant tortoises, G. nigra; Spur-thighed tortoises, Testudo graeca; Desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizi) were found in the literature. The cause of the high growth rate most likely is the constant provision with highly digestible food of low fiber content. Increased growth rates are suspected to have negative consequences such as obesity, high mortality, gastrointestinal illnesses, renal diseases, "pyramiding," fibrous osteodystrophy or metabolic bone disease. The apparently widespread occurrence of high growth rates in intensively managed tortoises underlines how easily ectothermic animals can be oversupplemented with nutrients. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Organization and activation of sexual and agonistic behavior in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D

    2000-04-01

    Gonadal sex is determined by the temperature experienced during incubation in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Furthermore, both factors, incubation temperature and gonadal sex, influence adult sexual and agonistic behavior in this species. Yet it is unclear whether such differences in behavior are irreversibly organized during development or are mediated by differences in hormone levels in adulthood. To address this question, we gonadectomized adult females and males generated from a female-biased (30 degrees C) and a male-biased (32.5 degrees C) incubation temperature and treated them with equivalent levels of various sex steroids. We found that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) activated sexual receptivity in females but not males, suggesting an organized sex difference in behavioral sensitivity to E(2). There were also organized and activated sex differences in attractivity to stimulus males. Although females were more attractive than males when treated with E(2), both sexes were equally unattractive when treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone (T). Likewise, sex differences in aggressive and submissive behavior were organized and activated. Attacks on stimulus males were activated by T in males but not in females. In contrast, hormones did not influence flight behavior in males but did affect female submissiveness. Overall, males also evoked more attacks by stimulus males than did females. Nevertheless, females and males treated with androgens evoked more attacks than animals of the same sex that were treated with cholesterol or E(2). Incubation temperature had some weak effects on certain behaviors and no effect on others. This suggests that temperature effects in gonadally intact geckos may be due primarily to differences in circulating levels of hormones in adulthood. We conclude that gonadal sex has both organizational and activational effects on various behaviors in the leopard gecko. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Time-varying motor control of autotomized leopard gecko tails: multiple inputs and behavioral modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P

    2012-02-01

    Autotomy (voluntary loss of an appendage) is common among diverse groups of vertebrates and invertebrates, and much attention has been given to ecological and developmental aspects of tail autotomy in lizards. Although most studies have focused on the ramifications for the lizard (behavior, biomechanics, energetics, etc.), the tail itself can exhibit interesting behaviors once segregated from the body. For example, recent work highlighted the ability of leopard gecko tails to jump and flip, in addition to being able to swing back and forth. Little is known, however, about the control mechanisms underlying these movements. Using electromyography, we examined the time-varying in vivo motor patterns at four sites (two proximal and two distal) in the tail of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, following autotomy. Using these data we tested the hypothesis that the disparity in movements results simply from overlapping pattern generators within the tail. We found that burst duration, but not cycle duration, of the rhythmic swings reached a plateau at approximately 150 s following autotomy. This is likely because of physiological changes related to muscle fatigue and ischemia. For flips and jumps, burst and cycle duration exhibited no regular pattern. The coefficient of variation in motor patterns was significantly greater for jumps and flips than for rhythmic swings. This supports the conclusion that the different tail behaviors do not stem from overlapping pattern generators, but that they rely upon independent neural circuits. The signal controlling jumps and flips may be modified by sensory information from the environment. Finally, we found that jumps and flips are initiated using relatively synchronous activity between the two sides of the tail. In contrast, alternating activation of the right and left sides of the tail result in rhythmic swings. The mechanism underlying this change in tail behavior is comparable to locomotor gait changes in vertebrates.

  20. Antipredatory reaction of the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius to snake predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landová, Eva; Musilová, Veronika; Polák, Jakub; Sedláčková, Kristýna; Frynta, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Ability to recognize a risk of predation and react with adaptive antipredatory behavior can enhance fitness, but has some costs as well. Animals can either specifically react on the most dangerous predators (threat-sensitive avoidance) or they have safe but costly general wariness avoiding all potential predators. The level of threat may depend on the predator's foraging ecology and distribution with the prey with sympatric and specialist species being the most dangerous. We used 2 choice trials to investigate antipredatory behavior of captive born and wild-caught leopard geckos confronted with different snake predators from 2 families (Colubridae, Boidae) varying in foraging ecology and sympatric/allopatric distribution with the geckos. Predator-naïve subadult individuals have general wariness, explore both chemically and visually, and perform antipredatory postures toward a majority of snake predators regardless of their sympatry/allopatry or food specialization. The most exaggerated antipredatory postures in both subadult and adult geckos were toward 2 sympatric snake species, the spotted whip snake Hemorrhois ravergieri , an active forager, and the red sand boa Eryx johnii , a subterranean snake with a sit-and-wait strategy. In contrast, also subterranean but allopatric the Kenyan sand boa Eryx colubrinus did not elicit any antipredatory reaction. We conclude that the leopard gecko possesses an innate general antipredatory reaction to different species of snake predators, while a specific reaction to 2 particular sympatric species can be observed. Moreover, adult wild caught geckos show lower reactivity compared with the captive born ones, presumably due to an experience of a real predation event that can hardly be simulated under laboratory conditions.

  1. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates

  2. Structural habitat predicts functional dispersal habitat of a large carnivore: how leopards change spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattebert, Julien; Robinson, Hugh S; Balme, Guy; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke

    2015-10-01

    Natal dispersal promotes inter-population linkage, and is key to spatial distribution of populations. Degradation of suitable landscape structures beyond the specific threshold of an individual's ability to disperse can therefore lead to disruption of functional landscape connectivity and impact metapopulation function. Because it ignores behavioral responses of individuals, structural connectivity is easier to assess than functional connectivity and is often used as a surrogate for landscape connectivity modeling. However using structural resource selection models as surrogate for modeling functional connectivity through dispersal could be erroneous. We tested how well a second-order resource selection function (RSF) models (structural connectivity), based on GPS telemetry data from resident adult leopard (Panthera pardus L.), could predict subadult habitat use during dispersal (functional connectivity). We created eight non-exclusive subsets of the subadult data based on differing definitions of dispersal to assess the predictive ability of our adult-based RSF model extrapolated over a broader landscape. Dispersing leopards used habitats in accordance with adult selection patterns, regardless of the definition of dispersal considered. We demonstrate that, for a wide-ranging apex carnivore, functional connectivity through natal dispersal corresponds to structural connectivity as modeled by a second-order RSF. Mapping of the adult-based habitat classes provides direct visualization of the potential linkages between populations, without the need to model paths between a priori starting and destination points. The use of such landscape scale RSFs may provide insight into predicting suitable dispersal habitat peninsulas in human-dominated landscapes where mitigation of human-wildlife conflict should be focused. We recommend the use of second-order RSFs for landscape conservation planning and propose a similar approach to the conservation of other wide-ranging large

  3. Metal levels in southern leopard frogs from the Savannah River Site: location and body compartment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Snodgrass, J

    2001-06-01

    Tadpoles have been proposed as useful bioindicators of environmental contamination; yet, recently it has been shown that metal levels vary in different body compartments of tadpoles. Metals levels are higher in the digestive tract of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles, which is usually not removed during such analysis. In this paper we examine the heavy metal levels in southern leopard frog (R. utricularia) tadpoles from several wetlands at the Savannah River Site and test the null hypotheses that (1) there are no differences in metal levels in different body compartments of the tadpoles, including the digestive tract; (2) there are no differences in heavy metal levels among different wetlands; and (3) there are no differences in the ratio of metals in the tail/body and in the digestive tract/body as a function of metal or developmental stage as indicated by body weight. Variations in heavy metal levels were explained by wetland and body compartment for all metals and by tadpole weight for selenium and manganese. In all cases, levels of metals were higher in the digestive tract than in the body or tail of tadpoles. Metal levels were highest in a wetland that had been remediated and lowest in a wetland that was never a pasture or remediated (i.e., was truly undisturbed). Although tadpoles are sometimes eaten by fish and other aquatic predators, leopard frogs usually avoid laying their eggs in ponds with such predators. However, avian predators will eat them. These data suggest that tadpoles can be used as bioindicators of differences in metal levels among wetlands and as indicators of potential exposure for higher-trophic-level organisms, but that to assess effects on the tadpoles themselves, digestive tracts should be removed before analysis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-wern; Hoffman, David J; Karasov, William H

    2007-04-15

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates.

  5. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  6. Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented from 30 cats and 36 dogs in which thymic disease was recognised clinically or on postmortem examination. The diagnoses included thymic lymphoma (19 cats, 12 dogs), thymoma (five cats, 18 dogs), thymic branchial cyst formation or cystic change (one cat, four dogs), thymic hyperplasia (two cats), congenital hypoplasia (one cat, one dog), thymic haemorrhage (one cat, one dog) and thymic amyloidosis (one cat). Thymic lymphoma occurred in younger dogs and cats, and was recorded equally among domestic shorthaired and purebred (especially Siamese) cats. Eight cats with thymic lymphoma were tested for feline leukaemia virus and four were positive. Thymoma occurred more frequently in older cats and dogs, and in Labradors and German shepherd dogs. Thymic tumours were associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (six dogs), megaoesophagus (two dogs) or interface dermatitis with basement membrane immune complex deposition (one cat). Non-neoplastic thymic diseases were associated with myasthenia gravis (one cat), pemphigus foliaceus (one cat) and superficial necrolytic dermatitis (one cat).

  7. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  8. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  9. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  10. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  11. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-21

    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic...Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat Ronald C. Bell United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick

  12. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  13. Groups acting on CAT(0) cube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Niblo, Graham A.; Reeves, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    We show that groups satisfying Kazhdan's property (T) have no unbounded actions on finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complexes, and deduce that there is a locally CAT(-1) Riemannian manifold which is not homotopy equivalent to any finite dimensional, locally CAT(0) cube complex.

  14. Efficient induction of spawning of Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) during and outside the natural breeding season

    OpenAIRE

    Trudeau, Vance L; Schueler, Frederick W; Navarro-Martin, Laia; Hamilton, Christine K; Bulaeva, Elizabeth; Bennett, Amanda; Fletcher, William; Taylor, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Amphibian declines are now recognized globally. It is also well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity, especially when held over long periods, or if they require hibernation before breeding. A simple method to induce spawning and subsequent development of large numbers of healthy tadpoles is therefore required to meet research and conservation goals. Methods The method is based on simultaneous injection of both female and male leopard frogs, Lithobates pipien...

  15. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  16. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  17. Religiosidad catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Sierra G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estos apuntes se refieren a que en estos últimos tiempos ha habido un resurgimiento del fenómeno religioso de diversas maneras, incluso sorprendentes. Al aproximarse el tercer milenio, la posmodernidad religiosa disputa parte de la pantalla electrónica con el melodrama religioso: hoy estamos viviendo una religiosidad mediática, una religiosidad catódica.

  18. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  19. Sex steroid levels across the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius, from different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Sakata, J T; Zeller, M; Crews, D

    2000-05-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in many reptiles, including the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). In this study, we examined the hormonal and behavioral changes that occur during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos from four (i.e., 26, 30, 32.5, and 34 degrees C) incubation temperatures. Controlling for reproductive status, plasma levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and progesterone (P) varied with incubation temperature but estradiol 17-beta (E2) levels did not. Controlling for the effects of incubation temperature, DHT and T levels were low when females were previtellogenic, increased slightly during early vitellogenesis, increased dramatically during late vitellogenesis (i.e., prior to ovulation), and then decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. In contrast, E2 levels increased gradually from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, peaked during late vitellogenesis, and decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. Levels of P increased from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, remained elevated during late vitellogenesis, and then decreased after ovulation. Moreover, we determined that females were not sexually receptive when previtellogenic, were somewhat receptive during early vitellogenesis (approximately 20% receptive), were most receptive during late vitellogenesis (approximately 80% receptive), and were again unreceptive after ovulation. Incubation temperature did not influence receptivity. Overall, these data show that hormone levels and behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle. Although incubation temperature has persistent effects on endocrine physiology in adult female leopard geckos, these effects are modest compared to hormonal changes across the reproductive cycle.

  20. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Stella, Judith L.; Croney, Candace C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could hel...

  1. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  2. Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, K G; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Hendrick, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Of 13 cats histologically diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis between July 1988, and November 1989, 5(38%) were also histologically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. In cats with hepatic lipidosis alone, the signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings were generally indistinguishable from those of cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis except that cats with acute pancreatitis were more likely to be cachectic and to have coagulation abnormalities. Hepatomegaly was seen on abdominal radiographs in both groups. Of the 5 cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis, abdominal ultrasonography detected 1 cat with a hypoechoic pancreas and 5 with peritoneal effusion; those abnormalities were not seen in cats without concurrent acute pancreatitis. Cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis had only a 20% recovery rate, compared with a 50% recovery rate in cats with hepatic lipidosis alone. We conclude that cats with hepatic lipidosis should be rigorously evaluated for concurrent acute pancreatitis because of 1) the rate of disease coincidence, 2) the inability of signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings to adequately distinguish between hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis, 3) the worse prognosis associated with concurrent acute pancreatitis, and 4) the opposing nutritional strategies for hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis.

  3. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  4. Mapping of cat albumin using monoclonal antibodies: identification of determinants common to cat and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J; Vrancken, E R; Mourad, W

    1989-01-01

    Cat and dog albumins from commercial extracts were used to produce monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Anti-cat albumin MoAb recognized both cat and dog albumin equally, as did anti-dog albumin MoAb; this confirms cross-reactivity between cat and dog. The MoAb were separated into two groups according to their epitopic specificity; they recognized two overlapping epitopes of cat albumin. Furthermore, by competitive inhibition of radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), it was shown that one MoAb group inhibited significantly the binding of human IgE antibodies (from a pool of 13 patients allergic to both cats and dogs) to insolubilized cat or dog extracts. These observations suggest that murine anti-cat or anti-dog MoAb and human IgE antibodies recognize identical or closely related determinants on cat and dog albumin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2478325

  5. Behaviour Problems of Cats Reared Individually or in Coexistence with other Animals (Cats, Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmecová N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1 households with one cat; (2 households with two cats; (3 households with three or more cats; (4 households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.

