Sample records for leona aglukkaq ministre

  1. DNA Ministrings: Highly Safe and Effective Gene Delivery Vectors

    Nafiseh Nafissi


    Full Text Available Conventional plasmid DNA vectors play a significant role in gene therapy, but they also have considerable limitations: they can elicit adverse immune responses because of bacterial sequences they contain for maintenance and amplification in prokaryotes, their bioavailability is compromised because of their large molecular size, and they may be genotoxic. We constructed an in vivo platform to produce ministring DNA—mini linear covalently closed DNA vectors—that are devoid of unwanted bacterial sequences and encode only the gene(s of interest and necessary eukaryotic expression elements. Transfection of rapidly and slowly dividing human cells with ministring DNA coding for enhanced green fluorescent protein resulted in significantly improved transfection, bioavailability, and cytoplasmic kinetics compared with parental plasmid precursors and isogenic circular covalently closed DNA counterparts. Ministring DNA that integrated into the genome of human cells caused chromosomal disruption and apoptotic death of possibly oncogenic vector integrants; thus, they may be safer than plasmid and circular DNA vectors.

  2. The 2006 Leona Tyler Award Address. Our Identity: How Multiculturalism Saved Counseling Psychology

    Atkinson, Donald R.; Wampold, Bruce E.; Worthington, Roger L.


    This article profiles Donald Ray Atkinson, the recipient of the 2006 Leona Tyler Award. Don was born in 1940 in Union City, Indiana. He is a faculty member of the University of California at Santa Barbara Counseling Psychology Program. Quietly, humbly, he has spent nearly 35 years of his life becoming one of the most productive, highly respected,…

  3. 76 FR 50971 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Leona's...


    ... submission-- including any personal identifying information--will be posted on the Web site. If your... very deep alluvium derived from pumice and other volcanic rock.'' The Leona's little blue butterfly... mining, and the potential development of a biomass energy facility may have deleterious impacts on...

  4. LEONA: Transient Luminous Event and Thunderstorm High Energy Emission Collaborative Network in Latin America

    Sao Sabbas, F. T.


    This project has the goal of establishing the Collaborative Network LEONA, to study the electrodynamical coupling of the atmospheric layers signaled by Transient Luminous Events - TLEs and high energy emissions from thunderstorms. We will develop and install a remotely controlled network of cameras to perform TLE observations in different locations in South America and one neutron detector in southern Brazil. The camera network will allow building a continuous data set of the phenomena studied in this continent. The first two trial units of the camera network are already installed, in Brazil and Peru, and two more will be installed until December 2012, in Argentina and Brazil. We expect to determine the TLE geographic distribution, occurrence rate, morphology, and possible coupling with other geophysical phenomena in South America, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly - SAMA. We also expect to study thunderstorm neutron emissions in a region of intense electrical activity, measuring neutron fluxes with high time resolution simultaneously with TLEs and lightning for the first time in South America. Using an intensified high-speed camera for TLE observation during 2 campaigns we expect to be able to determine the duration and spatial- temporal development of the TLEs observed, to study the structure and initiation of sprites and to measure the velocity of development of sprite structures and the sprite delay. The camera was acquired via the FAPESP project DEELUMINOS (2005-2010), which also nucleated our research group Atmospheric Electrodynamical Coupling - ACATMOS. LEONA will nucleate this research in other institutions in Brazil and other countries in South America, providing continuity for this important research in our region. The camera network will be an unique tool to perform consistent long term TLE observation, and in fact is the only way to accumulate a data set for a climatological study of South America, since satellite instrumentation turns off in

  5. 319 Leona and 341 California – Two Very Slowly Rotating Asteroids

    Pilcher, Frederick; Franco, Lorenzo; Pravec, Petr


    An observing strategy for asteroids suspected of being very slowly rotating is described and recommended to all observers. For 319 Leona the synodic rotation period is 430 ± 2 hours, amplitude 0.7 magnitudes, a second tumbling period is 1084 ± 10 hours, color index V-R = 0.43, H=10.46 ± 0.08 and G=0.11 ± 0.09 at mean light. For 341 California the synodic rotation period is 318 ± 2 hours, amplitude 0.9 magnitudes, a second tumbling period is 250 ± 2 hours, color index V-R = 0.53, H=11.53 ± 0.06 and G=0.18 ± 0.05 at mean light.

  6. Physical Characterization of Gemini Surfactant-Based Synthetic Vectors for the Delivery of Linear Covalently Closed (LCC DNA Ministrings.

    Chi Hong Sum

    Full Text Available In combination with novel linear covalently closed (LCC DNA minivectors, referred to as DNA ministrings, a gemini surfactant-based synthetic vector for gene delivery has been shown to exhibit enhanced delivery and bioavailability while offering a heightened safety profile. Due to topological differences from conventional circular covalently closed (CCC plasmid DNA vectors, the linear topology of LCC DNA ministrings may present differences with regards to DNA interaction and the physicochemical properties influencing DNA-surfactant interactions in the formulation of lipoplexed particles. In this study, N,N-bis(dimethylhexadecyl-α,ω-propanediammonium(16-3-16gemini-based synthetic vectors, incorporating either CCC plasmid or LCC DNA ministrings, were characterized and compared with respect to particle size, zeta potential, DNA encapsulation, DNase sensitivity, and in vitro transgene delivery efficacy. Through comparative analysis, differences between CCC plasmid DNA and LCC DNA ministrings led to variations in the physical properties of the resulting lipoplexes after complexation with 16-3-16 gemini surfactants. Despite the size disparities between the plasmid DNA vectors (CCC and DNA ministrings (LCC, differences in DNA topology resulted in the generation of lipoplexes of comparable particle sizes. The capacity for ministring (LCC derived lipoplexes to undergo complete counterion release during lipoplex formation contributed to improved DNA encapsulation, protection from DNase degradation, and in vitro transgene delivery.

  7. La seguridad humana canadiense y su aplicación en la construcción de paz en Sierra Leona


    Canadá actuó en la construcción del post-conflicto en Sierra Leona como respuesta a los parámetros de su política exterior y basándose específicamente en los principios que se desprenden de la seguridad humana. En este contexto Canadá se desempeñó como constructor de paz y participo de manera activa a lo largo de todas las etapas del post-conflicto en Sierra Leona. Esta participación fue un poco tímida e indirecta en el marco de los procesos de desarme y desmovilización, mientras que en los d...

  8. Retrospective study of the impact of miniSTRs on forensic DNA profiling of touch DNA samples.

    Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Hoofstat, David; Van Neste, Christophe; Deforce, Dieter


    The theoretical advantages of miniSTRs are undeniable. Several studies show that miniSTRs are more sensitive and robust in the analysis of low template and degraded DNA. In this study we want to show the overall benefit of using miniSTRs in real forensic casework samples and show the percentage of samples that benefit from analysis with additional miniSTR loci in terms of resulting in a useful profile. The considered samples were 3064 touch DNA samples, analyzed in our accredited routine forensic DNA profiling laboratory between mid 2009 and mid 2013. Of these 3064 samples, 618 samples were analyzed using 13 loci, 532 samples using 15 loci and 1914 samples using 20 loci of which 5 were the mini- and midi-STR loci that were added to the extended European Standard Set (ESS). The retrospective results show a small increased success rate after implementation of extra loci and an even smaller increase after the implementation of the mini- and midi-STR analysis. The percentage of touch DNA samples that benefit from the analysis of additional mini- and midi-STR loci is limited.

  9. Forensic and population genetic analyses of eighteen non-CODIS miniSTR loci in the Korean population.

    Jin, Han Jun; Kim, Ki Cheol; Yoon, Cha Eun; Kim, Wook


    We analyzed the variation of eighteen miniSTR loci in 411 randomly chosen individuals from Korea to increase the probability that a degraded sample can be typed, as well as to provide an expanded and reliable population database. Six multiplex PCR systems were developed (multiplex I: D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364; multiplex II: D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045; multiplex III: D12S391, D16S3253 and D20S161; multiplex IV: D3S4529, D8S1115 and D18S853; multiplex V: D6S1017, D11S4463 and D17S1301; multiplex VI: D5S2500, D9S1122 and D21S1437). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated to evaluate the suitability and robustness of these non-CODIS miniSTR systems. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were observed, except for D4S2364, D5S2500 and D20S161 loci. A multidimensional scaling plot based on allele frequencies of the six miniSTR loci (D1S1677, D2S441, D4S2364, D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045) showed that Koreans appeared to have most genetic affinity with Chinese and Japanese than to other Eurasian populations compared here. The combined probability of match calculated from the 18 miniSTR loci was 2.902 × 10(-17), indicating a high degree of polymorphism. Thus, the 18 miniSTR loci can be suitable for recovering useful information for analyzing degraded forensic casework samples and for adding supplementary genetic information for a variety of analyses involving closely related individuals where there is a need for additional genetic information.

  10. [Validation and evaluation of a five miniSTRs kit in forensic genetics].

    Drabik, Jacek; Jagiełło, Agata; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Pepiński, Witold


    The newly designed and optimized miniplex contains the following markers: D3S3053, D6S474, D9S2157, D20S482 and sex-determining marker - amelogenin. The target amplicon lengths for the developed multiplex are 71-135 bp. Amplification products were detected in a fluorescence based automated genetic analyzer. A minimal DNA sample required to obtain full genetic profiles was 250 pg. The usefulness of these miniSTRs in genotyping of severely degraded forensic samples, such as stains of blood and semen, saliva on cigarette butts and telogen hair has been confirmed in validation studies. The designed pentaplex offers a new potential screening tool in cases of old crime scenes, mass disasters, mass graves, etc., where DNA degradation, body fragmentation or large numbers of victims occur. The use of additional non-CODIS markers may increase typeability of severely degraded samples and ensure a higher potential for genetic discrimination.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis of miniSTR markers to genotype highly degraded DNA samples.

    Coble, Michael D


    The amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) markers throughout the human nuclear DNA genome are used to associate crime scene evidence to the perpetrator's profile in criminal investigations. For highly challenged or compromised materials such as stains exposed to the elements, skeletal remains from missing persons cases, or fragmented and degraded samples from mass disasters, obtaining a full STR profile may be difficult if not impossible. With the introduction of short amplicon STR or "miniSTR" typing, it is possible to obtain STR genetic information from highly challenged samples without the need to sequence the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome. Non-Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) STR markers have been developed to obtain information beyond the core CODIS loci. This chapter will focus on the steps necessary to prepare and use one of the non-CODIS (NC) multiplexes, NC01 (Coble and Butler 2005), for analysis on capillary electrophoresis instrumentation.

  12. Further characterization of six miniSTR loci in the Han population from China

    Zhen-jun JIA


    Full Text Available Objective  To describe the characteristics of two miniplex sets: NC01 (D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045, which was recommended by EDNAP/ENFSI, and a new miniplex one (D2S2944, D18S872 and D19S591. Methods  DNA was extracted using the Chelex-100 extraction method. The products were genotyped by ABI PRISM® 310 Genetic Analyzer and the results were analyzed with GeneScan 3.7 and GenoTyper 3.7 software. Results  All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The combined power of discrimination for the six loci in Chinese population was 0.9999 and the cumulative probability of exclusion was 0.9793. We also compared the sequencing data of NC01 with other different ethic groups. Conclusion  Two miniplex sets were constructed. These miniSTR makers have different characteristics in different ethic groups.

  13. MiniSTR multiplex systems based on non-CODIS loci for analysis of degraded DNA samples.

    Asamura, H; Fujimori, S; Ota, M; Fukushima, H


    We describe two short amplicon autosomal short tandem repeat (miniSTR) quadruplex systems for eight loci D1S1171, D2S1242, D3S1545, D4S2366, D12S391, D16S3253, D20S161, and D21S1437, unlinked from the combined DNA index system (non-CODIS) loci, using newly designed primer sets. The results of an assay of 411 Japanese individuals showed that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products within the eight loci were less than 150bp in size, without the seven additional bases for adenylation. The frequency distributions in the loci showed no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. The accumulated power of discrimination and power of exclusion for the eight loci were 0.9999999991 and 0.998, respectively. For assay of highly degraded DNA, including artificially degraded samples and the degraded forensic casework samples assessed with the present miniSTR quadruplex systems, the systems proved quite effective in analyzing degraded DNA.

  14. Determination of mini-short tandem repeat (miniSTR) loci by using the combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microchip electrophoresis.

    Lin, Xuexia; Wu, Jing; Li, Haifang; Wang, Zhihua; Lin, Jin-Ming


    In this work, a simple and convenient method for the detection of mini-short tandem repeat (miniSTR) loci has been developed by the combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microchip electrophoresis (MCE). Degraded or inhibitor DNA greatly limited STR loci analysis. Therefore, The proper primers was designed as close as possible to the STRs region to produce smaller size STRs, and made the assay suitable for the destroyed samples. Two annealing temperatures were applied in one PCR procedure and the corresponding cycle numbers were studied to improve the sensitivity of PCR reaction. Under optimal conditions, 0.001 ng DNA templates were enough to generate miniSTRs. The relative standard deviations (n=3) of the size fifteen miniSTRs from DNA9947A ranged from 0.49% to 4.41%. The RSDs of concentrations were between 0.94% and 4.95%. Fifteen miniSTRs were also well produced from human hair, indicating that the method has great potential application in criminal identification and paternity testing.

  15. Construction of two fluorescence-labeled non-combined DNA index system miniSTR multiplex systems to analyze degraded DNA samples in the Chinese Han Population.

    Bai, Xue; Li, Shujin; Cong, Bin; Li, Xia; Guo, Xia; He, Lujun; Ye, Jian; Pei, Li


    MiniSTR loci have been demonstrated to be an effective approach in recovering genetic information from degraded specimens, because of the reduced PCR amplicon sizes which improved the PCR efficiency. Eight non-combined DNA index system miniSTR loci suitable for the Chinese Han Population were analyzed in 300 unrelated Chinese Han individuals using two novel five fluorescence-labeled miniSTR multiplex systems(multiplex I: D10S1248, D2S441, D1S1677 and D9S2157; multiplex II: D9S1122, D10S1435, D12ATA63, D2S1776 and Amelogenin). The allele frequency distribution and forensic parameters in the Chinese Han Population were reported in this article. The Exact Test demonstrated that all loci surveyed here were found to be no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The accumulated power of discrimination and power of exclusion for the eight loci were 0.999999992 and 0.98, respectively. The highly degraded DNA from artificially degraded samples and the degraded forensic case work samples was assessed with the two miniSTR multiplex systems, and the results showed that the systems were quite effective.

  16. Dos aplicaciones del modelo melodramático: Manuela Sáenz y Leona Vicario en el imaginario contemporáneo sobre las independencias = Duas aplicações do modelo melodramático: Manuela Sáenz e Leona Vicario no imaginário contemporâneo sobre as independências

    Cortés, Carolina Pizarro


    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe considerar o melodrama como um modelo que dota significados às obras que os contêm, além da representação do conflito amoroso. Dentro do contexto latino-americano é considerado como uma forma sui generis que contribui com sua natural ambivalencia à interpretação do passado histórico, transitando entre diversos modos de representação. Essa potencialidade do modelo é explorada em um conjunto variado de obras ficcionais contemporâneas que representam duas mulheres das gestas independentistas, Manuela Sáenz e Leona Vicário, mostrando a forma com que dialogam críticamente com a historiografía latino-americana e modificam, pelas estratégias narrativas do melodrama, seus sentidos

  17. Descripción de un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo) Description of a cystic endometrial hyperplasia case in an African lion (Panthera leo)

    A.L. Migliorisi; A.T. Soto; M.V. Gómez; Laplace, R.; A. Massone


    En el presente trabajo, se describe un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo) de 13 años de edad aproximada, alojada en el Jardín Botánico y Zoológico de la ciudad de La Plata. El estudio anatómico, histopatológico y ultrasonográfico del aparato reproductor fueron realizados posteriormente a la ovariohisterectomía. Los principales hallazgos correspondieron a un proceso crónico de hiperplasia endometrial quística con infiltración linfoplasmocitaria, prese...

  18. Serum Levels of MicroRNA-206 and Novel Mini-STR Assays for Carrier Detection in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Anaya-Segura, Mónica Alejandra; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Gómez-Díaz, Benjamín; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Zamora-González, Edgar Oswaldo; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice


    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder in which the detection of female carriers is of the utmost importance for genetic counseling. Haplotyping with polymorphic markers and quantitation of creatine kinase levels (CK) allow tracking of the at-risk haplotype and evidence muscle damage, respectively. Such approaches are useful for carrier detection in cases of unknown mutations. The lack of informative markers and the inaccuracy of CK affect carrier detection. Therefore, herein we designed novel mini-STR (Short Tandem Repeats) assays to amplify 10 loci within the DMD gene and estimated allele frequencies and the polymorphism information content among other parameters in 337 unrelated individuals from three Mexican populations. In addition, we tested the utility of the assays for carrier detection in three families. Moreover, given that serum levels of miR-206 discern between DMD patients and controls with a high area under the curve (AUC), the potential applicability for carrier detection was assessed. The serum levels of miR-206 of non-carriers (n = 24) and carriers (n = 23) were compared by relative quantitation using real-time PCR (p < 0.05), which resulted in an AUC = 0.80 in the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, miR-206 has potential as a “liquid biopsy” for carrier detection and genetic counseling in DMD. PMID:27529242

  19. Serum Levels of MicroRNA-206 and Novel Mini-STR Assays for Carrier Detection in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Mónica Alejandra Anaya-Segura


    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder in which the detection of female carriers is of the utmost importance for genetic counseling. Haplotyping with polymorphic markers and quantitation of creatine kinase levels (CK allow tracking of the at-risk haplotype and evidence muscle damage, respectively. Such approaches are useful for carrier detection in cases of unknown mutations. The lack of informative markers and the inaccuracy of CK affect carrier detection. Therefore, herein we designed novel mini-STR (Short Tandem Repeats assays to amplify 10 loci within the DMD gene and estimated allele frequencies and the polymorphism information content among other parameters in 337 unrelated individuals from three Mexican populations. In addition, we tested the utility of the assays for carrier detection in three families. Moreover, given that serum levels of miR-206 discern between DMD patients and controls with a high area under the curve (AUC, the potential applicability for carrier detection was assessed. The serum levels of miR-206 of non-carriers (n = 24 and carriers (n = 23 were compared by relative quantitation using real-time PCR (p < 0.05, which resulted in an AUC = 0.80 in the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, miR-206 has potential as a “liquid biopsy” for carrier detection and genetic counseling in DMD.

  20. 5 avril 2016 - J.-C. Marcourt Vice-Président blege du Gouvernement wallon, Ministre de l'Economie, de l'Industrie, de l'Innovation et du Numérique & Vice-Président du Gouvernement de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles, Ministre de l'Enseignement supérieur, de la Recherche et des Médias signe le livre d'or avec le Directeur de la Recherche et du Calcul scientifique E. Elsen; Le chef du département IT F. Hemmer et le chef de la section TE-MSC-CMI J.-P. Tock sont également présents.

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth


    Monsieur Jean-Claude Marcourt Vice-Président du Gouvernement wallon, Ministre de l'Economie, de l'Industrie, de l'Innovation et du Numérique Vice-Président du Gouvernement de la Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles, Ministre de l'Enseignement supérieur, de la Recherche et des Médias

  1. The status of the genera Hysterolecithoides Yamaguti, 1934, Neotheletrum Gibson & Bray, 1979 and Machidatrema León-Règagnon, 1998 (Digenea: Hemiuroidea), including a description of M. leonae n. sp. from Australian waters.

    Bray, R A; Cribb, T H


    A diagnosis is given for the lecithasterid genus Hysterolecithoides Yamaguti, 1934, which is now found to have two to six (possibly seven) vitelline masses. The species H. frontilatus (Manter, 1969) is returned to the genus, having been considered a member of the bunocotylid genus Neotheletrum by recent authors. It is redescribed from Siganus nebulosus, Moreton Bay, and S. doliatus, Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia, with emphasis on the presence of Juel's organ, a uterine seminal receptacle and the blind sac associated with the genital atrium. It differs from its congeners in the trajectory of the pars prostatica which recurves dorsally to the sinus-sac. Oligolecithoides Shen, 1982 is synonymised with Hysterolecithoides and O. trilobatus Shen, 1982 is synomised with H. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1934. Machidatrema León-Règagnon, 1998 is diagnosed, and found to be close to Hysterolecithoides, but differs in the lack of a blind-sac projecting from the dorsal genital atrium, by its tandem testes, the coiling of the uterus between the testes and the ovary, and the ventral excretory pore. M. leonae n. sp. is described from Siganus fuscescens, S. lineatus, S. doliatus, S. corallinus, S. vulpinus and Scarus globiceps at Heron Island, Queensland. It differs from its closest congener, M. akeh, in the muscular and tegumental flap over the genital pore and details of the terminal genitalia. M. chilostoma (Machida, 1980) and M. kyphosi (Yamaguti, 1970) are redescribed from Kyphosus vaigiensis from Heron Island. Neotheletrum Gibson & Bray, 1979 is diagnosed: it differs from Hysterolecithoides in its confluent excretory arms, blind seminal receptacle (no Juel's organ) and uniformly tripartite vitellarium. A cladistic analysis suggests that M. chilostoma and M. kyphosi are not best accommodated in Machidatrema, that Machidatrema (sensu stricto) is monophyletic and that Hysterolecithoides is paraphyletic. Hysterolecithoides and Machidatrema are considered

  2. Descripción de un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo Description of a cystic endometrial hyperplasia case in an African lion (Panthera leo

    A.L. Migliorisi


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo de 13 años de edad aproximada, alojada en el Jardín Botánico y Zoológico de la ciudad de La Plata. El estudio anatómico, histopatológico y ultrasonográfico del aparato reproductor fueron realizados posteriormente a la ovariohisterectomía. Los principales hallazgos correspondieron a un proceso crónico de hiperplasia endometrial quística con infiltración linfoplasmocitaria, presencia de un quiste folicular parcialmente luteinizado y cuerpo lúteo en uno de sus ovarios. La edad del animal, la administración de anticonceptivos progestágenos por varios años y la reciente ovulación espontánea, verificada por el hallazgo de un cuerpo lúteo, se corresponden con las causas predisponentes del cuadro descripto.This paper presents an anatomical, histopathological and ultrasonographic description of a cystic endometrial hyperplasia in an African lion (Panthera leo The study, of the reproductive tract, was made after the ovariohysterectomy. The main findings corresponded to a chronic cystic endometrial hyperplasia with linfoplasmocitarian infiltration, the presence of a luteinized follicular cyst and a corpus luteum in one of the ovaries. The age of the animal, the administration of progestin contraceptive and the recent spontaneous ovulation were coincident with causes that predispose these findings.

  3. Kognitīvās disonanses reducēšanas problēma Leona Festingera teorijā un indivīda sociālās pašorganizācijas iespējas: filosofiska analīze.

    Moroza, Agrita


    Maģistra darbā „Kognitīvās disonanses reducēšanas problēma Leona Festingera teorijā un indivīda sociālās pašorganizācijas iespējas: filozofiska analīze” tiek analizēta viena no 20. gs. izcilākajiem sociālajiem psihologiem - Leona Festingera kognitīvās disonanses teorija. Darba gaitā parādīts, kā kognitīvās disonanses reducēšanas procesi ir saistīti ar indivīda zināšanu sistēmas veidošanos. Kognitīvās disonanses reducēšanas problēma tiek analizēta no sociālās filozofijas perspektīvas, lai parā...

  4. El limbo del desplazamiento en Sierra Leona

    Duerden, Sam


    ¿Cuándo acaba la guerra y comienza la paz? ¿Cuando se firma el acuerdo de paz? ¿Cuando se marchan las fuerzas de intervención y se procesa a los responsables? ¿o cuando los civiles pueden retornar a sus hogares y reanudar su vida normal?.

  5. Development of an 8 miniSTR and Amelogenin fluorescent-multiplex system%荧光标记8个miniSTR及Amelogenin复合扩增体系的建立

    刘超; 冯冬亮; 刘长晖


    目的 建立非CODIS系统miniSTR以及Amelogenin基因座的荧光复合扩增体系.方法 筛选8个多态性高的非CODIS系统miniSTR基因座(D20S1082、D6S474、D12ATA63、D9S1122、D2S1776、D1S1627、D3S4529、D2S441),并结合Amelogenin基因座设计荧光标记引物,优化反应条件,建立复合扩增体系.应用该体系对204份广州地区汉族血样,30个家系样本,及30份降解检材进行检测.结果 建立的荧光标记8个miniSTR及Amelogenin复合扩增体系分型结果明确,稳定性好,且所有片段长度均少于200bp,提高了降解检材的分型成功率.在广州汉族人群的累积个人识别率为0.999 999 93,累积非父排除率为0.992 287.结论 构建的miniSTR荧光复合扩增体系,操作简便,分型准确,重复性好,对降解检材有效,易于在法医实验室推广应用,可对现有试剂盒起补充作用.%Objective To develop a fluorescent multiplex system of 8 non-CODIS miniSTR and Amelogenin for forensic purpose.Methods Eight highly polymorphic non-CODIS miniSTR loci, D20S1082, D6S474,D12ATA63, D9S1122, D2S1776, D1S1627, D3S4529 and D2S441 were selected, and a fluorescent multiplex system including these loci and the genderspeeifie Amelogenin was developed through redesigning primers,labeling fluorescence dye, and optimizing experiment conditions.204 randomly selected individuals of Guangzhou Han population, members of 30 families and 30 degraded samples were genotyped using this system.Results Tested by the new multiplex system,all the loci can generate stable and full profiles with amplieons less than 200bp in size, which resulted in art increased overall typing success rate for degraded DNA samples.The cumulative power of discrimination and probability of exclusion were 0.999 999 93 and 0.992 287 respectively in Guangzhou Han population.Conclusion The established fluorescent multiplex system was robust, sensitive and stable, and is of high value in forensic application.It can serve as a new

  6. Le rôle de la Conférence permanente des Ministres européens de l'éducation dans la motivation de la politique européenne de l’éducation

    Alfonso Diestro Fernández


    Full Text Available La politique de l'éducation en Europe a atteint un niveau de convergence et de performance, qui personne osaient s'aventurer dans le début du projet de développe et intégration européenne, initié par le Conseil de l'Europe (1949 et la Communauté européenne (1957. Dans ce processus de collaboration entre les États, la Conférence permanente des ministres européens de l'Éducation (CPMEE a pris un rôle protagoniste, depuis sa première réunion en 1959. Par la suite, le CPMEE entreprendre un processus de dialogue, qui visait à établir une politique de coopération dans le domaine de l'éducation. Doucement, elle devient peu à peu comme le forum paneuropéen de dialogue et de rencontre des politiques de l’éducation pour l'excellence, dont ils sont issus et coordonnée les principaux actions européennes de l'éducation. Elle a également donné une impulsion décisif au programme d'éducation du COE, cela signifiait aussi que enclave synergique qui a nourri la politique communautaire en matière d'éducation. Toutefois, la mise en place de la politique communautaire finira en délimitant le rôle de la Conférence, en particulier, après de la signature de le Traité sur l'Union européenne à Maastricht. Cet article met l'accent sur l'important travail du CPMEE jusqu'en 1992, lorsque l'UE a assumé le rôle principal de la politique de l'éducation en Europe.

  7. La efectividad del uso del poder aéreo en el marco de la intervención internacional dentro de conflictos internos en estados débiles durante la posguerra fría: el caso de Sierra Leona 1991 – 2002

    Camilo Vargas Betancourt


    Full Text Available El poder aéreo, desde el apoyo logístico a operaciones militares hasta su uso como medio de combate contra enemigos, en todas sus facetas puede convertirse en elemento decisivo en confrontaciones armadas entre actores con poder militar limitado, como es el caso de guerras civiles en contextos de países en vías de desarrollo. Este artículo desarrolla un estudio de caso en torno al uso del poder aéreo durante la guerra civil en Sierra Leona (1991 – 2002. Al ser un país sin fuerza aérea nacional, este texto se pregunta sobre los intereses de la intervención internacional por medio del poder aéreo, y sobre sus consecuencias en la resolución del conflicto. Primero, el artículo hace un análisis histórico y teórico de las capacidades estatales del país. Posteriormente, estudia cómo estas condiciones son las causas estructurales de la guerra. Finalmente, analiza la intervención internacional, enfatizando en las características del poder aéreo utilizado y en la importancia que tuvo. Como conclusión, se determina la necesidad del poder aéreo para propósitos de corto plazo en intervenciones como la observada, pero se revela por qué no es el único factor necesario. También, se muestra el papel del poder aéreo en la resolución estructural del conflicto.

  8. Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

    CERN Press Office. Geneva


    Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

  9. Ministr - ne Rozhdestvenskii Ded / Jevgeni Kapov

    Kapov, Jevgeni


    Siseminister Ain Seppik ja Politseiameti peadirektor Harry Tuul tutvustasid Ida-Viru uut prefekti Aare Vainu. Parimaid autasustati riiklike autasudega. Minister tutvustas Eesti-Vene korrakaitseorganite koostööd

  10. Ministr Ojuland reshila referendum ne provodit


    Välisminister Kristiina Ojuland teatas Euroopa Liidu liikmesriikide välisministritega kohtudes, et Eesti ei kavatse põhiseadusliku leppe rahvahääletust korraldada, kuigi Riigikogu ei ole veel küsimust arutanud

  11. 20 fevrier 2012 - Le Vice-Président du Gouvernement Wallon et Ministre du Développement durable et de la Fonction Publique en charge de l’Energie du Logement et de la Recherche J.-M. Nollet, Royaume de Belgique, visite la salle de contrôle de CMS au Point 5, la caverne expérimentale CMS et le hall de tests des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC. Les chefs de département T. Lagrange et F. Hemmer accompagnent la délégation. L. Walckiers guide la visite SM18.

    Maximilien Brice


    20 fevrier 2012 - Le Vice-Président du Gouvernement Wallon et Ministre du Développement durable et de la Fonction Publique en charge de l’Energie du Logement et de la Recherche J.-M. Nollet, Royaume de Belgique, visite la salle de contrôle de CMS au Point 5, la caverne expérimentale CMS et le hall de tests des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC. Les chefs de département T. Lagrange et F. Hemmer accompagnent la délégation. L. Walckiers guide la visite SM18.

  12. Otvetshajet Juhan Parts, premjer-ministr / Juhan Parts

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-


    Peaminister Juhan Parts selgitab Res Publica ja valitsuse korruptsioonivastast poliitikat ning loodab, et justiitsminister Ken-Marti Vaheri pakutud strateegia võitluses korruptsiooniga ei saa koalitsiooni lagunemise põhjuseks

  13. 32 CFR 510.1 - Private ministrations, sacraments, and ordinances.


    ... ordinances. Chaplains will conduct or arrange for appropriate burial services at the interment of members of... may perform the marriage rite, provided he complies with the civil law of the place where the marriage.... Chaplains will administer or arrange for rites and sacraments for military personnel and civilians...

  14. Regionalnõi ministr "potjazhelel" na paru mlrd. / Artur Tooman

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-


    Valitsuse eelarvestrateegia kohaselt suureneb regionaalministri eelarve käesoleva aastaga võrreldes kaks korda. Vt. samas intervjuud regionaalminister Jaan Õunapuuga. Kommenteerivad: Peeter Kreitzberg, Sven Sester, Heimar Lenk. Tabel

  15. Otvetshajet Juhan Parts, premjer-ministr / Juhan Parts

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-


    Peaminister Juhan Parts selgitab Res Publica ja valitsuse korruptsioonivastast poliitikat ning loodab, et justiitsminister Ken-Marti Vaheri pakutud strateegia võitluses korruptsiooniga ei saa koalitsiooni lagunemise põhjuseks

  16. Teoria wielości rzeczywistości Leona Chwistka. Rys krytyczny

    Hubert Bożek


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a logico‑philosophical critical overview of the theory of multiple realities (TWR. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first section I present a brief history of the development of some ideas, which combined together form the conceptual framework of the theory in question, whose main thesis is that there is more than one reality. In the second part I present (and try to address some interpretations of TWR, which can be described as: ontological; epistemological; esthetical; logical ad mixed interpretations. When doing so, a special emphasis is laid on the presentation of an explication of TWR based on theory of models, an explication authored by Teresa Kostyrko. This explication rests on a conditional recognition of the particular ‘realities’ of Chwistek’s theory as proper models (i.e. those, which fulfill the condition of the identity of meaning of theory’s fundamental notions of the theories of reality, with the provision that such models are indeed constructible. In the last section of my paper I propose a preliminary appraisal of the TWR as well as a way to reengineer this theory in order to avoid some of its difficulties. By appealing to Kostyrko’s idea on one hand and the spirit Quinean ontological relativism on the other, I wish to argue as follows: (1 ‘reality’ is the name of the set comprising all meanings of the term ‘reality’; (2 under particular conditions these meanings can be arranged in a theory, which possesses a proper model (scientific discourse, some forms of the common talk; (3 model proper designate by definition classes of objects, which we regard as existent on the grounds of a given theory. The above set of theses forms the core of a concept, which I propose to call the ‘manifold reality’ in order to differentiate it from TWR, the development of which theory it is, as well as its modification towards a new kind of ontology.

  17. Annexe III. Biographie de Lee Kuan Yew, premier ministre de Singapour


    Harry Lee Kuan Yew (« la lumière qui brille »), fils aîné de Lee Chin Koon (cadre de société pétrolière et bijoutier) et de Chua Jim Neo, est né à Singapour en 1923. Sa famille, d’origine Hakka (Chine méridionale), est implantée à Singapour depuis 1830-40 ; l’arrière grand-mère maternelle et le grand-père paternel ont épousé respectivement un Malais et un Chinois peranakan indonésien, ce qui explique l’esprit multiracial du cercle familial qui a tant marqué le jeune Lee dans ses luttes ultéri...

  18. Ministr obrazovanija : Russkomu obrazovaniju nitshto ne ugrazhajet / Tõnis Lukas ; interv. Jana Litvinova

    Lukas, Tõnis, 1962-


    Haridus- ja teadusminister Tõnis Lukas vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad hariduse finantseerimist, õpetajate kvalifikatsiooni, vene koolide reforme ja kohustusliku kirjanduse hulka mittesobivaid raamatuid

  19. Prezident, spiker parlamenta i premjer-ministr võstupili s jedinõm zajavlenijem


    Presidendi, peaministri ja Riigikogu spiikri ühisavaldusest, milles kutsutakse rahvast üles hääletama Euroopa Liitu astumise poolt. Pealk. ajalehes Severnoje Poberezhje (2002/Dec/17) lk. 3: "Rukovodstvo stranõ prizõvajet ljudei golosovat za ES"

  20. Ministr obrazovanija : Russkomu obrazovaniju nitshto ne ugrazhajet / Tõnis Lukas ; interv. Jana Litvinova

    Lukas, Tõnis, 1962-


    Haridus- ja teadusminister Tõnis Lukas vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad hariduse finantseerimist, õpetajate kvalifikatsiooni, vene koolide reforme ja kohustusliku kirjanduse hulka mittesobivaid raamatuid

  1. Kak premjer-ministr razminulsja s dedom Morozom / Andrus Ansip ; interv. Jevgenija Garanzha

    Ansip, Andrus, 1956-


    Peaminister Andrus Ansip Eesti elu puudutavatest sündmustest mööduval aastal - Eesti Raudtee aktsiate müügist riigile, spekulatsioonidest Vene teemal, Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtmest, riigipiiri lepingust Venemaaga, Euroopa liidu eelarveprojektist, prognoosid lähitulevikuks. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi suhted Jõuluvanaga

  2. Un ministre britannique inaugure au CERN les journées WWW

    CERN Press Office. Geneva


    On 8 March, UK Science Minister David Hunt opened CERN's 'World-Wide Web Days', a conference designed to give journalists, educators and communication experts a practical introduction to this new telecommunications revolution. Citing CERN's invention of the Web as the latest in a long line of unforseeable spin-offs, the Minister praised the vital role played by fundamental research: "By working at the extreme limits of present technology", said Hunt, "CERN and other basic research laboratories help to break new technological ground and sow the seeds of what will become mainstream manufacturing in the future."

  3. Prezident, spiker parlamenta i premjer-ministr võstupili s jedinõm zajavlenijem


    Presidendi, peaministri ja Riigikogu spiikri ühisavaldusest, milles kutsutakse rahvast üles hääletama Euroopa Liitu astumise poolt. Pealk. ajalehes Severnoje Poberezhje (2002/Dec/17) lk. 3: "Rukovodstvo stranõ prizõvajet ljudei golosovat za ES"

  4. The 2008 Leona Tyler Award Address: Core Values that Distinguish Counseling Psychology--Personal and Professional Perspectives

    Packard, Ted


    The empirical literature and the author's professional experience over four decades have convinced him that concerning practice patterns and work settings there is little to distinguish counseling psychology from other psychological practice specialties. What is distinctive are certain core values that undergird and distinguish this specialty.…

  5. The 2011 Leona Tyler Award Address: The Relationship--And Its Relationship to the Common and Specific Factors of Psychotherapy

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Budge, Stephanie L.


    A debate exists about whether the common factors or specific ingredients are critical to producing the benefits of psychotherapy. A model of the relationship, based on evolved human characteristics related to healing, is presented that integrates common factors and specific ingredients. After the initial bond is formed, the relationship involves…

  6. ¿La región más inestable del mundo? Sierra Leona y su impacto regional

    María Cecilia Costero Garbarino


    Full Text Available La inestabilidad política ha sido una constante en el caso sierraleonés. Pues no sólo es causa de la profunda crisis en las estructuras del poder interno sino que es el reflejo de una realidad más compleja, en la que se entrelazan las contradicciones entre grupos étnicos, intereses militares y grupos rebeldes de oposición interna; producto, todos ellos, de las condiciones sociales y políticas preestablecidas y acentuadas durante la época colonial.

  7. The 2010 Leona Tyler Address: From the Homogeneous Hills of North Dakota to My Kaleidoscopic World Today--Worldview, Happenstance, Choice, and Defining Moments in My Career

    Heppner, Puncky Paul


    This article focuses on life career perspectives within the field of counseling psychology. The first goal is to promote reflection and discussion of counseling psychologists' planning and decision making as it pertains to their career journey; the second goal is to promote additional discussion around implicit and explicit cultural perspectives…

  8. Report for the Prime Minister. Making the future French electric power organization a success; Rapport au Premier Ministre. Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise

    Dumont, J.L


    This report from the French Deputy of the Meuse region aims at taking stock of four main questions raised by the future organization of the French electric power industry in the context of the opening of the European power market: the public utility of electric power, the future missions of Electricite de france (EdF) company, the questions in relation with the personnel status in the electric power industry, and the status of the regulating authority. In order to give some elements of answer to these questions, the report has been divided into 2 parts: part 1 presents the power production, transport and distribution in the future electric power regulation (the renewal of nuclear facilities, the building of non-nuclear units, the exploitation of the power distribution network, the accounting dissociation and the transparency of accountancy, the organization of network access, the eligible clients, the direct power lines, the obligations of purchase, the distribution and the role of local authorities). Part 2 presents the four main stakes of the modernization of the French electric power sector: the electric power public utility (public concern and rights, government policy, sustain of innovation, environment protection and energy mastery, the transportation and distribution networks, the role of operators and the financing), the future evolution of EdF (missions and organization, future of the public company), the social modernization of the electric power sector (present day status, adaptation, evolution, pensions), the organization and role of the future regulation authority. The propositions of the author are reported in the appendix. (J.S.)

  9. Cities and adaptation to climate change. Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament; Villes et adaptation au changement climatique. Rapport au Premier ministre et au Parlement



    The first part of this report sets the general problematic framework: positive and negative impacts of climate change on cities, city vulnerability factors, and adaptation ways to reduce urban vulnerability. The second part addresses adaptation strategies. It is based on an analysis of the implementation of adaptation actions by several French and foreign cities. It highlights levers and obstacles for adaptation, and identifies other policies which could support the adaptation effort. It also highlights the recent multidisciplinary dynamics of research on the sustainable city, and the implementation of projects for the reduction of city vulnerability and the adaptation of cities to climate change. Some programs are presented in appendix

  10. 铁路局货物运输需求大数据分析%Big data analysis of freight transportation demandad for railway ministration



    以铁路货运电子商务系统数据为依据,运用大数据手段,对呼和浩特铁路局当前的货物运输需求情况做具体分析。以临河站为例,分析不同品类运量,制定针对性的营销策略,科学合理地安排营销计划,形成具有较强竞争力的货运营销机制,更好地为铁路货运营销服务。%Based on the data of railway freight transportation electronic commerce system, using big data means, this article analyzed the current demand of railway freight transportation for Hohhot Railway Administration, took Linhe Station as an example, analyzed the volume of different category, developed targeted marketing strategies, arranged scientiifc and reasonable marketing plan, formed a strong competitive freight marketing mechanism, served railway freight transportation marketing better.

  11. Ministr sotsialnõhh del Eiki Nestor : "Ja bõ s radostju ostalsja v profsojuze" / Eiki Nestor ; interv. Sofja Bauer

    Nestor, Eiki, 1953-


    Autor: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad. Intervjuu sotsiaalministriga: ametiühingutöö, pensionireform, kaevurite pensionid, töötute sotsiaalkaitse, tervishoiuasutuste reformid. Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 2. veebr. lk. 2

  12. Speech of Francois Loos, delegated Ministry at the Industry; Elements d'intervention de Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie



    This speech discusses an evaluation of the renewable energies situation in France, one year after the law of the 13 July 2005, the development of the biofuels, the heat generation by renewable energies, the projects of tariffs concerning the photovoltaic, the wind energy, the biogas and the geothermal energy and the certificates of energy conservation and thermal regulation. (A.L.B.)

  13. Fostering future organization of French Electric Power. A report to Prime Minister; Reussir la future organisation electrique francaise. Rapport au Premier Ministre

    Dumont, Jean Louis [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)


    This report addressed to the prime minister deals with the main four issues relating to the problem of revamping the French electricity sector. These are featured as: 1. The public electricity supply; 2. The future development of 'Electricite de France'; 3. The social renovation of the electricity sector; 4. Management and the role of policy. In turn these four chapters are detailed. Thus the first one addresses the problems: 1. Customizing the general interest supply; 2. Electricity general supply and the state policy; 3. Sustaining innovation, environmental protection and energy management; 4. The transport and distribution grid, the resistance structure of the public supply. Also, this chapter describes the role of the operators in the public electricity supply and tackles the problem of financing the commitments of the public supply. The second chapter sketches the tasks and management of EDF, considers establishing an agency to ensure accounting transparency, discusses the major significance of local collectivities and personnel. The third chapter addresses the following issues: 1. The range of application of the statute of electric and gas industries; 2. Adaptation of the statute; 3. Development of the statute; 4. Pensioners. The forth chapter deals with the definition of regulation, i.e. the management of the network authority and makes proposals for constituting relating commissions. In conclusion, the author pleads for maintaining and developing a major national operator ensuring public supply requirements as well as promotion of French electricity industry. The proposals made by the report's author concerning the operational ways of renewing the nuclear sector, the management of grid of electric transport, the role of local collectivities, creation of a professional trade, the founding regulation commissions and others are thought to prepare France to cope efficiently to the international competition in the years to come. The report is completed by two appendices containing the proposals of the author and a list of the persons interviewed during the mission.

  14. Intervention of Mr Nicolas Sarkozy, Government minister, minister of economy, finances and industry. Energy debate - Thursday April 15, 2004 - French house of commons; Intervention de M. Nicolas Sarkozy, ministre d'Etat, ministre de l'economie, des finances et de l'industrie. Debat sur l'energie - jeudi 15 avril 2004 - assemblee nationale

    Sarkozy, N.


    In this talk, the French minister of economy, finances and industry recalls, first, some important key dates of the French energy history (creation of the French electric and gas utilities (EdF and GdF) in 1946, first petroleum shock in 1973 and the start-up of the French nuclear program) and then, presents the present day energy policy and the constraints that control the French energy choices: the lack of oil and gas resources in the French territory, and the problem of the global warming. According to these constraints, the French government has defined 4 main axes: energy mastery (thermal insulation of buildings, abatement of road speed limits, development of railway and river transport, financial incentives), development of renewable energy sources, renewal of the nuclear park with the launching of the European Pressurized reactor (EPR), and development of research programs in the domain of energy. The last part presents the new European framework of the French energy policy with the change of EdF and GdF juridical statuses and the progressive convergence of the different European energy policies towards a common model. (J.S.)

  15. 9个miniSTR基因座在西藏藏族人群中的遗传多态性%Genetic polymorphism of 9 miniSTR loci in Tibetan population

    李成志; 任甫; 席焕久; 奇双; 马庆云; 李文慧


    目的:对西藏藏族人群的9个miniSTR基因座(D20S1082、D6S474、D12 ATA 63、D9S1122、D2S1776、D1S1627、D3S4529、D2S441、Amelogenin)进行多态性研究.方法:用Chelex-100法提取西藏藏族人群96份无关个体血液样本DNA,在Mastercylcer(R)pro梯度PCR仪上对9个miniSTR基因座进行扩增,运用3130基因分型仪检测并收集电泳结果,通过GeneMarkerV 2.2.0软件计算扩增产物片段相对大小以及进行样本基因型分型.结果:9个miniSTR基因座(D20S1082、D6S474、D12 ATA 63、D9S1122、D2S1776、D1S1627、D3S4529、D2S441、Amelogenin)检出等位基因分别为5、5、6、7、6、4、5、6、2,均符合Hardy-Weinberg平衡,杂合度在0.531~0.742之间,累计个人识别率为0.999 998,累计非父排除率为0.984 083.结论:该9个miniSTR基因座在西藏藏族人群中的多态性较好,个体识别率高,可应用于个体识别和亲权鉴定.

  16. 以ERG需要理论探索高校流动编制人员管理机制%Exploration on University B-class Employed Staff Ad-ministration Mechanism with ERG Need Theory

    李秀花; 吴琳娜; 方绵


    This paper selects Sun Yat-sen University as a sample to analyze the life,relatedness and career development status of B-class employed staff by Alderfer's Existence, Relatedness and Growth Theory (also called as ERG Theory). Thereby, we consid-er the problems which exist in B-class employed staff's adminis-tration in colleges and universities. Based on this, from two view-points of how to improve the remuneration of B-class employed staff and how to change to be A-class employed staff, we propose that the needs to satisfy the staff's life characterized by currency and safety, the relatedness characterized by interrelation among human beings as well as career development characterized by self-realization, are the keys to solve the problems in B-class employed staff's administration. This paper may provide some theoretical basis and approaches for administrators to found an effective motivation mechanism.%本文以中山大学为例,试图通过奥尔德弗生存相互关系、成长需要理论(又叫ERG需要理论)及其相互关系,探索高校流动编制人员生存、相互关系及个人发展现状,以此思考高校在流动编制人员管理机制方面存在的问题。在此基础上,从改善流动编制人员待遇和流动编制人员转为固定编制人员的方式两个角度,提出:满足高校流动编制人员以货币和安全为主要特征的生存需要、以人际关系为主要特征的相互关系需要、以自我实现为主要特征的发展空间需要,是目前解决流动编制人员岗位管理机制方面存在问题的关键,为高校管理者建立有效的激励管理机制提供一定的理论依据和途径。

  17. 新时期要切实加强和改进党员教育管理工作%Job on Education Ministration of the Party Members should be Conscientionly Strenghened and Improved in the New Period




  18. Hearing of Francois Loos, ministry delegated to the Industry, on the electricity tariffs; Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie, sur les tarifs de l'electricite



    The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO{sub 2}. (A.L.B.)

  19. Declaration from the prime minister, Dominique de Villepin, about the energy policy on May 15, 2006; Declaration du premier ministre, Dominique de Villepin sur la politique energetique, le 15 mai 2006



    While the oil barrel has exceeded the historical price of 70$, the French government has put forward two exigencies: reducing the weight of the oil bill and reinforcing France's energy independence through the development of nuclear and renewable energies and with the implementation of an energy saving policy, and sharing in an equitable way the petroleum 'weight' taking into account the situation of oil-dependent professionals. In this communication, the prime minister develops the different point of this policy, in particular the financial incentives for the development of renewable energy sources, biofuels, and public transportation systems, and the measures allowing to protect the spending power of French people. (J.S.)

  20. Produção irregular e inconstante de oocistos pela ministração de cistos de Toxoplasma gondii Nicole & Manceaux, 1909, em gatos Irregular and inconstant production of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in cats by ministration of cysts

    F. Nery-Guimarães


    Full Text Available Como a produção de oocistos pelo T. gondii no gato parece vinculada à forma cística, uma vez que ela não ocorre pela ministração de formas vegetativas (17, cérebros de camundongos e ratos, com infecção crônica de T. gondii, forma ministrados "per os" a um total de 32 gatos. Com uma amostra (TC1 nenhum dos 8 gatos experimentados eliminou oocistos atribuiíveis a T. gondii; e com as outras 3 amostras a produção de oocistos foi de 25% ("pombo" e 37,5% ("sonia" e "AS-28". Esses resultados forma atribuídos, em parte, à pobreza de cistos nos cérebros ministrados aos gatos; e, em parte, à existência em condições naturais de amostras de "T. gondii" oocistogênicas, paucloocistogênicas e noocistogênicas. Ao contrário dos gatos infectados com formas vegetativas (17, nenhum gato morreu de toxoplasmose; microscopicamente as lesões com toxoplasmas foram de pouca intensidade e o número de reações de Sabin-Feldman (RSF negativas foi, relativamente, elevado. Foram vistas raras formas evolutivas do T. gondii no epitélio intestinal de um gato, não parasitado por Isospora as quais são menores que as de I. felis e I. rivolta, do mesmo modo que os seus oocistos. Assim como parece não existir imunidade entre as Isospora (I. felis e I. rivolta, também parece não existir imunidade entre estas e o T. gondii. Em 185 gatos examinados, foi encontrado um deles com oocistos de T. gondii em condições naturais (0,54%. É discutida a importância do gato na epidemilogia da toxoplasmose, destacando-se que a descoberta do ciclo sexuado, decisiva para a classificação do parasito, parece não ter tido repercussão semelhante na epidemiologia.As the production of oocysts by T. gondii in the cat seems to be correlated with the cystic form, once it does not occur when vegetative forms are given to cats, (17, brains of mice and rats with T. gondii chronic infection were orally administered to 32 cats. With TC1 strain none of the eight cats inoculated excreted Toxoplasma-type oocysts. With the 3 other strains the results were the following: "pombo" strain - 25%; "AS-28" strain - 37,5% and "sonia" strain - 37,5%. These results were interpreted partially as a consequence of the scarcity of cysts in the brains adminstered to cats and partially due to the existence in natural conditions of T. gondii strain which may be oocystogenic, paucioocystogenic and anoocystogenic. Diverselly from the results obtained when cats are fed with vegetative forms (17, none of the inoculated animals died on account of toxoplasmosis; microscopically the lesions with toxoplasms were very few and the number of negative RSF was relativelly high. A few evolutive forms of T. gondii were also studied in the gut epithelium of a cat without Isospora and, in the same manner as the oocystes, they are smaller than those of I. felis and I. rivolta. As cross immunity seems not to occur between the species of Isospora (I. felis and I. rivolta it is possible that the same happens between the last ones and T. gondii. From a total of 185 cats examined only one (0,54% excreted (in natural conditions oocysts atributable to T. gondii. The role of the cat in the epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis is discussed emphasizing the fact that the discovery of the sexual cycle was decisive for the classification of the parasite, but was probably not so valuable for the epidemiological studies.

  1. SWOT分析法在县级二甲医院医政管理工作中的应用%Application of SWOT analysis dimethy hospital in the county Medical Ad-ministration Management Work

    郭红梅; 李中建


    目的:探讨SWOT分析法如何在县级二甲医院医政管理工作中的应用,为基层医院管理者更好地管理和发展医院提供有价值的参考。方法应用SWOT分析法对县级二甲医院自身的优势、劣势以及外界环境中可能存在的机会和威胁,进行仔细的分析,明确医院医政管理要求,以此为依据制定相应的发展战略。结果采用SWOT分析法对县级二甲医院进行了全面的分析和总结,以此为基础,制定出了有利于医院未来生存和发展的的医政管理策略,保证了医疗服务的可及性和公平性,尽可能达到卫生资源利用效率最大化,提高患者的健康水平。SWOT分析法是二甲医院医政管理中很实用的方法,值得借鉴和推广。结论该文应用SWOT分析法对医院的内部因素即自身的优势和劣势以及外部因素即外界环境中可能存在的机会和威胁进行全面的分析,依靠自身优势的同时利用外部存在的机会来弥补内部存在的劣势,规避外部的威胁。%Objective To explore how to apply the SWOT analysis dimethyl hospital in the county health administration and management work, provide a valuable reference for the primary hospital managers to better manage and develop hospital. Methods SWOT analysis of the opportunities and threats that may exist at the county level dimethyl hospital's own strengths, weaknesses and the external environment, careful analysis, clear Hospital Practice Management requirements, as a basis to develop appropriate development strategies, help hospitals better survival and development. Results SWOT analysis of the county dimethyl hospital conducted a comprehensive analysis and summary, as a basis to work out in favor of the fu-ture survival and development of the hospital's Medical Administrative management strategy to ensure the availability of medical services and fairness, as far as possible to maximize health resources utilization efficiency, improve the health of patients. SWOT analysis is dimethyl Hospital Practice Management in a very practical way, it is worth learning and promo-tion. Conclusion Application of SWOT analysis of internal factors, namely the hospital's own strengths and weaknesses as well as external factors which may exist in the external environment opportunities and threats to conduct a comprehensive analysis, relying on its own advantages while leveraging existing outside chance to make up for the presence of internal weaknesses and avoid external threats.

  2. Arvustused / Aleks Lange

    Lange, Aleks


    Uute heliplaatide Nils Petter Molvaer "Solid Ether", Leona Naess "Comatised", Naivity in Black II "A Tribute to Black Sabbath", Papa Roach "Infest", A Perfect Circle "Mer de Noms", Queens of the Stone Age "Rated R", "Road Trip" (soundtrack) tutvustused

  3. Uued plaadid / Marko Tiidelepp

    Tiidelepp, Marko


    Heliplaatidest: Lupe Fiasco "Lupe Fiasco's the Cool", Leona Lewis "Spirit", Lenny Kravitz "It Is Time for a Love Revolution", "Step Up 2 The Streets", The Cardigans "Best of", Steel Scream "Lock n'Load and Get Ready!"

  4. Arvustused / Aleks Lange

    Lange, Aleks


    Uute heliplaatide Nils Petter Molvaer "Solid Ether", Leona Naess "Comatised", Naivity in Black II "A Tribute to Black Sabbath", Papa Roach "Infest", A Perfect Circle "Mer de Noms", Queens of the Stone Age "Rated R", "Road Trip" (soundtrack) tutvustused

  5. Uued plaadid / Marko Tiidelepp

    Tiidelepp, Marko


    Heliplaatidest: Lupe Fiasco "Lupe Fiasco's the Cool", Leona Lewis "Spirit", Lenny Kravitz "It Is Time for a Love Revolution", "Step Up 2 The Streets", The Cardigans "Best of", Steel Scream "Lock n'Load and Get Ready!"

  6. The Analysis on Chinese Aluminum Products Export Trend


    <正>In order to further control the export of prod- ucts that are characterized by high energy- consuming,high pollution and resources- dependent Ministry of Finance and State Ad- ministration of Taxation jointly issued"The notice from Ministry of Finance and State Ad- ministration of Taxation on the reduction of

  7. Report to the prime minister relative to the decree no 2002-560 from April 18, 2002 and approving the collective service schemes; Rapport au Premier ministre relatif au decret no. 2002-560 du 18 avril 2002 approuvant les schemas de services collectifs



    The collective service schemes have been implemented by the French government in order to encourage the decentralization and a complementary development of urban and rural areas in all regions of France and in the domains of high school teaching and research, culture, health, information and communication, goods and public transportation, energy, natural and rural environments, and sports. This ambitious organization requires the joint action of the government, of the local authorities, and of the overall economical and social actors of the country. This document presents the objectives of the collective service schemes and the decree written by the prime minister for their approval. (J.S.)

  8. Proceedings No. 41. Audition of M. Francois Loos, Delegate Minister of Industry, about the law project relative to the management of radioactive materials and wastes; Compte rendu n. 41. Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'industrie, sur le projet de loi relatif a la gestion des matieres et dechets radioactifs



    The project of law about the management of radioactive materials and wastes is the logical continuation of the law no 91-1381 from December 30, 1991 relative to the researches on radioactive waste management. At the occasion of the presentation of this law project at the board of ministers, F. Loos, the French minister of industry, presented this project the same day also at the house of commons. This document is the proceedings of the audition of F. Loos. It comprises a brief recall of the researches carried out so far and a presentation of the 3 main points of the project of law: reprocessing of spent fuels and recycling in reactors, interim surface storage of non-recyclable wastes, and underground reversible disposal of ultimate wastes. One aspect of the project concerns the scheduling of future research works according to the 3 ways defined in the 1991 law: storage, disposal and transmutation. This presentation is followed by questions from the deputies about some particular points of the project like the safety aspects, the selection of storage sites, the acceptance and information of the public, the financial aspects etc. (J.S.)

  9. Talk of Thierry Breton, minister of economy, finances and industry. Talk to the association of economy and finance journalists about national and international energy questions on May 22, 2006; Intervention de Thierry Breton ministre de l'Economie, des finances et de l'industrie. Intervention devant l'Ajef sur les questions energetiques nationales et internationales, le 22 mai 2006



    The French minister of economy, finances and industry explains the reasons of the rise of oil prices (tensions on the supply and demand balance, late recovery of investments in producing countries, geopolitical factors) and the measures that the government wishes to implement in order to bear up this situation: project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez energy groups, change of oil companies behaviour with consumers (automotive fuels price transparency), energy saving information on all energy suppliers advertisements, reinforcement of energy independence (development of renewable energy sources and of alternate automotive fuels). (J.S.)

  10. Presentation of the policy bill of program on the radioactive materials and wastes management by Francois Loos, Ministry delegate to the Industry, National Assembly; Presentation du projet de loi de programme sur la gestion des matieres et dechets radioactifs par Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie, Assemblee Nationale



    This document provides the text of the presentation of Francois Loos. The bill institutes a national radioactive materials and waste management plan and defines a programme and calendar for research and work leading to implementation of this plan, which will comprise three major points: with a view to looking to reduce the quantity of waste, spent nuclear fuels taken from the nuclear power plants will be reprocessed for recycling in the plants; waste which cannot be recycled will be packaged in a robust matrix and then temporarily stored on the surface; after interim storage, waste which cannot be finally disposed of in a surface facility, will be placed in a deep geological reversible repository. In order to monitor each step in this plan, the bill strengthens independent assessment of research and involves greater information of the public. With regard to financing, the bill clarifies the fact that economic development of the departments concerned by research into disposal options and the research itself will be financed by additional taxes on the operators of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Study on Bioequivalence of Levodopa Micro-capsule Floating Tablets in Beagle Dogs after Multi-dose Ad-ministration%复方左旋多巴微囊漂浮片多剂量给药后在Beagle犬体内的生物等效性研究Δ

    陈雪珊; 滕亮; 贺鑫韬; 马桂芝


    目的:研究左旋多巴微囊漂浮片多剂量给药后在Beagle犬体内的生物等效性。方法:取犬6只,平均分为左旋多巴微囊漂浮片组和复方左旋多巴制剂组(多巴丝肼片,参比制剂),每次ig 200 mg(以左旋多巴计),每8 h给药1次,连续给药4 d,进行双周期交叉实验。以高效液相色谱法测定犬体内左旋多巴的血药浓度,计算药动学参数,评价生物等效性和左旋多巴稳态时的血药浓度波动情况。结果:左旋多巴微囊漂浮片和参比制剂在犬体内的cmax分别为(4.23±0.75)、(8.47±1.18)µg/ml,AUC0-∞分别为(12.18±1.16)、(13.81±2.12)μg·h/ml,tmax分别为(1.83±0.26)、(0.67±0.13)h;微囊漂浮片AUC0-∞与参比制剂AUC0-∞的几何均值比的90%置信区间为80.61%~97.90%,cmax几何均值比的90%置信区间为42.75%~57.63%;二者的tmax差异有统计学意义。二者血药浓度的波动度分别为(283.914±43.217)%、(506.489±78.965)%,波动系数分别为(177.463±7.873)%、(187.405±1.650)%,微囊漂浮片的波动度明显小于参比制剂。结论:左旋多巴微囊漂浮片具有良好的缓释特性;多剂量给药后与参比制剂吸收程度生物等效,且血药浓度的波动程度较小。%OBJECTIVE:To study the bioequivalence of Levodopa micro-capsule floating tablets in Beagle dogs after multi-dose administration. METHODS:6 dogs were collected and divided into Levodopa micro-capsule floating tablets group and Com-pound levodopa preparation group (Benserazide tablet,reference preparation). They were given levodopa 200 mg intragastrically, every 8 h,for consecutive 4 day. In two-period crossover test,HPLC method was established to determine the concentration of le-vodopa in dog. The pharmacokinetic parameter,bioequivalence and plasma concentration fluctuation of steady state were calculated. RESULTS:The main pharmacokinetic parameters of Levodopa micro-capsule floating tablets and reference preparation were as that cmax were(4.23±0.75)and(8.47±1.18)µg/ml;AUC0-∞ were(12.18±1.16)and(13.81±2.12)μg·h/ml;tmax were(1.83±0.26) and(0.67±0.13)h,respectively. 90% confidence intervals for the geometric mean ratio of AUC0-∞ for test and reference prepara-tion were 80.61%-97.90%,and that for cmax were 42.75%-57.63%,respectively. There was statistical significance in tmax between test and reference preparation. Degree of fluctuation of test and reference preparation at steady state were(283.914±43.217)% and (506.489±78.965)%,and fluctuation coefficient were(177.463±7.873)% and(187.405±1.650)%,respectively. The degree of fluctuation of test preparation was significantly less than that of reference preparation. CONCLUSIONS:Levodopa micro-capsule floating tablets show good sustained-release property,and are bioequivalent with reference preparation in absorption after multiple dose administration. It also has lesser fluctuation of blood concentration.

  12. Alterações funcionais da junção neuromuscular provocadas em ratos pela administração diária e prolongada de um agente curarizante Functional changes of the neuromuscular junction induced in rats by a daily and prolonged ministration of a curare agent

    Antonio Carlos Zanini


    Full Text Available A ratos adultos, machos, foi administrado durante 8 semanas, uma vez ao dia, o iodeto do dimetiléter da d-tubocurarina (DMT, pela via intraperitoneal. Os animais foram distribuídos em 3 lotes: os do 1.°, receberam 5,5 gama de DMT/kg/dia; os do 2.°, 16,6 gama/kg/dia; os do 3.° (controle, 1 ml da solução isotônica de cloreto de sódio. A força muscular dos animais foi avaliada uma vez por semana, de acordo com o método descrito no texto, antes e após a injeção intraperitoneal da referida substância. Com o decorrer da experimentação, observou-se que: a houve diminuição significativa da força muscular dos animais, avaliada após esvaecimento da atividade curarizante do DMT; b a determinação da força muscular, feita logo após a injeção, mostrou que a dose de 5,5 gama/kg/dia provoca um aumento da suscetibilidade dos animais à ação curarizante do DMT; c o efeito inibidor provocado pela dose de 16,6 gama/kg/dia de DMT aumentou no início mas diminuiu significantemente após a 5ª semana, muito embora houvesse uma progressiva diminuição da força muscular, sugerindo independência entre os dois efeitos. Com base nesses resultados, são discutidos alguns fenômenos que podem ocorrer na instalação e tratamento da miastenia grave.Dimethylether of d-tubocurarine iodide (DMT was administered daily, by intraperitoneal route, to adult male rats during 8 weeks. The animals were divided in three groups: the animals of the first group were given 5.5 gama/kg/day of DMT; those of the second group were given 16.6 gama/ kg/day; the rats of the 3rd (the control group, received 1 cm³ of isotonic saline solution. The animals muscular force was evaluated once a week right before and after intraperitoneal injection of the drug. During the course of the trial, it was noted: aa significant reduction of the animals muscular force, evaluated after disappearance of the DMT curarizing effect; bmeasurements of muscular force, performed straight after the injection, showed that a 5.5 gama/kg/daily dose induced an increase of the animals susceptibility to the blocking action of DMT; c the inhibitory effect induced by DMT 16.6 gama/kg daily dose increased at the beginning but decreased significantly after the 5th week of the trial, despite a progressive decrease in muscular force suggest independence of the two effects. Based on these results, some of the phenomena that may occur at the heginning and during treatment of myasthenia gravis are discussed.

  13. 肌注和口服药饵麻保沙星在日本对虾体内的药代动力学比较%Pharmacokinetics of Marbofloxacin in kuruma prawn, Mar-supenaeus japonicus following intramuscular and oral ad-ministration

    李晖; 李健; 孙铭; 梁俊平


      The pharmacokinetics of intrasinusly, intramuscularly and orally administered marbofloxacin was deter-mined in kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, with a single dose of 10 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively, at water temperatures of 25 ±0.6 . Following intramuscular and oral administration, the plasma concentr℃ ℃ a-tion-time data for enrofloxacin were best described as a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption and elimination with the pharmacokinetic equation: Cim =15.521e–1.153t+7.90e–0.059t-23.421e–11.73t and Cpo =17.486e–0.399t+3.01e–0.051t-20.496e–0.408t, respectively. After intramuscular and oral administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows:t1/2Ka 0.059 and 1.697, tmax 0.25 h and 2.0 h, t1/2α0.601 h and 2.103 h, Cmax 20.785 mg/L and 12.4774 mg/L, F 99.56% and 69.68%, t1/2β 11.769 h and 13.535 h, respectively. It indicated quicker absorption, wider distribution, higher peak plasma concentration, higher bioavailability and faster elimina-tion by intramuscular administration than oral administration. In this study, pharmacokinetic parameters, post anti-biotic effect (PAE) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were combined to discuss the dosage regimen of marbofloxacin. The scheme of marbofloxacin was established to shrimp bacterial disease, at the intervals of 13.6 and 11.8 h, with the dose of 14.30 and 19.17 mg/kg by intramuscular and oral administration, respectively.%  在水温(25±0.6)℃条件下,分别以10、10和30 mg/kg剂量给健康日本对虾血窦注射、肌注和口服药饵麻保沙星后,用高效液相色谱法测定药物浓度,采用 DAS2.0药动学软件对血药浓度进行分析,主要比较了肌注和口服药饵两种给药方式下麻保沙星在日本对虾体内的药代动力学差异。结果显示,血窦注射给药后,麻保沙星在日本对虾体内药物动力学最佳模型为无级吸收二室开放模型,表达方程为: C 血窦注射=13.373e–1.396 t +8.28e–0.062 t;肌注和口服药饵麻保沙星后,在日本对虾体内的代谢过程均符合一级吸收二室开放模型,表达方程为 C 肌肉注射=15.521e–1.153t +7.90e–0.059t -23.421e–11.73t, C 口服药饵=17.486e–0.33t +3.01e–0.051t -20.496e–0.408t。与口服药饵给药后药代动力学参数比较,肌注给药后的tmax(0.25 h)、t1/2Ka(0.059 h)、t1/2α(0.601 h)和t1/2β(11.769 h)均小于口服药饵给药的tmax(0.5 h)、t1/2Ka(1.697 h)、t1/2α(2.103 h)和 t1/2β(13.535 h),且 Cmax(20.7858 mg/L)和 F(99.56%)均大于口服药饵给药 Cmax(12.4774 mg/L)、F(69.68%)。结果表明,肌注麻保沙星在日本对虾体内的吸收、分布和消除均快于口服药饵给药,且比口服给药吸收较完全。本实验将药动学参数与抗菌后效应(PAE)和最小抑菌浓度(MIC)相结合来探讨麻保沙星的给药方案,建议在治疗日本对虾细菌性疾病时,肌注14.30 mg/kg,每隔13.6 h一次;口服19.17 mg/kg,每隔11.8 h一次。

  14. ONERC. Observatoire National sur les Effets du Rechauffement Climatique (National Observatory of Climate warming effects). Report to the Prime Minister and to Parliament. Climate changes and public health risks in France; Changements climatiques et risques sanitaires en France. Rapport au Premier Ministre et au Parlement



    After having recalled the climate change context and the activities of the ONERC (the French National Observatory of Climate Warming Effects) since its previous report, this report gathers several contributions by as many scientists. They propose analysis, comments and discussions on various topics: human diseases which might be influenced by climate change in France (heat waves and allergies, emergence of animal and human diseases, potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases, infectious diseases in overseas territories, public health consequences), surveillance and health alert systems (infectious disease national surveillance and monitoring network, emergency response, satellite imagery, public health and risk management, lessons learned from the chikungunya pandemic), public health and risk management (overview of international works on the relationship between climate change and public health, public health consequences of climate change)

  15. Boeke/Books

    College Hospital; Craib at Wits; Consultant physician; Research ad- ministrator; Craib's jonings and lener writing; Craib - the man;. Vindication. .... Dr Craib made exciting discoveries about the fundamental origins of electrical signals in the ...

  16. [The work of Moscow communities of Sisters of Charity in own medical institutions].

    Zorin, K V


    The article analyses the medical activities of Moscow communities of Sisters of Charity in curative and educational institutions organized by the communities themselves. The social ministration of communities on the territory of Moscow is considered.


    APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Leona H. Clark1, Paul M. Schlosser2, and James F. Selgrade3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2CIIT, Research Triangle Park, NC; 3North Carolina State Un...


    APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Leona H. Clark1, Paul M. Schlosser2, and James F. Selgrade3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2CIIT, Research Triangle Park, NC; 3North Carolina State Un...

  19. Les chercheurs inquiets malgre les promesses de Claudie Haignere


    "Le 9 avril, lors d'un colloque sur l'innovation, la ministre deleguee a la recherche et aux nouvelles technologies a annonce, "en plein accord, dit-elle, avec le premier ministre", que "les etablissements publics a caractere scientifique et technologique (EPST) ne connaitront en 2003 aucune nouvelle annulation de credits de paiement et d'autorisations de programme" et que "les reserves de precaution sont entierement levees" (1 page).

  20. Symposium "Télédétection spatiale" Tenu à Bruxelles au Palais d'Egmont, les 5 et 6 décembre 1988 en français et en néerlandais Sous les auspices du Ministre belge de la Politique Scientifique et du Secrétaire d'Etat à la Politique Scientifique, 8 rue de la Science à 1040 Bruxelles

    Chauvaux, G.


    Symposium "Remote sensing by sattelite". Each year, a lot of agrochemical experiments and demonstration are established in Tunisia, giving thousands of data which must be classified, analysed and interpreted in a short period of time. In order to bring a solution to this problem, an integrated system has been set up with data processings and statistical technics.

  1. Bill, adopted by the Senate after urgency declaration, asserting the national commitment for the environment, transmitted by M. Prime Minister to M. President of the House of Commons; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat apres declaration d'urgence, portant engagement national pour l'environnement transmis par M. le Premier Ministre a M. le President de l'Assemblee Nationale



    The bill asserting the French national commitment for the environment (also named 'Grenelle 2') is considered as the juridical tool-box of the French environmental policy. It confirms, strengthens, and concretizes the objectives defined by the Grenelle 1 law. The main dispositions of the bill concern the following domains: settlement and urbanism with the improvement of the energy efficiency, energy conservation and life-cycle of buildings; transports with the development of sustainable transportation systems; energy with the creation of regional climate, air and energy schemes with the aim of developing renewable energies (with some restrictions concerning wind power) and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions; biodiversity with the creation of ecological pathways between protected areas for the migration of flora and fauna species; environment and waste management with the reinforcement of measures for the abatement of environmental pollutant effects. Among the numerous dispositions involving more than 20 codes (urbanism, environment, buildings etc..) one concerns the progressive implementation of a 'carbon price' index taking into account the greenhouse gas emission costs during the whole life cycle of a product, another one concerns the monitoring of indoor air quality in public buildings. This document is the text of the bill adopted in first lecture by the Senate and transmitted by the Prime Minister to the President of the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  2. 1er mars 2017 - Signature du livre d'or, visite du tunnel du LHC au Point 5 et de la caverne expériementale de CMS par le Secrétaire d’Etat français aux Affaires européennes auprès du ministre des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international H. Désir.

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth


    Entourent le Secrétaire d'Etat pendant la signature du livre d'or: Le Préfet de l’Ain A. Cochet; le Directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie F. Bordry; Ambassadeur, Représentant permanent de la France auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies à Genève et des Organisations internationales en Suisse E. Laurin; la Directrice générale du CERN F. Gianotti et la Directrice des relations internationales C. Warakaulle. Sont également présents: H. Bertrand, Maire de Saint-Genis-Pouilly; C. Bouvier, Maire de Cessy; G. Rousseau, Secrétaire Général de la sous-préfecture de Gex; Y. Mecibah, Directrice de Cabinet du Maire de Saint-Genis-Pouilly; F. Croquette, Ambassadeur pour les droits de l’homme, chargé de la dimension internationale de la Shoah, des spoliations et du devoir de mémoire; S. Bonbayl, Conseillère technique, Cabinet du Secrétaire d’Etat chargé des Affaires Européennes au MAEDI; F. Cormon-Veyssière, Sous-Directrice des droits de l’Homme et des Affaires humanitaires au MAEDI...

  3. Symposium "Télédétection spatiale" Tenu à Bruxelles au Palais d'Egmont, les 5 et 6 décembre 1988 en français et en néerlandais Sous les auspices du Ministre belge de la Politique Scientifique et du Secrétaire d'Etat à la Politique Scientifique, 8 rue de la Science à 1040 Bruxelles

    Chauvaux, G.


    Full Text Available Symposium "Remote sensing by sattelite". Each year, a lot of agrochemical experiments and demonstration are established in Tunisia, giving thousands of data which must be classified, analysed and interpreted in a short period of time. In order to bring a solution to this problem, an integrated system has been set up with data processings and statistical technics.

  4. Closure of the first strategic meeting on energy security: 'Europe running out of energy?' at the economic and social council. Talk of Francois Loos, delegate minister of industry; Cloture de la premiere rencontre strategique sur la securite energetique: l'Europe en panne d'energie? au Conseil Economique et Social. Discours de Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie



    In this talk, the French minister briefly recalls the present day world energy and environmental situation and the urgent need of new clean energy sources. Then, he presents some strong actions already launched by the European Union to reduce its energy dependence (Green Books on the security of energy supplies and on the energy efficiency) and he introduces the French program law and its ambitious goals: abatement of the final energy intensity thanks to the development of alternate fuels in transports and to the implementation of energy saving certificates, increase of the share of renewable energy sources in the French energy mix and keeping up of the nuclear option, replacement of old fossil-fuel power plants, reinforcement of power gas interconnections between France and neighbour countries, and significant increase of the R and D effort in new energy technologies, CO{sub 2} sequestration and nuclear fusion. (J.S.)

  5. Speech by Prime Minister Francois Fillon. Visit of the Jules Horowitz experimental reactor works on the Commissariat a l'Energie et aux Energies Alternatives site. Cadarache, May 3, 2010; Discours du Premier ministre Francois FILLON Cadarache, lundi 3 mai 2010. Visite du chantier du Reacteur experimental Jules Horowitz sur le site du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives



    In this speech, the French Prime Minister evokes the present context, the importance of strategic technologies, and the challenge of investing in these technologies within a context of reduction of public expenses. He comments the decision of his government to finance research and education activities in different domains, and more specifically in the energy sector with this fourth generation Jules Horowitz experimental reactor. He recalls that the nuclear sector has always been very important to the eyes of the successive French governments, and outlines how this reactor will contribute to reactor operational optimization, lifetime extension and safety, nuclear fuel development, etc.

  6. Le cyclomoteur de faible puissance et son effet sur la sécurité routière : conséquences à prévoir pour la sécurité routière de l'introduction éventuelle du cyclomoteur de faible puissance. Rapport établi à la demande du ministre de la Circulation et du Waterstaat. Contribution a OCDE Groupe de Recherche S13

    Blokpoel, A. & Harris, S.


    It is not often that a new vehicle is introduced, and for this reason alone it is an interesting subject of research. Having been. asked by the Minister of Transport and Waterways of The Netherlands to give its views in the form of advice, regarding the likely consequences upon road safety of introd

  7. Heavy Metals and Water Quality in an Urban Creek Watershed, Oakland, CA

    Ahumada, E.; Cheung, J.; Cheung, N.; Flores, J.; Fong, W.; Lam, J.; Marks-Block, T.; Marquez, S.; Rodriguez, N.; Rivera, E.; Sainz, J.; Wyon, M.


    Leona Creek runs throughout the Mills College campus, which is located in Central-East Oakland, California. Its source is located in the Oakland Hills, where it is known as Lion Creek, and where there is a history of mining and related acid runoff. On the Mills campus, students hike, casually relax near and play in the creek, which led us to question whether or not its water was clean and healthy, particularly since our focus is the overall safety of the campus community and the quality of its environment. Given the well-known relationship between exposure to lead and brain disorders and other health problems, we decided to collect samples from various locations along Leona Creek, as well as other water sources on the Mills campus, and to determine their lead concentration levels by using a spectrophotometer. Analysis of these samples indicated high concentrations of lead, significantly above the EPA limit for drinking water. All samples taken at Leona Creek were above the EPA mandated limit of 15 ppb. Also, drinking water fountains and ponds on campus were found to have lead levels above the EPA limit. We also collected 12-gram soil samples from various locations throughout campus, including along the banks of Leona Creek. These samples were analyzed by using an ICP spectrometer. Analysis of these samples indicated high lead concentrations in soils collected along the banks of the creek. Although currently only in its preliminary phase, we intend to use the results of this study to alert the Mills College community of the possible hazards associated with what previously had been perceived as safe campus nature areas, and to encourage state and private entities to initiate clean-up efforts to address water pollution issues we have identified.

  8. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

    Vuento, Matti


    Mika PA Laitinen1, Jari Salmela2, Leona Gilbert1, Risto Kaivola1, Topi Tikkala2, Christian Oker-Blom1, Jukka Pekola3, Matti Vuento11Department of Biological and Environmental Science; 2Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland; 3Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The princip...


    Gay, Michel; Chitou, Ibrahim; CURBATOV, Oleg


    Contributeurs et Auteurs: ----------------------------------AGBOBLI, Edo Kodjo Maurille - Professeur, Docteur d’État ès Sciences Économiques, Maître de conférences des universités, Ancien Ministre;AKAKPO-NUMADO, Sena Yawo - Dr. Phil., Université de Lomé, Institut National des Sciences de l’Education;BACHIR WADE, Mohamed El -Professeur, Université de Dakar ;CHITOU, Ibrahim -Maître de Conférences – Université Paris 13 Paris Nord, Conseiller Technique du Ministre de l'Enseignement Supérieur et d...

  10. Maximilien Brice


    6 juin 2008 - V. Pécresse, Ministre française de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, signe le livre d'or avec le Directeur général du CERN R. Aymar. Photo numero 5: B. Accoyer, Président de l'Assemblée nationale française prend connaissance du livre d'or que V. Pécresse, Ministre française de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche vient de signer.

  11. With Eyes Shut

    Rytter, Jens Elo


    Artiklen belyser og vurderer spørgsmålet, om Danmark har overtrådt GK III ved at overdrage afghanske fanger til amerikanske styrker, samt om danske ministre overtrådte ministeransvarlighedsloven ved at forsikre Folketinget om, at USA ville overholde folkeretten....

  12. A DRDC Management Accountability Framework: Results of Cycle 2


    Minister of National Defence, 2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2009...pilot studies. Dr. Evert Lindquist of the University of Victoria graciously provided an advance copy of his critique of the Treasury Board MAF for

  13. Biometric Border Security Evaluation Framework (Biometrique Cadre D’evaluation de la Securite des Frontieres)


    as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de document. Despite some successes, a major critique of the initial program was that one of its major goals – enforcing immigration policy

  14. Joint Command Support Through Workspace Analysis, Design and Optimization (Soutien du Commandement Interarmees au Moyen de L’Analyse, de la Conception et de L’Optimisation de L’Espace de Travail)


    the Minister of National Defence, 2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale... critique of this new design process and suggests a future R&D roadmap. 1.1 Command Centre and the Scope of its Design A command centre is often

  15. Modelling and Simulation for Requirements Engineering and Options Analysis


    Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 DRDC Toronto CR 2010...externalize their mental model of the assumed solution for critique and correction by others, and whether or not this would assist in ensuring that

  16. Area Handbook Series: Romania: A Country Study.


    waned, and Emperor Octavius expelled the Getae from the lands south of the Danube. The Getae continued, however, to interfere in Roman affairs, and the...councils. See government ad- ministration People’s Democratic Front, 210 Octavius (Roman emperor), 6 perestroika, xxix, 21t0-41 Odessa, 41 periodicals (see

  17. G. ADOBEA owusu8

    Binary Logistic Regression Analysis of secondary data vvere undertaken to compare- ... gender inequalities in land tenure systems, others (such as Benneh, Kassanga .... ministration bodies towards a more efficient management of land. ..... Thus, these arrangements and particularly an increasing outright sale of land which.

  18. Lease for the extension of the CERN site


    On 13 September the lease allowing for the extension of the CERN site into France for the construction of the Intersecting Storage Rings was signed at Gex. On the left is Augustin Alline representing the French "Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres" and Viki Weisskopf is signing the lease for CERN.

  19. Algorithm-Based Fetal Gender Determination Using X and Y Mini-Short Tandem Repeats at Early Gestational Ages



    Full Text Available Background Detection of fetal DNA in maternal blood has been examined by many research groups for a few years; thereby, scientists have a shorter way to take to approach prenatal diagnosis of abnormal pregnancies. The Y chromosome sequences have recently become the most common applicable indices for fetal sex determination. Objectives We conducted an algorithmic X and Y mini-Short Tandem Repeats (STRs genotyping method that could solve the problem of false negative (no detection of Y sequences results of previous methods. Patients and Methods Blood samples were obtained from 106 pregnant women and their spouses. Conventional PCR amplified 19 mini-Short Tandem Repeats (STRs and three non-STR markers, which were subsequently genotyped by the means of Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the mini-STR genotyping method for fetal DNA detection were calculated (95.9% and 98%, respectively with a confidence interval of 95%. In addition, sensitivity and informativeness were computed for each of the single mini-STR markers in our conventional PCR method. We also introduced the minimum number of mini-STRs needed to reach maximum validity for fetal gender determination in clinical settings. Conclusions Algorithm-based mini-STR genotyping method significantly increases the reliability (sensitivity and specificity of gender determination using free fetal DNA and could be applied in prenatal clinical testing.

  20. Strategies For Being A Successful Physician Administrator Of A Rehabilitation Program

    John L.Melvin; MD,MMSc


    @@ INTRODUCTION Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide rehabili-tation physicians with suggestions that will assist themin becoming successful program leaders/managers/ad-ministrators. The content of this paper is based uponthe experiences and observations of the author whohas had extensive experience in developing, leadingand managing rehabilitation programs.