  6. Comparison of tiletamine and zolazepam pharmacokinetics in tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus): do species differences account for adverse effects in tigers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J C M; Teale, P; Webber, G; Sear, J W; Taylor, P M

    2014-09-01

    Serious post-operative neurological complications of unknown aetiology are reported in tigers after immobilisation using tiletamine and zolazepam. These complications may arise from the persistent effects of tiletamine or active metabolites of tiletamine or zolazepam. Concentrations of tiletamine, zolazepam and some metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in plasma from captive tigers (n = 8) and leopards (n = 9; an unaffected species, for comparison) during anaesthesia for routine clinical procedures. The zolazepam:tiletamine (Z:T) ratio was calculated. Peak concentrations occurred at 9-33 min and ranged from 83.5 to 379.2 ng/mL for tiletamine and 301.1 to 1239.3 ng/mL for zolazepam after correction for dose by weight. There were no significant differences between tigers and leopards. The Z:T ratio was generally leopards, zolazepam metabolism appeared to be primarily via demethylation. There was evidence for hydroxylation in leopards, but much less in tigers than leopards. No major differences between the species in parent pharmacokinetics were identified. The metabolism of tiletamine could not be defined with any degree of certainty for either species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum and urinary cystatin C in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and cats with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Setting UP a decontamination and dismantling (D and D) scenario - methodology and tools developed leopard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradoura, F.

    2009-01-01

    At the AREVA NC La Hague site, the former nuclear spent fuel reprocessing plant UP2-400 was shutdown on December 30, 2003. Since then, the cleaning up and dismantling activities have been carried by the DV/PRO project, which is the program management organization settled by AREVA NC, for valorization projects. SGN, part of the AREVA NC Engineering Business Unit, operates as the main contractor of the DV/PRO project and provides project management services related to decommissioning and waste management. Hence, SGN is in charge of building D and D's scenarios for all the facilities of the UP2-400 plant, in compliance with safety, technical and financial requirements. Main outputs are logic diagrams, block flow diagrams, wastes and effluents throughputs. In order to meet with AREVA NC's requirements and expectations, SGN developed specific process and tools methods adapted to the scale and complexity of decommissioning a plant with several facilities, with different kind of processes (chemical, mechanical), some of which are in operation and other being dismantled. Considering the number of technical data and inputs to be managed, this methodology leads to complex outputs such as schedules, throughputs, work packages... The development, the maintenance and the modification of these outputs become more and more difficult with the complexity and the size of the plant considered. To cope with these issues, SGN CDE/DEM UP2-400 project team has developed a dedicated tool to assist and optimize in elaborating D and D scenarios. This tool is named LEOPARD (Logiciel d'Elaboration et d'Optimisation des Programmes d'Assainissement Radiologique et de Demantelement) (Software for the Development and Optimization of Radiological Clean up and Dismantling Programs). The availability of this tool allowed the rapid construction of a test case (demonstrator) that has convinced DV/PRO of its numerous advantages and of the future further development potentials. Presentations of LEOPARD

  9. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Anvik, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    A seven month old domestic shorthaired male cat was presented with a known history of acetaminophen ingestion. Clinical findings included icterus, depression, hypothermia, tachypnea and pronounced edema of the head and neck. Treatment was aimed at providing substrate to assist in conjugation of the drug and reversing methemoglobinemia. Administration of oral acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid and IV fluids was insufficient in this case due to a delay in initiation of treatment. The salient postmor...

  11. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  12. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  13. Odontogenic keratocyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Walker, K S; Mohr, F C; Murphy, B

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are derived from odontogenic epithelium, can be locally invasive and destructive and have been reported rarely in cats. A 16-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat had a 3-year history of a slowly progressive, right mandibular swelling. Intraoral dental radiographs revealed a multilocular, radiolucent, cystic mass within the right mandible that extended from the distal aspect of the canine tooth to the mesial aspect of the fourth premolar tooth. Radiographically, the mass was associated with distortion and regional destruction of the right mandibular bone and resorption of regional tooth roots. Histological examination of an incisional biopsy sample revealed multiple ruptured cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium of odontogenic origin with luminal parakeratinization and a prominent palisading basal cell layer. The cyst contained abundant orthokeratotic and parakeratotic keratin. The clinical, radiographical and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, as seen in man. This is the first report of an odontogenic keratocyst in a cat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial Co-Occurrence and Activity Patterns of Mesocarnivores in the Temperate Forests of Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Bu

    Full Text Available Understanding the interactions between species and their coexistence mechanisms will help explain biodiversity maintenance and enable managers to make sound conservation decisions. Mesocarnivores are abundant and diverse mid-sized carnivores and can have profound impacts on the function, structure and dynamics of ecosystem after the extirpation of apex predators in many ecosystems. The moist temperate forests of Southwest China harbor a diverse community of mesocarnivores in the absence of apex predators. Sympatric species tend to partition limited resources along time, diet and space to facilitate coexistence. We determined the spatial and temporal patterns for five species of mesocarnivores. We used detection histories from a large camera-trap dataset collected from 2004-2015 with an extensive effort of 23,313 camera-days from 495 camera locations. The five mesocarnivore species included masked palm civet Paguma larvata, leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, hog badger Arctonyx collaris, yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula, and Siberian weasel Mustela sibirica. Only the masked palm civet and hog badger tended to avoid each other; while for other pairs of species, they occurred independently of each other, or no clear pattern observed. With regard to seasonal activity, yellow-throated marten was most active in winter, opposite the pattern observed for masked palm civet, leopard cat and hog badger. For diel activity, masked palm civet, leopard cat and hog badger were primarily nocturnal and crepuscular; yellow-throated marten was diurnal, and Siberian weasel had no clear pattern for most of the year (March to November, but was nocturnal in the winter (December to February. The seasonal shift of the Siberian weasel may be due to the high diet overlap among species in winter. Our results provided new facts and insights into this unique community of mesocarnivores of southwest China, and will facilitate future studies on the mechanism

  15. Neural substrates for sexual and thermoregulatory behavior in the male leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nora; Kriegsfeld, Lance; Crews, David

    2004-12-10

    The preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POAH) continuum is critical for the integration of environmental, physiological, and behavioral cues associated with reproduction in vertebrates. In the present study, radiofrequency lesions in the POAH abolished sexual behavior in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Furthermore, results suggest a differential effect of POAH lesions on those behaviors regarded as appetitive (tail vibration and grip) and those regarded as consummatory (mounting and copulation), with consummatory behaviors being affected to a greater extent. E. macularius is an ectothermic vertebrate that modulates body temperature behaviorally relative to ambient temperature. In vertebrates, the POAH is also an important integrator of thermoregulation. Thus, the present study investigated whether lesions that disrupt reproductive behavior also disrupt body temperature regulation. While virtually all males displayed diurnal rhythms in thermoregulatory behavior prior to surgery, this pattern was abolished in a small proportion of animals bearing POAH lesions. Lesions that abolished thermoregulatory rhythms involved the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), whereas lesions confined to the POAH, while dramatically influencing sexual behavior, did not affect thermoregulatory rhythms or temperature set point. Together, these findings identify the POAH as an important neural locus regulating sexual behavior but not thermoregulation and suggest that the SCN acts as a pacemaker controlling daily behavioral temperature regulation in this species.

  16. Intermediate filament immunohistochemistry of astroglial cells in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2005-11-01

    The distribution of intermediate filament molecular markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, has been studied in the central nervous system (CNS) of the adult leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. This immunohistochemical study points out the presence of different astroglial cell types. The main pattern is constituted by ependymal radial glia, which have their cell bodies located in the ependymal layer throughout the brain ventricular system. Radial glia proper or radial astrocytes show their cell bodies displaced from the ependymal layer into a periependymal zone and are observed only in the spinal cord. Star-shaped astrocytes are scarce. They are detected in the ventral and lateral regions of the diencephalon and mesencephalon, in the superficial layer of the optic tectum, in the ventral medulla oblongata, and in the ventral and lateral spinal cord. In the different regions of the CNS, the staining intensity appears not to be identical even in the same cellular type. The results reported in the present study show an heterogeneous feature of the astroglial pattern in E. macularius.

  17. Effect of incubation temperature and androgens on dopaminergic activity in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Brian George; Ataya, Ramona Sousan; Rushworth, David; Zhao, Jun; Crews, David

    2007-04-01

    Male leopard geckos that hatch from eggs incubated at a female-biased temperature (Tf) behave differently when compared with males hatching at a temperature which produces a male-biased sex ratio (Tm). We investigated the effect of incubation temperature and androgen implantation on aspects of the dopaminergic system of Tf and Tm males. Our data suggest that more dopamine (DA) is stored in the nucleus accumbens of naive Tf males compared with naïve Tm males when they encounter a receptive female conspecific across a barrier. No difference was measured in the preoptic area and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This difference in intracellular DA levels in a motivation-related brain nucleus might be correlated with differences in sociosexual behavior observed between the two morphs. There were no differences in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressing cell numbers in the VTA of cholesterol (CH)-implanted naive castrated Tf and Tm males. Only Tf males implanted with testosterone had significantly higher TH immunopositive cell numbers in the VTA compared with CH- and dihydrotestosterone-implanted Tf males. These data indicate that both the embryonic environment as well as the circulating hormonal milieu can modulate neurochemistry, which might in turn be a basis for individual variation in behavior. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An embryonic staging table for in ovo development of Eublepharis macularius, the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Patrick A D; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Russell, Anthony P

    2009-08-01

    Squamates constitute a major vertebrate radiation, representing almost one-third of all known amniotes. Although speciose and morphologically diverse, they remain poorly represented in developmental studies. Here, we present an embryonic staging table of in ovo development for the basal gekkotan Eublepharis macularius (the leopard gecko) and advocate this species as a laboratory-appropriate developmental model. E. macularius, is a hardy and tractable species of relatively large body size (with concomitantly relatively large eggs and embryos), that is widely available and easy to maintain and propagate. Additionally, E. macularius displays a body plan appropriate to the study of the plesiomorphic quadrupedal condition of early pentadactylous terrestrial amniotes. Although not unexpected, it is worth noting that the morphological events characterizing limb development in E. macularius are comparable with those described for the avian Gallus gallus. Therefore, E. macularius holds great promise as a model for developmental studies focusing on pentadactyly and the formation of digits. Furthermore, it is also attractive as a developmental model because it demonstrates temperature-dependent sex determination. The staging table presented herein is based on an all-female series and represents the entire 52 day in ovo period. Overall, embryogenesis of E. macularius is similar to that of other squamates in terms of developmental stage attained at the time of oviposition, patterns of limb and pharyngeal arch development, and features of the appearance of scalation and pigmentation, indicative of a conserved developmental program. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Plasticity of thermoregulatory behavior in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius, Blyth 1954).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craioveanu, Octavian; Craioveanu, Cristina; Mireşan, Vioara

    2017-07-01

    Studies on thermoregulation in nocturnal lizards have shown that their thermal regimes are similar to those of diurnal lizards, even though they hide during the daytime and are active mostly at night, when heat sources are very scarce. As a result, nocturnal lizards display an active thermoregulatory behavior consisting of seeking warm shelters to hide during the daytime, using accumulated heat for the nocturnal activity. Based on this information, we hypothesize that when leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius, Blyth 1954) are presented with the choice of safety in cool shelters or vulnerability in heated open areas, suitable temperature will prevail in importance, i.e. they will trade the advantages provided by the shelter for an exposed, but physiologically necessary heat source. Data on the time juvenile E. macularius spent in shelters, and in open areas along a thermal gradient and under a 12/12 hr photoperiod, from eight individuals confirmed our hypothesis. We found that, not only did they select heat sources over shelters, but, along with the light/dark cycle, temperature may also represent a cue for activity. Additionally we found that substrate moisture plays an important role in shelter preference. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Incubation temperature affects the behavior of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, D; Tousignant, A; Crews, D

    1994-06-01

    The leopard gecko has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); females are predominantly produced when incubated at 26 degrees C (100%), 30 degrees C (70%), and 34 degrees C (95%), whereas males are predominantly produced at 32.5 degrees C (75%). Exogenous estradiol can override the effect of temperature on sex determination. To compare temperature-determined females with hormone-determined females, eggs from the male-biased temperature were treated with estradiol benzoate during incubation. As adults, animals from a male-biased incubation temperature were more likely to exhibit aggression than animals from female-biased incubation temperatures. Furthermore, females from a male-biased incubation temperature tended to be less attractive than females from female-biased temperatures. Hormone-determined females were both attractive and aggressive. This suggests that incubation temperature is an important development determinant of adult aggressiveness and attractiveness. The 26 degrees C animals ovariectomized on the day of hatch exhibited more frequent aggression and were unreceptive to males, indicating that postnatal ovarian hormones also play a role in adult sociosexual behaviors. The parallel between incubation temperature and intrauterine position in laboratory mammals is discussed.

  1. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size).

  2. Modeling habitat connectivity to inform reintroductions: a case study with the Chiricahua Leopard Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Christopher J.; Hossack, Blake R.; Sigafus, Brent H.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Managing species with intensive tools such as reintroduction may focus on single sites or entire landscapes. For vagile species, long-term persistence will require colonization and establishment in neighboring habitats. Therefore, both suitable colonization sites and suitable dispersal corridors between sites are required. Assessment of landscapes for both requirements can contribute to ranking and selection of reintroduction areas, thereby improving management success. Following eradication of invasive American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from most of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR; Arizona, United States), larval Chiricahua Leopard Frogs (Lithobates chiricahuensis) from a private pond were reintroduced into three stock ponds. Populations became established at all three reintroduction sites followed by colonization of neighboring ponds in subsequent years. Our aim was to better understand colonization patterns by the federally threatened L. chiricahuensis which could help inform other reintroduction efforts. We assessed the influence of four landscape features on colonization. Using surveys from 2007 and information about the landscape, we developed a habitat connectivity model, based on electrical circuit theory, that identified potential dispersal corridors after explicitly accounting for imperfect detection of frogs. Landscape features provided little insight into why some sites were colonized and others were not, results that are likely because of the uniformity of the BANWR landscape. While corridor modeling may be effective in more-complex landscapes, our results suggest focusing on local habitat will be more useful at BANWR. We also illustrate that existing data, even when limited in spatial or temporal resolution, can provide information useful in formulating management actions.