  1. Ledelse via dårlig samvittighed

    Holm, Claus


    Statsminister Anders Fogh Rasmussen roser ikke sine ministre nok. Det vækker forargelse. Men selvstændighedens styrke er, at den viser sig ved, at folk indfrier forventninger uden at være akkompagneret af en leders klapsalver....

  2. Analysis of artificially degraded DNA using STRs and SNPs--results of a collaborative European (EDNAP) exercise

    Dixon, L A; Dobbins, A E; Pulker, H K


    Recently, there has been much debate about what kinds of genetic markers should be implemented as new core loci that constitute national DNA databases. The choices lie between conventional STRs, ranging in size from 100 to 450 bp; mini-STRs, with amplicon sizes less than 200 bp; and single nucleo...

  3. Lessons from Burundi’s Security Sector Reform Process


    International Security Sector Advisory Team. 7 Mémorandum d’Entente entre le Gouvernement de la République du Burundi et les Ministres des Affaires...and Fabien Nsengimana, Evaluation du Volet Gouvernance du Programme DSS, October 28, 2013. Nicole Ball, Putting Governance at the Heart of Security

  4. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 62, Number 4, April 1925


    hits per gun per minute. The seco ~d practice by this battery was very good; five hits were registered on a hypothetical target at an average range ad- ministration in Mexico under President Calles, the War Department budget is said to have been reduced from U5,000,000 to 80,000,000 pesos , or

  5. Sara E. Chapman, Private Ambition and Political Alliances. The Phélypeaux de Pontchartrain Family and Louis XIV’s Government, 1650-1715, Rochester, The University of Rochester Press, 2004, xvi-292 p., $ 80.Charles Frostin, Les Pontchartrain, ministres de Louis XIV. Alliances et réseaux d’influence sous l’Ancien Régime, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2006, Collection « Histoire », 597 p., 25 €.

    Elie Haddad


    Full Text Available Ces deux livres portent sur des sujets semblables : les réseaux de clientèles des Phélypeaux de Pontchartrain analysés principalement sous l’angle des alliances matrimoniales et des relations de parenté qui les structurent. Leur intérêt dépasse donc largement la simple histoire familiale des Pontchartrain ou l’histoire de leur action politique : c’est un éclairage sur les liens entre histoire sociale et histoire politique qu’ils entendent projeter, sur une tranche chronologique plus large que...

  6. The Impact of Microbial Communities on Water Quality in an Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watershed

    McDaniel, G. R.; Rademacher, L. K.; Faul, K. L.; Brunell, M.; Burmeister, K. C.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the former Leona Heights Sulfur mine in Oakland, CA, contributes toxic levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn and elevated levels of Fe2+ and SO42- to downstream reaches of Lion Creek via Leona Creek. To investigate the extent of AMD and its relationship to microbial community structure, water samples were collected from three tributaries (two natural, and one with AMD) as well as the inlet and outlet of Lake Aliso (a reservoir downstream of the confluence of the three tributaries) beginning in July 2009. Lake Aliso was dammed in the late 1800s but since the early 1990s it has been full during the dry season and drained during the wet season, thus dramatically altering the geochemical conditions on a seasonal basis. Natural waters from Lion Creek and Horseshoe Creek tributaries dilute the water from Leona Creek, thus reducing concentrations of major ions and metals below toxic levels before water discharges into Lake Aliso. Precipitation events lead to episodes of increased mobilization of Cu and Cd in Leona Creek and produce toxic levels of these metals below the confluence with Lion Creek. Tributary mixing calculations suggest that even though Leona Creek contributes the smallest volume of water of the three tributaries, it is the main source of metals entering Lake Aliso. The input of the metal-rich AMD from Leona Creek changes the redox conditions of Lion Creek. In addition, Lake Aliso has a significant impact on water quality in the Lion Creek watershed. Observations of temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen in lake depth profiles indicate that Lake Aliso is stratified during the dry season when the lake is full. Based on concentration differences between the inlet and outlet of the lake, Na, Mg, SO42-, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni are removed from the water while K, As, Pb and Fe are mobilized when Lake Aliso is full. Geochemical modeling using PhreeqcI suggests the deposition of minerals containing the metals that are being removed

  7. La danse des lions et des lionnes

    Ziou Ziou Abdellah


    Full Text Available Descripción del ritual de baile y expresión corporal ejecutado por un grupo de bailarines que emula los movimientos de un grupo de leones y leonas en lucha, controlando extremadamente su agresividad. Forman parte de una cofradía mística con motivo del Moussem (feria o fiesta popular de Sidi Hadi Ben Aissa, patrón de los Aissaouás, llevado a cabo el día de Miloud que conmemora el nacimiento del profeta Sidna Mohamed.

  8. Metode izbora oblika zuba za mobilne proteze


    U radu su opisane različite metode koje pomažu izboru umjetnih zuba za potpune proteze. Prva je poznata teorija još iz prošloga stoljeća, a temelji se na Hipokratovoj podjeli temperamenta na neurotične, sangvinične, bilijarne i astenične tipove, pri čemu svakom temperamentu odgovara određen oblik zuba. Tu je teoriju istisnula geometrijska teorija Leona Williamsa (početak prošloga stoljeća) koja povezuje oblik lica i oblik zuba. Prema Williamsu, konturna linija gornjih središnjih sjekutića uma...

  9. 抚平皱纹



    要让自己永葆年轻,没有什么比一张光滑紧致的脸更具有说服力了。如今的抗皱产品除了能有效针对细纹、皱纹进行修护,更涉及深度保湿、紧致和全面修护。LEONA 为你推荐时下热门的抗皱产品。

  10. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Lee, J.N.


    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  11. Fin de temporada


    Como una jauría de leonas enjauladas que recién son liberadas, corren cientos de mujeres a buscar aquellos coloridos y centelleantes carteles que anuncian efusivos la llegada del fin de la temporada. Las tiendas hacen todo tipo de descuentos a las mercancías un poco sucias, desgastadas, arrugadas y pasadas de  moda. No son despreciadas por aquellas mujeres a las que el recorte de la mesada no les da para comprar lo que está de moda. Por  los  amplios  pasillos  ahora ...

  12. Italian Exposition



    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  13. Enseigner autrement avec l'informatique : Colloque "Informatique et enseignement" de novembre 1983

    Pélisset, Émilien


    Cet article à été repris dans la revue de l'EPI n° 104 de décembre 2001, p. 11-14. [ba4p011]Sommaire du numéro :; Intervention d'Émilien Pélisset, Président de l'EPI, à la table ronde n° 2 du colloque « Informatique et enseignement » le 21 novembre 1983. Ce colloque, dont le principe avait été retenu lors de la rencontre de l'EPI avec le ministre Alain Savary, fut co-organisé par le MEN et l'EPI.Discours d'ouverture par Alain Savary, Ministr...

  14. The Head Side of the Coin: A Smarter Way to Fight the Moro Secessionists in the Southern Philippines


    Moro recruits from the Philippine Army to reclaim Sabah from Malaysia. Later, the government was accused of ordering the mur- der of these troops...ministration, intelligence, operations, supply and logistics, training, transportation and communications.”45 True to its religious orientation, the...also drilled manual-pump water wells to ad- dress the shortage of clean and potable water. They restored electricity to some areas that had lost

  15. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Assessment of Faropenem in a Lethal Murine Bacillus anthracis Inhalation Postexposure Prophylaxis Model


    Craig, W. A., and D. R. Andes. 2001. In vivo pharmacodynamic activity of faropenem against Streptococcus pneumoniae , abstr. A-2094. Abstr. 41st In...approved by the United States Food and Drug Ad- ministration (FDA) for treatment after exposure to this bac- terial agent. Of these, only penicillin is...tested for their susceptibilities to faropenem, amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin , mero- penem, azithromycin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and

  16. Triggers of State Failure


    by the Minister of National Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale... critique définissable qu’un État franchit lorsqu’il se retrouve en situation d’urgence. Une description des événements déclencheurs fait suite à la

  17. Discrimination Power Control for Adaptive Target Tracking Applications


    represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2008 c© Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense...considérée comme un facteur critique pour les opérations telles que la corrélation mesure/piste, l’identification et la classification, une méthode

  18. INCOMMANDS TDP: Human Factors Evaluation of the Command Decision Support Capability Prototype


    Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2009 DRDC Toronto CR 2009-041 Abstract...temps critiques . f. La CADC INCOMMANDS n’a pas d’incidence négative sur les communications qui se déroulent dans la salle des opérations. Plans

  19. China’s Evolving Nuclear Posture. Part 1 - Background and Benchmark


    Minister of National Defence, 2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011...nuclear deterrence, for lack of a better term, works; as Brodie put it in a none-too-subtle critique of the title of Albert Wohlstetter’s 1959 Rand paper

  20. A Random Matrix Theory Approach to National Procurement Spending: Applications to the CC130 Hercules Fleet Performance


    Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 Dr aft Co py Abstract We apply the methods...que l’entretien de la flotte des CC130 est robuste et que le financement n’est pas tombé sous le seuil critique qui se traduirait par des

  1. Validation of Virtual Environments Incorporating Virtual Operators for Procedural Learning


    of National Defence 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012 DRDC...manœuvre en configuration groupée au cours de laquelle le facteur temps est critique . Il faudra travailler pour améliorer cette fonction de la

  2. Inauguration LEP

    Schopper,H; Janis


    Le DG H.Schopper salue le président de la république française, F.Mitterand, le président de la confédaration suisse P.Aubert, ainsi que les ministres et représentants du gouvernement des 12 états membres pour la célébration et inauguration du LEP.

  3. Press conference

    Schopper,H; Picasso,E; Francese,R; Brianti,G


    Conférene/débat au Cern avec le DG H.Schopper, le Senateur et Professeur Antonio Roberti, ministre pour la recherche scientifique des universités d'Italie, le Prof.Picasso, directeur du projet LEP, Son Excellence M.Roberto Francese, Ambassador de l'Italie auprès des organisations internationales de Genève et le Dr. G.Brianti, directeur technique du Cern

  4. Clauzele de drept public în contractele administrative

    Cătălin Silviu SĂRARU


    The article analyzes the main public law clau-ses contained in administrative contracts: the clause applying the principle of fnancial equilibrium in ad-ministrative contracts; the right of contracting public authority to modify unilaterally the regulatory part of the contract; ensure the functioning of the public service under continuity and permanence; the right to control the contracting public authority; clause on the right of the contracting public authority over return goods; unilateral...

  5. Post-Deployment Reintegration Experiences of AF Personnel: Implications for Scale Development


    Post-deployment reintegration experiences of AF personnel: Implications for scale development Ann-Renée Blais Wendy Sullivan-Kwantes défense Canada DEFENCE DÉFENSE & Post-deployment reintegration experiences of AF personnel: Implications for scale development Ann...ministre de la Défense nationale, 2006 DRDC Toronto TR 2006-304 i Abstract The process of post-deployment reintegration can lead to

  6. Nuclear Weapons Security Crisis: What Does History Teach?


    since the death of its founder, Mohammad Ali Jinnah , who died 13 months after the country gained independence from British India. Jin- nah’s death...time of partition in 1947, Pakistan was distressed on three counts: It was recovering from the trauma of a bloody partition that involved millions...ministrative assets was among the bitter part of the tragedy that accompanied the bloody partition . Border disputes and the fate of the princely state of

  7. The Effects of Fiscal Contraction on Innovation in the Public Sector


    motivating organizational change. According to Zaltman et al. (1973): "The impetus to innova - tion arises when organizational decisionmakers...Assistance Ad- ministration went in large part for testing new technology and innova - tive programs. It may be true that, as Berman and increasing innova - tion in local government have not had this focus in the past is con- ^P^JAjpjS^MJgJSP^^:^ ■*■■■■ ■■ M -19- firmed by a

  8. lndividuelle Zielvereinbarungen im Offentlichen Dienst in Deutschland Empirische Analysen zur Wirkung von Zielvereinbarungen auf die Arbeitsleistung kommunaler Beschaftigter (Individual Target Agreements in the Public Service in Germany-Empirical Analyzes of the Effect of Target Agreements on the Work Performance of Municipal Employees)


    Goal Setting & Task Performance" vor. 114 107 Vgl. Locke/Latham (2002), S. 705. 108 Vgl. McClelland et al. (1953), S. 271 und Lewin et al. (1944), S...Operationalisierung der Selbstwirksamkeit die gene - ralisierte Variante ausgewahlt.907 Eine generalisierte Variante der Selbstwirksamkeit wird auch bei Forschungen...ministrative Sciences, 75. Jg., H. 1, S. 35-52. Leisner, W. (2002): Die undefmierbare Verwaltung, Berlin. Lewin , K./Dembo, T./Festinger, L./Sears, P.S

  9. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)


    treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen , buprenorphine, or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the...well below the reinforced band. Treatment with ketoprofen or the ketoprofen -buprenorphine combination failed to increase mean response duration

  10. Fibrinogen Availability and Coagulation Function After Hemorrhage and Resuscitation in Pigs


    next morning (24 h after hemor- rhage and resuscitation), the pigs were tranquilized with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg intramuscular [IM]) before being trans...2008) Efficacy and tolerability of human fibrinogen concentrate ad- ministration to patients with acquired fibrinogen deficiency and active or indicative of transfusion requirements in pa- tients with penetrating injuries. J. Trauma. 64:S64–8. 15. Nuttall GA, et al. (2001) Efficacy of a

  11. Measuring an IP Network In Situ


    outage caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake using pings. IMP’s data captured one aspect of the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999. 19 0 10...the Internet is becoming vital to national and world economies. As the Internet grows in importance, the ability to monitor and measure it effectively be robust to network changes, this can occur without action by the central ad- ministrators. The net effect of such a change is that anyone in the

  12. Visit of the King of the Belgians

    Maximilien Brice


    19 février 2009 - Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent le site experimental de CMS au Point 5 du LHC avec le Directeur de la Recherche et de l’Informatique S. Bertolucci et le Porte-parole de la Collaboration CMS T. Virdee. Tirage 02 à 08: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges signe le livre d'or dans le SDX5 en présence du Directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie S. Myers et du Directeur de la recherche et de l’informatique S. Bertolucci; Tirage 09 à 22: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent le tunnel du LHC avec le Chef du Projet sLHC L. Evans et K. Cornelis. Tirage 23 à 35: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent la cerne expérimentale de CMS avec W. Van Doninck (VUB), D. Favart (UCL) et le Porte-parole de la Collaboration T. Virdee. Tirage 36 à 50: Welcome line au Point 5 du LHC: Accueil en t...

  13. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which eliminate the crude or transformed animal wastes, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations qui eliminent des dechets animaux bruts ou transformes, et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite



    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  14. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which valorize the domestic wastes or equivalent, at the exception of the installations using biogas, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations qui valorisent des dechets menagers ou assimiles, a l'exception des installations utilisant du biogaz, et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite



    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  15. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which use mainly the energy given by the combustion of non fossil matters of vegetable extraction, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant, a titre principal, l'energie degagee par la combustion de matieres non fossiles d'origine vegetale et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite



    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  16. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the energy of aquifers or of underground rocks and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electricity; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie des nappes aquiferes ou des roches souterraines et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite



    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  17. Cannibals and Orchids: Cannibalism and the Sensory Imagination of Papua New Guinea

    Ilaria Vanni


    Full Text Available This article examines Leona Miller’s book Cannibal and Orchids (1941 as an example of how place, in this case Papua New Guinea (PNG, is imagined according to a particular sensorium. It follows the ‘sensory turn in anthropology’ and the studies developed in the last two decades that take the senses as their object of enquiry. This body of theory is mobilised to analyse Miller’s biographical narrative recounting how PNG is imagined, represented and produced in terms of a disarray of the (Western senses, coalescing in the trope of cannibalism. This article argues that the experience of PNG as the place of otherness is narrated both in terms of the author’s sensory displacement and of the indigenous sensorium as abject.

  18. Ebola in West Africa:an international medical emergency

    Yasir; Waheed


    West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3685 cases and 1841 deaths reported from Liberia,Cuinea,Senegal,Sierra Leona and Nigeria.There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola.World Health Organization(WHO) has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients.Health workers are at high risk.The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola.There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission.World Bank pledges $200 million to fight against Ebola,while WHO said $430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak.Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case,contact tracing,monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.

  19. Ebola in West Africa:an international medical emergency

    Yasir Waheed


    West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3 685 cases and 1 841 deaths reported from Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leona and Nigeria. There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola. World Health Organization (WHO) has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients. Health workers are at high risk. The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola. There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission. World Bank pledges$200 million to fight against Ebola, while WHO said$430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak. Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case, contact tracing, monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.

  20. Grammy Nominees 2009


    歌曲列表01.Coldplay-Viva La Vida 02.Estelle-American Boy (Feat.Kanye West) 03.Sara Bareilles-Love Song 04.Ne-Yo-Closer 05.Lil Wayne-Got Money (Feat.T-Pain) 06.Robert Plant & Alison Krauss-Please Read The Letter 07.Radiohead-House Of Cards 08.Lady Antebellum-Love Don't Live Here 09.Jonas Brothers-Burnin' Up 10.Jazmine Sullivan-Need U Bad 11.Duffy-Mercy 12.M.I.A.-Paper Planes 13.Adele-Chasing Pavements 14.Katy Perry-I Kissed A Girl 15.Leona Lewis-Bleeding Love 16.Pink-So What 17.Gnarls Barkley-Going On

  1. El papel de la educación en situaciones de posconflicto: estrategias y recomendaciones

    Armando Infante Márquez


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizaron las experiencias de posconflicto en tres países: Bosnia y Herzegovina, El Salvador y Sierra Leona, con el fin de extraer algunas enseñanzas que puedan ser útiles para el caso de Colombia, que en este momento se encuentra en conversaciones con la guerrilla para ponerle fin al conflicto armado. También se quiere mostrar el papel tan importante que desempeña la educación en la reconstrucción posconflicto, ya que provee protección física, psicosocial y cognitiva. Además, se estudiaron algunas estrategias a corto y largo plazo, con el fin de poderlas combinar de una manera razonable para lograr el desarrollo social, político y económico del país.

  2. ¿Qué deber saber un médico sobre el ébola?


    Full Text Available El reciente brote provocado por el virus Ébola en varios países del oeste africano (Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leona y Nigeria, se ha traducido, según el último informe de la Organización mundial de la Salud (OMS, en 13.567 infectados y 4.951 fallecidos, cifra que se cree, está subestimada debido a los inexistentes sistemas de sanitarios disponibles en los países centro de la epidemia. Con una mortalidad cercana al 40% ha supuesto una gran preocupación para todos servicios de salud pública mun-diales, especialmente, una vez que se ha tenido conocimiento de los primeros casos en los países desarrollados

  3. Ebola in West Africa: an international medical emergency

    Yasir Waheed


    Full Text Available West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3 685 cases and 1 841 deaths reported from Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leona and Nigeria. There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola. World Health Organization (WHO has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients. Health workers are at high risk. The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola. There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission. World Bank pledges $200 million to fight against Ebola, while WHO said $430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak. Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case, contact tracing, monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.

  4. Tectonic events reflected by palaeocurrents, zircon geochronology, and palaeobotany in the Sierra Baguales of Chilean Patagonia

    Gutiérrez, Nestor M.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Vásquez, Ana; Carreño, Catalina; Pedroza, Viviana; Araos, José; Oyarzún, José Luis; Pablo Pino, J.; Rivera, Huber A.; Hinojosa, L. F.


    The Sierra Baguales, situated north of the Torres Del Paine National Park in the Magallanes region of southern Chile, shows a well-exposed stratigraphic sequence ranging from the Late Cretaceous to late Pliocene, which presents a unique opportunity to study the evolution of sedimentological styles and trends, palaeoclimate changes, and tectonic events during this period. The depositional environment changed from a continental slope and shelf during the Cenomanian-Campanian (Tres Pasos Formation) to deltaic between the Campanian-Maastrichtian (Dorotea Formation) and estuarine in the Lutetian-Bartonian (Man Aike Formation). During the Rupelian, a continental environment with meandering rivers and overbank marshes was established (Río Leona Formation). This area was flooded in the early Burdigalian (Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation) during the Patagonian Transgression, but emerged again during the late Burdigalian (Santa Cruz Formation). Measured palaeocurrent directions in this Mesozoic-Cenozoic succession indicate source areas situated between the northeast and east-southeast during the Late Cretaceous, east-southeast during the middle Eocene, and southwest during the early Oligocene to early Miocene. This is confirmed by detrital zircon age populations in the different units, which can be linked to probable sources of similar ages in these areas. The east-southeastern provenance is here identified as the Antarctic Peninsula or its northeastern extension, which is postulated to have been attached to Fuegian Patagonia during the Eocene. The southwestern and western sources were exhumed during gradual uplift of the Southern Patagonian Andes, coinciding with a change from marine to continental conditions in the Magallanes-Austral Basin, as well as a decrease in mean annual temperature and precipitation indicated by fossil leaves in the Río Leona Formation. The rain shadow to the east of the Andes thus started to develop here during the late Eocene-early Oligocene ( 34

  5. El conflicto Cuba - Estados Unidos de América: Notas para una reflexión en el contexto de la lucha contra el terrorismo.

    Soraya Castro.


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the hardening of United States policy towards Cuba during the government of George W. Bush, as well as the evolution of bilateral relations within the con-text of the global war against terrorism. Within this discussion, the text highlights the contrast between the executive's hard-line policy and the progressive opening in the position of both Democrats and Republicans within the U.S. Congress, and the Bush ad-ministration's insistence upon classifying Cuba as a terrorist country, in disregard of Fidel Castro's systematic efforts to demonstrate the island's willingness to cooperate in counterterrorist efforts.

  6. Utilizing Arc Marine Concepts for Designing a Geospatially Enabled Database to Support Rapid Environmental Assessment


    données externes dans le système EER. Importance: L’utilisation de normes et de spécifications au cours de l’élaboration du modèle de données assure un... droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2009 DRDC Atlantic TM 2009-061 i Abstract …….. The...of “036”. The code is followed by date and time in UTC. The 036 code indicates the record contains speed over ground (SOG, in knots) and course

  7. Evaluation of Visual Alerts in the Maritime Domain. Study 2. Program Modifications


    as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la...types d’alertes et assurer la surveillance visuelle des trois écrans par les participants. Le présent rapport explique les travaux effectués par CAE...Un programme de recherche de RDDC Atlantique est en cours pour explorer les méthodes permettant d’améliorer la manière d’alerter les opérateurs

  8. Colloque S&T Symposium 2007: Understanding The Human Dimension in 21st Century Conflict/Warfare (Comprendre la Dimension Humaine du Conflit et de la Conduite de la Guerre au XXIe Siecle)


    represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2007 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense...morales et éthiques risquent d’avoir des implications étourdissantes. Le Colloque S & T 2007 et ceux que l’on envisage de tenir au cours des deux années...supported by Microsoft who assured us that soon photos will be able to be posted on the Internet in real time.” From Goold’s perspective there was

  9. Adding a Capability to Extract Sentiment from Text Using HanDles


    Minister of National Defence, 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012...HanDles afin qu’il fasse la distinction entre bonnes et mauvaises critiques de film. Nous avons exécuté ce scénario à trois reprises dans le but de...vérifier à quel point il parvient à classifier correctement les documents. Le premier essai portait sur des critiques de l’appareil Kindle d’Amazon

  10. Suitable Learning Styles for Intelligent Tutoring Technologies (Styles d’Apprentissage Appropries pour les Technologies Tuteurs Intelligents)


    en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 DRDC Toronto TR 2010-073 i Abstract …….. This report...environments. 1.3 Method In this report, 13 of the most of the most influential cognitive and learning styles were critiqued as based on a...Hodgkinson, G. P., & Sadler-Smith, E. (2003). Complex or unitary? A critique and empirical re- assessment of the Allinson-Hayes Cognitive Style Index

  11. Bead on Plate Temper Pass Study: Thermal and Microhardness Study


    la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2009 Original signed by Christopher Bayley...que le revenu a un effet maximal dans les zones qui présentent une température de pointe moins élevée que la température critique inférieure AC1...élevée que la température critique inférieure de réchauffage, laquelle est associée à la transformation de la ferrite en austénite. Ces connaissances

  12. Fire Protection of Weapon Storage and Water Mist Redundancy Philosophies


    National Defence, 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012 DRDC température d’une torpille factice sous le seuil ‘ critique ’. DRDC Atlantic CR 2012-193 iii Executive summary Fire protection of...débits d’eau moindres permettaient de maintenir la température d’une torpille factice sous le seuil « critique ». Importance : La performance des

  13. Development of Measures of Effectiveness and Performance from Cognitive Work Analysis Products


    Defence, 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012 DRDC Atlantic CR 2011...construct a meaningful framework under which to group areas of work. The intent was not to critique the ‘labels’ used to organize, allocate, or...inconsistencies with the scenario which will be valuable when developing an experimental scenario for vVic. The critiquing of the scenario also

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Profiling Tools and Methods


    Minister of National Defence, 2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011...indicate the need for further investigations to be able to support or negate the usefulness of GP. The critique of GP suggests that “results show...C., Jones, N.J., Taylor, P.J. & Snook, B. (2006). “Validities and Abilities in Criminal Profiling: A Critique of the Studies Conducted by Richard

  15. The 2007 Surge in Iraq: An Alternative View


    la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2014 DRDC-RDDC-2014-R105 i Abstract...milices aurait eu pour effet de repousser de plusieurs mois un nouveau sommet de violence. Dans notre étude, nous faisons un examen critique d’autres...pour effet de repousser de plusieurs mois un nouveau sommet de violence. Dans notre étude, nous faisons un examen critique d’autres facteurs qui

  16. Internet Based Robot Control Using CORBA Based Communications


    the Minister of National Defence, 2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale...interact with a service. Its lack of tools to support implementation is the main critique against it. 3.6.2 WSDL-based Web Services This type of Web...The main critiques against it are its complexity and loss of functionality of the “back” button and bookmarking ability for web browsers, though the

  17. A Strategy for Uncertainty Visualization Design


    droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2009 Original signed by Anna-Liesa S. Lapinski Original signed...opinions et des commentaires critiques . La SVI a été créée spécifiquement pour aider le concepteur à produire une visualisation complète de l’incertitude...essayer différentes techniques de visualisation de l’incertitude; et recueillir des opinions et des commentaires critiques . La SVI peut aider le

  18. Human Factors Analysis of Aircrew Operational Tasks in a Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue Aircraft Cargo Compartment (Analyse des facteurs humains lies aux taches operationnelles qui sont executees par les membres d’equipage dans la soute des avions de recherche et de sauvetage)


    Defence, 2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011 DRDC Toronto TM...choisi des tâches dont l’exécution en vol nécessitait un espace critique ainsi que quatre types d’équipements pertinents pour les analyser, notamment... critique feraient l’objet d’une analyse quantitative, car ces tâches exigent un plus grand effort physique et un plus grand espace pour leur exécution

  19. Stakeholder Analysis for the CF Counter-IED Training Courses


    Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la...Element #1a Wedding guests arrived Yes MTP #1c Insufficient critique of answer 1 CoachScript MTP #1c Acquired SA Element #1b No cell phone activity...Acq MTP #2b Cultural sensitivity 0 CoachScript MTP #2b Acquired SA Element #2a Recent CF activity displaced ins Yes MTP #2c Insufficient critique of

  20. Trust Violation and Repair (12oe): Project Summary and Closeout Report


    Minister of National Defence, 2008 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2008 DRDC...subject matter expert (SME) feedback and critique was elicited. This feedback occurred in five focus groups with 19 Canadian Forces (CF) personnel who...confiance de manière à refléter les dimensions théoriques importantes de la confiance, puis l’on a cherché à obtenir la rétroaction et les critiques

  1. Defense Transformation a’ la francaise and U.S. Interests. Strategic Forum, Number 233, September 2008


    espérance déçue,” Le Figaro, June 18, 2008; see also, “Le scud d’Alain Juppé contre la politique de défense de Nicolas Sarkozy,” Le Monde, June 19...internationales_1032/organisations- internationales-europe_1126/otan_1134/seminaire- haut-niveau-ue-otan-7-juillet-2008_19024/ discours -m. bernard-kouchner_64303.html...Defense Conference, September 11, 2007, available at <www.defense. discours /discours_de_m_

  2. Clauzele de drept public în contractele administrative

    Cătălin Silviu SĂRARU


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main public law clau-ses contained in administrative contracts: the clause applying the principle of fnancial equilibrium in ad-ministrative contracts; the right of contracting public authority to modify unilaterally the regulatory part of the contract; ensure the functioning of the public service under continuity and permanence; the right to control the contracting public authority; clause on the right of the contracting public authority over return goods; unilateral denunciation clause of the administrative contract for achieving public interest. The article highlights the importance and role of the public law clauses in administrative contracts.

  3. 国土资源行政复议规定%Provisions of Administrative Reconsideration on Land and Resources


    @@ Article 1 For the purpose of regulating the administrative reconsidera?tion on land and resources, further exerting the role of the administrative reconsideration system in tackling the administrative disputes over land and resources, resolving social contradictions and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations, the Provisions is formulated pursuant to the Administrative Reconsideration Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the Ad?ministrative Reconsideration Law) and the Regulation on the Implementa?tion of the Administrative Reconsideration Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the Regulation on the Implementation of the Administrative Reconsideration Law).

  4. Rupert Murdoch' s Leadership

    Lian Hohuizi


    Rupert Murdoch, a legendary mogul who has long been listed as one of the most influential people in the world, leads and processes the second - largest media empire in the world. With forty years of con- tinuous effort, he exhibits exceptional business sense and superb ad- ministrative capabilities in the media industry. He moves quickly in ex- panding his business and adopts unique management approach to lead followers. By exploring his background and experience, this paper will detect his unique traits and leadership behaviors that underlie his suc- cessful achievement in leading News Corporation, and how can his leadership style be applied to hospitality industry.

  5. Serum Levels of Two Immunological Markers, the Soluble Low Affinity Receptor for IGE (SFCERII, SCD23) and their Correlation with Age, Gender and the Onset of Childhood Atopy


    Public Release IAW 190-1 Distribution Unlimited MICHAEL M. BRICKER, SMSqt, USAF Chief Ad-ministr’ation [13, MSTRACT (Mam",wnm zo -ow it. I It’ K~~itt...391- 虜. 16. Halonen, M., 0. Stern, S. Lyle, A. Wright, L. Taussig and F.D. Martinez. 1991. Relationship of total serunm Ie levels in cord and 9...trends in Bronchial Asthma. In: Kaliner, Michael A., J. Barnes, C.G.A. Persson eds. 1991. Asthma: Its Pathology and Treatment: Lung Biology in Health and

  6. The Development of a Multidimensional Measure of Post-deployment Reintegration: Initial Psychometric Analyses & Descriptive Results (Final Report to Director General Health Services Quality of Life Research Grant)


    the Queen as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2003 © Sa majesté la reine, représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2003...différences constatées entre les groupes étudiés étaient associées à l’état matrimonial , à la présence de personnes à charge, au groupe professionnel et...population, sur les plans suivants : état matrimonial (deux groupes : soldats mariés contre soldats célibataires), enfants (deux groupes : soldats

  7. Le rôle de la politique russe de Bismarck dans la voie prussienne vers l’unité allemande 1863-1871. Die getäuschte Clio ?

    Stéphanie Burgaud


    Full Text Available Depuis les mémoires d’Otto von Bismarck, ministre-président de Prusse (1862-1871 puis chancelier du Reich allemand (1871-1890, l’histoire des relations internationales retient que l’unification allemande s’est faite autour de la Prusse grâce à la « neutralité bienveillante » russe dans ses guerres successives (contre le Danemark en 1864, l’Autriche en 1866 et la France en 1870. En soutenant la Russie pendant l’insurrection polonaise de 1863, par la signature de la convention militaire dite...

  8. Prevention


    950429 Implementation of national tuberculosis con-trol programme(focus on registration,case-manage-ment and treatment).QIAN Yuanfu(钱元福),et al.Nation Tuberc Contr Center.Public Health Ministr,Beijing,101149.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1995;18(1):16-18.The results of three nationwide epidemiological sur-veys on tuberculosis showed that the declination in theincidence of tuberculosis from 1979 to 1990 was slowThe rates of case registration and new case registrationrates within ten years(1982~1991) were graduallyincreasing year by year and came to a climax in 1988.

  9. Geographical Information System Redefined for Tourism

    K., Srinivasan; Anand, V Nath


    In Kerala, the revenue generated by tourism i assessed as 6.29% of GDP and the employment in tourism is estimated as 7 lakhs. Total investments worth over Rs.500 Cr. has come into Kerala on account of the State's prioritizing the creation of basic infrastructure to support tourism and adopting a policy that i eco-friendly and environmentally sustainable says Kerala's Tourism's ministrer in 2003. The importance of information technology in increasing in all the sectors. Tourism one of the larg...

  10. A genomic audit of newly-adopted autosomal STRs for forensic identification.

    Phillips, C


    In preparation for the growing use of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology to genotype forensic STRs, a comprehensive genomic audit of 73 STRs was made in 2016 [Parson et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 22, 54-63]. The loci examined included miniSTRs that were not in widespread use, but had been incorporated into MPS kits or were under consideration for this purpose. The current study expands the genomic analysis of autosomal STRs that are not commonly used, to include the full set of developed miniSTRs and an additional 24 STRs, most of which have been recently included in several supplementary forensic multiplex kits for capillary electrophoresis. The genomic audit of these 47 newly-adopted STRs examined the linkage status of new loci on the same chromosome as established forensic STRs; analyzed world-wide population variation of the newly-adopted STRs using published data; assessed their forensic informativeness; and compiled the sequence characteristics, repeat structures and flanking regions of each STR. A further 44 autosomal STRs developed for forensic analyses but not incorporated into commercial kits, are also briefly described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Structure and Financial Dimensions of Public Administration in EU Countries

    Martina HALÁSKOVÁ


    Full Text Available Various traditional trends and roles of pub-lic administration can be traced across the Eu-ropean Union member states. These countries, however, are obliged to abide by common ad-ministrative and legal principles of the European administrative area. This paper focuses on the structure and differentiation of public adminis-tration in EU (28 countries, levels of local gov-ernment and internal division of administrative structures, using the ESA methodology and a comparison of expenditures made by public ad-ministration in 2003, 2009 and 2013. The f scal aspect of public administration is evaluated also through f scal decentralization (revenues, expen-ditures. Cluster analysis is used for the com-parison of selected areas of public expenditures according to the levels of public administration, showing that EU (28 countries can be divided into three clusters.The most signif cant differences in public ex-penditures according to levels of public adminis-tration were observed in EU countries in the f rst and third cluster, where f scal decentralization of expenditures constitutes the most notable differ-ence. The smallest differences in all clusters are perceived in total general government expendi-tures as % of GDP.

  12. The development of reduced size STR amplicons as tools for analysis of degraded DNA.

    Butler, John M; Shen, Yin; McCord, Bruce R


    New multiplex PCR sets of commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) markers have been developed to produce PCR products that are reduced in size when compared to standard commercial STR kits. The reduction in size of these amplicons can facilitate the examination and analysis of degraded DNA evidence by improving amplification efficiency. This "miniSTR" approach will permit current forensic practitioners to use STR markers and instrumentation already present in their laboratories and to generate genotyping data that is directly comparable to reference samples and searchable through the FBI's Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) databases. This paper discusses the development of these new primer sets and presents some initial results in the analysis of degraded and aged DNA samples. A method for removal of problematic fluorescent dye artifacts is also described. Comparison studies in over 100 samples have verified that these miniSTR primers can provide fully concordant results to commercial STR kits and can provide improved signal from degraded DNA specimens. These miniplex sets should prove valuable in the analysis of samples where allele dropout and reduced sensitivity of larger STR alleles occurs.

  13. Optimization of STR locus enrichment for STR profiling of fragmented DNA.

    Ham, Seon-Kyu; Kim, Se-Yong; Ahn, Jang-Won; Seo, Bo Young; Woo, Kwang-Man; Choi, Cheol Yong; Lee, Seung-Hwan


    DNA degradation is a major obstacle in gaining an accurate profile with standard DNA typing technology. Although alternative genotyping strategies such as mini-STRs and SNPs have proven to be more successful in profiling degraded DNA, these approaches also have limitations. Here, we show that locus enrichment by hybridization of degraded genomic DNA with an STR locus-specific biotinylated oligonucleotide is a powerful approach to overcome problems in STR typing of highly degraded DNA. An experimental investigation of factors affecting the efficiency of this method indicates that the choice of primer and molar ratio of primers to genomic DNA are critical factors in improving enrichment of the STR locus before genotyping with multiplex kits. In addition, we find that indirect capture rather than direct capture with magnetic beads yields better enrichment efficiency for STR locus enrichments. Using these strategies, we demonstrate an improvement in STR typing of DNA from cultured cells damaged by exposure to sunlight or UV. We suggest that this approach could be applied to highly degraded forensic samples alone or in combination with mini-STRs.

  14. Casework testing of the multiplex kits AmpFlSTR SEfiler Plus PCR amplification kit (AB), PowerPlex S5 System (Promega) and AmpFlSTR MiniFiler PCR amplification kit (AB).

    Müller, Kathrin; Sommerer, Thomas; Miltner, Erich; Schneider, Harald; Wiegand, Peter


    The short tandem repeat (STR) kits SEfiler Plus (D3S1358, FGA, D8S1179, D18S51, D21S11, TH01, VWA, SE33, D2S1338, D16S539, D19S433 and Amelogenin), PowerPlex S5 System (D18S51, D8S1179, TH01, FGA and Amelogenin) and MiniFiler (D13S317, D7S820, Amelogenin, D2S1338, D21S11, D16S539, D18S51, CSF1PO and FGA) were comparatively tested for their robustness and sensitivity. About 50 stains with highly degraded DNA and little DNA quantity served as examination material (e.g., hair with a telogen root, bones, degraded saliva stains on drinking vessels and skin cell mixtures). The PowerPlex S5 with five German DNA database (DAD) systems and the MiniFiler kit with four topical DAD systems and further STR markers show reduced amplicon lengths. The SEfiler Plus kit represents no MiniSTR multiplex, but contains the nine current DAD systems and further three systems D2S1338, D16S539 and D19S433, which are the potential expansion markers for the German DNA database. We have found on the basis of our comparative stain investigations, that the SEfiler Plus kit was less sensitive than the PowerPlex S5 and the MiniFiler kits. The MiniFiler and the PowerPlex S5 kit showed comparatively high sensitivity. Especially in analysing skin cell mixtures, the MiniFiler kit showed larger differences with regard to the performance of the fluorescent dyes/primer concentration co-ordination than the PowerPlex S5. The SEfiler Plus kit generated - just as both MiniSTR kits - relative robust typing results, but there appeared an increased sensitivity for 'allelic drop-outs' and 'imbalances'. Since the SEfiler Plus kit was not planned as MiniSTR concept, 'allelic drop-outs' were observed, as expected, more frequent in typing stains with degraded DNA and little DNA quantity, especially in the long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (e.g., D18S51).

  15. Edouard Thouvenel et l’Union des Principautés Roumaines (1856-1859

    Iulian Oncescu


    Full Text Available La personnalité d’Edouard Thouvenel, diplomate français dont le nom a été le plus fréquemment lié de la réalisation de l’Union des Principautés, le long des années 1856-1859, est souvent et justement invoquée dans la compréhension de cette séquence importante de l’histoire moderne des Roumains du milieu du XIX-ème siècle. Né le 11 novembre 1818, à Verdun, entré en diplomatie en 1841, chargé avec des affaires et ministre plénipotentiaire (entre 1846-1849 à Athènes et ensuite à München (en 1851, Edouard Thouvenel a été nommé directeur des Affaires politiques dans le Ministère des Affaires Etrangères de la France en février 1852. En 1854, sa carrière est sauvée par Napoléon III lui-même; celui-ci le nomme ambassadeur à Constantinople en pleine guerre de Crimée (3mai 1855. Il a exercé cette fonction pendant cinq années, 1855-1860, période marquée par le Congrès de Paris, par la question des Principautés Roumaines et le début du problème italien, qui a provoqué la démission du ministre des Affaires Etrangères en fonction, Alexandre Walewski, en décembre 1859. Donc, successeur de Walewski, Edouard Thouvenel a occupé la fonction de ministre des Affaires Etrangères jusqu’en 1862, lorsqu’il demissionera. Les années à suivre, il a été le président de la Compagnie de Chemins de Fer d’Est, ensuite grand référendaire du Sénat, en 1865. Thouvenel a tombé malade en 1866 et il est mort le 23 octobre, à seulement 48 années, justement au moment où on préparait son retour à Quay d’Orsay.

  16. Principes de base du fonctionnement du réseau GSM


    Si la téléphonie mobile se banalise aujourd'hui, on le doit à la conjonction de l'avènement du numérique, à l'accroissement des performances des semi-conducteurs et à différentes avancées technologiques. Mais le facteur déterminant fut sans doute la cristallisation autour de la norme GSM issue d'un effort soutenu de standardisation mené à l'ETSI (Organe européen de normalisation en télécommunications, créé à l'initiative du Conseil des ministres). Dans cet article, nous passerons en revue...

  17. Disposition and Tissue Distribution of ML12 in Rats

    Luqin SI; Gao LI; Sanlan WU; Jiangeng HUANG; Dapeng WU; Quan GAN


    To investigate the disposition and tissue distribution of ML12 after intravenous (iv) ad- ministration in rats, the compound in plasma or in tissue was extracted into ethyl acetate under basic condition and was determined by HPLC after extracted by dilute sulfuric acid. Excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of fluorescence detection were 278 nm and 307 nm, respectively. The data were processed with the software 3P97 to calculate the main pharmaceutical parameters of ML12, At dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg, the elimination of the drug from plasma was found to be kinetically linear, but when the dosage was 20 mg/kg, a non-linear feature was observed. The highest level of MLI2 was found in the kidney. Distribution of MLI2 after iv administration was extensive and the concentration-time profile was found to he fitted to an open two-compartment model.

  18. CERN in Focus

    CERN audiovisual service


    CERN in Focus 1ère édition. Le Service Audiovisuel vous propose un panorama des dernières vidéos tournées au CERN. En effet, toutes les six semaines, nous vous présenterons l'ensemble des activités, du démarrage du LHC à la grille de calcul, en passant par les différentes expériences. Au sommaire de cette édition, la visite du premier ministre de Malte, CMS et la derniere descente du YE-1 Le depart des aimants UA1 pour le Japon La mise en marche des secteurs 4 et 5 Et enfin, ATLAS et la descente... BREVES Dernieres soudures LHC Derniers boulonnages LHC College leman Appel a candidature Open Day

  19. Research Using In Vivo Simulation of Meta-Organizational Shared Decision Making (SDM). Task 2: Development of an Experimental Plan for In Vivo Exercise and Simulation


    2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011 DRDC CSS CR 2011-31 ii...ensembles d’outils d’évaluation pour s’ assurer que l’étude soit correctement m ise en œuvre. Un outil est nécessaire pour évaluer la complexité...seront élaborées pour engager le processus de la prise de décision au cour s de l’événement identifié. Celles-ci s eront évaluées en fonction d’un

  20. La judiciarisation du politique en Israël

    Hélène Sallon


    Full Text Available Parmi les débats ayant marqué la scène politique israélienne au cours de l’année 2005, figure en bonne place la controverse qui a opposé le président de la Cour suprême, Aharon Barak, à la ministre de la Justice sur la nomination de trois juges à la Cour. Cette controverse s’est cristallisée autour de la candidature de la professeure de droit, Ruth Gavison, à laquelle s’est fermement opposé Aharon Barak du fait de sa critique virulente de l’orientation politique et de l’activisme judiciaire d...

  1. Canadian Forces in Joint Fires Support - Human Factors Analysis: Coalition Operations


    Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 DRDC Atlantic CR 2009-203 i Abstract...données (méthode de décision critique et entrevues structurées), à faire la synthèse et l’interprétation des données, à formuler les questions, les...avons fait appel à la méthode de décision critique et à des entrevues structurées, à une synthèse des données par des spécialistes des facteurs

  2. Du bon maniement de l’argent du roi en Espagne au XVIIIe siècle. Les enseignements d’un procès pour fraude

    Anne Dubet


    Full Text Available Pour nombre d’historiens – dont je fais partie – les réformes financières entreprises par les premiers Bourbons d’Espagne au XVIIIe siècle n’affectent pas tant l’organisation fiscale de leurs territoires que leur administration. Avant que de modifier la répartition sociale des contributions, il s’agit de rendre au roi et à ses ministres de confiance la décision en matière de dépenses et de s’assurer de son exécution. Ce projet de contrôle accru du roi sur ses propres deniers se traduit certes...

  3. Mesalamine induced symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis: Case report and brief discussion

    Maneesh; Kumar; Gupta; Scott; Pollack; John; J; Hutchings


    This paper describes a rare case in which the oral ad-ministration of mesalamine resulted in the exacerbation of ulcerative colitis (UC) in a patient who was previously responsive to mesalamine and whose colitis had been in remission for eight years. Mesalamine and other 5-ami-nosalicylic acid compounds are the mainstay of treatment for UC; however up to 8% of patients are unable to take the medications due to intolerance or hypersensitivity reactions. Common drug reactions are fever, nausea, di-arrhea and abdominal pain; however, exacerbation of UC has rarely been reported. This study highlights the impor-tance of ruling out mesalamine as the causative agent in cases of UC exacerbations.

  4. Shuganjieyu capsule increases neurotrophic factor expression in a rat model of depression

    Jinhua Fu; Yingjin Zhang; Renrong Wu; Yingjun Zheng; Xianghui Zhang; Mei Yang; Jingping Zhao; Yong Liu


    Shuganjieyu capsule has been approved for clinical treatment by the State Food and Drug Ad-ministration of China since 2008. In the clinic, Shuganjieyu capsule is often used to treat mild to moderate depression. In the rat model of depression established in this study, Shuganjieyu capsule was administered intragastrically daily before stress. Behavioral results conifrmed that depressive symptoms lessened after treatment with high-dose (150 mg/kg) Shuganjieyu capsule. Immunohistochemistry results showed that high-dose Shuganjieyu capsule signiifcantly increased phosphorylation levels of phosphorylation cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA3 area. Overall, our results suggest that in rats, Shuganjieyu capsule effec-tively reverses depressive-like behaviors by increasing expression levels of neurotrophic factors in the brain.

  5. La Villégiature retrouvée : les réseaux de la recherche

    Claude Mignot


    Full Text Available 1983-2003 : vingt ans aprèsIl y a quelque trente ans, l’architecture du XIXe s. commençait à sortir de la polémique militante du modernisme pour entrer dans l’Histoire ; les recherches sur l’architecture de la villégiature, elles, n’ont guère en France que vingt ans.1974 : la défunte revue Monuments historiques de la France consacrait un premier numéro à la réévaluation de l’architecture du XIXe s. et Bruno Foucart, conseiller technique du nouveau ministre de la Culture, Michel Guy, établissa...

  6. Londres 2012 : les dessous d'une Tour Eiffel sous stéroïdes

    Appert, Manuel


    International audience; Commandée par le nouveau maire du Grand Londres et la ministre des sports à l'occasion des Jeux Olympiques de Londres 2012, dessinée par Anish Kapour, lauréat anglais mais d'origine indienne du Turner Prize, conçue par l'ingénieur starisé Cécil Balmond, réalisée par le cabinet international d'ingénierie Arup et financée majoritairement par Lakshmi Mittal, la tour d'observation ArcelorMittal Orbit se dresse à présent dans le skyline de l'est londonien tel un signal conç...

  7. Zambrano y Nietzsche, camino del lenguaje

    Mayos Solsona, Gonçal


    ¿El único camino para la filosofía es pensar con método, o bien el camino del pensar es el único método filosófico? ¿La filosofía debe someter el lenguaje a un método, o bien el método específico de la filosofía es seguir libre y creativamente el lenguaje? Yendo más allá del camino «de la sierpe» o «del intelecto», Zambrano y Nietzsche optan por encaminar la «ministría» del escritor y el filósofo bajo la «maestría» del lenguaje, favoreciendo que pensamiento y lenguaje se revitalicen recíproca...

  8. Eating disorders among adolescents in South African public schools – a biblical perspective

    S. Schoeman


    Full Text Available Society’s obsession with thinness and body image is part of every school’s hidden curriculum. The ideal to be skinny and thin resulted in an escalation in eating disorders among adolescents in South Africa. Some of the learners are only in the senior phase (Grades 7 to 9 of the general education and training band. It is therefore timely to review the problem of eating disorders, especially among adolescents in South African public schools. The purpose of this article is firstly to provide policy-makers, curriculum developers, educational ad-ministrators and educators with knowledge of the biblical view of health and to illustrate the pedagogical potential of such a view. Secondly the purpose is to assist Christian educators in teaching learners in public schools the necessary knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to counteract eating disorders by using, among other things, biblical truths.

  9. 25th Birthday Cern- Restaurant



    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec plusieurs orateurs et la présence de nombreux autorités cantonales et communales genevoises et personnalités, directeurs généraux, ministres, chercheurs.... Le conseiller féderal et chef du département des affaires étrangères de la confédération Monsieur Pierre Aubert prend la parole pour célébrer à la fois les résultats très remarquables de la coopération internationale en matière scientifique, mais aussi la volonté politique des états européens de mettre en commun leurs ressources pour faire oeuvre d'avenir. Un grand hommage est aussi donné aux deux directeurs disparus, les prof.Bakker et Gregory.

  10. L’enseignement d'Henri Becquerel à l'Ecole polytechnique (1895 -1908)

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis


    Une élection contestée Dans sa séance du 11 janvier 1895, le Conseil de Perfectionnement de l’Ecole polytechnique « présente en première ligne au ministre, Monsieur Henri Becquerel, répétiteur de Physique à l’Ecole, pour la place de professeur de physique  ». Antoine-Henri Becquerel a, alors, 43 ans (né le 15 décembre 1852, il est entré 8ème à l’X en 1872, et en est sorti 18ème, dans le corps des Ponts et Chaussées). Il est membre de l’Académie des Sciences depuis 1889, professeur de physiqu...

  11. Análisis psicométrico del índice de esperanza de herth en una muestra no clínica peruana

    Humberto Castilla Cabello


    Full Text Available Se describe el análisis psicométrico del índice de esperanza de Herth, integrado por 10 ítems tipo Likert con 4 alternativas. La escala se ad - ministró a 210 hombres y mujeres, de 16 a 42 años de edad, de una universidad particular de Lima. El análisis de correlación ítem-test encontró asociaciones altamente significativas ( p < .001 para cada uno de los reactivos, indicando que los reactivos evalúan indicadores de un mismo constructo. El índice de esperanza presenta elevada consistencia interna ( = .851. La validez de constructo se estableció mediante análisis factorial, en donde, mediante una evaluación de componentes principales y rotación ortogonal (Varimax se extrajeron dos factores identificados como: 1 optimismo / soporte y 2 agencia.

  12. Dificultades del alumnado de educación secundaria en la transición a la universidad

    María Luisa Pertegal Felices


    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es obtener información sobre las dificultades que presenta el alumnado en la transición del Instituto a la Universidad. Para recoger los datos se elaboró un cuestionario que se ad- ministró a 468 estudiantes pertenecientes al último curso de Bachiller. Los resultados muestran que un tercio del alumnado no recibe tutoriza- ción sobre cómo elegir estudios y tomar decisiones vocacionales de for- ma adecuada. Como conclusión destacamos la necesidad introducir de forma sistemática dentro del Plan de Acción Tutorial de todos los Cen - tros de Educación Secundaria la orientación del alumnado en la transi - ción a la universidad.

  13. Inauguration SPS



    Discours/repas pour l'inauguration du nouvel accélérateur du Cern. Le président de l'association du personnel souhaite la bienvenue aux nombreux autorités, personnalités des milieux politiques et scientifiques, représentants des gouvernements des états membres, invités, la presse, le conseil, la direction et le personel du Cern, à M. le conseiller fédéral Graber, M. le ministre Sourdi etc.... Hommages aux DGs Adams, Van Hove, Gregory et à Prof. Amaldi qui fut l'un des plus ardent promoteur de la réalisation du SPS

  14. China Domestic Travel Fair Finshed in 2004 Hangzhou City Was Awarded the Special Contribution Prize


    <正> China Domestic Travel Fair2004 sponsored by China Nation-al Tourism Administration andZhejiang Provincial Governmentand held by Zhejiang Tourism Ad-ministration and Hangzhou Mu-nicipal Government.finished inHangzhou on June 6 afternoon.The organizing committeeawarded 16 units the best organizing praise, 23 units excellent organizingpraise, 10 units the best exhibition praise, 21 units excellent exhibitionprize, 2 units the best advertisement praise and 5 units excellent advertise-ment praise. The Zhejiang Tourism Administration and Hangzhou People’sGovernment were awarded the special contribution prize.The next domestic travel fair will be held in Gulling City. The flag of do-mestic travel fair was handed over solemnly to Pan Jianmin,the deputymayor of Guiling City, on the June 6 afternoon.

  15. Rencontres : Hommes et sociétés : réalités et perspectives de la recherche française au Proche-Orient


    Full Text Available En présence de Son Excellence Monsieur Jacques Huntzinger, Ambassadeur de France en Israël, Professeur Gabriel Motzkin, Doyen de la faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines de l'Université hébraïque de Jérusalem,Professeur Élie Barnavi, Ancien Ambassadeur d'Israël en France, Professeur à l'Université de Tel-AvivMonsieur Matan Vilnai, Ministre de la Science, de la Culture et des Sports 9h30-12h30Présidence : Professeur Roland ÉtienneDominique Bourel, Terre sainte et terre de science : la r...

  16. Investigative studies into the recovery of DNA from improvised explosive device containers.

    Hoffmann, Shane G; Stallworth, Shawn E; Foran, David R


    Apprehending those who utilize improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a national priority owing to their use both domestically and abroad. IEDs are often concealed in bags, boxes, or backpacks to prevent their detection. Given this, the goal of the research presented was to identify IED handlers through postblast DNA recovery from IED containers. Study participants were asked to use backpacks for 11 days, after which they served as containers for pipe bombs. Eleven postdeflagration backpack regions likely to be handled were swabbed and analyzed via mini-short tandem repeats (miniSTRs) and alleles were called blind. An experimental consensus method was examined in which profiles from all regions were considered, to help identify spurious drop-in/out. Results were correct for all loci, except one that remained ambiguous. The results show that recovering DNA from IED containers is a viable approach for aiding in the identification of those who may have been involved in an IED event.

  17. Le pardon et la « Commission Vérité et Réconciliation » Forgiveness and the “Truth Reconciliation Commission”

    Gérard Courtois


    Full Text Available Dans le domaine géo-politique on voit se multiplier les scènes de repentir, de reconnaissance de fautes, de pardon, d’excuses. Parmi tant d’autres : l’Eglise de France a demandé pardon pour l’antisémitisme qui a accompagné son histoire séculaire, on attend de la Cinquième République qu’elle reconnaisse « pleinement » les méfaits de son passé esclavagiste, le premier ministre du Japon a demandé pardon (en son nom personnel pour l’instant aux Coréens et au Chinois pour les violences impériales...

  18. ITS au Japon



    Dans le cadre de l'accord de coopération signe entre les ministres des transports français et japonais en janvier 2002, des échanges de mission sont organisés de manière à comparer de façon concrète les développements des programmes its dans les deux pays. La première mission française avait eu lieu en mai 2002 à Tokyo. Elle a permis d'organiser un premier séminaire à l'arche de la défense il y a un an au cours duquel les experts japonais ont présenté leurs projets. Un second séminaire s'est ...

  19. Chapitre III. La lecture pendant la seconde guerre mondiale

    Cachin, Marie-Françoise


    L’entrée en guerre de la Grande-Bretagne fut annoncée à la radio le 3 septembre 1939 par le Premier Ministre Neville Chamberlain, nouvelle à laquelle les Britanniques s’attendaient et se préparaient depuis quelque temps. Davantage encore que le premier conflit, la Seconde Guerre mondiale allait durement frapper le pays, devenu vulnérable à cause des attaques aériennes répétées de l’armée allemande. À partir d’avril 1940, ce qu’on a appelé la Blitzkrieg (guerre-éclair), ou tout simplement le B...

  20. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    Jonna Nykky


    Full Text Available Jonna Nykky, Jenni E Tuusa, Sanna Kirjavainen, Matti Vuento, Leona GilbertNanoscience Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandAbstract: Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK cells and canine fibroma cells (A72 displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.Keywords: canine parvovirus, apoptosis, necrosis, nanoparticle, virotherapy

  1. Women in Physics in Fermi's Time

    Byers, N


    Enrico Fermi lived from 1901 to 1955, a period of great progress in physics and a period in which opportunities for women to study and work in institutions of higher learning increased significantly in Europe and North America. Though there are a few examples of women who made important contributions to physics in the 18th century such as Emilie du Chatelet and Laura Bassi, it was only in Fermi's time that the number began to increase significantly. It is remarkable that almost immediately after they gained entrance to laboratories and universities, among them appeared women of great creative ability who made lasting contributions to physics. This talk is mainly about some of these whose scientific lives are not as well known as their contributions deserve - Emmy Noether, Marietta Blau, Irene Joliot-Curie, Lise Meitner. Additionally, some outstanding women whose work played a role in Enrico Fermi's life in physics are noted - Ida Tacke Noddack, Tatiana Ehrenfest-Afanaseva, Leona Woods Marshall Libby, and Mari...

  2. Record club

    Record club


    New selection   In the last few weeks, we have added some 20 new films to our DVD selection. Two at least have already won awards, namely the latest Pixar animation film UP (La Haut in French) and Tarantino’s Inglorious Bastards. Other films of note include the remake of Pelham 123 and both parts of the biography of Che Guevara. There are a number of films for younger viewers and a few documentaries including a 3D adventure under the sea. We have also added a few music CDs including the latest releases by Alicia Keys and Lady Gaga, the first release of Leona Lewis and a couple of Jazz CDs including a live concert in Cologne by Keith Jarrett. The full list can be consulted at - select “Discs of the Month” from the menu on the left of the screen and then “Feb 2010”. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  3. [Illness due the Ebola virus: epidemiology and clinical manifestations within the context of an international public health emergency].

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J


    Introduccion. La epidemia causada por el virus del Ebola en Africa occidental afecta a Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leona, Nigeria, Mali y Senegal, y es la mas grave desde que se tiene noticia de este filovirus causante de fiebre hemorragica. En este articulo se revisan las caracteristicas epidemiologicas y las manifestaciones clinicas asociadas a la enfermedad por el virus del Ebola. Desarrollo. Hasta el 23 de febrero de 2015 se habian contabilizado 23.729 casos de ebola, con un 40,1% de mortalidad. En la actual epidemia, el virus se transmite al ser humano por tres vias: contacto con fluidos y secreciones de sujetos enfermos ya diagnosticados, contacto con cadaveres durante las ceremonias de enterramiento, y contagio a familiares y personal sanitario por enfermos sin diagnosticar. El Ebola causa una enfermedad grave en humanos. Tras un periodo de incubacion variable (2-21 dias), se inicia un sindrome febril, cefalea, mialgias, artralgias, vomitos y diarrea. La fase avanzada cursa con hemorragias, fracaso de multiples organos, hipotension y choque. Se desconoce la incidencia de manifestaciones neurologicas, aunque se han descrito hemorragias cerebrales y sindromes postinfecciosos en otras fiebres he­morragicas virales. Los cuidados de soporte son vitales. No existe un tratamiento efectivo demostrado, aunque varios pacientes han sido tratados con un coctel de anticuerpos monoclonales (ZMapp). Conclusiones. La identificacion y diagnostico precoz de casos sospechosos, el aislamiento de sujetos enfermos y las medidas de proteccion en el personal sanitario son fundamentales para contener esta epidemia.

  4. Movement and resource use by a group of Alouatta pigra in a forest fragment in Balancán, México.

    Pozo-Montuy, Gilberto; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos


    Uncommonly observed behaviors were systematically recorded in a troop (n = 9 individuals) of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting a small forest fragment (1.7 ha) in Leona Vicario, Balancán, Tabasco, Mexico. Between February 2002 and January 2003 (n = 499 h), we observed behaviors such as ground travel (85 occasions, total = 269 min/10.8% of total locomotion time), ground foraging (eight occasions, total = 50 min/0.84% of total feeding time) and drinking water pooled in tree holes (20 times, total = 93 min/0.31% of total activity time). Total time (412 min) for these non-resting behaviors (feeding and locomotion on the ground) is almost equivalent to time devoted to social activities (420 min). These behaviors indicate that howler monkeys may be responding to pressures imposed by the small size of the fragment by adopting diverse strategies to cover their basic nutritional needs in this environment. They accomplish this while exposing themselves to potential predation by coyotes (Canis latrans), as was observed once during the study. It is likely that these behaviors are occurring at an increasing rate among monkeys in fragmented landscapes.

  5. On the Historical Evolution of the Methods of Administration of the Masjid in China%论我国清真寺管理模式的历史变迁



    As the center of religious activities for Chinese Muslims such as the Hui, the Masjid symbolizes the perpetuation and dissemination of Islam in China. It is also the primary means Islamic cultural preservation. The ad- ministration of the Masjid varied in according to the influence of rulers from each dynasty regarding the internal ad- ministrative system of Islam in China. From the "Fanfang" system during Tang dynasty, the "Hadi Si" during Yuan dynasty and the "Jiaofang" system, the administration of the Masjid has undergone progressive development. This includes the Three Religious Leadership system, the Religious Leadership Succession system, the Imam appointment system, and the Board system to Committee system. These systems reflect the historical evolution of Islam in adap- ting to social development in China.%清真寺是我国回族等穆斯林举行宗教活动的中心场所,也是伊斯兰教在我国传播与分布的象征,同时还承载着伊斯兰文化传承与文物保护的主要功能。随着历代统治者对伊斯兰教内部组织制度的干预,清真寺的管理制度也在不断进行更新和调整。从唐代"蕃坊"制到元代"哈的司"再向"教坊制"的转变过程中,清真寺管理也经历了三掌教制——掌教世袭制—阿洪聘任制—董事会制—民主管理制的发展过程,反映了伊斯兰教与我国社会发展相适应的历史轨迹。

  6. Genital impacts Genital impacts

    Luiz Felipe G Soares


    Full Text Available I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1 Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002, (2 Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998, and (3 transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA, 1992. All three images are explicit and surprising enough to provoke impact, both in diegetic and extra-diagetic spaces. intend to compare the three images and investigate the nature of their impacts, not directly in terms of morality, but in their relation with two theoretical assumptions: (1 the intense way in which, according to Linda Nicholson (1999, so many cultures insist in interpreting bodies and genitalia as still capable of defining gender characters, and (2 the notion of image, not as representation, but as image itself, as “what it is”, or as “the place of every transformation in the universe”, as suggested first by Bergson (2005, and then by Deleuze (1983-5, Rancière (2001 and Agamben (1995. The Deleuzean retard may indicate the way in which genitalia, as image, turn into enigma, in the very passage from nature to culture. The three shots give back to those clear images of genitalia the property they have always had: their character of central pieces in the game of such passage. The contrast between such simple and clear images and all those complex games corresponds to the nature of the impact I want to investigate. film; genitalia; narrative. I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1 Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002, (2 Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998, and (3 transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA

  7. Prevalencia de infección tuberculosa en la población de inmigrantes en Ceuta, España

    María Teresa Fernández Sanfrancisco


    Full Text Available Fundamento: La tuberculosis es la enfermedad infecciosa más extendida en el mundo. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron conocer la prevalencia de infección tuberculosa en los inmigrantes que durante 1998 estuvieron en el campamento de Calamocarro en Ceuta y analizar si existen diferencias según país o región geográfica de procedencia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal sobre la población total de inmigrantes en el campamento de Calamocarro en 1998. Se practicó la intradermorreacc ión según la técnica de Mantoux según protocolo ya establecido, a los 2.223 inmigrantes (1979 varones y 244 mujeres procedentes de distintos países africanos (Nigeria, Mali, Guinea Bissau, Camerún, Ghana, Sierra Leona, Rep Dem Congo, y Liberia, principalmente en el campamento de refugiados de Calamocarro de Ceuta. Los resultados se presentan para tres puntos de corte de la induración: <5mm; entre 5 y 10mm; e igual o superior a 10mm. Resultados: Los inmigrantes procedían de 36 países africanos, el 89,0% eran varones y el 11,0% mujeres (p < 0,001 con una edad media de 24,9 ± 4,3 y 23,4 ± 4,1 años respectivamente. El 32,6% presentaron una respuesta al test de Mantoux igual o superior a 10 mm, 33,2% en varones y 27,9% en mujeres (p = 0,09. Sólo hubo un 1,1% con induración 5-10 mm de probable origen vacunal. Por zonas geográficas, las tasas más altas se presentaron en inmigrantes procedentes de la República Democrática del Congo (65,1% y de Camerún (48,4%, seguidos a distancia por Nigeria (34,0%, Liberia (32,7%, Mauritania (29,1%, Sierra Leona (28,8%, Costa de Marfil (27,8%, Guinea Bissau (27,4%, Ghana (26,3%, Argelia (25,6%, Mali (24,1% y R.Guinea (20,9% (p<0,0001. Conclusiones: La población inmigrante procedente de países centroafricanos presenta una alta prevalencia de infección tuberculosa, constituyendo un grupo de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad. Por tanto, es fundamental la implantación de programas específicos de b

  8. Legal Decisions, Affective Justice and 'Moving On'?

    Agata Fijalkowski


    Full Text Available Our paper argues that a move away from the linear approach adopted in transitional justice scholarship is required to the question of ‘moving on’, understood as the way in which a post-dictatorial or a post-conflict regime addresses the past injustices of the predecessor regime. We consider this question in relation to two case studies: post-dictatorial Albania and post-conflict Sierra Leone. Both examples point to important factors that underpin the meanings of ‘moving on’ and of justice, when analysed through a law and aesthetics lens. It has long been established that legal scholarship that makes use of works of art aids and clarifies the points that it wants to make. We examine the power of certain art forms, namely the way in which space ‘speaks’ and the narratives found in an image in the Albanian context, and the use of film to provide a deeper appreciation of the conflict in the Sierra Leonean context. Different aesthetic practices have been used as a way to respond to historical injustice and mass atrocity, also when partial justice (through the law has been achieved. Our article argues that law’s limitations can be understood through the process of unravelling the pieces of the puzzle that make up affective justice. Artistic representation allows for a more complex narration than law’s linear demands. Este artículo defiende que para poder “avanzar”, es necesario un alejamiento del enfoque lineal adoptado por los académicos expertos en justicia transicional, entendida ésta como la forma en la que un régimen aborda, después de una dictadura o un conflicto, injusticias perpetradas durante el régimen anterior. Se considera esta cuestión en relación con dos estudios de caso: Albania después de una dictadura, y Sierra Leona después de un conflicto. Ambos ejemplos apuntan factores importantes que sustentan los significados de “avanzar” y de justicia, cuando se analizan a través de la lente del derecho y la

  9. Quantum Effects in Biology

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.


    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  10. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.


    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  11. Interpretation of Source Parameters from Total Gradient of Gravity and Magnetic Anomalies Caused by Thin Dyke using Nonlinear Global Optimization Technique

    Biswas, A.


    A proficient way to deal with appraisal model parameters from total gradient of gravity and magnetic data in light of Very Fast Simulated Annealing (VFSA) has been exhibited. This is the first run through of applying VFSA in deciphering total gradient of potential field information with another detailing estimation brought on because of detached causative sources installed in the subsurface. The model parameters translated here are the amplitude coefficient (k), accurate origin of causative source (x0) depth (z0) and the shape factor (q). The outcome of VFSA improvement demonstrates that it can exceptionally decide all the model parameters when shape variable is fixed. The model parameters assessed by the present strategy, for the most part the shape and depth of the covered structures was observed to be in astounding concurrence with the genuine parameters. The technique has likewise the capability of dodging very uproarious information focuses and enhances the understanding results. Investigation of Histogram and cross-plot examination likewise proposes the translation inside the assessed ambiguity. Inversion of noise-free and noisy synthetic data information for single structures and field information shows the viability of the methodology. The procedure has been carefully and adequately connected to genuine field cases (Leona Anomaly, Senegal for gravity and Pima copper deposit, USA for magnetic) with the nearness of mineral bodies. The present technique can be to a great degree material for mineral investigation or ore bodies of dyke-like structure rooted in the shallow and more deep subsurface. The calculation time for the entire procedure is short.

  12. Assessment of earthquake-induced landslides hazard in El Salvador after the 2001 earthquakes using macroseismic analysis

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Ángel Hernández, Miguel


    Two strong earthquakes and a number of smaller aftershocks struck El Salvador in the year 2001. The January 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 7.7, occurred along the Cocos plate, 40 km off El Salvador southern coast. It resulted in about 1300 deaths and widespread damage, mainly due to massive landsliding. Two of the largest earthquake-induced landslides, Las Barioleras and Las Colinas (about 2x105 m3) produced major damage to buildings and infrastructures and 500 fatalities. A neighborhood in Santa Tecla, west of San Salvador, was destroyed. The February 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred 40 km east-southeast of San Salvador. This earthquake caused over 300 fatalities and triggered several landslides over an area of 2,500 km2 mostly in poorly consolidated volcaniclastic deposits. The La Leona landslide (5-7x105 m3) caused 12 fatalities and extensive damage to the Panamerican Highway. Two very large landslides of 1.5 km3 and 12 km3 produced hazardous barrier lakes at Rio El Desague and Rio Jiboa, respectively. More than 16.000 landslides occurred throughout the country after both quakes; most of them occurred in pyroclastic deposits, with a volume less than 1x103m3. The present work aims to define the relationship between the above described earthquake intensity, size and areal distribution of induced landslides, as well as to refine the earthquake intensity in sparsely populated zones by using landslide effects. Landslides triggered by the 2001 seismic sequences provided useful indication for a realistic seismic hazard assessment, providing a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides.

  13. Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Part 6. Hesperiinae incertae sedis: palm feeders.

    Cock, Matthew J W; Congdon, T Colin E; Collins, Steve C


    Partial life histories for 12 Hesperiinae incertae sedis that feed on palms (Arecaceae) are described and illustrated. The genera dealt with are: Perrotia (part), Ploetzia, Zophopetes, Gretna (part), Pteroteinon, Leona, and Caenides (part) (all from Evans' Ploetzia genera group). Although Gamia spp. have been reported to feed on palms, these records are considered to be in error, as caterpillars of this genus feed on Dracaena spp. (Asparagaceae). The life histories of the species documented are fairly uniform, in that caterpillars of most species have rounded brown heads, wider basally, with or without limited black markings, smooth bodies and make simple shelters by rolling leaves. Variation in caterpillar markings and male genitalia of Zophopetes dysmephila (Trimen) and caterpillar and adult markings of Gretna carmen Evans merit further study. In G. carmen, G. waga (Plötz) and G. balenge (Holland), the caterpillars' head and body are covered with hair-like setae, and develop an extensive covering of white waxy powder, which in G. balenge also covers the long setae. Furthermore, the pupa of G. balenge is unusual in having a pair of large, elaborate processes frontally on the head; when disturbed, the pupa vibrates violently and rattles noisily against the sides of the shelter. Ploetzia amygdalis (Mabille) and Pteroteinon laufella (Hewitson) have gregarious caterpillars, whereas the remaining species are solitary. After eclosion, the first instar caterpillars of Gretna spp. moult to the second instar without feeding. The implications of a palm-feeding life-style are discussed, and economic damage and plant quarantine risks to coconut, oil palm and ornamental palms pointed out. The known life histories suggest that all Afrotropical palm-feeding Hesperiidae will belong in the same tribe when the incertae sedis section is further elucidated, although the affinities of Gretna deserve further consideration. 

  14. Traian Braileanu in Documents (IV

    Radu Florian Bruja


    Full Text Available A la suite du Décret de 14 septembre 1940, l’Etat Roumain a été déclaré «Etat national légionnaire», le Mouvement Légionnaire est devenu la seule formation politique reconnue, et le général Ion Antonescu, «le dirigeant de l’Etat» et «le chef du régime légionnaire». A cette occasion, le Mouvement Légionnaire a pris une série de ministères et deux bucoviniens sont entrés dans le gouvernement : Traian Brăileanu au Ministère de l’Education, des Cultes et du Patrimoine et Vasile Iaşinschi au Ministère de la Santé, du Travail et de la Protection Sociale. Traian Brăileanu a été nommé ministre parce qu’il passait, après la mort de Nae Ionescu, comme le véritable idéologue du Mouvement légionnaire. Les problèmes avec lesquels s’est confronté le ministre sont venus, durant la première étape, de la nécessité d’encadrer dans les postes des professeurs, enseignants, prêtres, d’assurer la possibilité de la continuation des études à différents niveaux pour les Roumains des provinces cédées. Une seconde ligne de l’activité de Traian Brăileanu était celle de la roumanisation morale de ceux qui ont souffert en 1938-1940 et leur réintégration professionnelle. Le 28 septembre 1940, Traian Brăileanu a signé un décret par lequel il prévoyait la retraite de tous les professeurs qui avaient déjà l’âge de 65 années, le plus important cas étant celui de Nicolae Iorga. Autres mesures prises par Brăileanu visaient l’organisation des associations estudiantines, mais aussi l’élimination des signes pas chrétiens des espaces qui appartenaient au ministère. La plus controversée de ses mesures visait l’élimination des Juifs des Institutions scolaires ou des annexes de celles-ci. Traian Brăileanu a eu, lui aussi, le sort des autres ministres légionnaires, après les événements de 21-23 janvier 1941, sa carrière s’est approchée de sa fin.

  15. 如何理解国家治理现代化*--以民主行政理论为中心%How to Understand the Modernization of State Governance:A Study of Democratic Administration Theory

    金东日; 石绍成


    The come into being of modern state is accompanied by two important historical processes,namely the establish-ment of responsible government and the separation of administration from politics.The study of democratic ad-ministration theory,which comes from public administration,may help reveal the logic of state -building.The evolution of democratic administration theory suggests that,decentralization is always the goal of democratic ad-ministration at the operational level,and which led to the fragmentation of accountability consequently.Both of them constitute the basic task of the state -building,and the modernization of state governance needs to follow this logic.Public administration dedicates to the exploration of certainty,and the same to democratic adminis-tration.This helps to update the connotation of democracy:it is a valuable knowledge to solve public problems of human being.%现代国家的产生伴随着两个重要的历史进程,即行政从政治中分离与责任制政府的建立。对脱胎于行政学的民主行政理论进行梳理,有利于揭示现代国家建设的逻辑。民主行政理论的演进过程表明,分权始终是它在操作层面所追求的目标,而分权导致了问责的碎片化。这两者构成了现代国家建设的基本任务,国家治理现代化需要遵循这种逻辑。行政理论致力于确定性的探索,民主行政亦然。这有助于更新民主的内涵:它是人类解决公共问题的宝贵知识。

  16. Evangélicos, globalización y política en Argentina: intervenciones públicas y misión divina = Evangelicals, globalization and politics in Argentina: public interventions and divine mission

    Carbonelli, Marcos A.


    Full Text Available En décadas recientes, la participación política de actores evangélicos en América Latina se diversificó, producto de la consideración de las estructuras mundanas como espacios de misión y la consolidación de una agenda de intervención pública. En este trabajo analizaremos la injerencia de dinámicas globales en la praxis de agencias evangélicas que participan en la esfera política en la Argentina contemporánea. Nos centraremos en dos organizaciones evangélicas internacionales, orientadas a la misión en el espacio de la política argentina: Juventud Unida por Una Misión (Jucum y Capitol Ministre. Precisaremos sus objetivos institucionales, sus metodologías de trabajo y sus estructuras organizativas. En las conclusiones de este trabajo compararemos las performances políticas de estas agencias religiosas, y evaluaremos sus incidencias en la esfera política y en las dinámicas identitarias del campo evangélico local

  17. La mosquée Muhammad al-Amîn à Beyrouth : mausolée involontaire de Rafic Hariri

    Franck Mermier


    Full Text Available Les plans pour  la construction de la Mosquée Muhammad al-Amin remontent aux années 1950. Mais ce n’est qu’en octobre 2003 que Muhammad Qabbani, Mufti de la République libanaise ainsi que le premier ministre Rafik Hariri inaugurèrent le bâtiment. L’assassinat de Rafik Hariri, le 14 février 2005 a eu de considérables répercussions sur la scène politique libanaise avec, au premier chef, le retrait des forces armées syriennes du Liban. Aujourd’hui, Rafik Hariri repose dans la mosquée Muhammad al-Amin entouré des sept personnes tuées en même temps que lui.Notre article explore les origines du projet de cette mosquée et propose une analyse des dynamiques sociopolitiques et symboliques qui ont accompagné les phases successives de sa construction. Nous avons également interrogé les différentes perceptions suscitées par un projet architectural d’une telle ampleur.

  18. Relativité et gravitation

    Tourrenc, Philippe


    La relativité générale a cessé d'être une pure théorie justifiée par les "trois tests classiques" disponibles il y a trente ans. Des pulsars, vrais laboratoires de gravitation relativiste, ont été découverts et étudiés. A l'automne 1991 les Etats-Unis ont pris la décision de construire deux détecteurs interférométriques d'ondes gravitationnelles. Au début de l'été 1992, le ministre français de la Recherche et de l'Espace a pris un engagement de même nature concernant le projet VIRGO, projet franco-italien de construction d'une antenne interférométrique. La gravitation relativiste est devenue un riche domaine d'observation et d'expérimentation. Cet ouvrage est un manuel de physique dont les intentions et le contenu se veulent adaptés au contexte scientifique actuel. Il doit beaucoup aux divers enseignements donnés par l'auteur, principalement l'enseignement de relativité générale en maîtrise de physique à l'université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI). Dans la première partie, l...

  19. Reformas policiales y narrativas institucionales en argentina: renombrando escuelas de policía

    Mariana Sirimarco


    Full Text Available En avril 2011, la Ministre de la Sécurité en Argentine s'est prononcée favorablement pour le changement de nom des écoles de la Police Fédérale argentine, en cessant de rappeler les noms des chefs associés à la répression policière, pour rendre hommage aux officiers soucieux de la préservation des droits de l'homme. Dans cet article, on comprend, à partir de l'analyse de divers documents et articles de journaux, que les mots "créent" et "soutiennent" les rapports et les situations sociales, puisqu'ils communiquent des identités et permettent une certaine expérience de la réalité. Ainsi, on cherche à y examiner ces réformes sur leur plan symbolique d'action, en révélant leur trame de discours et d'évaluation, tout en discutant le poids et le but des réformes policières et leurs tentatives d'adéquation au contexte politique actuel. En conclusion, on présente aussi certains usages et appropriations de l'histoire et de la mémoire.

  20. “La Constitución de los Pueblos de Occidente”. Une proposition inédite du voyageur cAlî Bey l’Abbasside pour le Maroc dans l´Arxiu Històric de la Ciutat de Barcelona (AHCB, Col. Toda, Ms B.162-II

    Mercè Viladrich


    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce travail est de faire connaître et d’éditer à partir d’un manuscrit autographe le texte intitulé Constitution des peuples d´Occident rédigé par le voyageur catalan Domènec Badía i Leblich (1767-18181, connu sous le nom d’cAlî Bey l’Abbasside. Cette grande charte était destinée à s´implanter comme texte légal dans l´Empire du Maroc. Fonctionnaire au service du premier ministre de Carlos IV, Manuel de Godoy, Domènec Badía voyagea en 1803 au Maroc, dans la péninsule Arabique et au Moyen Orient et gagna une certaine célébrité parmi ses contemporains en racontant ses aventures dans un récit Les voyages d´Ali Bey en Asie et en Afrique, œuvre qui mélange vérité historique et fiction et dans laquelle l´auteur révèle une psychologie pathologique.

  1. História da educação na França - L’histoire de l’éducation en France

    Antoine Prost


    Full Text Available Em fevereiro de 2013, Antoine Prost recebeu das mãos do ministro francês da Educação Nacional, Vincent Peillon, a mais elevada distinção do país, a de Comandante da Legião de Honra. O próprio ministro, ex-professor de Filosofia, se dedicou à história da educação, publicando uma obra sobre a ideia leiga de Ferdinand Buisson[1]. Quanto a Antoine Prost, este eminente historiador, ex-professor da Sorbonne, escolheu ser condecorado como historiador da educação quando poderia perfeitamente valer-se de outros títulos: historiador da guerra de 1914-1918 e dos antigos combatentes, membro do Gabinete de um Primeiro Ministro e de numerosas comissões de reflexão ministeriais etc.Como historiador da educação contemporânea, ele tem o mérito de ser o autor dos dois manuais ainda hoje mais utilizados, após mais de trinta anos da sua publicação[2]. Publicou também uma análise sócio-histórica da democratização do ensino[3] e manteve durante diversos anos uma crônica de história da educação em uma revista mensal destinada ao grande público[4].Na alocução que ele pronunciou após a homenagem do Ministro, lembrou o caminho percorrido pela história da educação francesa há meio século, salientando as oportunidades e problemas referentes ao seu vínculo institucional. A seguir, publicaremos o texto dessa alocução, agradecendo Antoine Prost por nos tê-lo fornecido.RésuméEn février 2013, Antoine Prost a reçu des mains du ministre de l’Éducation nationale français, Vincent Peillon, la plus haute distinction du pays, celle de commandeur de la Légion d’honneur. Le ministre lui-même, ancien professeur de philosophie, s’est consacré à l’Histoire de l’Éducation en publiant un ouvrage sur l’idée laïque chez Ferdinand Buisson[1]. Quant à Antoine Prost, cet éminent historien, ancien professeur à la Sorbonne, a choisi d’être décoré au titre d’historien de l’éducation, alors qu’il aurait pu en

  2. The Protective Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine Supplementation against Damage Caused by Lead in the Testes of Mice

    Guang SHAN; Tian TANG; Xiaobin ZHANG


    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant that may have toxic effects on the male.Vitamins may protect against toxic effects of lead in the liver and reproductive system,which is confirmed by our initial research.The aim of this study was to further investigate the protec-tive effects of vitamins (ascorbic acid combined with thiamine) on lead acetate (Pb)-induced repro-ductive toxicities in mice and study the possible mechanisms underlying these effects.Forty-five male mice were randomly divided into 3 groups,15 mice in each and received daily intragastric ad-ministration with control,Pb (20 mg/kg),and Pb+vitamins (ascorbic acid of 420 mg/kg+thiamine of 30 mg/kg) for 6 weeks,respectively.The Pb-treated animals showed significant decreases in the epididymal sperm count and motility compared to the control group,while the Pb+vitamins group had significant increases for these variables.Moreover,an increasing apoptosis of germinal cells in-duced by Pb was reduced by vitamin treatment.Pb induced the activation of Caspase-3,Fas/Fas-L and Bcl-2 with elevated levels,and the adaptor protein primarily regulated signaling through Fas and required for Fas-induced apoptosis.In conclusion,ascorbic acid combined with thiamine exhibited protective effect on reproductive system by inhibiting Pb-induced excessive cell apoptosis.