  3. "Leopard skin sign": the use of narrow-band imaging with magnification endoscopy in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekmedyian, Asadur J; Coronel, Emmanuel; Czul, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune reaction to gluten containing foods such as rye, wheat and barley. This condition affects individuals with a genetic predisposition; it targets the small bowel and may cause symptoms including diarrhea, malabsorption, weight loss, abdominal pain and bloating. The diagnosis is made by serologic testing of celiac-specific antibodies and confirmed by histology. Certain endoscopic characteristics, such as scalloping, reduction in the number of folds, mosaic-pattern mucosa or nodular mucosa, are suggestive of CD and can be visualized under white light endoscopy. Due to its low sensitivity, endoscopy alone is not recommended to diagnose CD; however, enhanced visual identification of suspected mucosal abnormalities through the use of new technologies, such as narrow band imaging with magnification (NBI-ME), could assist in targeting biopsies and thereby increasing the sensitivity of endoscopy. This is a case series of seven patients with serologic and histologic diagnoses of CD who underwent upper endoscopies with NBI-ME imaging technology as part of their CD evaluation. By employing this imaging technology, we could identify patchy atrophy sites in a mosaic pattern, with flattened villi and alteration of the central capillaries of the duodenal mucosa. We refer to this epithelial pattern as "Leopard Skin Sign". Since epithelial lesions are easily seen using NBI-ME, we found it beneficial for identifying and targeting biopsy sites. Larger prospective studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  4. Unlikely remedy: fungicide clears infection from pathogenic fungus in larval southern leopard frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane M Hanlon

    Full Text Available Amphibians are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations. Two of these, pesticides and pathogens, are linked to declines in both amphibian health and population viability. Many studies have examined the separate effects of such perturbations; however, few have examined the effects of simultaneous exposure of both to amphibians. In this study, we exposed larval southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM at 0.6 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The experiment was continued until all larvae completed metamorphosis or died. Overall, TM facilitated increases in tadpole mass and length. Additionally, individuals exposed to both TM and Bd were heavier and larger, compared to all other treatments. TM also cleared Bd in infected larvae. We conclude that TM affects larval anurans to facilitate growth and development while clearing Bd infection. Our findings highlight the need for more research into multiple perturbations, specifically pesticides and disease, to further promote amphibian heath.

  5. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  6. A review of feral cat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  7. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  8. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  9. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 Personnel Testing Division Defense Manpower Data Center March 2006 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hetter, R. D. "Psychometric Procedures for Administering CAT -ASVAB" (pp. 131-140) Chapter 4 Hetter, R. D., & Sympson J. B. "Item Exposure

  10. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL by Michael Glenn Coleman September 1997 Thesis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1997 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT ), designed to provide an automated tool for the anlysis of design decisions in developing client

  11. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  12. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  13. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.R.; Cayzer, J.; Dillon, E.A.; Smidt, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  14. Association between Characteristics of Cats and Satisfaction of Owners who Adopted Cats from an Animal Hospital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODERA, Nodoka; UCHIDA, Keiko; KAKUMA, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with 29 cat owners who adopted cats from an animal hospital in Japan. Physical characteristics were found to be important factors for the owners when choosing a cat. There were significant differences between impression of the cat for the owners at present and images of their ideal cats, and the levels of aggression and activeness of the cats at present were rated higher than their ideal cats. A significant negative correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the cat and occurrence of house soiling; thus, some behavioral problems may deteriorate the relationship between the owner and the cat. PMID:24419973

  15. Using landscape and bioclimatic features to predict the distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Abade

    Full Text Available Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2 emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2 was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other

  16. Long-term monitoring of fecal steroid hormones in female snow leopards (Panthera uncia during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodzue Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology of snow leopards is required urgently in order to develop a suitable management conditions under captivity. In this study, the long-term monitoring of concentrations of three steroid hormones in fecal matter of three female snow leopards was performed using enzyme immunoassays: (1 estradiol-17β, (2 progesterone and (3 cortisol metabolite. Two of the female animals were housed with a male during the winter breeding season, and copulated around the day the estradiol-17β metabolite peaked subsequently becoming pregnant. The other female was treated in two different ways: (1 first housed with a male in all year round and then (2 in the winter season only. She did not mate with him on the first occasion, but did so latter around when estradiol-17β metabolite peaked, and became pseudopregnant. During pregnancy, progesterone metabolite concentrations increased for 92 or 94 days, with this period being approximately twice as long as in the pseudopregnant case (31, 42, 49 and 53 days. The levels of cortisol metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (1.35 µg/g were significantly higher than in the pregnant females (0.33 and 0.24 µg/g (P<0.05. Similarly, during the breeding season, the levels of estradiol-17β metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (2.18 µg/g were significantly higher than those in the pregnant females (0.81 and 0.85 µg/g (P<0.05. Unlike cortisol the average levels of estradiol-17β during the breeding season were independent of reproductive success.The hormone levels may also be related to housing conditions and the resulting reproductive success in female leopards. The female housed with a male during the non-breeding season had high levels of cortisol metabolites and low levels of estradiol-17β in the breeding season, and failed to become pregnant. This indicates that housing conditions in snow leopards may be an important factor for normal endocrine secretion and resulting breeding

  17. Effects of shepherds and dogs on livestock depredation by leopards (Panthera pardus in north-eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khorozyan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflicts over livestock depredation are increasingly common, yet little is understood about the role of husbandry in conflict mitigation. As shepherds and guarding dogs are most commonly used to curb carnivore attacks on grazing livestock, evaluation and improvement of these practices becomes an important task. We addressed this issue by studying individual leopard (Panthera pardus attacks on sheep and goats in 34 villages near Golestan National Park, Iran. We obtained and analyzed data on 39 attacks, which included a total loss of 31 sheep and 36 goats in 17 villages. We applied non-parametric testing, Poisson Generalized Linear Modelling (GLM and model selection to assess how numbers of sheep and goats killed per attack are associated with the presence and absence of shepherds and dogs during attacks, depredation in previous years, villages, seasons, ethnic groups, numbers of sheep and goats kept in villages, and distances from villages to the nearest protected areas. We found that 95.5% of losses were inflicted in forests when sheep and goats were accompanied by shepherds (92.5% of losses and dogs (77.6%. Leopards tended to kill more sheep and goats per attack (surplus killing when dogs were absent in villages distant from protected areas, but still inflicted most losses when dogs were present, mainly in villages near protected areas. No other variables affected numbers of sheep and goats killed per attack. These results indicate that local husbandry practices are ineffectual and the mere presence of shepherds and guarding dogs is not enough to secure protection. Shepherds witnessed leopard attacks, but could not deter them while dogs did not exhibit guarding behavior and were sometimes killed by leopards. In an attempt to make practical, low-cost and socially acceptable improvements in local husbandry, we suggest that dogs are raised to create a strong social bond with livestock, shepherds use only best available dogs, small

  18. SPOTS4. Group data library and computer code, preparing ENDF/B-4 data for input to LEOPARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.D.; Lee, J.T.

    1981-09-01

    The magnetic tape SPOTS4 contains in file 1 a data library to be used as input to the SPOTS4 program which is contained in file 2. The data library is based on ENDF/B-4 and consists of two parts in TEMPEST format (246 groups) and MUFT format (54 groups) respectively. From this library the SPOTS4 program produces a 172 + 54 group library for LEOPARD input. A copy of the magnetic tape is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  19. Clinical and pathological observations on natural infections of cryptosporidiosis and flagellate protozoa in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A; Geach, M R; Cooley, W A

    1999-12-11

    A group of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) which had been losing weight for several months were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium species. Histological and electron microscopical investigations on the intestines of five of the lizards revealed the presence of large numbers of the developmental stages of Cryptosporidium species attached to the mucosal surface of the lower intestine, and large numbers of flagellate protozoa, suspected to be predominantly Trichomonas species, in the gut lumen. The clinical signs were attributed to the presence of one or both types of parasites.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  1. Periaortic lymphoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bree

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was presented with a 3 month history of lethargy, inappetence, dehydration, hindlimb ataxia and intermittent proprioceptive deficits in the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed low body condition score (1.75/5, pallor and bilateral basilar grade II/VI systolic heart murmur. Neurological examination revealed hindlimb ataxia, severe atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, intermittent hindlimb proprioceptive deficits and normoreflexia. Clinicopathological investigations revealed non-regenerative anaemia (haematocrit 0.17 l/l; reference interval [RI] 0.24–0.45 l/l and increased feline pancreatic lipase concentration (Spec fPL test [IDEXX] 8.3 μg/l; RI 0.1–3.5 μg/l. Feline leukaemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody tests were negative. Thoracic and abdominal imaging revealed a soft tissue structure in the area of the thoracoabdominal aorta. CT confirmed a periaortic contrast-enhancing mass extending from the level of T9–L2, with associated intervertebral infiltration at the level of T11–T12. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of a solid, white, multinodular, well-demarcated mass encircling the aorta extending from T9–L2. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma was made. Lymphoma was also identified histopathologically within the kidneys and spleen. Evidence of mild Wallerian degeneration was present within the spinal cord, indicating compression at the level of the periaortic mass. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of periaortic lymphoma in the cat. Although periaortic tumours are exceptionally rare in veterinary medicine, lymphoma should be considered as a differential in cats.

  2. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we q...

  3. In search of Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, John.

    1984-01-01

    The book explains how the paradox of Schroedinger's cat led to an understanding of reality in quantum physics. The contents of the book is divided into three parts. Part one concerns light, atoms and Bohr's atom. Quantum mechanics is discussed in Part Two, including photons and electrons, matrices and waves, and applications of quanta. The last part deals with chance and uncertainty, paradoxes and possibilities, the experimental proof of the paradoxical reality of the quantum world, and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. (U.K.)

  4. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  5. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  6. Characterisation and expression of Sox9 in the Leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleley, E M; Cartwright, E J; Croft, N J; Markham, A F; Coletta, P L

    2001-04-15

    Since the discovery of the sex-determining gene, Sry, a number of genes have been identified which are involved in sex determination and gonadogenesis in mammals. Although Sry is known to be the testis-determining factor in mammals, this is not the case in non-mammalian vertebrates. Sox9 is another gene that has been shown to have a male-specific role in sex determination, but, unlike Sry, Sox9 has been shown to be involved in sex determination in mammals, birds, and reptiles. This is the first gene to be described that has a conserved role in sex determination in species with either chromosomal or environmental sex-determining mechanisms. Many reptiles do not have sex chromosomes but exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Sox9 has been shown to be expressed in both turtle and alligator during gonadogenesis. To determine if Sox9 also has a role in a gecko species with TSD, we studied gonadal expression of Sox9 during embryonic development of the Leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Gecko Sox9 was found to be highly conserved at the nucleotide level when compared to other vertebrate species including human, chick, alligator, and turtle. Sox9 was found to be expressed in embryos incubated at the male-producing temperature (32.5 degrees C) as well as in embryos incubated at the female-producing temperatures (26 and 34 degrees C), Northern blot analysis showed that Sox9 was expressed at both temperatures from morphological stages 31 to 37. mRNA in situ hybridisation on isolated urogenital systems showed expression at both female- and male-producing temperatures up to stage 36. After this stage, no expression was seen in the female gonads but expression remained in the male. These data provide further evidence that Sox9 is an essential component of a testis-determining pathway that is conserved in species with differing sex-determining mechanisms.

  7. A novel amniote model of epimorphic regeneration: the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Katherine E; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2011-08-16

    Epimorphic regeneration results in the restoration of lost tissues and structures from an aggregation of proliferating cells known as a blastema. Among amniotes the most striking example of epimorphic regeneration comes from tail regenerating lizards. Although tail regeneration is often studied in the context of ecological costs and benefits, details of the sequence of tissue-level events are lacking. Here we investigate the anatomical and histological events that characterize tail regeneration in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. Tail structure and tissue composition were examined at multiple days following tail loss, revealing a conserved pattern of regeneration. Removal of the tail results in a consistent series of morphological and histological events. Tail loss is followed by a latent period of wound healing with no visible signs of regenerative outgrowth. During this latent period basal cells of the epidermis proliferate and gradually cover the wound. An additional aggregation of proliferating cells accumulates adjacent to the distal tip of the severed spinal cord marking the first appearance of the blastema. Continued growth of the blastema is matched by the initiation of angiogenesis, followed by the re-development of peripheral axons and the ependymal tube of the spinal cord. Skeletal tissue differentiation, corresponding with the expression of Sox9, and muscle re-development are delayed until tail outgrowth is well underway. We demonstrate that tail regeneration in lizards involves a highly conserved sequence of events permitting the establishment of a staging table. We show that tail loss is followed by a latent period of scar-free healing of the wound site, and that regeneration is blastema-mediated. We conclude that the major events of epimorphic regeneration are highly conserved across vertebrates and that a comparative approach is an invaluable biomedical tool for ongoing regenerative research.