  3. Nutritional disorder


    930462 Studies on the rare earths content infood and its daily intake in man.SU Dezhao (苏德昭),et al.lnstit Food Safe Contr &.Inspect,Public Health Ministr,Beijing,100021.Chin JPrev Med 1993;27(1):6—8.The rare earths contents of major food in Chi-na,which are distributed over 17 provinces andcities were examined by three—wavelength spec-trophotometry.The rare earths contents werenamed as follows:0.41±0.35mg/kg in grain,0.23±0.18mg/kg in vegetables,0.19±0.11mg/kgin fruits,0.83±0.73mg/kg in beans,0.66±0.50mg/kg in potato,1.76±0.23mg/kg in tea,0.07±0.05mg/kg in meat,domestic fowls and

  4. Statsminister Anker Jørgensen

    Thurah, Thomas

    Fra omslaget: En nuanceret biografi om en af Danmarks mest populære statsministre. Bogen tegner et tæt og levende portræt af Anker Jørgensen gennem alle de dramatiske perioder i hans tid som statsminister og formand for Socialdemokratiet. Fra den overraskende udnævnelse i 1972 over Jordskredsvalget...... Anker Jørgensen, i reaktionerne på de politiske rutsjeture og i hans forhold til familien, herunder kampene, han måtte tage med sin ældste søn, der var aktiv på den yderste venstrefløj. Den store biografi er baseret på interview med de fleste nulevende ministre i Anker Jørgensens regeringer, medlemmer...... af folketingsgruppen, politiske modstandere, fagforeningsfolk, embedsmænd og Anker Jørgensens egen familie. Herudover trækker bogen på omfattende skriftlige kilder i form af ikke tidligere udgivne dagbogsoptegnelser, gruppemødereferater og Anker Jørgensens eget arkiv....

  5. De l’apparente perpétuité des blocages politiques libanais

    Barah Mikail


    Full Text Available Le Liban connaîtra-t-il bientôt la paix ? La tentation est forte d’en douter. Près de trois ans après l’assassinat de l’ancien Premier ministre Rafik Hariri et le retrait de l’armée syrienne du pays, celui-ci reste en effet la proie à de querelles intestines qui demeurent le désastreux reflet d’un opportunisme souvent malsain de la part des principales formations politiques libanaises. Dans un tel contexte, est-il encore raisonnable de croire à une solution durable ? Et si oui, laquelle ?Will Lebanon know peace soon ? It is quite tempting to doubt it. Almost three years since the assassination of the former Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri and the withdrawal of the Syrian army, the country is still prey to internal struggle reflecting the unhealthy opportunism to which the main Lebanese political parties are attached. In such a context, is it reasonable to hope that a potential solution exists ? And if so, then which one ?

  6. Investigation on Cross-cultural Adaptation of Thai and Vietnamese Students:A Case Study on Guangxi Science&Technology Normal University%泰越留学生跨文化适应透视——以广西科技师范学院为例



    With the wide and deep development of cooperative relationship of China-ASEAN in educational field,the number of ASEAN overseas students in Guangxi has been increasing and their performance on cross-cultural adaptation would directly affect their learning and living in China. This paper investigates the cross-cultural adaptation of Thai and Vietnamese students in Guangxi Science &Technology Normal University,and analyzes the data to find out its relative factors in order to offer references for overseas students'ad?ministration and service.%随着中国与东盟在教育领域的合作与交流关系广泛而深入地开展,来广西留学的东盟国家留学生人数日益增多,而留学生跨文化适应水平的高低则直接影响其留学期间的生活和学习.本文以广西科技师范学院2014级留学生为研究个案调查了泰国、越南两国留学生的跨文化适应情况,并试图通过数据分析找出相关影响因素,为高校的留学生管理和服务提供参考.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Candidate Multi-Epitope-Vaccine Against the Classical Swine Fever Virus

    YING Jian; DONG Xiaonan; CHEN Yinghua


    A multi-epitope-vaccine MEVABC consisting of two linear neutralizing determinants (BC1: aa693-716; A6: aa844-865) located on antigenic unit B/C and unit A of glycoprotein E2 was prepared to evaluate whether a combination strategy is effective in the design of peptide vaccines.After immunization,pig sera collected every one to two weeks were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.C-strain- induced anti-sera and hyper-immune sera cannot recognize overlapping peptides that cover the E2 N-terminus,while MEVABC is able to elicit high levels of peptide-specific antibody response.When compared with previously studied peptide vaccines PV-BC1 and PV-A6,the same dose of either component in the MEVABC increases the BC1- or A6-specific antibodies (to 1/3-1/2 of the levels of the separate vaccines).However,the synergy between the antibodies may make MEVABC much more potent.Moreover,anti-C-strain immunity pre-existing in pigs does not disturb the sequent MEVABC vaccination.Thus,MEVABC can be ad- ministrated to pigs which already possess anti-classical swine fever virus immunity.MEVABC is a promising candidate marker vaccine.

  8. On the Relationship between Supervisor Work and Building of Executive Ability in Higher Education%辅导员工作与高等院校执行力的建设

    王辉; 唐善梅


    The supervisor in higher education is an important component of the university staff and the ad-ministrative team, and is also an important force in building college executive ability. Taking Nanjing Audit University as an example, this article discusses the research and development of the supervisor work which is proved to be the most fundamental, the most realistic, the most effective way and means to promote the implementation of building executive ability in higher education.%辅导员是高校教师队伍和管理队伍的重要组成成分,是高校执行力建设的重要力量。本文仅以南京审计学院为例,论述了辅导员工作的研究与开发是促进执行力建设最根本、最现实、也是最有效的方法和途径。

  9. Multiplex PCR for 17 Y-Chromosome Specific Short Tandem Repeats (STR to Enhance the Reliability of Fetal Sex Determination in Maternal Plasma

    Fang Zheng


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to demonstrate the influence of target gene and amplification product length on the performance of fetal gender determination systems using maternal plasma. A total of 40 pairs of plasma DNA samples from pregnant women and genomic DNA samples from maternal blood, amniotic fluid and paternal blood were isolated for gender determination by amplification of the amelogenin gene and 17 Y-chromosome STR loci, using three different commercial kits. The gender of the fetuses was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis or phenotype at birth. Both the AmpFℓSTR-Identifiler amplification kit and the Mini-STR Amplification kit for amelogenin gene detection were reliable in determining fetal gender (92.0% and 96.0%, respectively, but false negatives were present in both systems. AmpFℓSTR-Yfiler was found to be fully reliable as it amplified Y-STR in all cases of pregnancies with male fetuses and thus was 100% correct in determining fetal gender. The results demonstrated that multiple fluorescent PCR for 17 Y-STR loci was more reliable than AMELY gene testing in fetal sex determination with maternal plasma. We also found that the shorter amplification products could improve the performance of fetal gender determination systems.

  10. Multiplex PCR for 17 Y-chromosome Specific Short Tandem Repeats (STR) to enhance the reliability of fetal sex determination in maternal plasma.

    Rong, Yuan; Gao, Jiajia; Jiang, Xinqiang; Zheng, Fang


    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the influence of target gene and amplification product length on the performance of fetal gender determination systems using maternal plasma. A total of 40 pairs of plasma DNA samples from pregnant women and genomic DNA samples from maternal blood, amniotic fluid and paternal blood were isolated for gender determination by amplification of the amelogenin gene and 17 Y-chromosome STR loci, using three different commercial kits. The gender of the fetuses was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis or phenotype at birth. Both the AmpFℓSTR-Identifiler amplification kit and the Mini-STR Amplification kit for amelogenin gene detection were reliable in determining fetal gender (92.0% and 96.0%, respectively), but false negatives were present in both systems. AmpFℓSTR-Yfiler was found to be fully reliable as it amplified Y-STR in all cases of pregnancies with male fetuses and thus was 100% correct in determining fetal gender. The results demonstrated that multiple fluorescent PCR for 17 Y-STR loci was more reliable than AMELY gene testing in fetal sex determination with maternal plasma. We also found that the shorter amplification products could improve the performance of fetal gender determination systems.

  11. 论市场经济条件下行政伦理的趋向性选择%Tendency of Administrative Ethics in Market Economy



    行政管理者伦理素质水平的高低,在很大程度上会决定其在行政管理过程中,特别是行政决策中的能力和水平.不同社会政治经济条件下,行政伦理的趋向性要求会有不同.随着我国政治经济体制从计划经济体制转变到了市场经济体制,行政伦理的要求和衡量标准也会有较大的区别,全面地认识和探讨市场经济条件下行政伦理的趋向性问题,对于我们更自觉的进行行政伦理的建设很有现实意义.%Administrators ethical quality level determines the ability and level in the administrative management process, especially administrative decision. In different social political and economic conditions, the tendency of administrative ethics requirements will vary. With China's political and economic system transformation from planned economy to market economy, administrative ethics requirements and standard also can have bigger difference. Overall knowing about and discussing the teridency of the administrative ethics under the condition of market economy is realistic significant to the construction of the administrative.

  12. Novel identification of biofluids using a multiplex methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-PCR system.

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Li-Chin; Lee, James Chun-I; Su, Chih-Wen; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Linacre, Adrian; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei


    The identification of a specific body fluid encountered in a forensic investigation can give crucial information. This identification can be aided by methylation profiles based on selected markers specific to a range of biofluids. In this study, the open database of Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was searched for markers specific for semen, vaginal fluids, saliva, venous blood and menstrual blood. A total of 8 biofluid-specific methylated markers and 2 control markers were combined into a 10-plex methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-PCR (MSRE-PCR) system. Based upon the analysis of 100 DNA samples from these 5 biofluid types, unambiguous results were obtained to identify the body fluid from which it originated. Validation studies of the developed 10-plex MSRE-PCR included sensitivity, reproducibility and mixed body fluids. Co-amplification of the established MSRE-PCR system and the microsatellite loci in AmpFlSTR(®) MiniFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit was performed to generate both the methylation profile for biofluid type and the miniSTR profile. This allowed human identification and the identification of the body fluid type to be performed in a single reaction. The results of this study displayed the applicability of this 10-plex MSRE-PCR system in forensic science.

  13. Towards A New Reading of the Political Thought of the Dévot Faction: The Opposition to Cardinal Richelieu’s Ministériat

    Caroline Maillet-Rao


    Full Text Available For a long time, historiography has considered the political thought of the dévot party, led by Mathieu de Morgues and Michel de Marillac, to be supportive of a traditional monarchy, Catholicism and the extermination of Protestants, while being opposed to the Thirty Years War. This faction’s political thought has been looked upon as being in contrast to that of Cardinal Richelieu, which was comparatively regarded as profoundly absolutist and modern. Such an understanding of the dévots’ political thought, albeit disputed, continues to prevail. The present article intends to demonstrate that the dévots were in fact on the side of the absolutists, which explains their opposition to Richelieu. Indeed, they never criticized absolutism, but rather, the illegitimate leadership of the government by an all-powerful premier ministre, namely, Richelieu. According to the dévots, the ministériat actually betrayed the very essence of absolute monarchy. Before proposing a new perspective on its political thought, it is important to reflect upon the definition of the dévot party. This will be followed by an overview of the lives and work of the principal representatives of this faction, Mathieu de Morgues (1582–1670 and Michel de Marillac (1560–1632. An examination of the historiography on this subject enables this article’s conclusions to be situated in a broader context.

  14. Conversations cruciales des outils pour s'exprimer quand les enjeux sont de taille

    Patterson, Kerry; McMillan, Ron; Switzler, Al; Covey, Stephen R


    Quand on parle de " conversations cruciales ", il nous vient spontanément des images de présidents, d'empereurs et de Premiers ministres assis autour d'une table massive en train de débattre de l'avenir du monde. Les conversations dont parle cet ouvrage ne sont pas moins cruciales, nous concernent tous et peuvent survenir à n'importe quel moment dans notre vie quotidienne. Une discussion houleuse avec le patron, une dispute violente avec un collègue ou un client, un mot de trop adressé à notre conjoint, etc. Une conversation devient cruciale quand : les opinions en jeu sont opposées ; les enjeux sont importants ; les émotions sont fortes. Ce livre vous aide à vous exprimer habilement quand les enjeux sont de taille. Il vous explique comment atteindre le but que vous vous êtes fixé en usant des meilleures techniques et en ouvrant le chemin du dialogue. Il vous fournit les outils pour gérer les conversations les plus difficiles et les plus importantes de votre vie.

  15. Whole genome nucleosome sequencing identifies novel types of forensic markers in degraded DNA samples

    Dong, Chun-nan; Yang, Ya-dong; Li, Shu-jin; Yang, Ya-ran; Zhang, Xiao-jing; Fang, Xiang-dong; Yan, Jiang-wei; Cong, Bin


    In the case of mass disasters, missing persons and forensic caseworks, highly degraded biological samples are often encountered. It can be a challenge to analyze and interpret the DNA profiles from these samples. Here we provide a new strategy to solve the problem by taking advantage of the intrinsic structural properties of DNA. We have assessed the in vivo positions of more than 35 million putative nucleosome cores in human leukocytes using high-throughput whole genome sequencing, and identified 2,462 single nucleotide variations (SNVs), 128 insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels). After comparing the sequence reads with 44 STR loci commonly used in forensics, five STRs (TH01, TPOX, D18S51, DYS391, and D10S1248)were matched. We compared these “nucleosome protected STRs” (NPSTRs) with five other non-NPSTRs using mini-STR primer design, real-time PCR, and capillary gel electrophoresis on artificially degraded DNA. Moreover, genotyping performance of the five NPSTRs and five non-NPSTRs was also tested with real casework samples. All results show that loci located in nucleosomes are more likely to be successfully genotyped in degraded samples. In conclusion, after further strict validation, these markers could be incorporated into future forensic and paleontology identification kits, resulting in higher discriminatory power for certain degraded sample types. PMID:27189082

  16. B/S模式下评学系统设计与实现%The Design and Implementation of Learning Evaluation System Based on B/S Mode

    马继红; 陈安方; 罗刘敏


    随着计算机技术的发展 ,一些传统的办公方式正逐步淘汰 ,评学也不例外.利用 .NET平台、数据集成技术、B/S架构模式和SqlSever2012数据库 ,编写网络应用程序 ,实现了无纸化办公、在线评学、评学情况管理及简单的学习情况数据分析等功能.%The computer technology in our time is developing rapidly .With the ripening of computer technology and the expansion of its applicable range ,some traditional office modes are gradually being replaced .Learning evaluation is no ex-ception .Developing fully functional learning evaluation system is becoming increasingly important commentary .This sys-tem is a Web application based on .NET platform ,data integration technology ,B/S architecture pattern ,and SqlSev-er2012 database system .It achieves the following functions ,such as paperless office ,online learning-evaluation ,the ad-ministration of learning-evaluation ,and the data analysis to the brief learning condition .

  17. Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total lfavonoid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injur y in hippocampal neurons

    Xiangyu Kong; Wei Kong; Guangxin Miao; Shumin Zhao; Meng Chen; Xiaoying Zheng; Jiangtao Bai


    Previous experimental studies have shown that cerebral infarction can be effectively reduced following treatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total lfavonoid (SSTF). However, the mechanism of action of SSTF as a preventive drug to treat cerebral infarction remains unclear. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg SSTF via intragastric ad-ministration for 1 week prior to the establishment of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The results showed that pretreatment with SSTF effectively improved neurological function, re-duced brain water content and the permeability of blood vessels, ameliorated ischemia-induced morphology changes in hippocampal microvessels, down-regulated Fas and FasL protein expres-sion, elevated the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased malondialdehyde content. In contrast to low-dose SSTF pretreatment, the above changes were most obvious after pretreatment with moderate-and high-doses of SSTF. Experimental ifndings indicate that SSTF pretreatment can exert protective effects on the brain against cerebral isch-emia/reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanisms may involve reducing brain water content, increasing microvascular recanalization, inhibiting the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, and attenuating free radical damage.

  18. La Transylvanie dans la strategie de la Hongrie a la Conference de Paix de 1946

    Ioan Tomoiagă


    Full Text Available À la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la Hongrie et la diaspora hongroise de l’Occident ont proposé, dans le cadre de la Conférence de Paix de Paris, plusieurs solutions pour résoudre le problème transylvain. La stratégie de propagande hongroise a été représentée par des propositions «équitables» en ce sens: la république indépendante, l’occupation militaire, la surveillance extérieure et le respect des droits de toutes les nations de cette république. Parmi les instruments utilisés dans ce but se trouvent les mémoires diplomatiques, les articles de la presse occidentale ou les lettres particulièrs, adressées aux ministres des affaires étrangères des puissances triomphantes. La recherche et l’analyse de ceux-ci, s’appuyant surtout sur des documents diplomatiques français, construisent l’image d’ensemble d’un chapitre important de l’histoire roumaine.

  19. 30 July 2012 - Prime Minister of France, Mr. Jean-Marc Ayrault, visits CERN

    Maximillien Brice


    Ligne d'accueil: Directeur général, R. Heuer présente: Directeur S. Myers, Chef des Relations internationales F. Pauss et Chefs de Département P. Bloch et A.-S. Catherin ; Représentants du CEA et du CNRS des 4 experiences LHC : J.-L. Faure, L. Fayard, C. Guyot, M.-H. Schune, Y. Schutz, Y. Sirois, Protocole CERN S. Molinari. Les autorités locales saluent le Premier ministre: M. Christophe Bouvier, maire de Cessy, M. Rachel Mazuir, sénateur de l'Ain, président du CG01, M. Etienne Blanc, député de l'Ain, maire de Divonne les Bains, et Mme Yvette Brachet, conseillère régionale représentant M. Jean-Jack Queyranne, président du CR Rhône Alpes. CERN-GE-1207163 32: dans le tunnel du LHC au Point 5: R. Garoby, Chef adjoint du département Faisceaux P. Lebrunm, Attaché à la Direction P. Bloch, Chef du département Physique J. Bertrand, (représente Alain Fuchs),CNRS Y. Sirois, Collaboration CMS, Responsable pour la France, Directeur de Recherche au CNRS, LLR Ecole Polytechnique J.-Y. Le Deaut, Dépu...

  20. Hazard identification for equipment-related fatal incidents in the U.S.underground coal mining

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Zainalabidin Md Nor


    Based on the number of fatalities per year,a persistent area of concern in mine safety continues to be equipment related.Data from the period 1995 through 2007 were studied in order to identify major hazards for underground mining equipment-related fatal incidents and to perform an analysis of those that occurred over the last 13 years.Reports on equipment-related fatal incidents were obtained from the Mine Safety and Health Ad-ministration (MSHA).The results show that underground mining equipment including con-tinuous miner, shuttle car, roof bolter, load-haul-dump (LHD), Iongwall and hoisting con-tributed to a total of 69 mining-related fatalities.The study reveals that the major hazard for continuous mining equipment-related fatal incidents is "Failure of victim to respect equipment working area", while the highest number of fatalities for shuttle car is attributed to the hazard "Failure of mechanical components." The study further reveals that the highest number of fatalities for roof bolter, LHD, and longwall are attributed to the hazards "Working under unsupported roof', "Failure of management to provide safe working condi-tions", and "Failure of mechanical components", respectively.It is determined that one fa-tality for the hoisting system is attributed to the hazard "Failure of mechanical components" and one to the hazard "Failure to follow safe maintenance procedure".Finally, approaches to prevention were also discussed in this paper.

  1. 当代中国行政腐败的生态学解析%Ecology analysis On Contemporary Chinese Administrative Corruption



    行政腐败作为公民社会的一大公敌,直接影响到政府的公信力、执行力乃至合法性问题。它是行政系统内部权力运行异化的一种外显,与行政生态中的政治生态、经济生态、文化生态有着密切关系。深度剖析当代中国行政腐败的现状、类型与治理的生态要素,抽绎腐败现象的特质进而形成风清气正的公权运作环境,对于建立健全行政腐败治理的长效机制具有重要价值。%Administrative corruption is a social public ministrative corruption situation, to establish and perfect the of important value. enemy. Deeply analysis of contemporary Chinese admechanism of administrative corruption governance is

  2. Diamond encapsulated photovoltaics for transdermal power delivery.

    Ahnood, A; Fox, K E; Apollo, N V; Lohrmann, A; Garrett, D J; Nayagam, D A X; Karle, T; Stacey, A; Abberton, K M; Morrison, W A; Blakers, A; Prawer, S


    A safe, compact and robust means of wireless energy transfer across the skin barrier is a key requirement for implantable electronic devices. One possible approach is photovoltaic (PV) energy delivery using optical illumination at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths, to which the skin is highly transparent. In the work presented here, a subcutaneously implantable silicon PV cell, operated in conjunction with an external NIR laser diode, is developed as a power delivery system. The biocompatibility and long-term biostability of the implantable PV is ensured through the use of an hermetic container, comprising a transparent diamond capsule and platinum wire feedthroughs. A wavelength of 980 nm is identified as the optimum operating point based on the PV cell's external quantum efficiency, the skin's transmission spectrum, and the wavelength dependent safe exposure limit of the skin. In bench-top experiments using an external illumination intensity of 0.7 W/cm(2), a peak output power of 2.7 mW is delivered to the implant with an active PV cell dimension of 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.06 mm(3). This corresponds to a volumetric power output density of ~20 mW/mm(3), significantly higher than power densities achievable using inductively coupled coil-based approaches used in other medical implant systems. This approach paves the way for further ministration of bionic implants.

  3. The Self-consistency of the Orientation of Talent Cultivation in the Major of Public Administration and Career Development---In the Perspective of Holism%行政管理专业人才培养定位和职业发展路向的自洽--以整体论为视角



    Teaching and research in the college separate from the students ’ employment universally in the talent training in the major of Public administration. Students often lack of discipline faith and professional identity, and educators also make no efforts to ad-here to the consciousness of discipline kernel. In the perspective of the holism, it ’s necessary to highlight the “publicity”of Public Ad-ministration, clarify its orientation of talent cultivation, and seek and respond to its self-consistence between the teaching and profession career development.%行政管理专业人才培养长期处于教学研究所强调的“狭义行政”与学生就业路向“广义行政”的分裂局面,造成了学生的学科信仰和专业认同低,教师亦鲜有努力坚持学科内核的自觉意识。为弥合教育教学与人才就业去向的鸿沟,需在整体论的指导下,还原并坚持行政管理的“公共性”,寻求和回应其教育教学与就业路向、职业生涯发展的自洽性。

  4. Practice and Experience of Circuit Examination of Animal Health Administrative Law Enforcement Files in Jilin Province%吉林省巡回评查动物卫生行政执法案卷的做法与体会

    程文军; 常鹏; 刘新宇; 冯海峰; 臧杰姝; 任守爱


    Jilin Animal Health Supervision Institute innovated the model of circuit examination of animal health ad-ministrative law enforcement files based on the real cases and actual practices in combination with special training,to make the work plan,procedures and scoring rules,organize expert team of file examination,make adequate prepara-tion and summary before and after appraisal. The ability of animal health administrative law enforcement and level of case handling were promoted in Jilin province,references were provided for the administrative law enforcement depart-ments to carry out file examination.%吉林省动物卫生监督所创新动物卫生行政执法案卷评查模式,针对实案、实事、实际,采取巡回评查与专题培训相结合的方式,制定工作方案、程序和评分细则,组建案卷评查专家库,做好评审会前准备和会后总结,提升了全省动物卫生行政执法能力和办案水平,为行政执法部门开展案卷评查活动提供了借鉴和参考。

  5. Effects of two different kinds of opiate receptor agonists associated with intercostal nerve blockade for pain relief after Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery%两种不同阿片受体激动剂联合肋间神经阻滞用于胸腔镜肺叶切除术患者的镇痛

    冯建伟; 刘金龙; 陈新荣; 钟茂林; 彭道珍; 叶军明


    Objective To investigate the effects of butorphanol or sulfentanyl associated with intercostal nerve block (INB) for postoperative pain relief after Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Methods 80 patients (28 - 56 years) who underwent VATS lobectomy were rando mLy divided into butorphanol group 1 (group Bl, re = 20), INB associated with butorphanol (group B2, n = 20), sufentanil group (group S1, n = 20) and INB associated with sufentanil (group S2, n = 20). Postoperative analgesia consisted of continuous intravenous infusion of for 48 h butorphanol or sufentanil for all patients. Loading dose of butorphanol was 30 μg/kg in group Bl and B2, and that of sufentanil was 0.1 M-g/kg in group SI and S2 30 min before the end of operation. 20 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine was ad ministrated for INB in group B2 and S2. Intravenous analgesia maintenance dose of butorphanol in group Bl and B2 was 3 μg/(kg·h), and that of sufentanil was 0.075 μg/(kg·h) in group SI and S2 after operation, respectively. Recorded the visual analogue score (VAS) , Ramsay sedative scores, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and SpO2 at 0, 6, 12, 18 ,24, 36 h , and 48 h after ad ministration; VAS was recorded when patients coughing at 24, 48h and 7 days after ad ministration. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the first postoperative day. Results There were no significant differences between the four groups about sedative scores, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and SpO2 48 h. The VAS was higher in group B1 and S1 than those in group B2 and S2 during 6 - 24 h and when patients coughing after ad ministration, but no significant difference between group B2 and S2 (P < 0.05). Moreover, INB improved PaO2 and oxygenation index in group B2 and S2 significantly. Conclusion INB associated with butorphanol or sufentanil reduces postoperative pain and provides a better postoperative recovery for adult patients of VATS.%目的:探讨布托啡诺和舒芬太尼两种不

  6. Un projet de réforme pour l'Université d'al-Azhar en 1928 : le Mémorandum du shaykh al-Marâghî

    Francine Costet-Tardieu


    Full Text Available Le shaykh égyptien Marâghî, né en 1881 et disciple de Muhammad 'Abduh, devint shaykh d'al-Azhar en mai 1928. Il adressa deux mois plus tard au roi Fu'âd et au premier ministre un Mémorandum concernant les problèmes d'al-Azhar et les réformes qu'il souhaitait entreprendre. La contribution consiste pour l'essentiel à fournir de ce texte important une traduction intégrale et annotée. Le shaykh Marâghî y rappelle la mission des oulémas et expose les réformes nécessaires à al-Azhar pour assurer à ceux-ci une formation de haut niveau qui leur permette de comprendre les besoins du monde moderne. Les réformes proposées avaient pour but de restaurer le prestige et l'influence d'al-Azhar dans le monde musulman, mais aussi d'assurer l'avenir professionnel des étudiants. Le projet de loi né de ce texte ne fut jamais signé par le roi. Le cheikh Marâghî démissionna en 1929, avant de redevenir shaykh d'al-Azhar de 1935 à 1945.

  7. Research on Honest Government Risk in the Field of In-spection and Testing%加强检验检测领域中的廉政风险研究



    Inspection and testing, the technical support and im-portant basis for food and drug administrative supervision, relates to the food, drug and medical equipment safety of the public, so it has attracted wide attention from all walks of life, especially ad-ministrative counterpart, and the honesty risk in the field may oc-cur at any time. Therefore, it is particularly important to strength-en the honesty risk research in the field of inspection and testing, analyze the existing subjective and objective factors, and actively explore effective countermeasures to prevent the honesty risk of staffs for inspection and testing.%检验检测工作,是食品药品行政监管的技术支撑和重要依据,关乎民众饮食用药、用械安全,受到社会各界尤其是行政相对人的广泛关注,由此带来的廉政风险也随时都有可能发生。因此加强检验检测领域中的廉政风险研究、分析存在的主客观原因、积极探讨预防检验检测机构人员廉政风险的有效对策,便显得尤为重要。

  8. National Museum of Dentistry exhibition: the future is now! African Americans in dentistry.

    Dummett, Clifton O


    Inspired by recently published NDA II: The Story of America's Second National Dental Association and sponsored jointly by the National Dental Association Foundation and the Colgate-Palmolive Company, an historical exhibit on dentistry in the African-American community was one of the celebrations for the Golden Anniversary of the American Academy of the History of Dentistry. This exhibit premiered on Sept. 27, 2002 in the National Museum of Dentistry located on the medical/dental campus of the University of Maryland in Baltimore. The Museum recently became an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution. Contents of the exhibit were photographs, charts, artifacts, memorabilia, etc. These materials presented an overview of African-American activities in dental education, research, patient care, general practice, dental specialities, military service, and public health. Also included were inter-racial relationships, socioeconomic developments, and participation in civil rights endeavors that played a major role in changing out-dated accepted customs. The exhibit's purpose was to celebrate dentistry's ministrations as a health professional among African Americans in particular and the nation at large over the past two centuries. Respect for and progress of black dentists paralleled that of black physicians who were instrumental in including dentist and pharmacists as equal members in the National Medical Association since the latter's inception in 1895.

  9. Globalização e poder de estado: circulação internacional de elites e hierarquias do campo jurídico brasileiro

    Fabiano Engelmann


    Full Text Available Prenant comme point de départ la problématique de la mondialisation des travaux d'experts concernant l'État, on examine les conditions d'internationalisation du champ juridique brésilien visant surtout le rapport entre le capital international mobilisé par les juristes et la hiérarchisation dans ce champ. Cette analyse part surtout de la comparaison des trajectoires universitaires, professionnelles et politiques de trois segments représentatifs de l'élite juridique: enseignants dans les cours de doctorat en droit, avocats associés aux plus importants cabinets juridiques et ministres du Supérieur Tribunal de Justice et du Supérieur Tribunal Fédéral. Les divers liens avec l'espace international peuvent être rapportés aux différentes positions dans le champ juridique brésilien et à leur relation avec l'espace politique et économique.

  10. 朴槿惠政府外交趋向%New Diplomatic Tendencies of Park Geun-hye Administration



    Under the influence of her father Park Chung-hee, South Korean President Park Geun-hye will carry out pragmatic foreign policies which is to continue the strengthening with neighbouring four big nations. However, the priorities will be adjusted to:US, China, Japan and Russia. Park Geun-hye Administration will abandon the tough stance of last ad-ministration and practise the parallel policy of “stress and dialogue” in or-der to defuse the tension between North Korea and South Korea.This is to create a helpful environment for economic growth and new develop-ment.%韩国总统朴槿惠深受其父前总统朴正熙的影响,将大力推行“实用主义”的外交政策,即继续推行前届政府的加强与周边四大国的外交政策,但重点排序调整为美、中、日、俄;变上届政府对朝鲜一味强硬施压做法,用“施压・对话”双轨并行政策,缓和南北关系。以期最大限度地得到有利于经济发展的外部环境,使韩国获得新的发展。

  11. On the Regulation of Discretionary Administrative Act by the Principle of Proportionality%论比例原则对裁量行政行为的规制



    行政的精髓在于裁量,但裁量同样会产生诸多问题,如何规制裁量行政行为,在自由裁量与依法行政之间保持平衡,是现代行政法的重要课题。行政裁量因其远司法的特性,使得法律的直接调整变得困难,但通过以合理性为直接追求的比例原则对裁量行政行为进行规制,则可以间接地将自由裁量引入行政法治的轨道。%The essence of administration is discretion, which will also produce many problems. How to regulate discretionary administrative act in order to maintain a balance between discretion and ad-ministration according to law is an important issue of modern administrative law.Because of its far-judicial feature the administrative discretion is difficult to be directly adjusted by the law.Through the principles of proportion focusing on rationality, administrative discretion behaviors can be regulated, and indirectly guided to the track of law.

  12. The weathering of a sulfide orebody: Speciation and fate of some potential contaminants

    Courtin-Nomade, A.; Grosbois, C.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.C.; Beny, J.-M.; Foster, A.L.


    Various potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb and Zn have been remobilized by the weathering of a sulfide orebody that was only partially mined at Leona Heights, California. As a result, this body has both natural and anthropogeni- cally modified weathering profiles only 500 m apart. The orebody is located in a heavily urbanized area in suburban Oakland, and directly affects water quality in at least one stream by producing acidic conditions and relatively high concentrations of dissolved elements (e.g., ??500 ??g/L Cu, ??3700 ??g/L Zn). Micrometric-scale mineralogical investigations were performed on the authigenic metal-bearing phases (less than 10 ??m in size) using electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA), micro-Raman, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (??XAS), scanning X-ray diffraction ((??SXRD) and scanning X-ray fluorescence (??-SXRF) mapping techniques. Those measurements were coupled with classical mineralogical laboratory techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Authigenic metal-bearing phases identified are mainly sulfates (jarosite, epsomite, schwertmannite), Fe (oxy-)hydroxides (goethite, hematite and poorly crystalline Fe products) and poorly crystalline Mn (hydr-)oxides. Sulfates and Fe (oxy-)hydroxides are the two main secondary products at both sites, whereas Mn (hydr-) oxides were only observed in the samples from the non-mining site. In these samples, the various trace elements show different affinities for Fe or Mn compounds. Lead is preferentially associated with Mn (hydr-)oxides and As with Fe (oxy-)hydroxides or sulfates. Copper association with Mn and Fe phases is questionable, and the results obtained rather indicate that Cu is present as individual Cu-rich grains (Cu hydroxides). Some ochreous precipitates were found at both sites and correspond to a mixture of schwertmannite, goethite and jarosite containing some potentially toxic trace elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn. According to the trace

  13. Let’s get back to work: survival analysis on the return-to-work after depression

    Vemer P


    Full Text Available Pepijn Vemer,1 Clazien A Bouwmans,1 Moniek C Zijlstra-Vlasveld,2 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis,2–4 Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen1 1Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 2Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos-institute, Utrecht, 3Tilburg University, Tranzo, Academic Centre 'Geestdrift', Tilburg, 4Clinical Centre for Body, Mind and Health, Tilburg, The Netherlands Purpose: Absence from work due to mental disorders is substantial. Additionally, long-term absence from work is associated with a reduced probability of return-to-work (RTW. Major depressive disorder (MDD is a prevalent condition in Dutch occupational health care settings. An early estimate of the prognosis regarding RTW in patients with MDD could serve both as a point of departure for the identification of high-risk cases and as an instrument to monitor the course of the disorder and of RTW. In the current study, we aimed to assess the added value of health-related quality of life (HRQoL and severity of depression to predict the time to RTW. Patients and methods: Data were derived from a prospective longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a collaborative care treatment in sick-listed workers with MDD. We included demographic, job-related, and health-related variables. Severity of depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale-9 (PHQ-9. HRQoL was measured using two generic preference-based instruments, the EuroQol 5-Dimension (EQ-5D™ and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. A survival model was constructed by applying different survival functions to assess the best fit for the data. Additionally, survival analyses were performed to assess the added value of the two HRQoL measures and depression severity for predicting RTW. Results: Females and older patients had a longer time to RTW. The same was true for patients with a full-time job and

  14. Resultados y retos en salud pública ante la alerta por Ébola: una perspectiva desde Cataluña

    Mireia Jané


    Full Text Available El brote de enfermedad por virus Ébola iniciado en Guinea Conakry y notificado a la Organización Mundial de la Salud en marzo de 2014 ha sido el mayor documentado hasta la fecha. Su extensión a países limítrofes y el riesgo de expansión fuera del continente africano hicieron que, en agosto de 2014, fuese declarado emergencia de salud pública internacional. En el marco de lo establecido por el Centro de Coordinación de Alertas y Emergencias Sanitarias, la Agencia de Salud Pública de Cataluña inició las actuaciones de salud pública en marzo de 2014 y elaboró un único protocolo para todo el territorio, consejos para viajeros y cooperantes procedentes de países afectados, y una nota informativa semanal. Asimismo, en Cataluña, se crearon el Comité de Análisis y Seguimiento de Ébola y el Comité Científico Asesor de Ébola. Se realizaron sesiones informativas y formativas a más de 9600 profesionales de la salud de diferentes ámbitos. Desde agosto de 2014, a través del Sistema de Urgencias de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Cataluña se notificaron 117 sospechas de Ébola. En tres casos se activó el protocolo con derivación al centro hospitalario de referencia, siendo los resultados descartados microbiológicamente. Se realizó la vigilancia de 95 cooperantes, un 52% mujeres y un 74% procedentes de Sierra Leona. En la gestión de alertas fueron esenciales la preparación y la planificación previas, el trabajo sinérgico entre la red epidemiológica, la asistencial y el conjunto de agentes implicados, así como la comunicación de riesgo precisa, veraz y proporcionada. Fue clave el circuito de cribado previo establecido ante la sospecha de casos por parte de los servicios de vigilancia epidemiológica. Así, solo se activó el protocolo de inmediato en aquellos casos que cumplían estrictamente los criterios. Este es un aspecto esencial a reforzar y mantener de cara a futuras alertas de salud pública internacional.

  15. Day and night glycaemic control with a bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes: a randomised crossover trial.

    Russell, Steven J; Hillard, Mallory A; Balliro, Courtney; Magyar, Kendra L; Selagamsetty, Rajendranath; Sinha, Manasi; Grennan, Kerry; Mondesir, Debbie; Ehklaspour, Laya; Zheng, Hui; Damiano, Edward R; El-Khatib, Firas H


    ]; pinsulin pump therapy in preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes in a diabetes camp setting is a promising finding. Studies of a longer duration during which children use the bionic pancreas during their normal routines at home and school should be done to investigate the potential for use of the bionic pancreas in real-world settings. The Leona M and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust and the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Grosbois, Cecile; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Beny, Jean Michel; Foster, Andrea L.


    Various potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb and Zn have been remobilized by the weathering of a sulfide orebody that was only partially mined at Leona Heights, California. As a result, this body has both natural and anthropogenically modified weathering profiles only 500 m apart. The orebody is located in a heavily urbanized area in suburban Oakland, and directly affects water quality in at least one stream by producing acidic conditions and relatively high concentrations of dissolved elements (e.g., {approx}500 mg/L Cu, {approx}3700 mg/L Zn). Micrometric-scale mineralogical investigations were performed on the authigenic metal-bearing phases (less than 10 {mu}m in size) using electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA), micro-Raman, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mXAS), scanning X-ray diffraction (mSXRD) and scanning X-ray fluorescence (mSXRF) mapping techniques. Those measurements were coupled with classical mineralogical laboratory techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Authigenic metal-bearing phases identified are mainly sulfates (jarosite, epsomite, schwertmannite), Fe (oxy-)hydroxides (goethite, hematite and poorly crystalline Fe products) and poorly crystalline Mn (hydr-)oxides. Sulfates and Fe (oxy-)hydroxides are the two main secondary products at both sites, whereas Mn (hydr-) oxides were only observed in the samples from the non-mining site. In these samples, the various trace elements show different affinities for Fe or Mn compounds. Lead is preferentially associated with Mn (hydr-)oxides and As with Fe (oxy-)hydroxides or sulfates. Copper association with Mn and Fe phases is questionable, and the results obtained rather indicate that Cu is present as individual Cu-rich grains (Cu hydroxides). Some ochreous precipitates were found at both sites and correspond to a mixture of schwertmannite, goethite and jarosite containing some potentially toxic trace elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn. According to the

  17. Estratigrafía y sedimentología de las unidades del Cretácico superior-Paleógeno aflorantes en la margen sureste del lago Viedma, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene units cropping out at the south-eastern margin of Lake Viedma, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    SA Marenssi


    Man Aike Formation precludes any attempt to interpret its depositional environment. Conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone (locally carbonaceous of the Río Leona Formation (75 m rest with erosional contact on the former. These rocks represent a rapid transition from a high energy to low energy fluvial systems that eventually graded into marginal marine environments represented by the fossiliferous sandstones of the Centinela Formation (<3m. The facies arrangement, evolution of the palaeoenvironments, and palaeocurrents suggest that these sediments were deposited during the foreland basin stage.