  8. Brain Gene Expression is Influenced by Incubation Temperature During Leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularius) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Maria Michela; Turano, Mimmo; Ronca, Raffaele; Mezzasalma, Marcello; Petraccioli, Agnese; Odierna, Gaetano; Capriglione, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior. Based on the premise that "the developmental decision of gender does not flow through a single gene", we performed an analysis on E. macularius using three approaches to gain insights into the genes that may be involved in brain SD during the thermosensitive period. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we studied the expression of genes known to be involved in gonadal SD such as WNT4, SOX9, DMRT1, Erα, Erβ, GnRH, P450 aromatase, PRL, and PRL-R. Then, further genes putatively involved in sex dimorphic brain differentiation were sought by differential display (DDRT-PCR) and PCR array. Our findings indicate that embryo exposure to different sex determining temperatures induces differential expression of several genes that are involved not only in gonadal differentiation (PRL-R, Wnt4, Erα, Erβ, p450 aromatase, and DMRT1), but also in neural differentiation (TN-R, Adora2A, and ASCL1) and metabolic pathways (GP1, RPS15, and NADH12). These data suggest that the brains of SDT reptiles might be dimorphic at birth, thus behavioral experiences in postnatal development would act on a structure already committed to male or female. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Scar-free wound healing and regeneration following tail loss in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Stephanie Lynn; Lungu, Ilinca Mihaela; Vickaryous, Matthew Kenneth

    2012-10-01

    Many lizards are able to undergo scar-free wound healing and regeneration following loss of the tail. In most instances, lizard tail loss is facilitated by autotomy, an evolved mechanism that permits the tail to be self-detached at pre-existing fracture planes. However, it has also been reported that the tail can regenerate following surgical amputation outside the fracture plane. In this study, we used the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, to investigate and compare wound healing and regeneration following autotomy at a fracture plane and amputation outside the fracture plane. Both forms of tail loss undergo a nearly identical sequence of events leading to scar-free wound healing and regeneration. Early wound healing is characterized by transient myofibroblasts and the formation of a highly proliferative wound epithelium immunoreactive for the wound keratin marker WE6. The new tail forms from what is commonly referred to as a blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. Blastema cells express the protease matrix metalloproteinase-9. Apoptosis (demonstrated by activated caspase 3 immunostaining) is largely restricted to isolated cells of the original and regenerating tail tissues, although cell death also occurs within dermal structures at the original-regenerated tissue interface and among clusters of newly formed myocytes. Furthermore, the autotomized tail is unique in demonstrating apoptosis among cells adjacent to the fracture planes. Unlike mammals, transforming growth factor-β3 is not involved in wound healing. We demonstrate that scar-free wound healing and regeneration are intrinsic properties of the tail, unrelated to the location or mode of tail detachment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neural stem/progenitor cells are activated during tail regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, E A B; Vickaryous, M K

    2018-02-01

    As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period. Next, we conducted a detailed spatiotemporal characterization of these cells before, during, and after tail regeneration. Our findings show that SOX2, a hallmark protein of NSPCs, is constitutively expressed by virtually all ELCs before, during, and after regeneration. We also found that during regeneration, ELCs express an expanded panel of NSPC and lineage-restricted progenitor cell markers, including MSI-1, SOX9, and TUJ1. Using electron microscopy, we determined that multiciliated, uniciliated, and biciliated cells are present, although the latter was only observed in regenerated spinal cords. Our results demonstrate that cells within the ependymal layer of the original, regenerating and fully regenerate spinal cord represent a heterogeneous population. These include radial glia comparable to Type E and Type B cells, and a neuronal-like population of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells. We propose that spinal cord regeneration in geckos represents a truncation of the restorative trajectory observed in some urodeles and teleosts, resulting in the formation of a structurally distinct replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutation confers leanness and protection from diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajan, Mylène; Batut, Aurélie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Deleruyelle, Simon; Le Gonidec, Sophie; Saint Laurent, Céline; Vomscheid, Maëlle; Wanecq, Estelle; Tréguer, Karine; De Rocca Serra-Nédélec, Audrey; Vinel, Claire; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Pozzo, Joffrey; Kunduzova, Oksana; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Tauber, Maithé; Raynal, Patrick; Cavé, Hélène; Edouard, Thomas; Valet, Philippe; Yart, Armelle

    2014-10-21

    LEOPARD syndrome (multiple Lentigines, Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, sensorineural Deafness; LS), also called Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associating various developmental defects, notably cardiopathies, dysmorphism, and short stature. It is mainly caused by mutations of the PTPN11 gene that catalytically inactivate the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2). Besides its pleiotropic roles during development, SHP2 plays key functions in energetic metabolism regulation. However, the metabolic outcomes of LS mutations have never been examined. Therefore, we performed an extensive metabolic exploration of an original LS mouse model, expressing the T468M mutation of SHP2, frequently borne by LS patients. Our results reveal that, besides expected symptoms, LS animals display a strong reduction of adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity, associated with overall better metabolic profile. We provide evidence that LS mutant expression impairs adipogenesis, triggers energy expenditure, and enhances insulin signaling, three features that can contribute to the lean phenotype of LS mice. Interestingly, chronic treatment of LS mice with low doses of MEK inhibitor, but not rapamycin, resulted in weight and adiposity gains. Importantly, preliminary data in a French cohort of LS patients suggests that most of them have lower-than-average body mass index, associated, for tested patients, with reduced adiposity. Altogether, these findings unravel previously unidentified characteristics for LS, which could represent a metabolic benefit for patients, but may also participate to the development or worsening of some traits of the disease. Beyond LS, they also highlight a protective role of SHP2 global LS-mimicking modulation toward the development of obesity and associated disorders.

  12. Probing a gravitational cat state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)

  13. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Bacterial reproductive pathogens of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J

    2012-05-01

    With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.

  15. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  16. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  17. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul

    2002-05-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  18. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  19. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  20. Mysterious quantum Cheshire cat: an illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, K.; Lippert, Th.; De Raedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We provide a mystery-free explanation for the experimentally observed facts in the neutron interferometry quantum Cheshire cat experiment of Denkmayr et al. [Nat. Comm. 5, 4492, 2014] in terms of a discrete-event simulation model, demonstrating that the quantum Cheshire cat is an illusion.

  1. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...

  2. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  3. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  4. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  5. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  6. Sociosexual investigation in sexually experienced, hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos: relation with phosphorylated DARPP-32 in dopaminergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Hemmings, Hugh C; Crews, David

    2014-12-01

    Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. In this study, we exposed hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures to conspecifics and measured their sociosexual investigation, as well as phosphorylated DARPP-32 at Threonine 34 (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity as a marker for D1 dopamine receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and preoptic area. Social investigation time by males of different incubation temperatures was modulated in opposite directions by exogenous androgen treatment. Males exposed to novel stimuli spent a greater proportion of time investigating females of different incubation temperatures. The time spent investigating females was positively correlated to pDARPP-32 immunoreactivity in the preoptic area. This is the first study quantifying pDARPP-32 in a lizard species, and suggests the protein as a potential marker to measure differences in the dopaminergic pathway in a social setting with consideration of embryonic environment and hormonal state. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The regenerated tail of juvenile leopard geckos (Gekkota: Eublepharidae: Eublepharis macularius) preferentially stores more fat than the original.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anthony P; Lynn, Sabrina E; Powell, G Lawrence; Cottle, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The tail of many species of lizard is used as a site of fat storage, and caudal autotomy is a widespread phenomenon among lizards. This means that caudal fat stores are at risk of being lost if the tail is autotomized. For fat-tailed species, such as the leopard gecko, this may be particularly costly. Previous work has shown that tail regeneration in juveniles of this species is rapid and that it receives priority for energy allocation, even when dietary resources are markedly reduced. We found that the regenerated tails of juvenile leopard geckos are more massive than their original counterparts, regardless of dietary intake, and that they exhibit greater amounts of skeleton, inner fat, muscle and subcutaneous fat than original tails (as assessed through cross-sectional area measurements of positionally equivalent stations along the tail). Autotomy and regeneration result in changes in tail shape, mass and the pattern of tissue distribution within the tail. The regenerated tail exhibits enhanced fat storage capacity, even in the face of a diet that results in significant slowing of body growth. Body growth is thus sacrificed at the expense of rapid tail growth. Fat stores laid down rapidly in the regenerating tail may later be used to fuel body growth or reproductive investment. The regenerated tail thus seems to have adaptive roles of its own, and provides a potential vehicle for studying trade-offs that relate to life history strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of cryptosporidium infection and characteristics of oocyst shedding in a breeding colony of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Clare; Greiner, Ellis; Uhl, Elizabeth W

    2008-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging problem in reptile medicine and has been associated with a wasting syndrome in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). This study determined the prevalence of infection in a breeding colony of leopard geckos to be 9.8%. Two groups of 20 geckos, one that was fecal positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., and one, whose individuals were fecal negative at the inception of the study, were followed for 2 mo. Fecal samples were tested for oocysts every 2 wk, body weights were measured, and a body condition score was assigned for each gecko. Selected geckos from these two groups were euthanized and necropsied. There were statistically significant differences (P weight, mean body condition score, and prevalence of infection. Cryptosporidium sp. infection is endemic in this breeding colony, and there were a large number of geckos with a subclinical or carrier state of infection. These animals continued to be infected with Cryptosporidium sp. but gained weight and remained in good body condition. Only one gecko in the entire group of 40 was confirmed to be negative for oocysts or developmental stages by repeated fecal exams and histopathology. An additional 37 severely emaciated geckos from the breeding colony were euthanized, and all were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. on histopathologic examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The results of this study indicate that although some animals can recover from a clinical infection, if a gecko is severely wasted, it should be euthanized because of the poor prognosis and possible source of infection to other geckos.

  9. ‘Man-eaters’ in the Media: Representation of Human-leopard Interactions in India Across Local, National, and International Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A Crown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and wildlife are frequent in India, requiring stakeholders to devise mitigation strategies that benefit both humans and wildlife. Success of such initiatives can be impacted by stakeholders' perceptions of species and related issues, which may be unduly influenced by the media. This paper explores media representation of Human-Leopard Interactions (HLI in India, focusing on detecting agenda-setting and framing in articles, and whether these differ with the level of association with HLI. To accomplish this, we coded articles (n=291 from three media-distribution levels with increasing detachment to HLI events: local news, Indian national news, and international news, and compared the types of agenda-setting and framing found across the three. Overall, international media had the most negative portrayal of leopards and HLI, while national had the most balanced. Local and international media included 'man-eater' framing in the majority of their stories; whereas stories of leopards as victims were most prominent in local news, and victim framing was most frequent in national. These results suggest that agenda-setting and framing may vary with association with HLI. Despite differences between sources, our findings suggest that all media distributions focused primarily on stories of leopards causing trouble (e.g., attacks and incursions, or in ways viewed as troublesome (e.g. incursions with few stories of leopards as victims or informational pieces. The largely negative depiction, and differences in representation between geographic locations, could hinder mitigation strategies and policy through presenting stakeholders with incomplete information.

  10. Evaluation of the pituitary-gonadal response to GnRH, and adrenal status, in the leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J L; Goodrowe, K L; Simmons, L G; Armstrong, D L; Wildt, D E

    1988-01-01

    Frequent blood samples were collected to study hormonal responses to GnRH in male and female leopards and tigers. Animals were anaesthetized with ketamine-HCl and blood samples were collected every 5 min for 15 min before and 160 min after i.v. administration of GnRH (1 micrograms/kg body weight) or saline. No differences in serum cortisol concentrations were observed between sexes within species, but mean cortisol was 2-fold greater in leopards than tigers. GnRH induced a rapid rise in LH in all animals (18.3 +/- 0.9 min to peak). Net LH peak height above pretreatment levels was 3-fold greater in males than conspecific females and was also greater in tigers than leopards. Serum FSH increased after GnRH, although the magnitude of response was less than that observed for LH. Basal LH and FSH and GnRH-stimulated FSH concentrations were not influenced by sex or species. Serum testosterone increased within 30-40 min after GnRH in 3/3 leopard and 1/3 tiger males. Basal testosterone was 3-fold greater in tiger than leopard males. LH pulses (1-2 pulses/3 h) were detected in 60% of saline-treated animals, suggesting pulsatile gonadotrophin secretion; however, in males concomitant testosterone pulses were not observed. These results indicate that there are marked sex and species differences in basal and GnRH-stimulated hormonal responses between felids of the genus Panthera which may be related to differences in adrenal activity.

  11. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats ( Felis silvestris catus ) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  12. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  14. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  15. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  17. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  18. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  19. Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A273 124 AL-TR-1991-0078 A R COCKPIT AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY M CSERIAC- CAT S JULY 1989 - DEC 1990: FINAL REPORT T R Trudy S. Abrams Cindy D. Martin...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC- CAT JUL 89 - DEC 90 PE 62202F Final Report (U) PR 7184 ,___,TA 12 6. AUTHOR(S...Boeing-developed CAT software tools, and for facilitating their use by the cockpit design community. A brief description of the overall task is given

  20. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    PRDC TR 84-33 \\Q.�d-33- \\ MICROCOMPUTER NETWOJlt FOR COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) Baldwin Quan Thomas A . Park Gary Sandahl John H...ACCEIIION NO NPRDC TR 84-33 4. TITLE (-d Sul>tlllo) MICROCOMP UTER NETWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED ADA PTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) 1. Q B. uan T. A . Park...adaptive testing ( CAT ) Bayesian sequential testing 20. ABSTitACT (Continuo on ro•••• aide II noco .. _, _., ld-tlly ,.,. t.loclt _._.) DO Computerized

  1. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Terry Marie

    2008-09-01

    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  2. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  3. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the Master...

  4. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor

  5. Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe - northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2013-09-01

    European leopard sites in Europe demonstrate Early/Middle Pleistocene out of Africa lowland, and Late Pleistocene Asian alpine migrations being driven by climatic changes. Four different European Pleistocene subspecies are known. The final European Late Pleistocene “Ice Age leopard” Panthera pardus spelaea (Bächler, 1936) is validated taxonomically. The skull shows heavy signs of sexual dimorphism with closest cranial characters to the Caucasian Panthera pardus ciscaucasica (Persian leopard). Late Pleistocene leopards were distributed northernmost, up to S-England with the youngest stratigraphic records by skeletons and cave art in the MIS 2/3 (about 32,000-26,000 BP). The oldest leopard painting left by Late Palaeolithics (Aurignacians/Gravettians) in the Chauvet Cave (S-France) allows the reconstruction of the Ice Age leopard fur spot pattern being close to the snow or Caucasian leopards. The last Ice Age glacial leopard habitat was the mountain/alpine boreal forest (not mammoth steppe lowland), where those hunted even larger prey such as alpine game (Ibex, Chamois). Into some lairs, those imported their prey by short-term cave dwelling (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Harz Mountains, Germany). Only Eurasian Ice Age leopards specialized, similar as other Late Pleistocene large felids (steppe lions), on cave bear predation/scavenging partly very deep in caves. In Vjetrenica Cave (Dinarid Mountains, Bosnia Herzegovina), four adult leopards (two males/two females) of the MIS 3 were found about two km deep from the entrance in a cave bear den, near to one cave bear skeleton, that remained articulated in its nest. Leopards died there, partly being trapped by raising water levels of an active ponor stream, but seem to have been killed possibly either, similar as for lions known, in battles with cave bears in several cave bear den sites of Europe (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Wildkirchli Cave, Vjetrenica Cave). At other large cave sites, with overlap of hyena, wolf and dhole dens at

  6. Reproductive cycle of the leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea in La Paz Bay, Mexico | Ciclo reproductivo de la cabrilla sardinera Mycteroperca rosacea en la bahía de La Paz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Godínez, J. A.; Maldonado-García, M.; Gracia-López, Vicente; Carrillo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea is an endemic species from the northwestern coast of Mexico and, like other serranid fishes, it has a high commercial value; hence, it is a good candidate for cultivation. This study aimed to describe the reproductive cycle of the leopard grouper in the wild as a step toward evaluating its aquaculture and restocking potential. From March 2008 to February 2009, 197 specimens were collected in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Overall sex ratio was 3.6 fem...