  18. Causality Judgment of Compensation Cases for Administrative Illegality without Evidence Citation---Comment on Sun's Claim for Administrative Compensation from the Town's Government%诉讼不举证的行政违法赔偿责任判断--对孙某诉镇政府行政赔偿案的评析



    违法行政行为造成当事人损害后果的,行政机关应当承担行政赔偿责任,这是行政赔偿诉讼的基本要义。法院以行政机关逾期未举证为由判决撤销行政行为,由此引发的行政赔偿诉讼中,判断行政机关是否应当对损害后果承担赔偿责任,与一般行政违法情形下的行政赔偿诉讼不同,需要具体分析辨别。人民法院以被告行政机关未在法定期限内提供证据、依据为由判决撤销行政行为,当事人依据该判决提起行政赔偿诉讼的,人民法院应审查认定行政行为是否实际存在违法情形,据此进行因果关系判断,得出当事人的赔偿主张是否成立的判决结论;人民法院对行政行为是否违法的审查强度,以“谁主张谁举证”原则,根据优势证据进行审查认定为宜。%When illegal administrative behavior causes the consequences of the damage to the party, the ad-ministrative organs should assume the liabilities for administrative compensation, which is the basic meaning of administrative compensation litigation. Different from common cases concerning administrative compensa-tions, careful scrutiny over detailed conditions is needed to judge whether administrative organs should be li-able on occasions where the court cancels the case for lack of proper evidence in due time. When the people's court brings in a verdict of revoking administrative action on the grounds of the defendant administrative organ failing to provide evidence within the statutory time limit, as long as the litigant takes an administrative com-pensation legal action based on that judgment, the people's court should investigate and identify whether ad-ministrative action actually breaks the law or not, and then makes causality judgment. In accordance with the conclusion, the court makes the decision of judgment whether the compensation the litigant asking for should be supported. The people's court's strength of

  19. El cant coral a Catalunya durant l’edat mitjana: les influències franceses / Le chant choral en Catalogne pendant le Moyen Âge : les influences françaises El canto coral en Cataluña durante la Edad Media: las influencias francesas Choral singing in Catalonia during the Middle Ages: French influences

    Josep Gustems Carnicer


    Full Text Available Aquest article explica les principals influències entre la música francesa i catalana durant l’Edat Mitjana. Els principals agents d’aquesta relació de nord a sud els trobem en l’expansió de la reforma gregoriana, la notació aquitana, el model d’escoles corals a les capelles, les escoles franceses de ministrers i la contractació de músics francesos a les capelles peninsulars. Els trobadors representaran una relació en totes dues direccions, pervivint llur característiques musicals en la música tradicional d’ambdós territoris. Els moviments Ars Antiqua i Ars Nova, iniciats fonamentalment a França també s’introduiran a Catalunya amb obres tan notòries com el Llibre Vermell de Montserrat _______________________________________________________ Cet article explique les principales influences qui existaient entre la musique française et la musique catalane pendant le Moyen Âge. Les principaux agents de cette relation du nord au sud se trouvent dans l’expansion de la réforme grégorienne, la notation aquitaine, le modèle d’écoles chorales dans les chapelles, les écoles françaises de ministres et l’embauche de musiciens français dans les chapelles péninsulaires. Les troubadours représentaient une relation dans les deux direc-tions, leurs caractéristiques musicales survivant dans la musique traditionnelle des deux territoires. Les mouvements Ars Antiqua et Ars Nova, qui ont commencé pour l’essentiel en France, ont aussi été introduits en Catalogne avec des œuvres aussi notoires que le Llibre Vermell de Montserrat.Este artículo explica las principales influencias entre la música francesa y catalana durante la Edad Media. Los principales agentes de esta relación de norte a sur los encontramos en la expansión de la reforma gregoriana, la notación Aquitania, el modelo de escuelas corales en las capillas, las escuelas francesas de ministreros y la contratación de músicos franceses en las capillas

  20. 10523例心血管药物不良反应报告分析%Analysis of 10523 Cases of Adverse Drug Reaction of Cardiovascular A-gents



    抽取湖南省上报国家不良反应中心的10523 份心血管药物不良反应报告,按患者年龄、给药途径、药品种类、涉及器官或系统、临床表现及转归等进行统计、分析. 结果显示:静脉滴注较其它给药途径更易发生ADR (5375 例,占51.1%);降压药引发 ADR 的比例最高(4052例,占59.3%);ADR 的临床表现以头痛、头晕等神经系统损害为主. 应加强心血管药物ADR 监测,减少 ADR的发生,促进临床合理用药.%The data of a total of 10523 ADR cases from Hunan were analyzed according to age,route of ad-ministration, types of drug and organ systems in-volved.The results showed that ADR cases caused by intravenous drip was the most (5375 cases,51.1%);ADR cases were mainly caused by antihypertensive a-gents ( 4052 cases, 59.3%); The ADR manifested mainly as lesions of Nervous system.Medical staff must strengthen the monitoring of ADR in cardiovascular a-gents to promote rational use of drug and reduce the in-cidence of ADR.

  1. Targeting the inflammasome and adenosine type-3 receptors improves outcome of antibiotic therapy in murine anthrax

    Serguei; G; Popov; Taissia; G; Popova; Fatah; Kashanchi; Charles; Bailey


    AIM:To establish whether activation of adenosine type-3 receptors(A3Rs)and inhibition of interleukin- 1β-induced inflammation is beneficial in combination with antibiotic therapy to increase survival of mice challenged with anthrax spores. METHODS:DBA/2 mice were challenged with Bacillus anthracis spores of the toxigenic Sterne strain 43F2. Survival of animals was monitored for 15 d.Ciprofloxacin treatment(50 mg/kg,once daily,intraperitoneally) was initiated at day+1 simultaneously with the ad- ministration of inhibitors,and continued for 10 d.Two doses(2.5 mg/kg and 12.5 mg/kg)of acetyl-tyrosylvalyl-alanyl-aspartyl-chloromethylketone(YVAD)and three doses(0.05,0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg)of 1-[2-Chloro- 6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-1- deoxy-N-methyl-β-D-ribofuranuronamide(Cl-IB-MECA) were tested.Animals received YVAD on days 1-4,and Cl-IB-MECA on days 1-10 once daily,subcutaneously. Human lung epithelial cells in culture were challenged with spores or edema toxin and the effects of IB-MECAon phosphorylation of AKT and generation of cAMP were tested. RESULTS:We showed that the outcome of antibiotic treatment in a murine anthrax model could be substantially improved by co-administration of the caspase-1/4 inhibitor YVAD and the A3R agonist Cl-IB-MECA.Combination treatment with these substances and ciprofloxacin resulted in up to 90%synergistic protection.All untreated mice died,and antibiotic alone protected only 30% of animals.We conclude that both substances target the aberrant host signaling that underpins anthrax mortality. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest new possibilities for combination therapy of anthrax with antibiotics,A3R agonists and caspase-1 inhibitors.

  2. Swedish Military Bases of the Cold War The Making of a New Cultural Heritage

    Per Strömberg


    Full Text Available The fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union completely transformed the military-political situation in the Nordic countries. The movement from invasion defence to input defence in Sweden has made many of the subter-ranean modern fortresses and permanent defence systems of the Cold War unnec-essary. The current problem is what the administration authorities will do with the superfluous military buildings: let them fall into decay, preserve or reuse them – and for what purpose? The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the cultural as well as spatial foundation of a new genre of heritage industry in Sweden – the cultural heritage of the Cold War – whose value is negotiated through a range of processes by the different stakeholders involved – emotional, social and cultural processes as well as legal and economic processes. The subterranean fortresses of Hemsö and Aspö are used as empirical case studies in the article. They both describe the making of a cultural heritage and illustrate the problems related to the ambitions of convert-ing cultural heritage into tourist attractions. One of the conclusions is that the previous making of the industrial cultural heritage in the 1980s and 1990s has many things in common with the one of the Cold War. The “post-military” landscape of bunkers and rusting barbed wires is regarded with the same romanticism and with similar preservation ideologies and economic interests as the post-industrial landscape was earlier. Similar negotiation issues appear, and these negotiations are carried out by similar stakeholders. The difference is that the military culture heritage of the Cold War was developed through a deeply centralized selection process directed by administration authori-ties, but was also influenced by certain persuasion campaigns and preservation actions made by local stakeholders such as retired officers and municipality ad-ministrations.

  3. Linguistic and paralinguistic marks of the emotion management and ethos-building in Ms. Marina Silva´s discourse, in the talk show Jô 11/2

    Cláudio Humberto Lessa


    Full Text Available De nombreuses études montrent comment les médias ont transformé l´éloquence po­litique, par exemple, Rubim (2004 et Courtine (2006. Le hommo politicus a adopté une rhétorique marquée par un style dialogué et familial aussi. Aujourd´hui, dans les campagnes électorales, on valorise plus l´ image et la vie privée des politiciens que leurs idées. Dans cet article, j´analyse l’extrait d´une interview donnée par la ex-première ministre Marina Silva dans le talk show Jô 11/2. J´observe les indices verbaux et para-verbaux dans le discours de Mme Silva qui puissent indiquer com­ment elle cherche à contrôler ses émotions et à projeter son ethos en se basant sur une argumentation fondée sur le logos. Pour analyser la diversité pluri-sémiotique de ce discours, j´ai utilisé les concepts de modalisation et modulation selon Vion (1992; 2003. Je comprend le discours en tant qu´activité dialogique de production textuelle. Cette activité est determinée par de facteurs historiques, culturels, elle est produite aussi dans une situation de communication dans laquelle les sujets jouent de rôles sociaux, signalisent de positionnements, exercent une attitude active et responsive dans le processus communicatif: ils répondent à des énoncés anterieurs (les divers interdiscours et ils projetent ses allocutions en prévoyant des destinateurs potencials.

  4. Regulatory Model Construction of Building Safety Based on Third-Party Assessment Mechanism%基于第三方评估机制的建筑物安全监管模式构建



    There exists deficiency in current building safety supervision mode.Therefore,the third-party assessment institution as a"chain"of building safety management is introduced into,the original divided and intermittent ad-ministration functions can be integrated into an organic network,so the supervision system can evolve into a long-lasting and adaptive management system.This paper mainly researches the construction approach and the operating mechanism of this new regulatory model,clarifies the responsibilities of the parties involved in this model.It is hoped that this model can provide a feasible solution to the public management reform on building safety supervi-sion in China.%现有的建筑物安全监管模式存在若干不足。为此引入第三方评估机构作为建筑安全管理的"链",将分属于各部门的、条块的、间歇式的行政管理职能有机地联接成一个网状的、长效的和自适应的管理系统,从而实现政府行政监督与现场技术监督的分离,有效地利用监管资源。文章探讨了新的监管模式的构建途径、系统运行机制及各相关子系统的职责,期冀该模式能为政府机构改革提供监管模式参考。

  5. Face of Justice in USA. Administrative Judges%美国的正义之脸:行政法官



    法律是实现正义的重要手段,法院的法官则代表着正义。随着行政机关被赋予了行政裁决的准司法权力,主持行政裁决的行政官员们也日趋受到关注,因为他们职责的履行同样也决定着正义是否能被真正实现。美国行政法官在社会中扮演着越来越重要的角色,虽然他们没有普通法院的法官地位显赫,但由于其在实现正义上有着不可替代的作用,行政法官越来越倍受人们的尊重。%Law is the significant means for realization of justice and the judges represent justice. The ad ministrative agencies are authorized with the quasijudicial power to make administrative adjudication. The officials presiding the administrative adjudications are increasingly attracting the public's attention, since the true realization of justices also depends on these officials performance of their duties. The administra tive judges in the United States are playing an increasingly significant role in the society. Although they are not as prominent as their counterparts in the court, the administrative judges win more respect than be fore.

  6. 破产法中法院审判职能的理性回归与改革路径探析%Bankruptcy Court Judge in the Function of the Rational Return and Reform Path in this Pape



    本文认为,新破产法对法院的职能定位存在着公权越位和私权错位的立法失误。当前破产法中法院职能应向"去行政化"与"去民事化"方向改革,以实现破产审判职能的理性回归。在"去行政化"改革方面,可以在现行司法行政体系内设置破产管理人监管处(科)的司法行政管理部门,并推行破产管理人执业许可制度;在"去民事化"改革方面,在破产管理人的选任和报酬确定上,则应实行以债权人会议决定为主、人民法院指定为辅的立法模式。%The functional orientation of new bankruptcy law exists offside public rights and proprietary dislocation of legislative faults. The current in the law the function of the bankruptcy court should be Toward reform to "go administration is changed" and "to the civil",in order to realize the bankruptcy reform trial function the rational return.In terms of reform to "go administration is changed" , should be in judicial administrative system installed in bankruptcy administrator supervision (division) in the judicial ad- ministrative departments,and promote bankruptcy administrator practice license system;In terms of reform to "to the civil" ,should determine the creditors" meeting decided to give priority to,the people's court to designate as the auxiliary legislation mode in bankruptcy administrator of the selection and reward.

  7. Les ornements liturgiques au XIXe siècle : origine, fabrication et commercialisation, l’exemple du diocèse de Moulins (Allier

    Aurore Chatard


    Full Text Available Depuis le concile Vatican II, la volonté de l’Église catholique de tendre vers une plus grande simplicité pour réduire la distance, tant physique que psychologique, entre ses ministres et l’ensemble des fidèles a contribué à abandonner certains fastes de la liturgie. Aujourd’hui, l’étude des ornements liturgiques rend compte de leur place au cours des rites et de l’attention portée à leur réalisation. Le XIXe siècle est souvent considéré comme l’âge d’or de leur confection. Une recherche menée dans le diocèse de Moulins a permis de mettre au jour la richesse et la diversité des collections de cette époque, ainsi que le renouvellement de la portée symbolique et politique dont ils ont fait l’objet.Since the II Vatican Council, the wish of the Catholic Church for simplification in order to reduce the distance, both physically and psychologically, between their Ministers and all the believers, contributed to abandon some complex aspects of the liturgy. Nowadays, the liturgical ornaments studying, reports their role during the rites and the particular attention paid to their realization. The XIXth century is often considered as the golden age of their confection. A research led in the diocese of Moulins, allowed to reveal the wealth and the variety of this period’s collections, as well as the renewal of their symbolic and political mean.

  8. 对企业国有资产相关法律问题的思考%Thinking on the Legal Problems Related to State-owned Assets



    State owned assets refer to the assets that belong to the state.Countries,as a representative of all the people's will and interests,enj oy the rights of possession,use,disposal and the management of all the state-owned assets.Enterprises owned by the whole people,ie:state-owned enterprise,whether it's a direct investment enterprise or made by the production and business operation activities,all belong to the country.The transfer of the state-owned property right mainly involves the following problems:the legal practice to conduct legal due diligence work of the target enterprise;review of the state-owned property right transaction contract;ad-ministrative confirmation of state-owned property rights transfer transaction.%国有资产是指属于国家所有的资产。国家作为全体人民意志和利益的代表,对全体人民共同所有的国有资产享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。全民所有制企业即国有企业,其资产不论是国家直接投入的,还是企业通过生产经营活动取得的,均属国家所有。国有产权转让主要涉及以下法律实务问题:一是就国有产权转让的标的企业开展法律尽职调查工作;二是对国有产权交易合同的审查;三是国有产权转移的行政确认事务。

  9. 体育电子政务平台软件方案评价指标体系构建%Establishment on Software Scheme Evaluation Index System of Sport E-government Platform

    贾文伟; 徐光宪


    体育电子政务平台是实现体育信息资源共享、推进体育行政管理和体育项目管理信息化、加强体育赛事管理和体育场馆建设的重要手段。针对体育电子政务建设软件方案选择中存在的问题,文中进行了三个方面的研究。首先,分析体育电子政务平台软件体系结构,并对其组成部分进行了简要说明;然后,对评价指标体系进行描述并建立了评价指标体系层次分析结构模型;最后,建立了相邻指标比较法的数学模型,运用该方法计算评价指标的权重。%Sport E-government platform is an important means of achieving the sport information resource sharing,promoting sport ad-ministration management and sport project management information,strengthen sports event management and stadiums construction. In connection with problem in sport E-government construction software option,carry on three aspects of the research. Firstly,analyze sports E-government platform software architecture,carry on a brief description of its components. Then describe the evaluation index system and establish the structure model of evaluation index system level analysis. Finally,establish mathematical model of the adjacent indicators of comparative method,using this method to calculate the weight of the evaluation.

  10. 行政伦理学研究方法论建构的若干问题%Some Issues on Constructing Research Methodology of Administrative Ethics



    当前行政伦理学研究主要有三种方法:思辨推论、历史研究和调研统计。本文认为依靠思辨推论进行研究与行政学探索客观规律的目的南辕北辙,事实上不可能得出确切结论;而后两种方法各有利弊,可以相互弥合补充。但还需要根据经验资料这一研究来源来具体分析研究中的难点,再立足行政伦理学理论架构,汲取管理学、历史学、统计学等相关学科的方法论研究成果,构建新的方法论框架。%Currently the administrative ethics mainly has three approaches:speculative reasoning , historical study , investi-gation and statistical research .The article emphasizes that speculative reasoning is just the reverse of the purpose of science of ad -ministration exploration , which in fact cannot draw any accurate conclusion .But historical study , investigation and statistical re-search have their advantages and disadvantages;moreover, they can complement each other .However, when doing the specific a-nalysis of the difficulties , we need the source of experience material , theoretical framework of administrative ethics and achievements of the methodology of the management , history, statistics and other related subjects in order to build a new framework for the meth-odology.

  11. 联合国制裁措施国内执行的法律框架及实践困境%The Legal Framework of Domestic Implementation of UN Sanctions and the Pragmatic Dilemma

    吴燕妮; 刘筱萌


    联合国制裁机制成功的核心,在于各个国家的普遍遵从,但在我国目前的国内法律体系上,执行联合国制裁却存在着相当的空白。而在我国的实践中,也往往通过外交部通知函和行政文件的形式笼统宣示对联合国制裁的执行,事实上并不利于对联合国制裁措施的良好执行。从利于我国法律体系的完善、提升我国负责任大国的形象角度出发,应当在统一框架性授权立法的基础之上,建立我国的联合国制裁措施国内执行体系。%The compliance of member countries is essential to the international sanctions. However,there are con-siderable gaps in China's domestic legal system,concerning the relationship between the international law and do-mestic law. No constitutional provisions have been taken to clarify the issue,but scattered in various ordinary laws. And the practice of implementing UN sanctions has often been done through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs'notifica-tion letters,and administrative documents in the form of a general declaration of the implementation of United Na-tions sanctions. Even in some sensitive sectors,the implementation means of United Nations sanctions are still ad-ministrative normative documents,rather than legal means.

  12. 高度重视临床研究伦理平台建设,大力推进我国CAP评估%Attach Great Importance to Clinical Research Ethics Platform Construction, and Vigorously Promote China CAP Assessment

    白桦; 王思成; 熊宁宁; 张金钟; 张忠元; 徐春波


    2012年9月国家中医药管理局正式委托世界中医药学会联合会组织开展“中医药临床研究伦理审查平台评估”(CAP)。通过对已完成评估的20家医疗卫生机构的伦理审查平台情况进行综合分析,结合当前美国的伦理监管体系,论述我国自主评估品牌CAP的重要特点,“以评促建”和“持续改进”的实践与受益,以及大力推进CAP评估的重要意义。%In September 2012, the "Assessment for Ethics Review of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Re-search with Human Participants" (named CAP, Chinese medicine assessment human research protection system) was officially commissioned to the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies to organize by the State Ad-ministration of TCM. Through the assessment of 20 medical institutions, a comprehensive analysis on ethical re-view platform was conducted. Combined with current regulatory system of ethics in the U.S., this article discussed independent assessment on important CAP features of local brands, the practice and benefit of "construction pro-motion based on assessment" and "continuous improvement," as well as the importance of vigorously promote CAP assessment .

  13. 领导干部心理健康教育研究探析%Research and Exploration on the Psychological Health E-ducation of Leaders and Cadres



    As a special group, cadres exercise the power to ad-ministrate the country, so the rise and fall of the country is deter-mined by whether the cadre team can work efficiently and hon-estly in a normal order, to a certain extent. Their qualities directly influence the efficiency of administration and the image of the Party and government. Cadres should not only have the ability to complete their duty and healthy physical condition, but also pos-sess healthy psychological qualities. Starting from the research status, this paper analyzed the main problems existing in the cur-rent research, and put forward future research.%作为一个特殊的群体,干部行使着管理国家的权力,国家的兴衰在一定程度上取决于干部队伍能否有序、廉洁、高效地运转。他们的素质高低也直接影响着行政效率的高低,影响着党和政府的形象。干部不仅要有完成本职工作的本领和健康的体魄,更应该具备健康的心理品质和良好的心理素质。本文从研究现状入手,分析研究目前存在的主要问题,并对未来研究作出展望。

  14. Development and evaluation of lipid nanoparticles for camptothecin de-livery: a comparison of solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid car-riers, and lipid emulsion

    Zih-rou HUANG; Shu-chiou HUA; Yueh-lung YANG; Jia-you FANG


    Aim:Camptothecin is an anticancer drug that acta against a broad spectrum of tumors. The clinical application of camptothecin is limited by its insolubility, instability, and toxicity problems. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize lipid nanoparticles with different lipid cores which can circumvent these problems. Methods: Lipid nanoparticles made of Precirol (solid lipid nanoparticles; SLN-P), Compritol (SLN-C), Precirol+squalene (nanostructured lipid carriers; NLC), and squalene (a lipid emulsion; LE) as the lipid core ma-terial were prepared. These systems were assessed and compared by evaluat-ing the mean diameter, surface charge, molecular environment, camptothecin release, and cell viability against a melanoma. The safety and storage stability of these systems were also preliminarily examined. Results: The particle size ranged from 190 to 310 nm, with the NLC and LE showing the smallest and largest sizes, respectively. The in vitro drug release occurred in a sustained manner in decreasing order as follows: LE>NLC>SLN-P>SLN-C. It was found that varying the type of inner phase had profound effects on cell viability. The SLN-P generally showed higher cytotoxicity than the free control. The treat-ment of melanomas with the camptothecin-loaded SLN-C and NLC yielded cytotoxicity comparable to that of the free form. The percentage of erythrocyte hemolysis by all nanoparticles was ≤5%, suggesting a good tolerance to lipid nanoparticles. Conclusion: The results collectively suggest that the SLN-P may have the potential to serve as a delivery system for parenteral camptothecin ad-ministration because of the sustained drug release, strong cytotoxicity, limited hemolysis, and good storage stability.

  15. The effect of sulforaphane on the levels of serum cystatin-c in acetaminophen- induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Eda Dokumacioglu


    Full Text Available Objective: The exposure of living creatures to drugs and chemicals often results in toxicity of liver and kidney. Drugs constitute an important and big part of the commu­nity and hospital-acquired kidney diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane (SFN on the levels of cystatin-C and lipid peroxidation on acetamino­phen (APAP- induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were separat­ed equally into four experimental groups: control group, SFN group, APAP group, and APAP + SFN group. In the experimental treatment groups APAP was administered oral gavage at 1 g/kg 3 h after SFN treatment in last day and, in the APAP + SFN group, SFN was administered oral gavage at a dose of 500 μg/kg exactly for three days. Rats were euthanized and sacrificed 24 h after APAP ad­ministration. Results: APAP administration showed to significant in­crease in serum BUN, creatinine, urea and LDH concen­trations as compared to the control datas indicating the induction of severe nephrotoxicity (p<0.001. SFN treat­ment significantly decreased the cystatin-C levels and lipid peroxidation compared to APAP group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The present study demonstrate that the at­tachment of SFN to the nephrotoxicity treatment protocol will be beneficial and further studies should be conducted for cystatin C which plays an important role in kidney tox­icity and disease to be routinized as a biomarker.

  16. The development of tourist attractiveness of Russian territories: modern trends and management practices

    Elena Viktorovna Frolova


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of regional management - development of tourist at-tractiveness of Russian territories. The article discusses the concept of «tourist attractiveness», substantiates the author's position on its contents. Research methods include document analysis, opinion poll experts (heads of local authorities. On the basis of statistical and sociological data identified features and problems of tourism development in the Russian Federation in of objective and subjective indicators of the tourist infrastructure. Are determined dysfunction of modern ad-ministrative practices of tourism development in the Russian Federation, basic problems are revealed of realization program-target method of management in the modern state and regional policy. The article substantiates the concluded that the implementation of program-target method of tourist attractiveness associated with a number of shortcomings that limit their effectiveness. The authors identify the following main problems of implementation of the federal target program «Development of domestic tourism in the Russian Federation (2011-2018 years»: financial risks; declarative principle for selecting regions to participate in the federal program; target to achieve economic performance indicators, not to assess the long-term prospects of such aspects of the tourist attraction as the creation and / or development of unique tourist attraction, the image of the territory; high thresholds for co-financing of expenditure obligations for the implementation of the programs of regional budgets. On the basis of comparative analysis of the results of the survey population, and experts in the article highlights the main limitations of tourism development in the Russian Federation. The authors substantiates the need for the transformation of the state policy of direct intervention to indirect regulation model in tourism development. The article defines the main directions of

  17. 生物样本库--个体化医学的基础%Biobank--the foundation of personalized medicine

    赵晓航; 钱阳明


    第四届中美临床和转化医学国际论坛(The 4th Sino-American Symposium on Clinical and Transla-tional Medicime)于2013年6月22-23日在中国北京成功举办。期间,就生物样本库建立与个体化医学的研究进展对来自美国的Vicki Seyfert-Margolis博士和Trang Gisler女士进行了专题访谈。综合新世纪转化医学中生物样本库建设与个体化医学的关系,就新世纪医学发展方向、建高质量特色样本库、生物标志发现与验证、产业化加速转化研究等方面逐一阐述。%In the 4th Sino-American Symposium on clinical and translational medicine,we have talked about biobank foundation and related research progress in personalized medicine with two experts Dr.Vicki Seyfert-Margolis and Ms.Trang Gisler who came from US Food and Drug Ad-ministration.This article summarized the relationship between the biobank foundation and persona-lized medicine in the new century.For future direction in translational research,building the specific high quality biobank,biomarker discovery and validation,and industrial acceleration are also reviewed.

  18. Gazettes sous influence : le Courrier du Bas-Rhin, la Gazette des Deux-Ponts et les sujets touchant la Russie vers 1770

    Georges Dulac


    Full Text Available Vers 1770, la campagne anti-russe du gouvernement français tend à dégrader l’image de la Russie, ce qui lèse gravement ses intérêts, notamment quand elle doit emprunter pour financer la guerre avec la Turquie. Aussi le prince Dmitri Alexeevitch Golitsyn, ministre plénipotentiaire à La Haye, se montre-t-il alors très actif sur ce terrain. Sa correspondance avec Pétersbourg témoigne de ses efforts, aux effets inégaux, pour influer sur les informations diffusées par quelques journaux : principalement le Courrier du Bas-Rhin, publié par Jean Manzon à Trèves, sous contrôle prussien, et dans une moindre mesure les deux Gazettes des Deux-Ponts, l’une politique, l’autre littéraire. Le journaliste de Trèves, qui trouve son intérêt à prendre le parti de la Russie, met en œuvre en sa faveur un discours journalistique abondant et parfois très élaboré. Cependant, la ligne du journal subit des fluctuations sensibles, selon l’évolution de la situation et à la suite de diverses interventions, dont celles du roi de Prusse et d’autre part de Stanislas-Auguste, qui pensionne un temps le journaliste. La Gazette des deux Ponts pratique l’information orientée avec plus de finesse, et, comme la gazette littéraire, accorde une large place à la matière russe : mais sur le plan politique, son traitement reste le plus souvent sous influence française et répond rarement aux vœux de D. A. Golitsyn.

  19. Item Analysis di una prova di lettura a scelta multipla della certificazione di italiano per stranieri CILS (livello B1; sessione estiva 2012

    Paolo Torresan


    Full Text Available Nell’articolo presentiamo un’analisi degli item di una prova di lettura a scelta multipla di livello B1 della certificazione CILS (Università per Stranieri di Siena. L’indagine si muove da una prima ricognizione del testo su cui si basa la prova, con uno studio delle modifiche cui è andata soggetta per mano dell’item writer, per poi ragionare sull’analisi di ogni singolo item, grazie ai dati emersi dalla somministrazione della prova a 161 studenti di italiano di livello corrispondente sparsi per il pianeta. Dalla nostra ricerca si evince che si danno un item ambiguo (# 1, per via della presenza di due chiavi, e un item di difficile risoluzione, per via della mancanza di informazioni utili per desumere il significato del vocabolo cui si riferisce (# 4.In this article we present an analysis of items in a reading multiple-choice test, B1 level, of the CILS certification (Università per Stranieri di Siena. The research starts with a preliminary recognition of the text on which the test is based, with a study of the modifications it has undergone by the item writer’s hand, and proceeds to reason about the analysis of every single item, using data from the ministration of the test to 161 students of Italian in the corresponding level, from all over the planet. From our research it emerges that the test presents an ambiguous item (# 1, with two keys, and a difficult item, without enough information to make clear the meaning of the word it refers to (# 4.

  20. 改革开放以来我国政府处置重大突发事件与提高执政能力的经验与启示%Experience and Enlightenment of China Government Disposing of Major Emergencies and Improving the Ruling Ability Since the Reform and Opening Up

    任学丽; 蒋盛云


    Since the reform and opening up,the government of China has formed a benign and inter-active relationship between the management of the major emergencies and the improvement of the ad-ministrative ability.Specifically,it is frequent emergencies caused by serious consequences and the formation of severe challenges that prompts the government to constantly innovate the ruling idea,re-form of government institutions,change the government functions,so as to improve its ruling ability. Conversely,the improvement of the ability of administration of the government has increased the burst disposal efficiency of the event,and its outstanding performance is the faster reaction speed,more ef-ficient disposal and better social effect.%改革开放以来,我国政府处置重大突发事件与提高执政能力之间,总体形成了一种良性互动关系。具体来说,就是突发事件频发所造成的严重后果和形成的严峻挑战,促使政府不断创新执政理念、改革政府机构、转变政府职能,以提高自身执政能力;政府执政能力的提高,反过来也增强了突发事件的处置效率,其突出表现就是反应速度更快、处置效率更高、社会影响更好。

  1. Relationship Between Persistent Heavy Rain Events in the Huaihe River Valley and the Distribution Pattern of Convective Activities in the Tropical Western Pacific Warm Pool

    BAO Ming


    Using daily outgoing long-wave radiation(OLR)data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad-ministration(NOAA)and the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmo-spheric Research(NCEP/NCAR)reanalysis data of geopotential height fields for 1979-2006,the relation-ship between persistent heavy rain events(PHREs)in the Huaihe River valley(HRV)and the distribution pattern of convective activity in the tropical western Pacific warm pool(WPWP)is investigated.Based on nine cases of PHREs in the HRV,common characteristics of the West Pacific subtropical high(WPSH)show that the northern edge of the WPSH continues to lie in the HRV and is associated with the persistent "north weak south strong" distribution pattern of convective activities in the WPWP.Composite analysis of OLR leading the circulation indicates that the response of the WPSH to OLR anomaly patterns lags by about 1-2 days.In order to explain the reason for the effects of the distribution pattern of convective activities in the WPWP on the persistent northern edge of the WPSH in the HRV,four typical persistent heavy and light rain events in the Yangtze River valley(YRV)are contrasted with the PHREs in the HRV.The comparison indicates that when the distribution pattern of the convective activities anomaly behaves in a weak(strong)manner across the whole WPWP, persistent heavy(light)rain tends to occur in the YRV.When the distribution pattern of the convective activities anomaly behaves according to the "north weak south strong" pattern in the WPWP,persistent heavy rain tends to occur in the HRV.The effects of the "north weak south strong" distribution pattern of convective activities on PHREs in the HRV are not obvious over the seasonal mean timescale,perhaps due to the non-extreme status of convective activities in the WPWP.

  2. 高校基层行政人员自身发展与素质能力培养研究%Research on the Personal Development and Quality Culti-vation of College Grassroots Administrators



    In recent years, the development of higher education is changing rapidly in China, and some colleges are gradually de-veloping towards international standards, resulting in increasingly severe pressure. Therefore, in order to survive and develop in the severe competition, colleges must scientifically innovate and re-form their management, and timely and effectively solve the new problems and contradictions continuously emerging in the reform. The personal development and quality of college grassroots ad-ministrators plays an important role that cannot be ignored in the development and competition of a college. If the cultivation of grassroots administrators is not enhanced, efficient management of the college cannot be realized, and its competition can hardly be improved.%近些年来,我国高等教育的发展日新月异,一些高校的发展步伐也逐步与国际接轨,所带来的压力也日益激烈。因此,高校想要在激烈的竞争中得到生存和发展,必须对学校的管理进行科学的创新与改革,改革过程中不断出现的新问题、新矛盾必须得到及时有效的解决。高校基层行政人员自身发展和素质能力水平对学校的发展和竞争力的重要作用不容忽视,如果不加强对基层行政人员的培养,就无法顺利实现对学校工作的高效管理,高校很难提升自身竞争力。

  3. 基于.NET的教务信息内容管理系统的研究与实现%Researching and Implementation of Educational Administration Information Content Management System Based on .NET

    武旭妹; 侯健; 王世梁


    内容管理系统是高校教务管理中一个重要的组成部分。现有教务信息管理系统已逐渐显现出运行缓慢,操作复杂等亟待解决的问题。.NET新技术的发展以及新的管理模式的出现有助于优化提升内容管理系统性能。基于现有资源,通过对系统数据库,平台,模块,应用进行分析与设计,可实现教务信息有重点,分层次的展示和管理,使教务信息管理工作更加有序高效进行。%Content management system is an important part of university educational administration. The current educational ad-ministration information management system has gradually appeared the problem which needs to be solved urgently, such as slow running, complex operation and so on. The development of new technology of .NET and the emergence of new manage-ment mode will help to optimize and improve the performance of the content management system. The data base, platform, mod-ule and application are designed basing on the existing resources .And finally presented is a system which can realize focused hi-erarchical educational administration information display and management and make educational administration information management work more orderly and efficient.

  4. 1930年代南京国民政府行政效率运动研究%Study on the Administrative Efficiency Reform of the Nanjing National Government in the 1930’s



    南京国民政府建政之后,为提高行政效率,塑造积极有为的万能政府,曾就如何提高行政效率展开了讨论与实践。从“政体学”到“行政学”的理论发展以及国民党统治的现实需要,是国民政府行政效率运动的理论基础与实践动力。行政效率研究会及其机关刊物《行政效率》、《行政研究》,发挥了主要的引导作用。行政效率运动对政府的促进作用是有限的,但在公文文书改良方面有了进步,客观上也促进了行政现代化的发展。%After its foundation,the Nanjing National Government had carried out discussion and practice on the increase of ad-ministrative efficiency in order to improve work efficiency and create a positive and promising universal government image.The theoretical basis and practical motive behind this reform were the theory development from polity theory to administrative science and the realistic need of Kuomintang’s rule.And in the movement,the Administrative Efficiency Research Association and its journals “Administrative Efficiency”and “Administrative Study”played a major guiding role.In practice,its effect in helping the government out was little,but progress was made in the improvement of official documents as well as in its objective promo-tion of administrative modernization.

  5. 行政法理论基础之再构思--以公私合作为视角%The Reframe of Theoretical Basis of Administrative Law:From the Perspective of Public-Private-Partnerships



    行政法理论基础作为行政法学界多年争论的焦点,已形成多种理论学说,如控权论、管理论,以及目前影响甚大的平衡论等。公私合作的兴起和发展,带来行政法理念、基本原则和主体制度等方面的革新,公共服务质量成为新关注点。公共服务质量作为行政法理论基础,满足行政法理论基础的三个条件,即能够成为行政法产生、存在和发展的基础,揭示行政法本质特征,并且在经济基础的变化之下稳定不变。%The theoretical basis of administrative law always been debated by the educational circles of ad-ministrative law, form lots of opinions such as‘theory of public interests’ ‘theory of public affairs’ ‘theory of public power’ ‘theory of administrative’ and‘theory of balance’ that make a great influence nowadays, unable to decide which is right, can’ t form the theory that universally acclaimed and keep stability.The ar-ticle is established in reforms in administrative law that on the background of public-private-partnerships, combine some past ideas, reframe theoretical basis of administrative law, consider that theoretical basis of administrative law is the quality of public services.

  6. Variedades de governos de coalizão no presidencialismo: Chile , 1990-2010

    Carlos Huneeus


    Full Text Available Cet article analyse les gouvernements chiliens de coalition sous trois présidents appartenant à la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia [Alliance de Partis pour la Démocratie] (1990-2010. Il concentre son attention sur le rôle du président et des partis. L'analyse prend en considération le contexte d'un système politique où le président n'agit pas seul, mais avec ses ministres; Il n'est pas seul, car il doit tenir compte des autres institutions, étatiques ou para-étatiques, qui limitent son autonomie de décision. L'article analyse également l'architecture institutionnelle et le leadership présidentiel, une combinaison de facteurs peu pris en considération para les études sur le présidentialisme en Amérique Latine. Or ils ne peuvent être omis car les décisions centralisées propres au présidentialisme varient selon le style de chaque président. On en veut pour preuve l'analyse de l'organisation me vigueur sous les présidents PatricioAylwin, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, Ricardo Lagos et Michelle Bachelet. Un ordre institutionnel admettant quatre gouvernements dotés de particularités propres (gouvernement de coalition pour les trois premiers, à parti unique pour le dernier qui peuvent être expliqués par les divers styles présidentiels et leurs différents rapports avec les partis.

  7. 浅析我国基层公务员职业倦怠原因及对策%Analysis of the Reason and Its Countermeasures of Junior Civil Servants' Job Burnout in Our Country



    Job burnout is as a universal career issue which every industry may encounter. Job burnout not only affects the health of the grass-roots civil servants,but also affects their working quality and efficiency,related to the governance and ad?ministrative efficiency of the government. The paper describes the coexistence of the heat exam of civil service and job burn?out,analyzes job burnout due to promotion difficulties,work pressure,relatively low wages of civil servants and their not es?tablishing correct professional values and other reasons,and puts forward countermeasures to relieve and prevent job burnout based on the actual situation.%职业倦怠作为一种普遍性职业问题,是每一个行业都可能会遇到的.职业倦怠问题不仅会影响基层公务员自身的身心健康,而且还会影响着基层公务员的工作质量和效率,关系到政府的执政水平和行政效能,文章通过介绍我国公务员报考热与公务员职业倦怠并存的现状,分析了基层公务员由于晋升困难、工作压力大、工资待遇比较低和基层公务员个人没有树立正确的职业价值观等原因而产生了职业倦怠,并针对基层公务员职业倦怠的实际情况,提出了相应的对策.

  8. 1952-2011年合浦县疟疾疫情分析和控制措施探讨

    谭妍; 徐智


    目的分析合浦县疟疾防治效果,评价疟疾防治措施,为制订疟疾对策提供科学依据。方法收集合浦县1952年到2011年疟疾疫情和控制策略资料进行整理、统计、分析。结果经过50多年的综合性防治,发病率不断下降,自1968年起发病率就处于1/万以下,1999年经自治区卫生厅组织考核,达到基本消灭疟疾标准。结论疟疾的发病率得到了有效的控制,但应继续加强流动人口的管理,进一步巩固灭疟成果。%Objective To provide scientific foundation for forMulating counterMeasures against Malaria by analyzing he effects and evaluating the Measures of preventing and treating the disease of Malaria inhepu County.Methods Collecting sorting out and analysing the data of epideMic situation of Malaria and control tactics inhepu county froM 1952 to 2011. Results After More than 50 years’ coMprehensive prevention and treatMent,the incidence of Malaria inhepu countyhas been keeping falling.The incidence of Malariahas been less than 1/10000 since 1968.Checked by he Sanitation DepartMent ofguangxi Province in 1999.Malaria was basically eliMinatedhepu county.Conclusion The incidence of Malaria inhepu Countyhas been successfully controlled,but we should strengthen the adMinistration of transient population and consolidate the achieveMents in eliMinating Malaria.

  9. 食品安全风险警示的司法监督及其改进%Judical Supervision of Food Safety Risk Warning and Its Improvement



    As a new risk control measure , the food safety risk warning should also be judicially supervised . The justiciability of the food safety risk warning is not the same concept as the judicial review of food safety risk ac -tion.Elements such as the “power dislocation”,“judicial preference”,“uncertainty” etc greatly reduce the super-vision capability of judicial organs over the safety risk warning action .In order to solve this problem , preventive ad-ministrative suit should be introduced , frequency of the application of the administrative principles should be im-proved, and the “three-step review model” of the infringement of food safety risk warning should be created .%食品安全风险警示作为一种新兴的风险规制手段应接受司法监督。食品安全风险警示行为的可诉性与食品安全风险警示行为的司法审查并不是同一概念。“权力错置”“司法偏好”“不确定性”等因素大大消解了司法机关对食品安全风险警示行为的监督能力。为了克服食品安全风险警示司法监督的现实困境,必须引入预防性行政诉讼、提高行政法原则适用频率以及构造食品安全风险警示侵权的“三阶审查模式”。

  10. Les procès contre le sanctuaire Yasukuni The trials of WW2 veterans’ families against the Yasukuni shrine

    Nobumasa Tanaka


    Full Text Available Le sanctuaire Yasukuni a été fondé à Tôkyô en 1869 par l’empereur Meiji pour célébrer la mémoire des guerriers japonais tombés au combat pour l’empereur et la patrie. Etablissement religieux chargé d’honorer les hauts faits de ces « âmes héroïques », il fut longtemps le symbole du militarisme japonais. Or, parmi les familles qui ont perdu l’un des leurs au cours de la guerre d’agression menée par le Japon en Asie, certaines ont engagé des poursuites contre l’administration du Yasukuni, afin d’obtenir que les noms de leurs proches soient radiés des listes du sanctuaire. Cet article retrace l’historique des procès engagés par ces familles, en examinant au passage les plaintes déposées contre le caractère anticonstitutionnel des visites répétées du Premier ministre Koizumi au Yasukuni.The Yasukuni shrine was founded in Tokyo in 1868 by the Emperor Meiji to celebrate the memory of Japanese warriors fallen during battles for the Emperor and the country. As religious institution devoted to honor these “brave souls”, it became the symbol of Japanese militarism. However, among the families who lost relatives during the war, some have sued the administration of Yasukuni to get the names of their relatives deleted from the lists of the shrine. This article describes the genesis of those trials and exams also the anti-constitutional nature of the repeated visits of Prime Minister Koizumi to Yasukuni.