  7. CATS Deliverable 5.1 : CATS verification of test matrix and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 5 "Verification of test matrix and protocol" of the Cyclist AEB testing system (CATS) project. It describes the verification process of the draft CATS test matrix resulting from WP1 and WP2, and the feasibility of meeting requirements set by CATS consortium based on requirements in Euro NCAP AEB protocols regarding accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility using the developed test hardware. For the cases where verification t...

  8. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million, free-roaming (70 million, research (13,000, and shelter (2-3 million cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  9. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  10. CAT -- computer aided testing for resonant inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, David K.

    1998-01-01

    Application of computer technology relates to inspection and quality control. The computer aided testing (CAT) can be used to analyze various NDT technologies, such as eddy current, ultrasonics, and resonant inspection

  11. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  12. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...

  13. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  14. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  15. High rise syndrome with impalement in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratschke, K M; Kirby, B M

    2002-06-01

    Three cats were presented for management of impalement injuries sustained following falls from second storey windows onto spiked metal railings. Two cats presented with penetrating thoracic wounds and extensive pulmonary parenchymal trauma, while one presented with abdominal impalement and splenic rupture. Following stabilisation, all three cats underwent exploratory surgery. A good outcome was achieved in two of the cats: one with thoracic and one with abdominal penetration. Impalement injury secondary to free fallis a previously unreported variation of 'high rise syndrome' in cats.

  16. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; June H. Williams; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  17. Improving risk allocation through cat bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Martin; Richter, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Catastrophe bonds (cat bonds) often use index triggers, such as, for instance, parametric descriptions of a catastrophe. This implies the problem of the so-called basis risk, resulting from the fact that, in contrast to traditional reinsurance, this kind of coverage cannot be a perfect hedge for the primary's insured portfolio. On the other hand, cat bonds offer some very attractive economic features: Besides their usefulness as a solution to the problems of moral hazard and default risk, an ...

  18. Bioacoustic Signal Classification in Cat Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    of the cat’s WINER. 1. A. Anatomy of layer IV in cat primary auditory cortex t4,1). J miedial geniculate body Ideintified by projections to binaural...34language" (see for example Tartter, 1986, chapter 8; and Lieberman, 1984). Attempts have been made to train animals (mainly apes, gorillas , _ _ ___I 3...gestures of a gorilla : Language acquisition in another Pongid. Brain and Language, 1978a, 5, 72-97. Patterson, F. Conversations with a gorilla

  19. Effect of single-cat versus multi-cat home history on perceived behavioral stress in domestic cats (Felis silvestrus catus) in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.

  20. Campylobacteriosis in dogs and cats: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acke, E

    2018-05-13

    Campylobacter species are commonly isolated from faecal samples collected from dogs and cats with the most prevalent species being C. upsaliensis, C. helveticus, and C. jejuni. Although the majority of dogs and cats are subclinically infected, some will develop mild to moderate enteritis. Immature animals, animals from intensive housing backgrounds, and animals with concurrent disease are especially predisposed to infection and the development of clinical signs. Bacterial culture methods applied in diagnostic laboratories remain biased to C. jejuni and C. coli detection, but molecular methods to diagnose Campylobacter spp. infections in dogs and cats have become widely available and can aid rapid and accurate diagnosis. Multilocus sequence typing has also been developed for subtyping different strains and has been used in epidemiological investigations. In the majority of cases, clinical signs are self-limiting and antimicrobial treatment is not warranted. Campylobacter spp. isolated from dogs and cats have shown resistance to commonly used antimicrobials, so antimicrobial therapy should only be administered where this is justified. Contact with dogs and cats is a recognised risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, thus people living or working in close contact with cats and dogs should be made aware of the zoonotic organisms these animals can shed.

  1. Minimal health impacts but detectable tissue residues after exposure of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) to commercial naphthenic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersikorn, B.; Young, R.; Fedorak, P.; Smits, J.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined whether naphthenic acids (NAs) are a toxic component in oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM). The study investigated the toxicity of commercial (Refined Merichem) NAs to native amphibians (northern leopard frogs) exposed to saline conditions comparable to those of reclaimed wetlands on oil sand leases. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the exposure of frogs to NAs solutions for 28 days resulted in proportional NA concentrations in extracts of frog muscle tissue. Biological assays were performed to determine if the increasing exposure to NAs caused a proportional compromise in the health of test animals. The innate immune function, thyroid hormones, and hepatic detoxification enzyme induction did not differ in response to increased tissue concentrations of NAs. The commercial NAs were absorbed and deposited in muscle tissue. It was concluded that NAs play only a small, if any, role in the toxicity of OSPM to frogs.

  2. Phosphoproteomics-mediated identification of Fer kinase as a target of mutant Shp2 in Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Paardekooper Overman

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome (NS and LEOPARD syndrome (LS cause congenital afflictions such as short stature, hypertelorism and heart defects. More than 50% of NS and almost all of LS cases are caused by activating and inactivating mutations of the phosphatase Shp2, respectively. How these biochemically opposing mutations lead to similar clinical outcomes is not clear. Using zebrafish models of NS and LS and mass spectrometry-based phosphotyrosine proteomics, we identified a down-regulated peptide of Fer kinase in both NS and LS. Further investigation showed a role for Fer during development, where morpholino-based knockdown caused craniofacial defects, heart edema and short stature. During gastrulation, loss of Fer caused convergence and extension defects without affecting cell fate. Moreover, Fer knockdown cooperated with NS and LS, but not wild type Shp2 to induce developmental defects, suggesting a role for Fer in the pathogenesis of both NS and LS.

  3. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of an African lion (Panthera leo) and a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Akitsugu; Hatakeyama, Emi; Kobayashi, Rui; Fukuda, Kenji; Uemura, Yusuke; Saito, Tadao; Packer, Craig; Oftedal, Olav T; Urashima, Tadasu

    2010-12-01

    The Carnivora include the superfamilies Canoidea and Feloidea. In species of Canoidea other than the domestic dog, Canis lupus, the milk contains only traces of lactose and much larger concentrations of oligosaccharides. In this study, lactose was found to be the dominant saccharide in the milk or colostrum of two species of Feloidea, namely the African lion (Panthera leo) and the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). In addition to lactose, the following oligosaccharides were characterized in the milk of a lion; Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-NGc-SL), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc (2'-fucosyllactose) and GalNAc(α1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (A-tetrasaccharide). The colostrum of a clouded leopard contained 3'-NGc-SL, Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose) and A-tetrasaccharide. These oligosaccharides differ in some respects from those previously identified in another species of Feloidea, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). These milks contained 3'-NGc-SL and A-tetrasaccharide, while spotted hyena colostrum did not; however, it contained Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-NAc-SL) and Gal(α1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (B-tetrasaccharide). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Understanding the role of representations of human-leopard conflict in Mumbai through media-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Saloni; Athreya, Vidya; Grenyer, Richard; MacDonald, David W

    2013-06-01

    Attempts to minimize the effects of human-wildlife conflict (HWC) on conservation goals require an understanding of the mechanisms by which such conflicts are caused and sustained. This necessitates looking beyond the natural sciences to the human dimensions of wildlife management. Public dissemination of information regarding HWC occurs largely through the mass media. We conducted a content analysis of print media articles on human-leopard conflict in Mumbai, India. We sought to understand the framing of HWC and the changes in media coverage over a 10-year period (2001-2011) during which a large number of attacks on people prior to 2005 were followed by a program of trapping and relocation. After 2005, when there was a decrease in the level of conflict, the tone of English-language media reports changed. The perpetrator framing was over 5 times more likely before 2005, whereas a neutral framing was twice as likely after 2005. English-language and non-English-language print media differed significantly in their framing of HWC and in the kinds of solutions advocated. Our results also suggest the print mass media in Mumbai could be an influential conduit for content that diminishes HWC. These media outlets seem attentive to human-leopard conflict, capable of correcting erroneous perceptions and facilitating mitigation and effective management. We believe better contact and mutual understanding between conservation professionals and the mass media could be an important component of managing HWC. We further suggest that in such interactions conservation professionals need to be aware of cultural and linguistic differences in reporting within the country. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners' attitude towards deworming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners’ attitude towards deworming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R.; Ploeger, H.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Mughini-Gras, L.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples

  7. CATS Deliverable 5.1 : CATS verification of test matrix and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 5 "Verification of test matrix and protocol" of the Cyclist AEB testing system (CATS) project. It describes the verification process of the draft CATS test matrix resulting from WP1 and WP2, and the feasibility of meeting

  8. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oryszczyn, M.-P.; van Ree, R.; Maccario, J.; Nadif, R.; Kauffmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test

  9. Evaluation of skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and cats with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.

  10. Hypothermia in Uremic Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. 3 alpha-Hydroxylated bile acid profiles in clinically normal cats, cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and cats with complete extrahepatic bile duct occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Thompson, M; Guida, L

    1993-05-01

    Concentrations of 3 alpha-hydroxylated bile acids were measured in serum and urine of clinically normal (healthy) cats (n = 6), cats with severe hepatic lipidosis (n = 9), and cats with complete bile duct occlusion (n = 4). Bile acid concentrations were measured by use of a gradient flow high-performance liquid chromatography procedure with an acetonitrile and ammonium phosphate mobile phase and an in-line postanalytic column containing 3 alpha-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase and a fluorescence detector. Specific identification of all bile acid peaks was not completed; unidentified moieties were represented in terms of their elution time (in minutes). Significant differences in serum and urine bile acid concentrations, quantitative and proportional, were determined among groups of cats. Cats with hepatic lipidosis and bile duct occlusion had significantly (P > or = 0.05) greater total serum and urine bile acids concentrations than did healthy cats. The proportion of hydrophobic bile acids in serum, those eluting at > or = 400 minutes, was 1.9% for healthy cats, 3.3% for cats with lipidosis, and 5.4% for bile duct-obstructed cats. Both groups of ill cats had a broader spectrum of unidentified late-eluting serum bile acids than did healthy cats; the largest spectrum developed in bile duct-occluded cats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P hepatic lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P hepatic disease. The high concentration of NEFAs in cats with hepatic lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

  13. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Melancon, M.J.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3 and 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD) and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD and PROD were not elevated at doses ? 0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05), but were significantly increased at doses ? 2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p leopard frogs.

  14. Effects of gonadal sex and incubation temperature on the ontogeny of gonadal steroid concentrations and secondary sex structures in leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David

    2005-07-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Incubation temperature and gonadal sex jointly influence the display of sexual and agonistic behavior in adult leopard geckos. These differences in adult behavior are organized prior to sexual maturity, and it is plausible that post-natal hormones influence neural and behavioral differentiation. Here we assessed incubation temperature and sex effects on sex steroid levels in leopard geckos at 2, 10, and 25 weeks of age and monitored the development of male secondary sex structures. Males had significantly higher androgen concentrations at all time points, whereas females had significantly higher 17beta-estradiol (E2) concentrations only at 10 and 25 weeks. Within males, age but not incubation temperature affected steroid levels and morphological development. Male androgen levels increased modestly by 10 and dramatically by 25 weeks of age, whereas E2 levels remained unchanged over this period. Most males had signs of hemipenes at 10 weeks of age, and all males had hemipenes and open preanal pores by 25 weeks of age. In females, age and incubation temperature affected E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but not T concentrations. Controlling for age, females from 34 degrees C have higher DHT and lower E2 levels than females from 30 degrees C. Further, E2 concentrations increased significantly from 2 to 10 weeks, after which E2 levels remained steady. Together, these results indicate that sexually dimorphic levels of steroids play a major role in the development of leopard gecko behavior and morphology. Furthermore, these data suggest that the organizational effects of incubation temperature on adult female phenotype could be, in part, mediated by incubation temperature effects on steroid hormone levels during juvenile development.

  15. Molecular characterization of the leopard gecko POMC gene and expressional change in the testis by acclimation to low temperature and with a short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2004-08-01

    The gene for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a common precursor of malanotropins, corticotropin, and beta-endorphin, was isolated and analyzed in the squamata species, the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. Leopard gecko POMC (lgPOMC) cDNA is composed of 1299bp, excluding the poly(A) tail, and encodes 270 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the same structural organization as that of other species and displayed identity with those of other vertebrates: 68% with mud turtles, 57/57% with African clawed frog A/B, 53% with chickens, and 45% with mice. In a phylogenic tree, the lgPOMC clustered with the sequences of the mud turtle POMC and python POMC. The lgPOMC gene comprises three exons and two introns and this structure is consistent with humans, rats, mice, African clawed frog and zebrafish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the lgPOMC mRNA was expressed only in the whole brain, pituitary, and gonads. To analyze in more detail, a competitive assay system to quantify the expression levels of POMC mRNA was established. We measured the POMC mRNA expression levels in the leopard gecko testes following transfer from a condition of 29 degrees C, 16L/8D to 18 degrees C, 10L/14D over 6 weeks. This 6-week acclimation increased the POMC mRNA expression levels significantly. This suggests that the leopard gecko POMC-derived peptides play a role in the mediation of the effect of environmental factors on reproduction.

  16. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  17. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I, and class II DRB loci of captive and wild Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Drashti R; Mitra, Siuli; Bhadouriya, Snehalata; Rao, Tirupathi; Kunteepuram, Vaishnavi; Gaur, Ajay

    2017-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in vertebrate animals, is a multi-genic protein complex that encodes various receptors. During a disease, MHC interacts with the antigen and triggers a cascade of adaptive immune responses to overcome a disease outbreak. The MHC is very important region from immunological point of view, but it is poorly characterized among Indian leopards. During this investigation, we examined genetic diversity for MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II-DRB (MHC-II) among wild and captive Indian leopards. This study estimated a pool of 9 and 17 alleles for MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. The wild group of individuals showed higher nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphism compared to the captive group. A phylogenetic comparison with other felids revealed a clustering in MHC-I and interspersed presence in MHC-II sequences. A test for selection also revealed a deviation from neutrality at MHC-II DRB loci and higher non-synonymous substitution rate (dN) among the individuals from wild group. Further, the wild individuals showed higher dN for both MHC I and II genes compared to the group that was bred under captive conditions. These findings suggest the role of micro-evolutionary forces, such as pathogen-mediated selection, to cause MHC variations among the two groups of Indian leopards, because the two groups have been bred in two different environments for a substantial period of time. Since, MHC diversity is often linked with the quality of immunological health; the results obtained from this study fill the gap of knowledge on disease predisposition among wild and captive Indian leopards.