  11. Effectiveness Study on College English Learning in the Perspective of Fragmented Learning%移动碎片化学习视域下大学生英语学习的有效性研究--以广东行政职业学院为例



    Fragmented Learning is a new characteristic in the era of mobile Internet. With its flexibility in learning methods, diversity in learning contents and pertinence with learning objectives, it has become an important learning method among common people, especially people of young age. With a probe into the learning behavior and attitude of college students, we have observed that mobile fragmented learning has been an important method for college English learners. An empirical study was carried out in Guangdong Vocational Institute of Public Ad-ministration, by statistical analysis, questionnaire survey and case tracking. The results showed that mobile frag-mented learning were effective in improving college English learning.%碎片化是移动互联网时代学习的新特点,碎片化学习因其学习方式的灵活性、学习内容的丰富性以及学习目标的针对性,正成为普通民众,特别是年轻学生的重要学习方式。通过调查大学生的英语学习行为与学习态度,发现移动碎片化学习正成为大学生英语学习的重要方式。以广东行政职业学院学生为研究对象,通过教学实证研究,从统计分析、问卷调查以及个案追踪等几个方面,证实了移动碎片化学习有助于大学生英语学习效果的提升。

  12. 固定资产会计准则与税法差异研究%Study on the Difference of Fixed Assets between Accounting Standards and Taxation

    曹越; 刘金; 罗腾


    The difference of develop goals and principles between accounting standards and taxation results in many differences when companies process the accounting transactions and tax treatment on the fixed asset. By comparing, we know that the differences are mainly in these aspects: the recognition, initial measurement, subsequent measurement and disposal etc. It affects the calculation about taxable income and tax payable, and increases companies' financial workload and the difficnlty of monitoring of tax department. We suggest that based on the respect for difference, strengthening the co- ordination of accounting standards and taxation, and improving the effectiveness and efficiency of accounting and tax ad- ministration are the top priority.%企业会计准则与税法制定目标与原则的不同导致固定资产会计与税务处理存在诸多差异。这种差异主要表现在固定资产确认、初始计量、后续计量以及处置等方面,并影响企业应纳税所得额和应交所得税的计算,增加企业的财务工作量和税务部门的税务监管难度。建议在尊重差异的基础上,加强会计准则与税法的协调,提高会计处理与税收征管工作的效果和效率。

  13. Sociology of Law Perspectivity in Action Selection of Administrative Law Enforcement Personnel%行政执法人员行动选择的法社会学透视



    行政执法人员在进行行动选择时,不仅受到规范性因素的指引,也受到非规范性因素的制约,良好行政执法关系的形成必须是这两类因素合理互动的结果。由此,于现实主义法学理论中获得启示,从法社会学的视角分析行政执法人员的行动选择,总结出影响行政执法人员行动选择的四大规范性要素和四大非规范性要素,揭示出行政执法实际上是规范性因素和非规范性因素争夺控制权的过程。%In the process of action selection,administrative law enforcement personnel is not only guided by the“normative ele-ments”,also restricted by the“non-normative elements”. The good relationship between law enforcement agencies and the ad-ministrative relatives must be the result of the interaction of the two factors. Inspiration is got from the legal realism. Sociology of law perspectivity in action selection of administrative law enforcement personnel is used. The impact of administrative law en-forcement personnel action selection of the four“normative elements”and four“non-normative elements”are summed up. It reveals that the administrative law enforcement is actually process for control between“normative elements”and“non-norma-tive elements”.

  14. 我国毒驾规制的行政法反思%Introspect on Administration Law of Driving after using Drugs



    毒驾问题是继醉驾问题后又一个公共话题。在未经由行政法规制而将毒驾直接入刑的做法是与现代刑法谦抑主义相悖的,基于此,我国毒驾规制采用行政规制手段,并体现在事先性驾驶禁止的法规范之中。这种“以权利换管理”的规制模式直接违反我国《禁毒法》的相应规定,且对毒驾问题采用行政事先审查办法予以解决,这不符合行政许可的一般法理,也不符合实践的发展需要。因此,毒驾规制的重心应当实现从行政事先强制性禁止向事后的行政严惩转变。%"Driving after using drugs" is a new problem after "Driving in drunken state". Without the permit of administrative rules, putting the behavior in the criminal law directly is a breach to the modesty-and-restraint principle of criminal law. According to this, this driving offence is ruled by the administration regulations, and embodied in the forbidden driving behaviors. This kind of"Management Impairs Right"rule directly breaches the Anti-drugs Law. Besides, administrative check on this driving behavior after using drugs is not adopted in the ad-ministrative law and is not fit for the need of factual development. Therefore, the focus of preventing this offence should turn into the punishment after incidents form the administration compulsive forbiddance in advance.

  15. “官员型”高管、公司业绩和非生产性支出——基于国有上市公司的经验证据

    逯东; 林高; 黄莉; 杨丹


    This paper explored that the chairman of director board and the CEO in the SOEs can affect the enter- prise significantly, whether their former administrative experience will affect the performance of the company. We find firstly the administrative experienced executives do harm the corporate performance; secondly the ad- ministrative experienced executives put more resources into nonproductive activities, which bring more nonpro- ductive expenditures, results in more political costs and agency costs. The empirical evidences in the paper shows that the personnel control intervened by the government twists the regular top executives motivation mech- anism, and it do harms the allocation efficiency of resources.%本文考察了国有上市公司的最高管理层——董事长和总经理,其过去是否具有官员经历对公司经营的影响。研究发现:(1)“官员型”高管会损害公司业绩;(2)基于组织任命约束下的政治目标和个人利益追求,“官员型”高管会把更多的资源配置在非生产性活动上,给企业带来更多的非生产性支出,产生了更大的政治成本和代理成本。本文的经验证据表明,政府干预下的人事控制扭曲了正常的企业高管激励机制,损害了资源的配置效率。

  16. Colaborar con África: la experiencia del retorno Work with Africa: The experience of returning

    Carmen Jerez Molina


    Full Text Available El Hospital de San Juan de Dios colabora desde 2002 con el St. John of God Hospital en Mabesseneh (Sierra Leona cuando éste retoma la actividad asistencial tras la guerra civil del 1991. Parte de la colaboración consiste en enviar cada dos meses un pediatra y una enfermera. Todos estos profesionales inician el proyecto con un concepto de salud occidental, con ideas de cambio... Al volver ¿Qué ha sucedido? ¿Han cambiado el mundo africano o éste les ha cambiado? De estos interrogantes parte nuestra investigación. Metodología: Se realizaron entrevistas no directivas a siete enfermeras colaboradoras con el programa. El enfoque utilizado en esta investigación es el fenomenológico. Los datos se analizaron mediante el enfoque de Taylor y Bogdan para el análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados: las personas entrevistadas dicen que aprendes a valorar lo que existe en el mundo occidental. La práctica enfermera al principio parece que cambia, pero el ser humano se adapta al entorno tanto cuando uno llega a África como cuando retorna. La impregnación de estas experiencias construye la persona. Encontramos escasas diferencias en personas que han ido más de una vez. Conclusiones: Las experiencias de cada persona pueden ser muy distintas teniendo en cuenta los objetivos de los que se parte. Al igual que la impregnación de lo vivido. Pero sí se hace evidente que, tras el tiempo pasado, el cambio en la práctica asistencial no es significativo.The Hospital de San Juan de Dios collaborates since 2002 with the Hospital from St. John of God Hospital in Mabesseneh (Sierra Leone when the last resumed its activity after the Civil war of 1991. A part of this collaboration consists in sending a nurse and a paediatrician every two months. All these professional start the project with a "Western" concept of Health, with some ideas of change.... When they are back at home... What has happened? Have they changed the African world or has it changed then

  17. Women and the Hanford Site

    Gerber, Michele


    When we study the technical and scientific history of the Manhattan Project, women's history is sometimes left out. At Hanford, a Site whose past is rich with hard science and heavy construction, it is doubly easy to leave out women's history. After all, at the World War II Hanford Engineer Works - the earliest name for the Hanford Site - only nine percent of the employees were women. None of them were involved in construction, and only one woman was actually involved in the physics and operations of a major facility - Dr. Leona Woods Marshall. She was a physicist present at the startup of B-Reactor, the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor - now a National Historic Landmark. Because her presence was so unique, a special bathroom had to be built for her in B-Reactor. At World War II Hanford, only two women were listed among the nearly 200 members of the top supervisory staff of the prime contractor, and only one regularly attended the staff meetings of the Site commander, Colonel Franklin Matthias. Overall, women comprised less than one percent of the managerial and supervisory staff of the Hanford Engineer Works, most of them were in nursing or on the Recreation Office staff. Almost all of the professional women at Hanford were nurses, and most of the other women of the Hanford Engineer Works were secretaries, clerks, food-service workers, laboratory technicians, messengers, barracks workers, and other support service employees. The one World War II recruiting film made to attract women workers to the Site, that has survived in Site archives, is entitled ``A Day in the Life of a Typical Hanford Girl.'' These historical facts are not mentioned to criticize the past - for it is never wise to apply the standards of one era to another. The Hanford Engineer Works was a 1940s organization, and it functioned by the standards of the 1940s. Just as we cannot criticize the use of asbestos in constructing Hanford (although we may wish they hadn't used so much of it), we

  18. Cost-utility of collaborative care for the treatment of comorbid major depressive disorder in outpatients with chronic physical conditions. A randomized controlled trial in the general hospital setting (CC-DIM

    Goorden M


    Full Text Available Maartje Goorden,1 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis,2,3 Kirsten M van Steenbergen-Weijenburg,4 Eva K Horn,5 Aartjan TF Beekman,6,7 Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen1 1Institute of Health Policy and Management (iBMG/Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 2Tranzo Department, Tilburg University, 3Clinical Centre of Excellence for Body, Mind and Health, GGzBreburg, Tilburg, 4Trimbos Instituut, Utrecht, 5Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, 6Department of Psychiatry, 7EMGO+ Research Institute VUmc, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: Major depressive disorder (MDD is highly prevalent in patients with a chronic physical condition, and this comorbidity has a negative influence on quality of life, health care costs, self-care, morbidity, and mortality. Research has shown that collaborative care (CC may be a cost-effective treatment. However, its cost-effectiveness in this patient group has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of CC for the treatment of comorbid MDD in chronically ill patients in the outpatient general hospital setting. The study was conducted from a health care and societal perspective.Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 81 patients with moderate-to-severe MDD were included; 42 were randomly assigned to the CC group and 39 to the care as usual (CAU group. We applied the TiC-P, short-form Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire, and EuroQol EQ-5D 3 level version, measuring the use of health care, informal care, and household work, respectively, at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up.Results: The mean annual direct medical costs in the CC group were €6,718 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3,541 to 10,680 compared to €4,582 (95% CI: 2,782 to 6,740 in the CAU group. The average quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained were 0.07 higher

  19. Geological control of earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador

    Tsige Aga, Meaza


    Geological control of earthquake induced landslides in El Salvador. M., Tsige(1), I., Garcia-Flórez(1), R., Mateos(2) (1)Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain, ( (2)IGME, Mallorca El Salvador is located at one of the most seismically active areas en Central America, and suffered severe damage and loss of life in historical and recent earthquakes, as a consequence of earthquake induced landslides. The most common landslides were shallow disrupted soil-slides on steep slopes and were particularly dense in the central part of the country. Most of them are cited in the recent mechanically weak volcanic pyroclastic deposits known as "Tierra Blanca" and "Tierra Color Café" which are prone to seismic wave amplification and are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to the 2001 (Mw = 7.6 and Mw = 6.7), seismic events. The earthquakes also triggered numerous deep large scale landslides responsible for the enormous devastation of villages and towns and are the source for the current high seismic hazard as well. Many of these landslides are located at distances more than 50 and 100 km from the focal distance, although some of them occurred at near field. Until now there has been little effort to explain the causes and concentration of the deep large-scale landslides especially their distribution, failure mechanism and post-rapture behavior of the landslide mass (long run-out). It has been done a field investigation of landslides, geological materiales and interpretation of aerial photographs taken before and after the two 2001 (Mw= 7.6 and Mw= 6.7) El Salvador earthquakes. The result of the study showed that most of the large-scale landslides occured as coherent block slides with the sliding surface parallel to a pre-existing fractures and fault planes (La Leona, Barriolera, El Desague, Jiboa landslides). Besides that the pre-existing fractures are weak zones controlling

  20. 外资影响我国出口产品质量的差异性研究:从一个地区市场化程度的视角



    China is going through an important period transforming from cost-based advantages to quality-based advantage. The effect of foreign investment on Chinaˊs exports quality becomes a hot topic for government and scholar. This paper examines the relationship between market-oriented degree and export quality from the view of local market-oriented index, administrative intervention and intellectual property protection. The results show that (1) low level of market-oriented degree does decrease the FDI quality spillover; (2) administrative in-tervention plays a negative impact on quality spillover. In the sample of high intervention-intensive provinces, FDI plays insignificant effect on quality improvement; (3) the impact of protection of intellectual property on FDI quality spillover is very limited. The conclusions in this paper imply that decentralization and reduction of ad-ministrative costs facing businesses is key to promote the export quality for firms.%我国正在经历从出口成本优势向质量优势转型的重要时期。外资对我国出口产品质量的影响及其差异性成为政府和学界关注的问题。本文从市场化水平、政府与市场的关系以及知识产权保护等三个方面检验了制度因素对外资质量溢出的影响。回归结果表明:(1)市场化程度低确实抑制FDI质量溢出;(2)政府干预对外资质量溢出效应产生了负面影响。在低市场化程度或者高政府干预样本组中,FDI质量溢出效应不显著;(3)知识产权保护对FDI质量溢出的影响程度非常有限。本文的结论为政策制定者提供了决策参考依据。简政放权、降低企业面临的行政成本是促进我国本土企业改善其出口产品质量的重要抓手。

  1. 制度化与人性化:社会转型期我国城市穆斯林流动人口管理服务研究%Institutionalization and Hommization:Administrative Service Research on Chinese Urban Floating Muslim Population in the Period of Social Transformation

    马冬梅; 李吉和


    在我国进入社会转型的快速发展时期,越来越多的穆斯林流动人口进入城市。穆斯林流动人口既有一般流动人口所共同面临的就业、子女教育、住房等基本社会服务需求,也有因民族文化差异而存在的宗教生活、清真食品等特殊的社会服务需求。流入地政府及相关部门应当树立以人为本,服务为先的理念,满足穆斯林流动人口合理的社会服务需求,创新穆斯林流动人口管理服务体制机制,以制度化和人性化的管理服务促进穆斯林流动人口更好地融入城市,构建我国社会转型期和谐的城市民族关系,实现各民族共同发展与繁荣。%During the fast social transformation and development in china, more and more floating Muslim population (FMP)moving into cities.FMP not only has basic social need for services in employment, children’s education, and hous-ing as well as other floating population in common, but also has special social need for services in religious life.Thus, this paper puts forward suggestions for improving the administration and services for FMP.Institutionalized and hommized ad-ministration and services, which can promote FMP integrating into urban life, construct urban harmonious ethnic relation-ship and achieve common prosperity and development of all ethnic groups.

  2. Preparation of Perfluorocarbon and Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex and Its Effect on Bovine Serum Albumins%氟碳化合物与环糊精包合物的制备及其对牛血清白蛋白的影响

    张强; 刘雪峰; 李文放; 林兆奋; 朱君


    以氟碳化合物FC-77作为模型药物,制备FC-77与β-环糊精(卢一cD)包合物。考察包合物与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)的相互作用。通过紫外-可见光谱、红外光谱、热重分析等方法研究包合物的物理化学性能。通过荧光光谱法研究包合物对BSA的荧光猝灭作用。结果为Fc-77与β-cD之间存在强烈的相互作用,从而增加了FC-77的稳定性和水中的溶解性。荧光猝灭结果显示FC-77分子能进入BSA的疏水区域。结论是以β-CD为介质,能显著改善FC-77的理化性能,使FC-77粉末化,便于制成多种剂型,扩大给药方式。%FC - 77, a kind of perfluorocarbons, was used as model drug to prepare FC - 77/β - CD inclusion complex and study its effect on bovine serum albumins (BSA). The physieochemical properties of FC -77/β- CD inclusion complex were characterized by UV - vis absorption spectra, FT - IR spectra and the thermogravimetrie thermal analysis. The interaction of FC - 77/β - CD inclusion complex and BSA was determined by fluorescence quenching technology in fluorescence methodology. FC -77 can be formed an optimal inclusion complex with eyelo- dextrin due to their strong interaction, which can improve the stability of FC -77 and increase their solubility in water. Furthermore, fluorescence quenching result shows that FC -77 can bind with BSA through FC -77 molecu-lar transferring to hydrophobic region of BSA.β - cyclodextrin, used as medium, can significantly change physico- chemical properties of FC - 77 and prepare powdery FC - 77, which result to the enlargement of the dosage and ad- ministration methods of FC -77.

  3. Courtiser Sardy

    Michèle Vinet


    Full Text Available Diplômée de l’Université d’Ottawa en Lettres françaises, en Éducation, et spécialisée en français langue seconde, Michèle Vinet a longtemps œuvré dans le domaine de l’enseignement. Au cours de sa carrière, elle a offert des formations professionnelles partout au Canada. Elle continue son implication pédagogique avec le Conseil des Ministres de l’Éducation (Canada et Patrimoine, Canada, dans le programme de Moniteurs de langues officielles. Avant de s’aventurer sur les sentiers de l’écriture romanesque, Michèle Vinet a aussi fait carrière à titre de comédienne au théâtre, au cinéma, à la télévision et à l'Internet. Son premier roman, intitulé Parce que chanter c’est trop dur, a été très bien reçu du public et de la critique. En 2008, il a été finaliste du Prix littéraire Le Droit, et du prestigieux prix Trillium de l'Ontario. Son second roman, Jeudi Novembre, a été finaliste du Prix littéraire Le Droit et lauréat du Prix Trillium, 2012, remis à Toronto, et du prix Émile-Ollivier, 2012, du Conseil supérieur de la langue française, remis à Québec dans le Salon rouge de l'Assemblée nationale à Québec. Ces romans font l’objet d'invitations à plusieurs Salons du livre, de séances de signatures, de présentations variées, de tournées, de spectacles littéraires, d'ateliers de création pour le public scolaire et les adultes ainsi qu'en milieu carcéral et chez Les Impatients à Montréal. Michèle Vinet a également publié deux nouvelles aux Éditions d'Art Le Sabord. Une troisième paraîtra bientôt dans la revue Virage.

  4. An Analysis of Measures of America Coordinates Labor Relations during Woodrow Wilson's Administration%试析伍德罗·威尔逊政府执政时期美国协调劳资关系的措施



    伍德罗·威尔逊政府执政时期美国国家政权为了维护自身的利益,在行政、立法和司法方面采取了一系列协调劳资关系的措施,主要有:伍德罗·威尔逊政府积极地协调劳资关系,设置了相关行政机构和委员会,并与劳工和工会展开了对话;国会积极地通过了一些有利于劳资关系和谐的法律,保障了劳工利益诉求的法律渠道;法院仍然坚持其保守主义的传统,同时支持了一些有利于劳方的判决。这些既是美国和平与战争体制相互转化的需要,也是美国劳资双方利益博弈的结果,影响了美国以后的劳资关系政策。%To safeguard its own interests , the national power of America took a series of measures in the ad-ministration, legislation and justice to coordinate labor relations .These measures include Woodrow Wilson's Admin-istration actively coordinated American labor relations , set up executive agencies and committees , and talked to la-bors and unions;Congress passed some laws for harmonious labor relation;Court still upheld its conservative tradi-tion, and supported some judgments in favor of labors .These measures not only adapted to the transition between peace and war systems , but also was the outcome of interest gambling between labor and management , which affect-ed the American latter policies on labor relation .

  5. An empirical study on the administrative judicial procedure%我国行政司法运行情况的实证评估



    行政司法程序对于审查行政执法行为合法性、保障行政行对人的合法权益具有重要意义。我国的行政诉讼实践能够在多大程度上实现行政司法程序的制度价值,可以通过实证评估的方法进行测量。中国司法文明指数报告项目的调研数据,反映了我国行政诉讼在及时受理起诉、符合程序公正、有效执行裁判、提供有效诉讼救济等方面的情况。通过对调研数据进行挖掘可以发现,行政司法程序的运行情况与法官形象之间存在正关联,对于这种关联可以进行多种解释。对于行政司法程序的评估,不同职业群体之间存在差异,这可以解释为视角偏差、社会信息供给负面化等原因。%Administrative judicial procedure is significantly important for reviewing the legitimacy of administrative act and protecting the legitimate interest of counterparts. It can be measured through some empirical study that, to what extent Chinese administrative judicial practice realizes these purposes. The data collected by China Justice Index Project reflects the situation of the aspects in administrative litigation such as, accepting the case timely, conforming to procedural justice, executing the verdict efifciently, and providing effective legal remedy. A further data mining suggests that, the situation of administrative judicial practice is relevant to the evaluation on judge. Specifically, breach to the administrative justice will lower the social evaluation on judge. There are many explanations for this. People of different career have distinction in their evaluation of administrative justice, which may be attributed to perspective difference or negative information-supply.

  6. Du féminin dans les discours militaires au XVIIIe siècle

    Naoko Seriu


    Full Text Available Inventer une nouvelle figure du soldat est un enjeu des réformes militaires dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle. Répondant à la volonté réformatrice des ministres, les officiers rédigent des mémoires sur ce que doit être l'homme de troupe. En marge de ces écrits, apparaissent des propos qui condamnent sévèrement les femmes, considérées comme ennemies de la discipline. La figure féminine peut également servir à stigmatiser les soldats indignes qu'il conviendrait d'habiller en femme. En faisant écho au débat sur le luxe, les officiers produisent un discours qui dévalorise les femmes, séparées d'emblée du reste de l'humanité. Si telle est la configuration qui ressort du discours, qu'en est-il des pratiques ? A travers l'analyse de quelques récits de vie militaire - émanant d'officiers et soldats - il est question de montrer comment cette catégorisation fonctionne d'une manière opératoire, l'évocation seule des femmes pouvant assurer la cohésion de cette société d'hommes.The invention of a new figure of the soldier was at stake in the military reforms of the second half of the eighteenth century. In response to the reform efforts of the ministers of war, officers wrote memoranda about what a soldier should be. At the margins of these proposals, one finds comments that denounce women as enemies of discipline. The feminine figure also appears in the denunciation of unworthy soldiers who should then be dressed as female. Echoing the debate on luxury, officers produced discourses that degrade women and situate them outside the pale of humanity. To what extent is this denunication within military discourse present in actual practice? Through the analysis of accounts and stories about military life, from both officiers and soldiers, this article demonstrates how this categorization functioned, and how the mere mentioning of woman ensured the cohesion of this male society.

  7. The Demand Analysis on 2014 BOSS System Cloudification of Communications Group Corporation%通信公司BOSS系统云化需求解析

    耿燕; 邬宏


    2014年某通信集团公司第三代规划项目在试点工作进行了包括能力开放平台建设、CRM系统云化架构改造、BOSS系统云化架构改造。为确保规划成果的可实施性及试点工作的顺利推进,集团公司总部业务支撑系统部将组织各省参与到第三代规划中并逐步落实后续试点工作。文章叙述了2014年试点中BOSS系统云化架构改造在架构、功能、技术指标方面的定义及介绍。4G时代要求需要系统更灵活更健壮,同时也要求BOSS系统能力服务化,开放能力以支撑产业链。文章说明了BOSS系统云化的各种需求,逐一分析了这些需求的具体实现方式,希望能为今后BOSS系统云化方面的各个项目提供参考。%The pilot programs of Communications Group Corporation's third-generation planning projects in 2014 contain the construction of Ability Open Platform, the transformation of CRM system cloudification architecture and the transformation of BOSS system cloudification architecture. In order to ensure that planning results can be implemented and the pilot programs can progress smoothly, group headquarters business support system department wil organize each province to take part in the third-generation planning projects and carry out the subsequent pilot work gradual y. This paper accounts for the definition and introduction of architecture, function and technical index of the transformation of BOSS system cloudification architecture in the pilot programs in 2014. The era of 4G requires that the system should be more flexible and stronger. At same time, the BOSS system is required to be ministrant, opening the ability to support the industry chain. This paper accounts for the various demands of the BOSS system cloudification and analyzes the concrete implementation of these requirements one by one, hoping to provide a reference for the later projects about BOSS system cloudification.

  8. 公安机关如何利用媒体构建良好公共关系——基于对大连市基层派出所的警务实践调研%How the public security organs use the media to build good public relatiom Research based on the police practice of the grassroots police station in Dalian



    The public security organs are the management authorities to maintain social order, while the news media is responsible for the news monitoring functions on all walks of life that the law enforcement, service activities, team management and individual behavior of the public security organs are all under its oversight. With the increasing degree of government ad- ministrative affairs, influence and credibility of the media is also growing that the public security organs gradually recognize the status and role of the media and consciously make the construction of public relations. Faced with the large number of diverse forms of media, what are the problems for the public security organs to deal with the media? How to achieve positive interaction between the.public security organs and the media? The paper started from the police practice of the grassroots police station to explore how to .achieve positive interaction between the public security organs and the media, in order to enhance the quality of the propaganda of the police officers and the capacity to respond to the media, and thus to promote further building a harmonious public relations.%公安机关是维护社会治安的管理机关,新闻媒体担负着对各行各业实施新闻监督的职能,公安机关的执法、服务活动、队伍管理以及警察的个体行为均处于其监督之列。随着政府政务公开力度的加大。媒体的影响力和公信力也越来越大,各地公安机关逐步认识到媒体的地位和作用,有意识地开展警察公共关系建设。面对数量众多,形式多样的媒体,公安机关在应对媒体中存在哪些问题?如何实现公安机关与媒体良性互动?本文从基层公安派出所的警务实践出发探讨如何实现警方与媒体的良性互动,以期提升警务人员的新闻宣传素养和媒体应对能办,从而对进一步构建和谐的公共关系有所推动。

  9. Tautinė reprezentacija Vladimiro Dubeneckio steigiamojo seimo interjere (1924 m.

    Lina Preišegalavičienė


    Full Text Available Rusų kilmės dailininkas, architektas, pedagogas Vladimiras Dubeneckis (1888–1932 gerai žinomas Lietuvoje dėl vertingo architektūrinio palikimo, kurį sukūrė mūsų kraštui gyvendamas ir dirbdamas Kaune 1919–1932 m. Straipsnio tikslas aptarti mažiau žinomą V. Dubeneckio kūrybos pusę – visuomeninių patalpų interjerus. Iki šiol mažai nagrinėta tema leis praplėsti požiūrį į žinomo architekto kūrybą, kartu suteiks papildomos medžiagos Lietuvos interjerų istorijai. Kadangi reprezentatyvumo aspektas interjeruose yra vienas iš svarbesnių konceptualių siekių, tyrimui pasirinktas Steigiamojo Seimo patalpų interjeras (1924 m.. Seimo interjero projekte daugiausia dėmesio buvo skiriama posėdžių salės įrangai ir baldams projektuoti. Straipsnyje nagrinėjama, kaip architekto atkurtos ir kūrybiškai perdirbtos praeities stilių formos bei tautodailės motyvai sąveikauja tarpusavyje, kad būtų išreikšta tautinė reprezentacija. Aptariant Steigiamojo Seimo interjero projektą pastebima tarpukariu oficialiajai reprezentacijai taikytas tautinis stilius, gvildenamos šio stiliaus ištakos interjero dizaine. Straipsnyje keliama hipotezė, kad tautinis stilius buvo visai Europai būdingo XX a. pradžios tarptautinio proceso art nauveau tęsinys, o vėliau – art deco dalis. Kadangi nagrinėjamu laikotarpiu greta tautinės reprezentacijos egzistavo ir kiti reprezentacijos tipai, siekiant juos palyginti straipsnyje paminėti dar keli tarpukario Lietuvos kultūrinės ir visuomeninės paskirties reprezentaciniai interjerai: Ministrų kabinetas ir Vytauto Didžiojo muziejus.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  10. Source of Rights to Students Administration and the Justiciability of Administrative Behaviors on the Basis of the Administrative Legal Disputes between Higher Education Institutions and Students%高校管理权权源及其管理行为可诉性--基于学校与学生之间教育行政法律纠纷的分析



    The legal disputes between higher education institutions and students can not be acceptance of case because of the vague definition of source of rights to students administration along with the effects of the theory of special power relations. The right to students administration at the public college is a public authority by nature, the source of which derives from state laws and mediations, and the autonomous power of the organization with social public authority. Some courts and academics adhere to the conclusion that the behaviors of students administration belong to inner ad-ministrative behaviors and surpass litigation. Due to the bigotry of the division between the standards of inner and outer administrative behaviors, subject to the theory of special power relations, as a matter of fact, there is no evidence indicating that the administrative legislation in our country is designed in accordance with the theory of special power relations, which should not be introduced as it is out-of-date. In the final analysis, the definition of the justiciability of administrative behaviors at higher education institutions concerns the core problem of the argumentation of administrative law relations.%校生纠纷的司法障碍源于管理权权源界定模糊以及“特别权力关系”理论的影响。高校学生管理权本质上是一种公权力,权源为国家法律法规授权和社会公权力组织的自治权。部分法院和学界坚持“学生管理行为属于内部行政行为,是不可诉的”这一结论,偏执于内外行政行为的划分标准,受困于“特别权力关系理论”,实际上,没有证据表明我国的行政立法是以“特别权力关系”理论来设计的,也不应该引入这一过时的理论,界定公立高校管理行为的可诉性最终要归结到论证行政法律关系这一核心问题。


    V. A. Kurkin


    Full Text Available Blood-red hawthorn (Crataegi fructus are a popular cardiotonic herbal materials, which widely used in medical practice in our country and abroad. In order to prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system is appropriate to prescribe herbal medicines, because they combine the breadth and softness of therapeutic action, along with the absence of a significant number of side effects and contraindications.The purpose was to study diuretic and antidepressant activity of thick fruit extract of blood-red hawthorn.Material and methods. Under laboratory conditions we obtained a thick extract of blood-red hawthorn fruits. This phytopharmaceutical was studied by us for any diuretic and antidepressant activity. Investiga- tions were carried out on white rats of both sexes weighing 200–220 g. Each experimental group consist- ed of ten animals. Study drug was administered intragastrically by stomach tube. Control in both cases served as purified water. For determination of diuretic activity, we used a thick extract of hawthorn fruits in a dose of 20 mg/kg against the background of the water load in the amount of 3% of body weight of the animal. Reference preparation was chosen dichlorthiazid 20 mg/kg. It was administered once. After ad- ministration the animals were placed in metabolic cages for urine collection for 24 hours. The study de- termined diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis, and kreatininuresis for 4 h and 24 h of the experiment. On the day of the experiment the animals of the control group was administered water load of 3%, and experi- enced – intragastrically drug in an identical amount. Animals were placed in a metabolic cage for a day. Collected 4 h and 24-h urine sample. Determined by renal excretion of water was recorded concentration of sodium and potassium by flame photometry in the fiery liquid analyzer PAG-1, creatinine – colorimet- ric method for photocolorimeter CFC-3. For determining antidepressant activity we used a thick hawthorn

  12. Study on the Improvement of Internal Governance Structure in Universities Under the Background of Anti-corruption New Normal%廉政新常态背景下高校完善内部治理结构的现实与路径



    治理不善是高校腐败行为发生的重要原因。完善高校内部治理结构是对行政权力有效制约监督的过程,也是实现高校行政权力、学术权力与民主权力良性互动的过程,契合廉政新常态的内在要求。在廉政新常态语境下,高校完善内部治理结构正面临着权力失衡、制度供给不足、改革路径依赖和传统文化负效应等现实困境。高校应从促进行政权力与学术权力耦合,完善治理制度体系,引入外生变量,推进大学治理文化建设等路径出发,完善内部治理结构,最终实现高校的“善治”。%Poor governance is an important cause of corruption occurring in universities. The improvement of the internal gover-nance structure in universities is an effective supervision of administrative power. It’s also a benign interaction among the ad-ministrative power, the academic power and democratic rights, which is an intrinsic request conforming to anti-corruption new normal. In the context of the new normal, its improvement is facing a realistic predicament, such as imbalance of power, lack of system supply, dependence of reform paths and negative effects of traditional culture. To eventually realize the scientific man-agement, colleges and universities should promote the coupling of administrative and academic power, perfect management sys-tem, introduce the exogenous variables, develop a path to construct university management culture, and improve the internal governance structure.

  13. Antinociceptive activity of transient receptor potential channel TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 antagonists in neurogenic and neuropathic pain models in mice

    Kinga SAŁAT; Barbara FILIPEK


      结论:TRP通道家族包含了不同的小鼠疼痛模型。TRP通道拮抗剂能减轻神经源性、持续性和神经病理性疼痛,但是其镇痛效果与疼痛模型有关。%The aim of this research was to assess the antinociceptive activity of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 antagonists in neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain models in mice. For this purpose, TRP channel antagonists were administered into the dorsal surface of a hind paw 15 min before capsaicin, al yl isothiocyanate (AITC), or formalin. Their antial odynic and antihyperalgesic efficacies after intraperitoneal ad-ministration were also assessed in a paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model. Motor coordination of paclitaxel-treated mice that received these TRP channel antagonists was investigated using the rotarod test. TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and SB-366791, attenuated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction in a concentration-dependent manner. At 8 µg/20 µl, this effect was 51%(P<0.001) for capsazepine and 37%(P<0.05) for SB-366791. A TRPA1 antagonist, A-967079, reduced pain reaction by 48%(P<0.05) in the AITC test and by 54%(P<0.001) in the early phase of the formalin test. The test compounds had no influence on the late phase of the formalin test. In paclitaxel-treated mice, they did not attenuate heat hyperalgesia but N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-{[(3-methylphenyl)methyl]oxy}-N-(2-thienylmethyl) benzamide hydrochloride salt (AMTB), a TRPM8 antagonist, reduced cold hyperalgesia and tactile al odynia by 31%(P<0.05) and 51%(P<0.01), respectively. HC-030031, a TRPA1 channel antagonist, attenuated tactile al odynia in the von Frey test (62%; P<0.001). In conclusion, distinct members of TRP channel family are involved in different pain models in mice. Antagonists of TRP channels attenuate nocifensive responses of neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain, but their efficacies strongly depend on the pain model used.

  14. Reflections on Mr. Fang Guoyu’s Research Methodology Embodied in Textual Criticisms and Explanations of Historical Geography of Southwestern China%关于《中国西南历史地理考释》研究方法的再思考



    Mr. Fang Guoyu,a famous historian,made groundbreaking contribution to the research on the his-tory and geography of China’s southwestern borders. His methodology for textual criticisms and explanation of his-torical geography is represented in Textual Criticisms and Explanations of Historical Geography of Southwestern China. Mr. Fang emphasizes the observance and comparison of literatures and applies the methods in the study of historical sources to the analysis of historical materials collected. Although great importance is attached to the transmission of historical sources and materials,Mr. Fang does not restrict his research to these historical materi-als. In close association with historical reality,Mr. Fang employs the Marxist approach of historical materialism to interpret factual historical activities in terms of different regional characteristics in different periods of history and to make textual criticisms and explanations of toponyms in terms of the evolution of geographical conditions and ad-ministrative divisions.%方国瑜先生是著名的历史学家,在西南边疆史地研究方面有开创性的贡献。从《中国西南历史地理考释》中可总结其历史地理考释的方法。方先生重视文献的参稽考索,将史源学方法运用于所搜集的史料,重视史源和史料流传,但又不局限于史料。他紧密结合历史实际,运用马克思主义历史唯物主义的方法,从每一个时期、每一个地区的具体情况来阐释具体历史活动,根据地理环境、政治区划的演变来考释地名。




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Providing comfort to the patient by prevention/relief of pain using various combinations of drugs thus achieving maximal benefit with minimal adverse effects is the ultimate goal of the anesthesiologist in the peri - operative period. AIM OF STUDY: To eva luate the efficacy of Magnesium Sulphate Versus Clonidine as an adjunct to Bupivicaine in Epidural Analgesia. METHODS: A total of 90 patients of either gender with ASA Grade (I , II , aged between 18 to 60 years scheduled for elective sub umbilical surgeri es were randomly assigned in a prospective double blind study to three separate groups that received epidural 0.5% Bupivicaine (19ml with 1ml of 0.9% Normal Saline or 0.5% Bupivicaine (19ml with Magnesium sulphate 50mg (1ml or 0.5% Bupivicaine With Clon idine 150 micro gram (1ml. All Patients were administered Pre - medication as per Hospital Protocol night before and morning of Surgery. Intra operative monitoring of patients included Heart - rate , ECG , SPO2 , NIBP , RR as a Base Line and follow - up after Injec tion of assigned drug. Sensory blockade was evaluated by using bilateral pinprick method , motor blockade was estimated using modified Bromage scale at 5 , 10 , 15 , 20 , 25 and 30 Minutes Interval after Epidural Administration of drug. Pain perceived was asses sed with Visual Analog Scale (VAS 0 - 10 both Intra Operatively and Post Operatively. In the event of pain with VAS >5 , top - up of 0.5% Bupivicaine alone was added. The time from onset of blockade till need for 1st top - up was evaluated. CONCLUSION: Co - ad ministration of Magnesium Sulphate (50mg to Epidural 0.5% Bupivicaine provides a predictable and rapid onset of nerve blockade without any side effects whereas co - administration of clonidine (150 micro - grams to Epidural 0.5% Bupivacaine produced prolonge d duration of anesthesia. The use of adjuvants in Epidural Aneasthesia gives a scope to improve the quality of anesthesia while minimizing the adverse

  16. Estudo da Adesão à Quimioprofilaxia Anti-retroviral para a Infecção por HIV em Mulheres Sexualmente Vitimadas Study of Adherence to Antiretroviral Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Infection in Sexually Abused Women

    Jefferson Drezett


    Full Text Available Objetivos: embora não existam dados apropriados para estabelecer sua eficácia, alguns serviços tem utilizado, profilaticamente, a terapia anti-retroviral para o HIV nos casos de violência sexual. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a aceitabilidade, tolerância e adesão a um esquema quimioprofilático para o HIV. Pacientes e método: foram avaliadas 62 mulheres vítimas de estupro e/ou atentado violento ao pudor com coito ectópico anal. Os agressores foram referidos como desconhecidos. A profilaxia foi iniciada dentro das primeiras 48 h da violência e mantida por 4 semanas, sendo administrados diariamente: zidovudina, 600 mg; indinavir, 2.400 mg e lamivudina, 300 mg. Resultados: a taxa de descontinuidade foi de 24,2%, sendo em 12 casos (80% decorrente de intolerância gástrica. Os efeitos colaterais estiveram presentes em 43 casos (69,4%, sendo as náuseas e vômitos os mais freqüentes. A complexidade posológica e o tempo de uso foram fatores possivelmente associados ao uso inadequado das drogas, ocorrendo em 10,6% dos casos. Conclusão: a taxa de descontinuidade da quimioprofilaxia foi semelhante à observada em outras indicações.Purpose: some medical institutions have been prophylactically ministrating anti-HIV therapy in cases of sexual violence, although there are no appropriate basic facts to establish its efficacy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acceptance, tolerance and adhesion of these women under a chemoprophylaxis plan for HIV. Methods: sixty-two women victims of rape and/or anal intercourse with unknown aggressors have been evaluated. Prophylaxis has been started within the first 48 h after violence and maintained for 4 weeks, with daily administration of zidovudine, 600 mg; indinavir, 2,400 mg and lamivudine, 300 mg. Results: the discontinuance rate was 24.2%, withe 12 cases (80% due to gastric intolerance. The side effects were present in 43 cases (69.4%, including nausea and vomitting as the most

  17. The Muslim Emigration in Western Anatolia L’émigration musulmane de 1914 en Anatolie occidentale

    Elçin Macar


    Full Text Available Avec les guerres balkaniques, toute la région apprit à connaître un nouveau concept : le nettoyage ethnique. Les États cherchant à homogénéiser leur population le firent de deux manières : par les traités ou par la force. Les statistiques démographiques devinrent ainsi un instrument politique et commença alors « la manipulation ethnique ». Parmi les Chrétiens anatoliens, les Grecs ottomans furent la première cible du CUP qui craignait de perdre « le dernier territoire restant ». Talat Pacha, ministre de l'Intérieur parla aux diplomates allemands de débarrasser le pays « des ennemis de l’intérieur ». Expulsions, terreur et déportations : entre 1912 et 1918, sur les deux rives de l’Égée, près de la moitié des 17,5 millions d’habitants ont été « déplacés ». Le legs le pire de cette période est la tendance des États à croire qu’ils ont le droit d’échanger ou de déporter leurs populations comme du bétail.With the Balkan Wars, the whole region was introduced to a new concept: Ethnic cleansing. States looking to homogenize their population did this in two ways: either by treaty or by force. Population statistics thus became one political instrument and then started the “ethnic engineering”. Among Anatolian Christians, Ottoman Greeks were the first target of the CUP who feared losing the “last remaining territory”. Talat Pasha, Minister of the Interior, talked to German diplomats about ridding the country of “internal enemies”. After expulsions, terrorism and deportations between 1913 and 1918, on both sides of the Aegean, almost half the population of 17.5 million changed places. The era’s worst legacy is the idea that states have a right to exchange or deport their populations like property.

  18. Legislation and regulations of food additives in the United States and its inspiration%美国食品添加剂的安全监管及其启示

    刘筠筠; 杨嘉玮


    食品添加剂在食品行业中占有重要地位,它的使用直接关系着食品的性能与安全,因而食品添加剂安全监管体制在整个社会法制体系中占有重要的地位。美国联邦食品、药品和化妆品法规定,只有经过美国食品药品监督管理局评价和公布的食品添加剂才能生产和在食品中使用。本文综述了美国食品添加剂的法律法规及监管体系。美国十分重视对食品添加剂的法律法规体系建设,并形成了严格、规范、有效的监管,其中有些经验对我国完善食品添加剂管理法规和监管体系具有重要的借鉴意义。%Safety of food additives is an important issue related to food industry, so the use of the additives in food should be controlled by law. In the United States, the Congress has entrusted the Food and Drug Ad-ministration (FDA) with the responsibility to ensure that additives to be used in food are safe, thus a new food additive must be approved by FDA before it can be used in food. This paper reviewed the legislation and regu-lation system concerning food additives in the United States. The results showed that FDA had developed a scientifically rigorous, sound and dependable system to assure the safety of food additive. Management of food additives in the United States is also a helpful reference for our country.