  18. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R

    2017-07-03

    Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  19. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  1. Optical quality of the living cat eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B

    1974-12-01

    1. The optical quality of the living cat eye was measured under conditions similar to those of cat retinal ganglion cell experiments by recording the aerial image of a nearly monochromatic thin line of light.2. Experiments were performed to assess the nature of the fundal reflexion of the cat eye, which was found to behave essentially as a diffuser.3. The optical Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was calculated from the measured aerial linespread using Fourier mathematics; the MTF of a ;typical' cat eye was averaged from data collected from ten eyes.4. The state of focus of the optical system, the pupil size and the angle of the light incident on the eye were all varied to determine their effect on image quality.5. By using an image rotator, the aerial linespread was measured for several orientations of the line; these measurements yielded an approximation of the two-dimensional pointspread completely characterizing the optical system.6. Evidence is reviewed to show that the optical resolution of the cat, albeit some 3-5 times worse than that of human, appears to be better than the neural resolution of its retina and its visual system as a whole.

  2. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  3. Experimental induction of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V C; Groff, J M; Munn, R J; Kirk, C A; Nyland, T G; Madeiros, V A; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of long-term voluntary fasting on hematologic variables, biochemical profiles, and liver histologic findings was assessed in 15 obese cats (> 40% overweight). Clinical signs and laboratory results consistent with hepatic lipidosis were observed in 12 of 15 cats after 5 to 7 weeks of fasting, and were associated with 30 to 35% reduction of initial body weight. Histologic examination of successive liver biopsy specimens revealed that obesity was not associated with liver parenchymal lipid accumulation, but that fasting resulted in lipidosis in all 15 cats. The long-term fast was associated with an early (after 2 to 4 weeks of fasting) and significant (P hepatic-associated enzyme activities and in total and direct serum bilirubin concentrations. Significant (P hepatic lipidosis, cats appeared to tolerate the fast without other adverse effect. This study confirmed that long-term fasting may induce clinical hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Fasting appears to induce a syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that is indistinguishable from feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and may be an appropriate model to study the pathophysiologic features and treatment of hepatic lipidosis.

  4. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti , which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors cDNA in a reptile, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Keisuke; Oka, Yoshitaka; Park, Min Kyun

    2008-05-01

    Despite the physiological and evolutionary significance of lipid metabolism in amniotes, the molecular mechanisms involved have been unclear in reptiles. To elucidate this, we investigated peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs) in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). PPARs belong to a nuclear hormone-receptor family mainly involved in lipid metabolism. Although PPARs have been widely studied in mammals, little information about them is yet available from reptiles. We identified in the leopard gecko partial cDNA sequences of PPARalpha and beta, and full sequences of two isoforms of PPARgamma. This is the first report of reptilian PPARgamma mRNA isoforms. We also evaluated the organ distribution of expression of these genes by using RT-PCR and competitive PCR. The expression level of PPARalpha mRNA was highest in the large intestine, and moderate in the liver and kidney. The expression level of PPARbeta mRNA was highest in the kidney and large intestine, and moderate in the liver. Similarly to the expression of human PPARgamma isoforms, PPARgammaa was expressed ubiquitously, whereas the expression of PPARgammab was restricted. The highest levels of their expression, however, were observed in the large intestine, rather than in the adipose tissue as in mammals. Taken together, these results showed that the profile of PPARbeta mRNA expression in the leopard gecko is similar to that in mammals, and that those of PPAR alpha and gamma are species specific. This may reflect adaptation to annual changes in lipid storage due to seasonal food availability.

  6. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception. Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59% fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception was proposed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. This model consisted of a set of variables proposed as directly or indirectly influencing ownership perception, with connecting arrows to indicate proposed causal relationships. Understanding ownership perception and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intake is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats.

  7. Osteosarcoma in cats: 22 cases (1974-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitetto, W.V.; Patnaik, A.K.; Schrader, S.C.; Mooney, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Osteosarcoma was diagnosed in 22 cats. Diagnosis was based on results of physical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Fifteen tumors arose from the appendicular skeleton, 4 from the skull, 2 from the pelvis, and 1 from a rib. Radiography revealed that in 14 of 15 cats (93%) with appendicular tumors, the lesion was metaphyseal, primarily lytic, with a ''moth-eaten'' appearance; absence and presence of periosteal new bone formation were associated with the tumors in 12 and 3 cats, respectively. The remaining 7 cats had axial tumors that were characterized by the presence of periosteal new bone formation in addition to bony lysis. Of the 15 cats with appendicular tumors, 12 were treated by amputation and 3 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis. Of the cats undergoing amputation for treatment of their appendicular tumors, 6 cats were still alive 64 months after surgery (range, 13 to 64 months); the median survival time of the 5 cats (1 cat was lost to follow-up evaluation) that died was 49.2 months (range, 1 to 122 months). Four of 12 cats (33%) survived greater than or equal to 5 years after diagnosis. Of the cats with axial tumors that were not euthanatized at the time of diagnosis (6 of 7), the median survival time was 5.5 months. Based on these findings, we concluded that cats with appendicular osteosarcoma have a better prognosis than those with axial osteosarcoma, and that amputation is a viable treatment for cats with appendicular osteosarcoma

  8. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  9. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    /needed? (iii) sex of the animal? New effective and available methods for hormonal contraception include melatonin implants for short-term post ponement of oestrus in adult queens and slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin (Suprelorin®) for short- and long-term contraception in male and female......Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...

  10. Dilated cardiomyopathy in cats - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyaraja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two cats were brought to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history and clinical signs suggestive of congestive heart failure ie, coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, abdominal distension etc. There was history of feeding the cat with home made diet in one case and in other with commercial dog food. Based on electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy was done in both the cases. The cases were managed with enalapril maleate, furosemide, dietary taurine supplementation and other supportive therapy. Among these two cases, one cat died on 2nd day of treatment and the other showed recovery after 8 days of treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 226-227

  11. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  12. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  13. Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Pancreas in Cats with Chronic Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Normal Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, S; Sharma, A; Bugbee, A

    2018-03-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. No known diagnostic test or patient characteristic at the time of diagnosis can predict likely disease course, unlike in people in whom computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is used. No published data exist regarding the CTA appearance of the pancreas in cats with DM, and thus, it is unknown what if any CTA variables should be further assessed for associations with pancreatic endocrine function. A significant difference in pancreatic attenuation, volume, and size will be identified between normal cats and those with chronic DM on CTA. Ten healthy control cats and 15 cats with naturally occurring DM present for >12 months. Prospective cross-sectional study comparing pancreatic attenuation, enhancement pattern, size, volume, pancreatic volume-to-body weight ratio (V:BW), pancreatic arterial: portal phase ratio (A:P), time-to-arterial enhancement, and time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA between sedated healthy control cats and those with chronic DM. The pancreas in cats with chronic DM was significantly larger, had higher volume, higher V:BW, and shorter time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA when compared to normal cats. Peak portal enhancement time, pancreatic size, pancreatic volume, and V:BW can be used to differentiate normal sedated cats from those with chronic DM by CTA. These variables warrant further investigation to identify possible associations with endocrine function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. KnowCat: Catalizador de Conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Ruth; Alamán, Xavier; Esquivel, José A.

    2001-01-01

    KnowCat es un sistema distribuido que tiene como meta la creación incremental de conocimiento estructurado. El nombre del sistema, KnowCat, es el acrónimo de "Knowledge Catalyser" o "catalizador de conocimiento", que hace referencia a la propiedad principal que exhibirá: la catalización del proceso de cristalización del conocimiento como resultado de la interacción de los usuarios con dicho conocimiento. Un área de aplicación del sistema es la generación de materiales educativos de alta c...

  15. Hypertrophic osteopathy and megaoesophagus in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    2010-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic osteopathy in a stray cat is reported. It was not known how long periosteal proliferation had been present prior to the time of first presentation. A few months later, megaoesophagus became apparent. Computer tomography was performed at least 18 months after periosteal proliferation had first become evident, but an underlying neoplasia was not identifed in association with the hypertrophic osteopathy. The hypertrophic osteopathy and the megaoesophagus were both successfully medically managed, and the cat continued to do well 33 months after the hypertrophic osteopathy was first evident.

  16. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  18. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  19. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-07-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination schedule of dogs and cats in Korean animal hospitals.

  20. Efficient induction of spawning of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) during and outside the natural breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Vance L; Schueler, Frederick W; Navarro-Martin, Laia; Hamilton, Christine K; Bulaeva, Elizabeth; Bennett, Amanda; Fletcher, William; Taylor, Lisa

    2013-02-25

    Amphibian declines are now recognized globally. It is also well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity, especially when held over long periods, or if they require hibernation before breeding. A simple method to induce spawning and subsequent development of large numbers of healthy tadpoles is therefore required to meet research and conservation goals. The method is based on simultaneous injection of both female and male leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens (formerly called Rana pipiens) with a cocktail of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) and a dopamine antagonist. We call this the AMPHIPLEX method, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. Following injection, the animals are thereby induced, and perform amplexus and natural fertilization under captive conditions. We tested combinations of a GnRH agonist with 2 different dopamine antagonists in L. pipiens in the breeding season. The combination of des-Gly(10), D-Ala(6), Pro-NHEt(9)-GnRH (0.4 micrograms/g body weight; GnRH-A) with metoclopramide hydrochloride (10 micrograms/g body weight; MET) or domperidone (DOM) were equally effective, producing 89% and 88% successful spawning, respectively. This yielded more than 44,000 eggs for the 16/18 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+MET group, and more than 39,000 eggs for the 15/17 females that ovulated in the GnRH-A+DOM group. We further tested the GnRH-A+MET in frogs collected in the wild in late autumn and hibernated for a short period under laboratory conditions, and report a low spawning success (43%). However, GnRH-A priming 24 hours prior to injections of the GnRH-A+MET cocktail in animals hibernated for 5-6 weeks produced out-of-season spawning (89%) and fertilization (85%) comparable to those we observed for in-season spawning. Assessment of age and weight at metamorphosis indicated that L. pipiens tadpoles resulting from out-of-season spawning grew normally and metamorphosed successfully. We

  1. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...

  2. The effect of keeping pet dogs and cats on Toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esmaeel Fallah

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, much of the dogs and cats owners were exposed to parasite. Training of dogs and cats owners, promotion of their awareness about various ways of transmission and examination of the infections in dogs and cats and prevention of these infections are recommended.

  3. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  4. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waller, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., "miow"). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss' Kappa K  = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies.

  5. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  6. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid

  7. Purified natural and recombinant Fel d 1 and cat albumin in in vitro diagnostics for cat allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Bulder, I.; Bond, J.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Current diagnostics and therapeutics for cat allergy are based on cat epithelial extracts originating from highly variable source materials. This gives rise to several problems: variability of allergen composition, contamination with house dust mite allergens, and potential transfer of pathogenic

  8. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  9. Stray cats are more frequently infected with zoonotic protists than pet cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvac, Martin; Hofmannova, Lada; Ortega, Ynes; Holubova, Nikola; Horcickova, Michaela; Kicia, Marta; Hlaskova, Lenka; Kvetonova, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; McEvoy, John

    2017-12-06

    Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C. felis Iseki, 1979, G. intestinalis assemblage F, E. cuniculi Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 genotype II, and E. bieneusi genotype D. There was no correlation between the occurrence of detected parasites and sex, presence of diarrhoea or drug treatment (drug containing pyrantel and praziquantel). Compared to pet cats (7%), stray cats (30%) were statistically more frequently infected with protist parasites and overall may present a greater risk to human health.

  10. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Human caretaking of cats was explored in a sample of people surrendering cats to shelters in Australia. At the shelters surrenderers classified themselves as owners or non-owners and a questionnaire identified that this was related to their method of acquisition of the cat, their association time with the cat, the closeness of their relationship with the cat and their degree of responsibility for the cat’s care. A model of ownership perception was developed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. Understanding ownership perceptions in cats surrendered to shelters is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats. Abstract The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception). Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59%) fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception

  11. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  12. Veterinarian Gets Flu Virus from Cats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-28

    Dr. Todd Davis, a CDC research biologist, discusses transmission of avian H7N2 from a cat to a human.  Created: 3/28/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/28/2018.

  13. The antihypertensive effect of amlodipine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Morar,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in cats with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. The research was conducted on 11 cats, aged between 7 and 14.5 years, diagnosed with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MBP and pulse rate were determined by oscillometric method, before and after 7, 30 or 120 days of treatment with amlodipine. At the beginning of treatment, all cats were receiving 0.625 mg amlodipine once daily and after 7 days oftreatment, in five cats, the dose was increased to 1.25 mg amlodipine, once daily. Before amlodipine administration the mean values of SBP/DBP were 175 ± 13.2 mmHg/119 ± 7.2 mmHg and after 30 days of treatment, the mean values of the SBP/DBP were reduced by 27.9/25.4 mmHg (p<0,001. After 120 days of treatment with amlodipine mean values of SBP/DBP were lower with 32/31 mmHg compared with baseline values (p<0.001. The treatment with amlodipine did not significantly affect the values of blood biochemical parameters of renal profile.

  14. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  15. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  16. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  17. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  18. Diagnostic radiology of the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kealy, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolographic examinations have become an important aid in small animal veterinary practice. The emphasis of the examinations has shifted from surgical and orthopedic applications to internal diseases. The book gives a comprehensive picture of X-ray diagnosis in dogs and cats. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Daffodil toxicosis in an adult cat

    OpenAIRE

    Saxon-Buri, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    A domestic longhair cat with a 3-day history of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting dried daffodil stems (Narcissus spp.) was severely hypothermic (33.0°C), with bradycardia (78 beats/min) and hypotension. Treatment with atropine, dexamethasone, fluid therapy, and supportive care resulted in a complete recovery by 6 days after exposure.

  20. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu; Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon

    1994-01-01

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs

  1. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  2. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  3. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptors from the leopard gecko, and their differential expression in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play crucial roles in various developmental and physiological processes in vertebrates, including squamate reptiles. The effect of THs on shedding frequency is interesting in Squamata, since the effects on lizards are quite the reverse of those in snakes: injection of thyroxine increases shedding frequency in lizards, but decreases it in snakes. However, the mechanism underlying this differential effect remains unclear. To facilitate the investigation of the molecular mechanism of the physiological functions of THs in Squamata, their two specific receptor (TRalpha and beta) cDNAs, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, were cloned from a lizard, the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. This is the first molecular cloning of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) from reptiles. The deduced amino acid sequences showed high identity with those of other species, especially in the C and E/F domains, which are characteristic domains in nuclear hormone receptors. Expression analysis revealed that TRs were widely expressed in many tissues and organs, as in other animals. To analyze their role in the skin, temporal expression analysis was performed by RT-PCR, revealing that the two TRs had opposing expression patterns: TRalpha was expressed more strongly after than before skin shedding, whereas TRbeta was expressed more strongly before than after skin shedding. This provides good evidence that THs play important roles in the skin, and that the roles of their two receptor isoforms are distinct from each other.

  4. Constraints on temperature-dependent sex determination in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius): response to Kratochvil et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Sakata, Jon T; Rhen, Turk; Coomber, Patricia; Simmonds, Sarah; Crews, David

    2008-12-01

    Kratochvil et al. (Naturwissenschaften 95:209-215, 2008) reported recently that in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) of the family Eublepharidae with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produce only same-sex siblings. Interpreting this result in light of studies of sex steroid hormone involvement in sex determination, they suggested that maternally derived yolk steroid hormones could constrain sex-determining mechanisms in TSD reptiles. We have worked extensively with this species and have routinely incubated clutches at constant temperatures. To test the consistency of high frequency same-sex clutches across different incubation temperatures, we examined our records of clutches at the University of Texas at Austin from 1992 to 2001. We observed that clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same incubation temperature produced mixed-sex clutches as well as same-sex clutches. Furthermore, cases in which eggs within a clutch were separated and incubated at different temperatures produced the expected number of mixed-sex clutches. These results suggest that maternal influences on sex determination are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects.

  5. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  6. Leopard Skin-Like Colonic Mucosa: A Novel Endoscopic Finding of Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Associated Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Naho; Arai, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Natsuko; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Kawai, Toshinao; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Tang, Julian; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder in which phagocytes are unable to eradicate pathogens because of a deficit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Among CGD patients, ∼ 30% to 50% develop severe gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Although characteristic histologic findings of CGD-associated colitis have been reported, information on endoscopic features remained vague. A total of 8 male patients with CGD (ages 2-23 years) from 2 Japanese institutions underwent colonoscopy for the evaluation of their fever, diarrhea, bloody stool, and abdominal pain. The endoscopic and histologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. The endoscopic findings of CGD-associated colitis appeared varied. Notably, brownish dots over a yellowish edematous mucosa were observed in 3 of the 8 patients. Prominent pigment-laden macrophages were noted histologically on the mucosa. Although nonspecific endoscopic findings of CGD-associated colitis have been reported before, our observation of brownish dots spread across a yellowish edematous mucosa, termed "leopard sign," could be a unique feature of this condition.

  7. Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. Growth and developmental effects of coal combustion residues on Southern Leopard Frog (Rana sphenocephala) tadpoles exposed throughout metamorphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2008-09-15

    The effects of aquatic deposition of coal combustion residues (CCRs) on amphibian life histories have been the focus of many recent studies. In summer 2005, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate (approximately 1 cm deep within plastic bins) and documented effects of sediment type on oral disc condition, as well as time to, mass at, and total body length at key developmental stages, including metamorphosis (Gosner stages (GS) 37, 42, and 46). We found no significant difference in mortality between the two treatments and mortality was relatively low (eight of 48 in the control group and four of 48 in the CCR group). Ninety percent of exposed tadpoles displayed oral disc abnormalities, while no control individuals displayed abnormalities. Tadpoles raised on CCR-contaminated sediment had decreased developmental rates and weighed significantly less at all developmental stages, on average, when compared to controls. The CCR treatment group was also significantly shorter In length than controls at the completion of metamorphosis (GS 46). Collectively, these findings are the most severe sub-lethal effects noted for any amphibian exposed to CCRs to date. More research is needed to understand how these long term effects may contribute to the dynamics of local amphibian populations.

  9. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-06-29

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  10. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  11. Opinions from the Front Lines of Cat Colony Management Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  12. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  13. Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  14. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hohnen

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account.

  15. MRI of secondary cervical syringomyelia in four cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Midori; Itou, Takuya; Sakai, Takeo; Kitagawa, Masato; Ito, Daisuke; Kanayama, Kiichi

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose cervical syringomyelia in 4 cats. MRI revealed enlargement of the lateral ventricle in all the cats. Of the 4 cases, MRI revealed herniation of the cerebellum in 3 cats, an isolated fourth ventricle in 1 cat, severe hydrocephalus in 2 cats and brain masses in 1 cat. In this report, the cervical syringomyelia in these cats may have been due to formation of a secondary syrinx (enlargement of the central canal) as a result of blockage of flow in the outlet of the fourth ventricle caused by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) encephalomyelitis or secondary cerebellar tonsillar herniation caused by increased intracranial pressure due to intracranial masses or may have been due to caudal compression of the cerebellum caused by increased intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus. (author)

  16. Drought controls on H2O2 accumulation, catalase (CAT) activity and CAT gene expression in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Celina M; Pastori, Gabriela M; Driscoll, Simon; Groten, Karin; Bernard, Stephanie; Foyer, Christine H

    2005-01-01

    Plants co-ordinate information derived from many diverse external and internal signals to ensure appropriate control of gene expression under optimal and stress conditions. In this work, the relationships between catalase (CAT) and H2O2 during drought in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are studied. Drought-induced H2O2 accumulation correlated with decreases in soil water content and CO2 assimilation. Leaf H2O2 content increased even though total CAT activity doubled under severe drought conditions. Diurnal regulation of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNA abundance was apparent in all conditions and day/night CAT1 and CAT2 expression patterns were modified by mild and severe drought. The abundance of CAT1 transcripts was regulated by circadian controls that persisted in continuous darkness, while CAT2 was modulated by light. Drought decreased abundance, and modified the pattern, of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNAs. It was concluded that the complex regulation of CAT mRNA, particularly at the level of translation, allows precise control of leaf H2O2 accumulation.

  17. A comparison of cat-related risk perceptions and tolerance for outdoor cats in Florida and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Jacobson, Susan K; Cox, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    Risk perceptions and attitudes toward animals often explain tolerance for wildlife and management preferences. However, little is understood about how these relationships vary across different geographic regions and stakeholder groups. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared differences in acceptance capacity, risk perceptions, perceived enjoyment from outdoor cats, and experiences with outdoor cats among 3 groups (general public, conservation community, and animal-welfare community) in Hawaii and Florida, two states with large conservation challenges. We combined independently collected data from Florida and Hawaii, to determine how perception of the risks presented by outdoor cats, group membership, and state of residence influenced people's tolerance for outdoor cats. Florida respondents were significantly more tolerant of outdoor cats and less concerned about cat-related risks than Hawaii respondents (p cats and perceived a smaller increase in the cat population and lower levels of risk than other groups (p cat population. Our results suggest public tolerance for cats varied due to the influence of local or geographical concerns, but that strongly held beliefs, risk perceptions, and feelings about cats explained more of the variance in stakeholder tolerance. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Lipid composition of hepatic and adipose tissues from normal cats and from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Barstad, L A; Connor, W E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipid classes in hepatic and adipose tissues from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (IHL). Concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid phosphorus, and free and total cholesterol were determined in lipid extracts of liver homogenates from 5 cats with IHL and 5 healthy control cats. Total fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue was also compared. Triglyceride accounted for 34% of liver by weight in cats with IHL (338 +/- 38 mg/g wet liver) versus 1% in control cats (9.9 +/- 1.0 mg/g wet liver, P hepatic tissue in the 2 groups differed; palmitate was higher (19.5 +/- 1.1% of total fatty acids in cats with IHL versus 9.2 +/- 2.7% in controls, P hepatic triglyceride in cats with IHL is the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

  19. Changes in androgen receptor mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Woolley, Sarah; Porter, Raymond; Crews, David

    2003-06-01

    Successful reproduction requires the coordination of reproductive physiology with behavior. The neural correlates of reproductive behavior have been elucidated in a variety of amphibians, mammals, and birds but relatively few studies have examined reptiles. Here we investigate differences in androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct between previtellogenic and late vitellogenic female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius. Plasma concentrations of testosterone (T) are low when females are previtellogenic and sexually unreceptive but increase dramatically during late vitellogenesis when females are receptive. In addition, receptivity can be induced by treatment with exogenous T. The relative abundance of AR-mRNA across various nuclei was greater in late vitellogenic than in previtellogenic females. This general pattern was observed in the medial preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, external nucleus of the amygdala, dorsolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral septum, and periventricular hypothalamus. There were also clear differences in AR-mRNA expression among these nuclei. The pattern of gene expression observed in the brain was reversed within stromal cells of the oviduct where expression of AR-mRNA decreased from the previtellogenic stage to the late vitellogenic stage. Overall, these data demonstrate that T concentration in the plasma, abundance of AR-mRNA in the brain and oviduct, and sexual behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos. Although the function of AR in the female leopard gecko is not yet clear, our results are in accord with growing evidence that androgens regulate numerous aspects of female physiology and behavior in vertebrates.

  20. Identification and characterization of the reptilian GnRH-II gene in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, and its evolutionary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Tadahiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2003-10-16

    To elucidate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of a particular peptide, one must analyze not the limited primary amino acid sequences of the low molecular weight mature polypeptide, but rather the sequences of the corresponding precursors from various species. Of all the structural variants of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-II (chicken GnRH-II, or cGnRH-II) is remarkably conserved without any sequence substitutions among vertebrates, but its precursor sequences vary considerably. We have identified and characterized the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the GnRH-II precursor and determined its genomic structure, consisting of four exons and three introns, in a reptilian species, the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius. This is the first report about the GnRH-II precursor cDNA/gene from reptiles. The deduced leopard gecko prepro-GnRH-II polypeptide had the highest identities with the corresponding polypeptides of amphibians. The GnRH-II precursor mRNA was detected in more than half of the tissues and organs examined. This widespread expression is consistent with the previous findings in several species, though the roles of GnRH outside the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis remain largely unknown. Molecular phylogenetic analysis combined with sequence comparison showed that the leopard gecko is more similar to fishes and amphibians than to eutherian mammals with respect to the GnRH-II precursor sequence. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of the GnRH-II precursor sequences seen in eutherian mammals may have occurred along with amniote evolution.

  1. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  2. Rectal duplication cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Peter H; Hagen, Regine; Willi, Barbara; Ruetten, Maja; Venzin, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    Enteric duplication is a rare developmental malformation in people, dogs and cats. The purpose of the present report is to describe the first case of a rectal duplication cyst in a 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat presenting for acute constipation and tenesmus. On rectal palpation a spherical mass compressing the lumen of the rectum could be felt in the dorsal wall of the rectum. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a well demarcated cystic lesion in the pelvic canal, dorsal to the rectum. The cyst was surgically removed via a perineal approach. No communication with the rectal lumen could be demonstrated. Histopathological examination was consistent with a rectal duplication cyst. Clinical signs resolved completely after excision of this conjoined non-communicating cystic rectal duplicate. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CT studies of brain abscesses in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, K.; Wallenfang, T.; Bohl, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cerebral abscesses were produced in 56 cats by introducing staphylococcus aureus into the white matter of one cerebral hemisphere, using a stereotaxic apparatus. The cats were treated with antibiotics and/or steroids. The size and density of the inflammatory process and the abscess ring were measured on postcontrast CT scans. Differences were found depending on the stage of the abscess, but the deviation of values was too great for determining the age of the abscess from one measurement, to be able to apply proper treatment. The size and density of the abscesses were the same on CT whether the animals were treated or not. This was contrary to the clinical picture, the measurements of edema, and the histopathological studies. (orig.)

  4. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1986-11-01

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ 0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  5. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  6. Las catástrofes naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Capacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos cuarenta años, la cantidad de víctimas por catástrofes naturales se ha quintuplicado en el mundo. El aumento incontrolado de la población, especialmente de la urbana, así como la situación socioeconómica, medioambiental y política de algunas regiones, son las principales causas de esta situación. El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar una idea de las principales cuestiones (teóricas, tipológicas, dimensionales y de costos ligadas a dichas catástrofes, las cuales pueden estimular reflexiones, desde consideraciones de tipo teórico hasta aquellas más prácticas y operativas.

  7. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  8. Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    of reciprocity occurs frequently under the following three conditions: (i) “dependency” (due to a lack of alternative choice in the labour market ...Box, N 5020 Bergen Norway SUMMARY This is a brief review of the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS) (Ursin and Eriksen 2004), which offers...of Bergen Krinkelkroken 1 P.O. Box, N 5020 Bergen Norway 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  9. Chlamydiosis in a fishing cat (Felis viverrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, M J; van der Hage, M H; Greydanus-van der Putten, S W

    1997-06-01

    A fishing cat (Felis viverrina) died overnight, within 12 hr of peracute onset of depression, slight tremors, pallor, and icterus. Necropsy showed widespread hemorrhage and hematomata in the heart, stomach, and kidneys. The lungs were hyperemic and edematous. The liver was swollen and yellowish green. The spleen was very large and hyperemic. Histologic changes consisted of pneumonia, hepatic necrosis, and renal hemorrhage with glomerular fibrin clots. Chlamydia antigen was detected in liver and kidney using a direct immunofluorescence assay, and Chlamydia were cultured.

  10. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  11. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  12. Cefazolin pharmacokinetics in cats under surgical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the plasma pharmacokinetic profile, tissue concentrations and urine elimination of cefazolin in cats under surgical conditions after a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg. Methods Intravenous cefazolin (20 mg/kg) was administered to nine young mixed-breed cats 30 mins before they underwent surgical procedures (ovariectomy or orchiectomy). After antibiotic administration, samples from blood, some tissues and urine were taken. Cefazolin concentrations were determined in all biological matrices and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Results Initial plasma concentrations were high (C p(0) , 134.80 ± 40.54 µg/ml), with fast and moderately wide distribution (distribution half-life [t ½(d) ] 0.16 ± 0.15 h; volume of distribution at steady state [V (d[ss]) ] 0.29 ± 0.10 l/kg) and rapid elimination (body clearance [Cl B ], 0.21 ± 0.06 l/h/kg; elimination half-life [t ½ ], 1.18 ± 0.27 h; mean residence time 1.42 ± 0.36 h). Thirty to 60 mins after intravenous administration, cefazolin tissue concentrations ranged from 9.24 µg/ml (subcutaneous tissue) to 26.44 µg/ml (ovary). The tissue/plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.18 (muscle) to 0.58 (ovary). Cefazolin urine concentrations were high with 84.2% of the administered dose being eliminated in the first 6 h postadministration. Conclusions and relevance Cefazolin plasma concentrations remained above a minimum inhibitory concentration of ⩽2 µg/ml up to 4 h in all the studied cats. This suggests that a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg cefazolin would be adequate for perioperative prophylactic use in cats.

  13. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mycobacterial panniculitis caused by in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Vishkautsan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

  15. Social behavior and aggressive problems of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Barry, K; Wolfe, R

    1997-05-01

    Cats form social groups in which individuals recognize each other, and the cohesiveness of the group is maintained by a variety of amicable behaviors. Agonistic behavior may occur between group members and between group members and nongroup members. Within the domestic environment, agonistic behavior may become a problem when it is directed at housemates or humans. Differential diagnosis and treatment of various problems of aggressive behavior are discussed.

  16. Sudden behavior change in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B

    2013-11-01

    A 5-year-old, spayed female, domestic short-haired cat had a 10-day history of sudden behavioral changes followed by seizures. Blood parameters were in the reference ranges, and radiographs failed to detect a mass lesion in the brain. Euthanasia was followed by rabies testing, which was negative. Gross lesions were absent. Histologic changes were present only in the brain and consisted of foci of hippocampal pyramidal cell loss, mild gliosis, pallor of the associated neuropil, and neovascularization.

  17. Interspecies nuclear transfer using fibroblasts from leopard, tiger, and lion ear piece collected postmortem as donor cells and rabbit oocytes as recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelisetti, Uma Mahesh; Komjeti, Suman; Katari, Venu Charan; Sisinthy, Shivaji; Brahmasani, Sambasiva Rao

    2016-06-01

    Skin fibroblast cells were obtained from a small piece of an ear of leopard, lion, and tiger collected postmortem and attempts were made to synchronize the skin fibroblasts at G0/G1 of cell cycle using three different approaches. Efficiency of the approaches was tested following interspecies nuclear transfer with rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that the proportion of G0/G1 cells increased significantly (P lion, and tiger were successfully synchronized and used for the development of blastocysts using rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm.

  18. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hazel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4; and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2. For cat owners: they had originally got the cat on Gumtree (n = 2; they use Gumtree for other things, and it works (n = 2, and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2. The data collected will be valuable for implementation of policy and interventions to protect the welfare of unwanted dogs and cats.

  19. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  1. Topical flurbiprofen toxicosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Elizabeth M; Leech, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a cat with flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure. A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented to an emergency and referral center for acute lethargy, hematemesis, and anemia. Severe azotemia was observed on serum biochemistry panel. The patient's anemia was treated with packed RBC transfusion, and treatment with crystalloid fluids, famotidine, pantoprazole, ampicillin, and sucralfate were begun on presentation. Anemia became intractable and the patient received multiple packed RBC and whole blood transfusions. Severe gastric ulcerations and duodenal perforation were confirmed via gastroduodenoscopy, and the patient was treated with surgical excision and repair of duodenal perforation. Azotemia resolved with IV fluid therapy, and anemia resolved following surgery. The patient recovered and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. The patient had likely been exposed to the owner's compounded pain relief cream containing 10% flurbiprofen. There was confirmation of flurbiprofen exposure via acid extraction urine analysis at a university toxicology laboratory. This is the first described case of flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure in a cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  2. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-08-01

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  4. Density and distribution of cutaneous sensilla on tails of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in relation to caudal autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anthony P; Lai, Erica K; Lawrence Powell, G; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    The lizard tail is well known for its ability to autotomize and regenerate. Physical contact of the tail by a predator may induce autotomy at the location at which the tail is grasped, and upon detachment the tail may undergo violent, rapid, and unpredictable movements that appear to be, to some degree, regulated by contact with the physical environment. Neither the mechanism by which tail breakage at a particular location is determined, nor that by which environmental feedback to the tail is received, are known. It has been suggested that mechanoreceptors (sensilla) are the means of mediation of such activities, and reports indicate that the density of sensilla on the tail is high. To determine the feasibility that mechanoreceptors are involved in such phenomena, we mapped scale form and the size, density, distribution, and spacing of sensilla on the head, body, limbs, and tail of the leopard gecko. This species has a full complement of autotomy planes along the length of the tail, and the postautotomic behavior of its tail has been documented. We found that the density of sensilla is highest on the tail relative to all other body regions examined; a dorsoventral gradient of caudal sensilla density is evident on the tail; sensilla are more closely spaced on the dorsal and lateral regions of the tail than elsewhere and are carried on relatively small scales; and that the whorls of scales on the tail bear a one to one relationship with the autotomy planes. Our results are consistent with the hypotheses of sensilla being involved in determining the site at which autotomy will occur, and with them being involved in the mediation of tail behavior following autotomy. These findings open the way for experimental neurological investigations of how autotomy is induced and how the detached tail responds to external environmental input. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Blood vessel formation during tail regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius): The blastema is not avascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Samantha L; Peacock, Hanna M; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2017-03-01

    Unique among amniotes, many lizards are able to self-detach (autotomize) their tail and then regenerate a replacement. Tail regeneration involves the formation of a blastema, an accumulation of proliferating cells at the site of autotomy. Over time, cells of the blastema give rise to most of the tissues in the replacement tail. In non-amniotes capable of regenerating (such as urodeles and some teleost fish), the blastema is reported to be essentially avascular until tissue differentiation takes place. For tail regenerating lizards less is known. Here, we investigate neovascularization during tail regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). We demonstrate that the gecko tail blastema is not an avascular structure. Beginning with the onset of regenerative outgrowth, structurally mature (mural cell supported) blood vessels are found within the blastema. Although the pattern of blood vessel distribution in the regenerate tail differs from that of the original, a hierarchical network is established, with vessels of varying luminal diameters and wall thicknesses. Using immunostaining, we determine that blastema outgrowth and tissue differentiation is characterized by a dynamic interplay between the pro-angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the anti-angiogenic protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). VEGF-expression is initially widespread, but diminishes as tissues differentiate. In contrast, TSP-1 expression is initially restricted but becomes more abundant as VEGF-expression wanes. We predict that variation in the neovascular response observed between different regeneration-competent species likely relates to the volume of the blastema. J. Morphol. 278:380-389, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Social factors and aromatase gene expression during adult male-to-female sex change in captive leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Mendoza, Daniel; Campos-Ramos, Rafael; Vázquez-Islas, Grecia; Burgos-Aceves, Mario A; Esquivel-Gutiérrez, Edgar R; Guerrero-Tortolero, Danitzia A

    2018-01-25

    Social factors and aromatase gene expression in the leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea was studied when captive fish were separated by sex during the reproductive (April-June) and post-reproductive (July-September) seasons. Monosex females, monosex males, and mixed-sex, held in social sextet units were analyzed for sex steroids throughout confinement. At the end of the experiment, the gonad-sex was defined by histology, and gonad and brain aromatase gene expressions were quantified. Only males held in the monosex social units changed sex. Histology showed one male remained unchanged, six were found in a transitional sexual stage, in which two had intersex-predominantly-testes, and four had a more defined intersex ovo-testes pattern, and 11 were immature de novo females (neofemales). Neofemales and most intersex fish did not survive. In spring, 11-ketosterone showed a specific male profile, which suggests that male-to-female sex change was not triggered during the reproductive season. The low steroid levels in summer made it impossible to associate the sex change to a gonad hormonal shift; in September, gonad aromatase gene expression was not significantly different among groups. However, brain aromatase expression in intersex fish was significantly higher than monosex females, mixed-sex females, and neofemale groups. These results suggest that in the absence of female hormonal compounds, and at a time when male gonad steroidogenesis was diminished, the brain mediated male-to-male social-behavioral interactions, including stress, by increasing aromatization, resulting in derived intersex-male, which triggered more aromatization, followed by a sex change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Octylphenol and UV-B radiation alter larval development and hypothalamic gene expression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Douglas; Lean, David; Trudeau, Vance L

    2002-03-01

    We assessed octylphenol (OP), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, and UV-B radiation, a known stressor in amphibian development, for their effects on hypothalamic gene expression and premetamorphic development in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for 10 days to OP alone at two different dose levels; to subambient UV-B radiation alone; and to two combinations of OP and UV-B. Control animals were exposed to ethanol vehicle (0.01%) exposure, a subset of tadpoles from each treatment group was raised to metamorphosis to assess differences in body weight and time required for hindlimb emergence. Tadpoles from one of the OP/UV-B combination groups had greater body weight and earlier hindlimb emergence (p weight or hindlimb emergence, indicating a potential mechanism of interaction between OP and UV-B. We hypothesized that the developing hypothalamus might be a potential environmental sensor for neurotoxicologic studies because of its role in the endocrine control of metamorphosis. We used a differential display strategy to identify candidate genes differentially expressed in the hypothalamic region of the exposed tadpoles. Homology cloning was performed to obtain R. pipiens glutamate decarboxylases--GAD65 and GAD67, enzymes involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). cDNA expression profiles revealed that OP and UV-B affected the levels of several candidate transcripts in tadpole (i.e., Nck, Ash, and phospholipase C gamma-binding protein 4 and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-3) and metamorph (i.e., GAD67, cytochrome C oxidase, and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-2 and -3) brains. This study represents a novel approach in toxicology that combines physiologic and molecular end points and indicates that levels of OP commonly found in the environment and subambient levels of UV-B alter the expression of important hypothalamic genes and disrupt tadpole growth patterns.

  8. Cryptic invasion of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) across phylogeographic boundaries and a dilemma for conservation of a declining amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of species is a major contributor to loss of biodiversity. Translocations within the range of a species are less frequently recognized, but have the potential for negative effects as well. Genetic mixing may lead to loss of local adaptations or further decline through outbreeding depression. These cryptic invasions may be quite difficult to recognize, but genetic tools can be used to recognize and monitor such intraspecific introductions. Conversely, translocations within species can be an important conservation tool to reduce inbreeding depression and replace lost genetic diversity. Thus, cryptic invasions can be either an aid or a hindrance to conservation efforts. We tested for the presence of non-native genotypes and assessed the extent and nature of introgression in populations of Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) in the southwestern US, where populations have declined to a few remnant populations. The most abundant and diverse complex of populations in the region contained a mitochondrial haplotype that was not native to the western US, probably resulting from the introduction of released pets, laboratory animals, or release during fish stocking. These non-native haplotypes were well integrated into a large complex of ponds and lakes, contributing to high genetic diversity in this area. Logistically, the geographic extent of non-native genetic influence within this population precludes eliminating or controlling the non-native component of this population. We recommend assessing the progress and fate of the introgression over time—along with population fitness parameters—to determine whether this introduction is beneficial or detrimental to population persistence. Meanwhile, translocations from nearby locations with similar environmental conditions have the best prospects for avoiding problems with outbreeding depression in other declining populations and will also most effectively preserve regional genetic diversity.

  9. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  10. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  11. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  12. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  13. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma 59 Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished

  14. Multiple endocrine diseases in cats: 15 cases (1997-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica L; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first disorder was 10.3 years. The most common combination of disorders was diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Two cats had concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, one cat had concurrent central diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. A mean of 25.7 months elapsed between diagnoses of the first and second endocrine disorder, but this was variable. This study suggests the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders is uncommon in cats. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  16. Crossed fused renal ectopia in a Persian cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyuk Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes a rare case of crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE in a cat. A mature intact male Persian cat presented with bloody nasal discharge and ascites. Diagnostic studies revealed an ectopic left kidney fused with an orthotopic right kidney and a concurrent feline infectious peritonitis (FIP infection. The FIP was responsible for clinical signs in this cat, while clinical signs associated with CFRE were not obvious. Despite receiving intensive treatment, the cat died. A post-mortem examination was not performed because the owners declined approval. Relevance and novel information To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L-shaped CFRE in a cat. In addition, this report describes the CT features of L-shaped CFRE in a cat.

  17. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Mejer, H.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2015-01-01

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n = 92) and household cats with outdoor access (n = 7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region...

  18. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  19. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-01-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination sche...

  20. Affectionate Interactions of Cats with Children Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hart, Benjamin L.

    2018-01-01

    Mental and physical benefits of dogs have been reported for adults and children with special needs, but less is known about benefits of cats for children. A cat that can be held by a child could provide important therapeutic companionship for children with severe or less severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who otherwise may lack prosocial behaviors. Because relatively little is known about the behavior of cats around children, we conducted this study. Phase 1 gathered web-survey data from families having an adult cat and a child with ASD (n = 64). In Phase 2, there were direct telephone interviews of parents having a child with severe ASD (n = 16) or less severe ASD (n = 11), or typical development (n = 17). From the Phase 1 web survey of families with ASD children (full range of severities), affectionate interactions of the cats with children were common. Most parents with ASD children volunteered positive comments regarding the cat, such as calming the child, being a soothing protector or a guardian. In the interviews in Phase 2, for all three groups, most parents characterized cats as at least moderately affectionate toward the child. However, cats living with severe ASD children were reported to exhibit less affection than those living with typically developing children or children with less severe ASD. A minority of cats in each group showed some aggression to the specified child; this was not elevated with ASD children. Responses suggested that the cats adopted as kittens were more affectionate and less aggressive to all categories of children than those adopted as adults. Overall, participants reported that ASD children’s behaviors indicated that they valued the relationship with the cat, similar to typically developing children, pointing to the importance and potential usefulness of selecting affectionate and compatible cats for ASD children. PMID:29594156