  19. Socialized Practice Analysis on Public Cultural Services of New District Wuxi%无锡新区公共文化服务社会化实践分析



    To explore institutional innovation of the public cultural services, Wuxi New District made the public cultural services undertaken by the social enterprises or organizations. The local government only plays the role of“referee” instead of“athlete”, regulating performance indicators, service mode and quality, consumers in contracts. Proved by socialized practice and operating ad-ministration in Wuxi New District Libraries and culture centers, local people have enjoyed more var-ied cultural activities and more considerate services. It also witnessed satisfaction and participation are on the rise along with more prominent heritage and cultivation of local culture. The local govern-ment has already practiced the principle of “little government and big service”, with the goal for maximized benefits of public cultural services.%无锡新区探索公共文化服务体制创新,将公共文化服务交由专业的社会企业或团体承担,政府只做裁判员不做运动员,将服务指标、服务方式、服务质量和服务对象满意度采用合约方式进行约定。无锡新区图书馆、文化馆整体运行管理社会化以及单项文化服务社会化的实践证明,新区百姓获得的文化活动较之以前更为丰富,文化服务更为细致周到,群众满意度及参与度明显提升,地域特色文化传承培育成效显著,实现了新区“小政府大服务”的工作原则及公共文化服务效益最大化的目标。

  20. Effects of ethology,TChE and Ach activities in rat model of Middle cerebral artery occlusion administrated by human um- bilical cord-derived Mesenchymal stem cells%脐带间充质干细胞对脑梗死大鼠行为学及胆碱能的影响

    贾芙蓉; 张贯石; 王辉; 潘洪涛; 何欣; 张东; 丁冬梅


    Objective To observe the effects of intravenous administration of human umbilical cord-derived mesen-chymal stem cells(UC-MSCs)after middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)in adult rats.Methods Adult male SD rats were administrated by MCAO.Functional outcome measurements using Beam walking Test(BWT)were performed at 24 hour of MCAO group and 10 days of UC-MSCs treatment group respectively.TTC staining ,TChE and Ach activity array were also used.Results There was significant neurological function improvement in rats treated with MSC com-paring with that of control groups(P <0.05),and also Ach and TChE activity (P <0.05).Conclusion Intravenous ad-ministration of UC-MSCs promotes the neurological function in rat MCAO model.UC-MSCs play an advantageous function on cholinergic neurotransmitters in the case of lesion.%目的:观察脑梗死大鼠经人脐带间充质干细胞(umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells,UC-MSCs)治疗后,行为学的恢复情况,2,3,5-氯化三苯基四氮唑(triphenyl tetrazolium chloride,TTC)染色以及胆碱能的变化。方法制备脑梗死大鼠大脑中动脉闭塞(Middle cerebral artery occlusion,MCAO)模型,将 UC-MSCs 注入脑梗死大鼠体内,对大鼠运动功能进行评分,比较 TTC 染色显示的脑梗死区域所占比例,测定脑组织和血浆中乙酰胆碱酯酶(True choline esterase,TChE)活性和乙酰胆碱(Acetylcholine,Ach)浓度。结果与模型组相比,UC-MSCs 组大鼠行为学恢复明显(P <0.05),UC-MSCs 组大鼠脑组织和血浆乙酰胆碱酯酶(TChE)和乙酰胆碱(Ach)活性显著增强(P<0.05)。结论UC-MSCs 经尾静脉移植可促进脑梗死后神经功能恢复,增强大鼠胆碱能系统活性。

  1. An Overview on the Research of Ontological Function of WeChat in China and its Application%国内微信的本体功能及其应用研究综述

    王勇; 李怀苍


    WeChat has turned out to be a hot issue in academic fields in China in the past two years.Re-searches on WeChat mainly focus on the following three aspects:first,the ontology issue focusing on its attrib-utes and propagation characteristics;second,its functional problem,mainly focusing on its social functions and effects;third,its application,focusing on its workability and applicability in business,government and ad-ministration.WeChat research in China has been practice-oriented,multi-layered and multidisciplinary,and at the same time it has the problems of being superficial,utilitarian and hysteretic.The paper thus suggests that the future WeChat research in China can be developed and deepened from the relationship between WeChat and the public expression,WeChat and the public opinions,WeChat crime and its governance,and overseas We-Chat development.%微信是近两年我国学界研究的热点问题。我国的微信研究主要集中在三个方面:一是本体问题,主要分析微信的属性、传播特征等;二是功能问题,主要探索微信的社会功能、社会影响等;三是应用问题,主要研究微信在商业上、政务上应用的可行性和方法等。我国的微信研究具有实践导向性、多层面性、多学科性等特点,但也存在肤浅性、功利性和滞后性等问题与不足。未来的微信研究需要重点从微信与公民表达、微信与舆论、微信犯罪与治理,以及国外微信发展等方面进行拓展与深入。

  2. Effects of Warming-Yang Compound Chinese Traditional Medicine (WY-CCTM)on Glucose Metabolism in Obesity Model Rats%温阳复方对肥胖大鼠模型糖代谢的影响

    朱冬梅; 谢芳一; 郭建茹; 侯少贞; 陈长青; 林吉


    To explore the effect of Warming-Yang Compound Chinese Traditional Medicine (WY-CCTM)on glucose metabolism in obesity rats,the model of obesity rats was established by feeding high fat diet for 12 weeks.Then the selected SD rats were randomly divided into three groups:model group,metformin-trea-ted group,WY-CCTM-treated group.Besides,the normal group was established.All rats were treated by intragastic gavage for 8 weeks.The fasting blood glucose of rats was detected on 4th week and 8th week during administration.After 8 weeks'drug administration,oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT),muscle glycogen,liver glycogen and glycosylated hemoglobin contents were determined.After 8 weeks'drug ad-ministration,fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin contents in the rats of positive group and War-ming Yang compound group decreased,and muscle glycogen,liver glycogen contents increased.This work showed that WY-CCTM-treated group could significantly correct disorders of glucose metabolism in obesi-ty rats,and effectively prevent and delay the onset of diabetes.%为考察温阳为主中药复方对肥胖大鼠糖代谢的影响,采用高脂饲料喂养12周建立肥胖大鼠模型,将造模成功的 SD 肥胖大鼠随机分成3组,分别为模型组、二甲双胍组、温阳复方组,并设正常对照组。连续灌胃8周,在给药第4、8周测其空腹血糖,给药 8周后测口服糖耐量与肌糖原、肝糖原、糖化血红蛋白含量。结果显示,给药 8周后,温阳复方组空腹血糖和糖化血红蛋白含量降低,肌糖原、肝糖原含量升高。结果表明,温阳复方能够明显纠正肥胖大鼠糖代谢紊乱,有效预防和延缓早期糖尿病的发生。

  3. 服务型治理:城市流动摊贩治理的社会工作介入%Service-Oriented Governance:Social Work Intervention on City Mobile Vendors Governance


    十八届三中全会明确提出治国理念从“社会管理”向“社会治理”转变,进而借鉴社会工作“基础—服务型”社会治理理念,论证发现社会工作介入城市流动摊贩治理有着充分的必要性及可行性。在介入治理方式上,微观层面,个案工作、小组工作方法帮助流动摊贩解决日常生活问题;中观层面,社区工作方法整合社区资源协同参与治理;宏观层面,社会行政通过政策倡导以实现流动摊贩的规范化治理。社会工作群体主要通过提供服务,解决问题的方式参与治理,并在治理中提供服务,在服务中推进治理,服务与治理并重。%The transition from social management to social governance was definitely announced at the 3 rd Plenary Session of the 18 th CPA. Based on the concept that social work plays a basic and service-oriented role in social governance,I found that social work intervention on the city mobile vendors governance have sufficient necessities and possibilities. When it comes to the way on intervention,case work and group work can help the city mobile vendors to resolve problems,community work participate in governance by integrating resources and the social ad-ministration help to govern the city mobile vendors on policy advocacy. The social work groups were mainly partici-pated in governance through offering services and solving problems. Social work groups provided the city mobile ven-dors services during the governance and advance the process of governance when offering the services , in other words,social work groups engaged in the service and governance at the same time.

  4. Le parcours d’un juste: mémoires politiques, mémoires militantes

    Alexandra Borsari


    Full Text Available Avocat engagé, Robert Badinter s'est retrouvé en situation de mettre en pratique ses idéaux. Son dernier livre, Les épines et les roses, publié chez Fayard (Paris, 2011 est le récit de son parcours de ministre de la Justice. Cet ouvrage soulève ainsi des questions sur les rapports entre mémoires rédigées et image de soi, mais aussi entre la mémoire du sujet et la mémoire collective à laquelle il participe. En racontant sa version du passé, l'auteur entend influencer la lecture de celui-ci et contrôler, en partie, le souvenir qui en sera gardé dans l'opinion. Car, bien qu'il se présente tout au long de l'ouvrage comme un homme ordinaire, arrivé de manière inattendue au pouvoir, Robert Badinter omet de rappeler que tout son parcours postérieur à cette expérience de ministre s'est déroulée à des niveaux de responsabilité en lien étroit avec le pouvoir politique. Après cet accès momentané au pouvoir exécutif, Robert Badinter a ainsi été président du Conseil constitutionnel, fonction à forte dimension politique, avant d'accéder à des fonctions prestigieuses au niveau international. Enfin, son parcours politique s'est poursuivi par son élection au Sénat et donc par une participation directe à l'exercice du pouvoir législatif. Bien sûr, les responsabilités ne sont pas les mêmes, et pour quelqu'un qui s'est souvent refusé à parler de lui, se mettre en scène en tant que garde des Sceaux revêt une signification particulière. Il s'agit ainsi de rendre pérenne le souvenir d'un combat et d'une action dont les résultats les plus forts – abolition de la peine de mort et réforme du code pénal – continuent de façonner, à leur manière, la société française. Mais au-delà du bilan, ce retour sur le passé est également l'occasion de s'ériger en juge du temps présent. Le combat n'est pas terminé et cet ouvrage se veut aussi une oeuvre militante. En analysant cette volonté de se présenter en

  5. 我国旅游资源经济转化率及其省际差异分析%On Analysis of Tourism Resources Economic Conversion Rate and Inter-Provincial Variance in China

    白洋; 杨晓霞; 樊昊


    旅游资源经济转化率是衡量旅游资源开发利用水平的重要指标。在对旅游资源丰裕度、旅游经济综合发展水平量化估值的基础上,尝试建立旅游资源经济转化率模型,以2012年的截面数据对全国各省级行政区的旅游资源经济转化率进行定量测算与分析,结果表明:①我国旅游资源经济转化率总体水平偏低且省际差异明显;②我国省级行政区旅游资源经济转化率可划分为高、中、低3个等级,其中高等级包含2个省级行政区,中等级包含10个省级行政区,低等级包含19个省级行政区;③东北、西北地区只拥有低转化率等级的省级行政区;华北、西南地区拥有中、低转化率等级的省级行政区;华东、中南地区同时拥有高、中、低转化率等级的省级行政区。%Tourism resources economic conversion rate is an important indicator to measure tourism re‐sources development and utilization level .T his study on the basis of the quantitative valuation of tourism resources abundance and tourism economy comprehensive development level attempts to establish the tourism resources of economic conversion model ,quantitatively estimates the 2012 China's provincial ad‐ministrative region tourism resources economic conversion rate and analyzes the difference .Results show that 1) The overall level of tourism resources economic conversion rate of China is low ,and difference to be markedly ;2)T he provincial administrative region tourism resources economic conversion can be divided into high ,medium and low three grades ,high‐grade contains two provincial administrative region ,mid‐range contains 10 provincial administrative region ,lower level contains 19 provincial administrative region , which contains high grade 2 provincial level administrative region ,the intermediate contains 10 provincial‐level administrative region ,lower level contains 19 provincial administrative region

  6. Administrative Ethics Research Based on Government Microblog:Disciplines Perspective and Research Methodology%基于政务微博的行政伦理研究

    王亚强; 张雅丽


    基于自媒体特征优势而凸显出其实用效能的政务微博已被纳入各国政府信息化建设的内容之中。由模式演进与中西方研究状况可知,行政伦理研究正趋于规范化,责任意识凸显,基于政务微博的行政伦理研究日渐重要。我国政务微博发展可划分为微博示政、微博问政、微博行政三个阶段,可通过案例分析、概念凝练、运行过程和规约方式研究来构建合乎理性的政务微博条件下的行政伦理规范体系。多学科交叉及其不确定性决定了基于政务微博的行政伦理研究必然要涉及社会学、管理学、政治学、电子网络技术等多学科领域。在具体实践中,可通过实证主义、系统整合、历史与逻辑统一的方法来进行研究,最终通过制度安排来实现伦理规约。%The government microblog with its “We the Media”advantages and practical performances has become an important part of the information technology construction of almost every government.It shows from the model evolution and the current research in China and in the West that administrative ethics research is be-coming more and more standardized and highlighting the sense of responsibility,and therefore administrative ethics research based on government microblogging is increasingly important.The development of China's gov-ernment microblog can be divided into three phrases:“Weibo Shizheng (government microblogging of incoming communications)”,“Weibo Wenzheng (government microblogging of public -involved Q&A)”and “Weibo Xingzheng (government microblogging of outbound communications)”.This thesis,through case studies,con-densed research concepts and researches on operational processes and stipulations,attempts to construct the ad-ministrative ethics system within the rational government microblogging conditions.Owing to the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary uncertainty

  7. A New City Model:City Under County


    <正>According to the data by the end of 2006, there are 19,369 established towns in China, having increased by 1,053 compared with the year 1997. While in comparison with the improvement of socio-economic develop-ment and industrialization in rural areas, the administration system reform of small towns in China apparently lags behind, not only restricting the socio-economic devel-opment in the countryside, but also affect-ing the development of the whole national economy, especially greatly hindering the urbanization and modernization of the rural areas. In this paper, a new city model of city under county is discussed from the perspec-tive of administrative division adjustment.1. Problems existing in the adminis-tration system of small towns1.1 Incomplete regime constructionOn the one hand, the government organization of small towns is overstaffed, e.g., there are more than 100 staffs in the town government at least, sometimes even as much as hundreds of people. It increases the farmers’ burden and influences the healthy development of small towns. On the other hand, due to the segmenta-tion of administration system, the authorities of small towns often overlap with that of the higher authorities, or are partitioned by a great number of dispatched agencies from the higher authorities, which the unif ied administration of small towns has been impeded.1.2 Urban functions affected by the ad-ministrative organizational system In general, there are a great number of small towns, but with relatively small scales. Most towns have the populationof less than 10 thousand in the built up areas, unable to play the active roles they should do. Some towns’ administrative organizational systems do not accord with their scales, unfavorable for the function exertion. For example, some towns have the population of over 100 thousand, GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of more than one billion yuan (RMB), and financial revenue of more than 100 million yuan (RMB), but with the

  8. 农村寄宿初中生冲突现状及教育管理对策%The Study of the Conflict of Rural High School Boarding Students and Education and Management Countermeasures

    陈大超; 国耀华


      从总体上看,在学生与学生、学生与教师、学生与教育行政人员以及学生与后勤人员的冲突四个维度上,农村寄宿制学校初中生与同学之间的冲突最多,而学生与行政管理人员之间的冲突最少。通过性别、年级、民族因素对农村寄宿初中生冲突影响显著性分析表明,性别因素在四个维度上均存在显著影响;年级因素对“学生与学生冲突”和“学生与后勤人员冲突”有显著影响;民族因素在四个维度上均无显著影响。对农村初中寄宿制学校学生的冲突管理,应采取如下对策:(1)建立新型组织文化,营造和谐校园氛围;(2)科学辨识冲突发展过程,创建全面的冲突管理机制;(3)注重心理辅导,加强农村寄宿制学校学生的心理健康教育;加大资金投入,加强农村寄宿制学校的各项基础设施建设。%Among such four dimensions of conflict as student with schoolmates ,teachers ,educational ad-ministrators and logistics staff ,the most common conflict is between student and schoolmates ,and the conflict between students and school administrative staff are the least .Analyzing the significant effect on rural junior high school students conflict from three factors of gender ,grade ,and ethnic ,we find the gen-der factor has significant effect on the four dimensions ;grade factors have significant effect on the conflict between“students and student” and“between students and logistics staff” ;ethnic factors have no signifi-cant effect on the four dimensions . The following conflict management countermeasures of rural junior high boarding school students should be followed :building school culture and creating a harmonious cam-pus atmosphere ,scientifically identifying the process of conflict development and establishing mechanisms of conflict management ,strengthening the psychological counseling of rural school students ,increasing capital investment

  9. Construction of yeast strains expressing long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and their therapeutic effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus mouse model%长效促胰岛素降糖酵母的构建及其对糖尿病模型小鼠的治疗效果

    吴日; 李淼; 尼钢钢; 马百成; 李明刚; 马超; 李晓丹; 段会坤; 姬艳丽; 王宇; 姜苹哲; 王海松; 屠培培


    Probiotics, i.e., bacteria expressing therapeutic peptides (protein), are used as a new type of orally ad-ministrated biologic drugs to treat diseases. To develop yeast strains which could effectively prevent and treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, we firstly constructed the yeast integrating plasmid pNK1-PGK which could successfully express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene encoding ten tandem repeats of glucagon-like peptide-1(10×GLP-1) was cloned into the vector pNK1-PGK and the resulting plasmids were then transformed into the S. cerevisiae INVSc1. The long-acting GLP-1 hypoglycemic yeast (LHY) which grows rapidly and expresses 10×GLP-1 stably was selected by nutrition screening and Western blotting. The amount of 10×GLP-1 produced by LHY reached 1.56 mg per gram of wet cells. Moreover, the oral administration of LHY significantly reduced blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin plus high fat and high sugar diet.%益生菌生物药物是指通过口服表达药用多肽(蛋白)的重组益生菌活细胞达到治疗疾病的新型口服给药系统。为了构建一种能有效防治2型糖尿病的酵母生物药物,文章首先构建了酿酒酵母(S.cerevisiae)整合型表达载体pNK1-PGK,并且通过绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)证明其表达功能正常,利用该载体将10×GLP-1(Glucagon-like peptide-1)基因转化到酿酒酵母INVSc1中,通过营养缺陷型和Western blotting成功筛选出表达10×GLP-1的长效促胰岛素降糖酵母(Long-acting GLP-1 hypoglycemic yeast, LHY)。该酵母生长迅速,外源基因10×GLP-1表达稳定,表达量达到1.56 mg/g细胞湿重。通过链脲佐菌素和高脂高糖饮食联合诱导的方法构建了2型糖尿病小鼠模型,用LHY对其进行口服灌胃治疗,证明LHY具有较好疗效,明显降低血糖水平。

  10. Analysis on the Current Situation of College Students"Rule of Law"in the Context of Promoting"Ruling the Country by Law"%全面推进“依法治国”背景下大学生“法治”观的现状分析

    肖青松; 赵文力


    习近平就全面推进依法治国和加快法治中国建设多次发表讲话,强调“必须全面推进科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法,坚持依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,不断开创依法治国新局面。”大学生群体作为国家的希望,民族的未来,是建设社会主义法治国家的先锋队。他们的“法治”观的高低程度直接影响着国家法治建设的完备与否,培育大学生一个良好的“法治观”,是依法治国战略的题中应有之义。但从调查研究中发现,总体上大学生的法制意识带有明显的不成熟性和矛盾性。为此,高校法制教育应当就当前存在的问题采取解决方案,以响应依法治国的要求。%Xi Jinping will comprehensively promote the rule of law and speed up the construction of rule of law in China have repeatedly speech, stressed that"it is necessary to comprehensively promote the science of legislation, strict law enforcement and fair administration of justice, national law, uphold the rule of law, administration according to law, to jointly promote ad-ministration according to law, adhere to the country under the rule of law, rule of law government, rule of law and social integ-ration construction, and constantly create a new situation of the rule of law."College students as the hope of the nation, the fu-ture of the nation, is the vanguard of building a socialist country ruled by law. Their"rule of law"concept directly affects the state of the rule of law in the construction of a complete or not, cultivate a good college students"rule of law", is the proper meaning of the strategy of governing the country according to law. However, it is found that, in general, college students' legal consciousness is not mature and contradictory. To this end, the legal education in Colleges and universities should take a sol-ution to the

  11. 疏风解毒胶囊治疗慢性鼻窦炎不伴鼻息肉的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps Trea-ted with Shufeng Jiedu Capsules

    李良; 宋瑞彪


    目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊治疗慢性鼻窦炎不伴鼻息肉(chronic rhinosinusitis without na-sal polyps,CRSsNP)的临床疗效。方法将门诊100例 CRSsNP 患者按就诊时间随机分成治疗组与对照组。对照组予克拉霉素口服、丙酸氟替卡松喷鼻、桃金娘油胶囊口服、鼻腔冲洗等治疗,治疗组在对照组治疗基础上加用疏风解毒胶囊口服,4粒/次,3次/ d。疗程3个月。观察两组患者治疗前后主要症状、体征变化,并评定患者临床治疗效果、不良反应发生情况。结果经3个月治疗后,两组治疗均能显著改善患者预后(P ﹤0.05),但治疗组 VAS 临床症状评分、Lund - Kennedy 评分、SNOT -20条评分明显低于对照组(P ﹤0.05),治疗组总有效率明显高于对照组(P ﹤0.05)。两组均未见严重不良反应发生。结论疏风解毒胶囊能够提高 CRSsNP 临床治疗效果,改善患者生活质量。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy on chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS)without nasal polyps treated with shufeng jiedu capsules. Methods One hundred outpatients of CRS without nasal polyps were randomized into a treatment group and a control group according to the visit sequence. In the control group,clarithromycin for oral administration,fluticasone propionate nasal spray,myrtol caspules for oral ad-ministration and nasal rinsing were applied. In the treatment group,on the basis of the treatment as the control group,shufeng jiedu capsules for oral administration was supplemented,4 capsules each time,three times a day. The duration of treatment was 3 months. The changes in the main symptoms and physical signs were ob-served before and after treatment in the patients of the two groups. The clinical efficacy and adverse reactions were evaluated. Results After 3 months treatment,the prognosis was significantly improved in the patients of either group(P ﹤ 0. 05). VAS,clinical symptom score,Lund - Kennedy score

  12. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne le rôle de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses r

  13. A Probe into the Operation of Judicial Mechanism without Bureaucratic Administrative Procedure%审判权运行机制去行政化路径探索

    杨方程; 沈成燕


    The reform of the operation of the judicial mechanism is the focus of a new round of judicial re-form in China.Currently,the administration of the operation of judicial mechanism refers mainly to the adminis-trative examination and approval system for the judicial cases,the administration of the status of the judge,the administration of the relationship between the upper court and the lower one,and the like.The bureaucratic ad-ministrative procedure of the operation of judicial mechanism has reduced the trial efficiency,and affected the in-dependent exercise of judicial power by the judge.It is not conducive to the realization of justice,and not condu-cive to the building of a healthy relationship between trial and supervision.As a result,it will lead to the situa-tion in which “those who render a final decision will not hear the case,and those who hear the case will have no right to judge”.To realize the operation of judicial mechanism without the interference from administrative proce-dure challenges the reform in four aspects:the change of traditional concept,and the raising of the consciousness of “removing bureaucratic administrative procedure”;the perfection of the judicial operation mechanism;the conducting of independent and impartial judicial supervision under the condition of maintaining open justice as a means;and the completion of supporting measures so as to restrict and safeguard the independence of judges.%审判权运行机制改革是我国新一轮司法改革的重点。当前审判权运行机制行政化主要表现在案件审批制度行政化、法官地位行政化、上下级法院关系行政化等方面。审判权运行机制行政化降低了审判效率、影响法官独立行使审判权、不利于司法公正的实现、不利于构建健康的审级监督关系,造成“作出裁判的人不审理案件,审理案件的人无权裁判”。审判权运行机制去行政化要着力于转变思想观念,提高“去

  14. 我国行政诉讼诉判关系的新认识



    The relationship between suing and judgment in administrative htlgatlon reters to me relauon-ship between administrative claim and judgment, which relationship between administrative claim and judgment. belongs to the domain of studying the objective law in Generally speaking, as administrative litigation is like civil litigation, administrative judgment is bound by administrative claim, that is, the consistency between ad- ministrative claim and administrative judgment is decided by judicial passiveness, the principle of punishment and legitimate legal procedures. General opinions and theoretical basis on relationship between suing and judg-ment in administrative litigation in some degree have limitations, lacking systematical logic arguments and ig-noring the specialty of administrative litigation. Constructing the relationship between suing and judgment in administrative litigation should be rethought based on two aspects of subjective public rights rehef and objective legal order maintenance. From the perspective of subjective public rights relief, the relationship among subjec-tive public rights, a right to administrative litigation, litigation claim and administrative judgment remains high consistency and uniformity in terms of logic. From the perspective of objective legal order maintenance, the fact that illegality of administrative act is not consistent with its effectiveness lead to the outcome that adminis-trative judgment cannot be completely consistent. Therefore, the relationship between suing and judgment in administrative litigation combines consistency with inconsistency.%行政诉判关系就是行政诉请与判决的关系,属于研究诉请与判决之间关系的客观规律范畴。一般观点认为,行政诉讼与民事诉讼一样,行政诉请对行政判决的制约作用,即行政诉请与行政判决的具有一致性,是由司法的被动性、处分原则、正当法律程序所决定的。行政诉判关系的一般观点

  15. 中国人群细胞色素P4502D6基因多态性对曲马多药代动力学的影响%Influence of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on pharmacokinetics of tramadol in Chinese population

    李芹; 王睿; 郭雅; 裴斐


    目的 研究中国人群CYP2D6基因多态性对曲马多(镇痛药)药代动力学的影响.方法 不同基因型中国健康志愿者随机分为4组:第1组CYP2D6*2W*10W,第2组:CYP2D6*2M*10W,第3组:CYP2D6*2M*10H,第4组:CYP2D6*2M*10M.各组单次口服曲马多100 mg后,用高效液相色荧光检测法测定血和尿中曲马多及其M1代谢产物O-去甲基曲马多(M1)的浓度,研究不同基因型对曲马多药代动力学的影响.结果 第2组曲马多及其M1的主要药代动力学参数与第1组相比没有显著性差异;第3组与第1组、第4组与第1组、第4组与第3组比较,主要药代动力学参数均有显著性差异(P<0.05),且呈基因剂量效应.结论 CYP2D6*2对于曲马多的药代动力学过程没有影响;但CYP2D6*10可降低酶活性,且CYP2D6*10纯合子变异较杂合子变异对曲马多药代动力学的影响更大,呈基因剂量效应.%Objective To investigate on influence of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on pharmacokinetics of tramadol in Chinese volunteers.Methods Adult healthy Chinese volunteers with different CYP2D6 genotypes were categorized into the following four groups: group 1:CYP2D6 * 2W * 10W, group 2:CYP2D6 * 2M * 10W, group 3:CYP2D6 * 2M * 10H, group 4 : CYP2D6 * 2M * 10M. After oral ad-ministration of 100 mg tramadol, plasma and urine samples were col-lected from each subject at different time within 32 h. The plasma and urine concentrations of tramadol and its metabolite O - desmethyltramad-ol (M1) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Re-suits The main pharmacokinetic parameters of tramadol and M, in group 2 were not significantly different from those in group 1. There are significant difference for the main pharmacokinetic parameters of tram-adol and M1 between group 3 and group 1, group 4 and group 1, group 4 and group 3, respectively (P<0.05 ). Conclusion The present re-sults shown that CYP2D6 * 2 has no influence on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol, but CYP2D6 * 10 reduces CYP2

  16. Les élections présidentielles de 2007 à Timor Leste

    Christine Cabasset-Semedo


    Full Text Available En avril-mai 2007 des élections présidentielles se sont tenues à Timor-Est. Ce pays, indépendant depuis mai 2002, a connu une série de crises au cours des dernières années, qui a abouti à une remise en question du rôle dominant du Fretilin, le parti historique de la lutte contre l'invasion indonésienne et pour l'indépendance, au pouvoir depuis 2002. Le premier tour a été serré avec trois candidats entre 19 et 28%. Au deuxième tour, qui opposait Lu-Olo, candidat du Fretilin à José Ramos Horta, ancien Premier ministre, co-lauréat du Prix Nobel de la Paix, c'est ce dernier qui a finalement été élu avec 69 % des suffrages. Les élections législatives qui se sont tenues le mois suivant, en juin, ont confirmé l'affaiblissement du Fretilin et le rééquilibrage politique.In April-May 2007 presidential elections were held in East-Timor. Since independence (2002, the country crossed several crisis, calling into question the leading role of the Fretilin, the historical party which fought against Indonesia invasion and for independance. The first round of the ballot was tight with three candidates between 19 and 28%. At the end of the second round, opposing Lu-Olo, Fretilin's candidate to José Ramos Horta, former Prime minister, co-Nobel Peace Laureate in 1996, this last has been elected with 69% of the votes. The legislative elections which were held the following month, in June, confirmed the Fretilin weakening and the political rebalancing.Em abril-maio de 2007 havia eleições presidenciais em Timor Leste. Independente desde maio de 2002, o país conheceu uma série de crises no decorrer destes últimos anos, que acabaram por abalar o papel dominante da Fretilin, partido histórico da luta contra a invasão indonésia e pela independência. A primeira volta foi apertada, com três candidatos obtendo entre 19 e 28% dos votos. Na segunda volta, que opunha Lu-Olo, candidato do Fretilin, a José Ramos Horta, ex-Primeiro ministro

  17. 活膝汤联合臭氧关节腔注射治疗膝关节骨性关节炎临床研究%Clinical Study of Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis by Combination of Huoxi Decoction and Intra-articular Injection of Ozone

    吴彪; 邵先舫


    目的:探讨活膝汤联合臭氧治疗膝关节骨性关节炎(KOA)的临床疗效。方法:90例KOA患者随机分为三组各30例,联合用药组采用活膝汤内服+臭氧关节腔注射;臭氧注射组单纯采用臭氧关节腔注射;活膝汤组单纯采用活膝汤内服。共治疗1个月,评价治疗前后患者骨性关节炎指数评分量表(WOMAC)评分、疼痛视觉模拟评分法(VAS)评分及综合疗效。结果:三组患者疼痛VAS评分、WOMAC评分,治疗前后差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);综合疗效,联合治疗组总有效率96.7%;臭氧组总有效率90.0%;活膝汤组总有效率80.0%,三组间疗效差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:活膝汤联合臭氧治疗膝关节骨性关节炎可明显缓解临床症状,改善关节功能,且疗效优于单独臭氧关节腔注射和活膝汤内服。%Objective:To explore the clinical curative effect of Huoxi decoction combined with intra-articular injection of ozone on knee osteoarthritis(KOA). Methods:A total of 90 cases of KOA patients were randomly divided into three groups,with 30 cases in each group.The combined treatment group was treated with oral administration of Huoxi decoction combined with intra-articular injection of ozone. The ozone injection group was treated with intra-articular injection of ozone and the Huoxi decoction group was treated with oral ad-ministration of Huoxi decoction.The treatment time was one month. The WOMAC osteoarthritis index scores , visual analog scale(VAS) scores and comprehensive curative effects before and after treatment were evaluat-ed. Results:After treatment,the differences of VAS and WOMAC scores of the three groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). For the comprehensive curative effects,in the combined treatment group,the total ef-fective rate was 96.7%. In the ozone group,the total effective rate was 90.0%. In the Huoxi decoction group, the total effective rate was 80

  18. Investigation on Job Satisfaction of Minority Nurses in Class Ⅱand above Hospitals of Xinjiang%新疆地区二级及以上综合医院少数民族护士工作满意度情况的调查

    热比古丽·热合曼; 阿米娜·吾斯曼; 阿依古丽·亚生


    目的:调查新疆地区二级及以上综合医院少数民族护士工作满意度的现状,探讨少数民族护士工作满意度的影响因素,为护理管理者提供相应对策和解决方案.方法2014年1-12月,采取分层随机抽样法选择新疆地区68所二级及以上综合医院的1095名少数民族护士为研究对象,采用问卷对其进行工作满意度调查.结果1065名护士的工作满意度得分为68~166分,平均(109.624±21.472)分,呈中等水平;不同学历、工作年限、所在科室、用工性质护士的工作满意度得分的差异均有统计学意义(均 P <0.05);不同性别、年龄、婚姻状况护士的工作满意度得分差异无统计学意义(均 P >0.05).结论新疆地区二级及以上综合医院少数民族护士工作满意度水平不高,应针对影响护士工作满意度的因素采取改进措施,以提高少数民族护士的工作满意度.%Objective To understand the status of ClassⅡand higher general hospitals minority nurses’job satis-faction in Xinjiang,and discuss the influencing factors,in order to provide solutions and strategies for nursing ad-ministrators .Methods By using multi-stage stratified random sampling method,1095 minority nurses were se-lected and investigated by nurse job satisfaction questionnaire.Results The score of nurses’job satisfaction was 68-166,(109.624±21.472)averagely,which was in a moderate level.There was statistical significance of job sat-isfaction between nurses with different education background,work experience,departments and employment na-ture (all P 0.05).Conclusion The level of job satisfaction of nurses in ClassⅡand above hospitals in Xinjiang area is not high.There is a need to take targeted interventions to improve nurse satisfac-tion according to the influencing factors.

  19. From GVC to NVC:a study of ways of upgrading for the sporting goods industry in China%从GVC到NVC:我国体育用品产业升级路径的研究

    谢军; 张博; 白震


    The authors studied ways of upgrading for the sporting goods industry in China, probed into a compara-tive analysis of function upgrading to be carried out by sporting goods enterprises, put forward preconditions for building a domestic value chain, and finally, by taking Anta company upgrading for example, probed into manners and ways to build a domestic value chain, and put forward the following suggestions: 1) sporting goods enterprises in China needs to form a domestic enterprise network system parallel to GVC by relaying on the local market; 2) the enterprises should establish a value chain competition conception; 3) the enterprises should build up the subject ad-vantages of the domestic value chain and establish the core links of the value chain by relying on the resources of the local market; 4) the enterprises should change the export oriented development strategy, cultivate high class production elements to realize industrial upgrading; 5) domestic value chain administrators must enhance their ad-ministration ability, encourage small and medium size enterprises to walk the path of professionalized development, actively cooperate with leading and core enterprises, jointly build up advantages in value chain competition, and re-alize a “win-win situation” for all the enterprises on the value chain.%研究我国体育用品企业升级的路径,从GVC与NVC的视角,探讨体育用品企业进行功能升级,提出构建国内价值链的前提条件。最后,以安踏公司升级的案例探讨构建国内价值链的方式与途径,并提出建议:第一,我国体育用品企业需要依靠本土市场形成与 GVC 相平行国内企业网络体系;第二,企业要树立价值链的竞争理念;第三,企业要依靠本土市场的资源,打造国内价值链的主体优势;第四,企业应转变出口导向型发展战略,培养高级生产要素实现产业升级;第五,提高自身的治理能力,鼓励中小企

  20. 云南省无烟医疗卫生机构创建进展%The implementation of tabocco free institution establishment in medical and health care institutions in Yunnan Province

    赵白帆; 石瑜; 罗欣萍


    Objective We aim to provide reference to the whole province in smoke control by comparing the re-sults of two stealth investigations and evaluating the effectiveness of the smoke-free environment implementation among medi-cal and health institutions in Yunnan Province.Methods National appraisal standards designed by Chinese Ministry of Health were applied to the stealth investigations in 2011 and 2013.These stealth investigations were targeted at the health ad-ministrative department,public health institutions and medical institutions in 16 prefectures in Yunnan Province.Results The overall score was 57 in 2011,and 68.3 in 2013 (The full score is 100).In 2013,all institutions scored noticeably higher in posting and placing no-smoking logos outdoor smoking zone and indoor smoking signs compared to that in 2011.In 2013,17.7% to 39.7% of the institutions didn’t post no-smoking logos in key venues;22.9% didn’t have any tobacco control pamphlets;39.1% scored 0 in separating outdoor smoking zone.Conclusion Yunnan’s medical and health insti-tutions have been progressing in implementing smoke-free environment,and the gap of smoke control effort among the insti-tutions was narrowing.However,to achieve 100% smoke-free requires that we endeavor to implement policies and supervise smoking behaviors.%目的:比较两轮暗访结果了解云南省无烟医疗卫生系统创建情况,为推进全省医疗卫生系统全面禁烟提供参考依据。方法2011年、2013年使用国家级方案评分标准暗访全省16州市行政部门、公共卫生机构、医疗机构3类机构。结果2011年全省暗访综合评分为57分,2013年为68.3分(满分100分)。2013年各类医疗卫生机构禁烟标识设置、室外吸烟区设置、吸烟状况得分均较2011年明显增加。2013年17.7%~39.7%的机构在重点场所未设置禁烟标识,在22.9%的机构内未发现任何控烟宣传材料,39.1%的机构室外吸烟区得分为0分。结论

  1. Clinical value of posture test in subtype differentiation of primary aldosteronism%体位试验对鉴别原发性醛固酮增多症分型的价值

    邢玉微; 邹俊杰; 石勇铨; 刘志民


    Objective To evaluate the value of posture test in the subtype differentiation of primary aldosteronism.Methods In total,91 patients with primary aldosteronism were divided into the aldosterone-producing adenoma (n =43)and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism groups (IHA,n =48).General characteris-tics,renin activity and aldosterone changes after posture test were statistically compared between two groups.Results Age,gender constitution,systolic and diastolic pressure and plasma potassium did not significantly differ between two groups (all P >0.05).Compared with IHA group,renin activity was significantly lower whereas aldosterone changes and the ratio of aldosterone /renin activity were significantly higher after saline ad-ministration in the aldosterone-producing adenoma group (all P 30% eleva-tion.In the IHA group,aldosterone level in a standing posture was elevated compared with that in a lying pos-ture including 8 cases with 30% elevation.The percentage of patients with 0.05).Conclusions Posture test contributes to directly identif-ying the aldosterone-producing adenoma with decreasing aldosterone level in a standing posture.For those with elevated aldosterone level after a standing posture,comprehensive tests are required to differentiate the subtype of primary aldosteronism.%目的:探讨体位试验对鉴别原发性醛固酮增多症分型的价值。方法将91例原发性醛固酮增多症患者分为醛固酮瘤组(43例)及特发性醛固酮增多症(IHA)组(48例),比较2组的一般特征及体位试验后肾素活性、醛固酮的变化特点。结果2组的年龄、性别构成比、收缩压、舒张压、血钾比较差异无统计学意义(P 均>0.05),醛固酮瘤组滴注生理盐水后肾素活性低于 IHA组,而滴注生理盐水后血浆醛固酮及醛固酮与肾素活性比值均高于 IHA 组(P 均<0.05)。体位试验显示醛固酮瘤组患者立位血浆醛固酮较卧位下降的有19例,升高的有24

  2. 风险最糟糕情景认知模式及行政法制之改革

    杨小敏; 戚建刚


    This article uses the theories of two models of risk perception and theirs mutual relations in behavioral deci- sion making to explain the judge process of the worst - ease scenarios of the risk of the public officials and the public, thus revealing the reason of theirs excessive over - reaction and utter under - reaction from the angel of personal emotion. This article uses the theories of probability neglect and availability heuristic or unavailability heuristic of social psychology further to analysis the mechanisms of theirs excessive over - reaction and utter under - reaction. This article holds that over - reac-tion and under - reaction to the worst - case scenarios of the risk of government are both illegitimate actions . To make sure that government can manage the worst - case scenarios of the risk scientifically, we should reform the institutions of the ad- ministrative law. The reform measures are following: First, to establish stimulation laboratory of the worst - case scenarios of the risk and to publish the stimulation results periodically. The second is to establish and renew the super - database ofthe worst - case scenarios of the risk and to determine the appropriate warning criteria. The third is to establish the super - regulatory agencies of risk. the super - regulatory agencies of risk is the more effective organization vector for the public of- ficials to use the model of analysis/ration model to percept the worst - case scenarios of the risk so as to manage the worst case scenarios of the risk systematically and rationally. The fourth is to devise the more deliberate and sensitive analytical instrument.%以行为决策学关于风险认知的两种模式及其相互关系的理论,阐述了政府官员(公众)对风险最糟糕情景的判断过程,从个体情感角度揭示其过度反应或反应不足的原因;运用社会心理学中的易(非易)得性启示及概率忽视的原理,进一步分析了政府官员(公

  3. Induction of follicular luteinization by equine chorionic gonadotropin in cyclic guinea pigs

    Jun-rong LI; Wei WANG; Fang-xiong SHI


    题目:正常发情周期豚鼠经孕马血清促性腺激素诱导的卵泡黄体化研究  目的:研究孕马血清促性腺激素(eCG)对发情周期豚鼠卵巢卵泡的作用。  创新点:首次发现eCG对于发情周期豚鼠发挥了类似促黄体素的作用,而非促卵泡素的作用。  方法:将成年雌性豚鼠(400~700 g,连续2次以上观察到稳定的16天发情周期)分为对照组(腹腔注射生理盐水)和实验组(腹腔注射eCG)。实验组根据注射强度分为20 IU组和50 IU组,并分别于注射后4和8天采集豚鼠卵巢。用苏木精-伊红染色法(H&E)和免疫组化法观察豚鼠卵巢变化情况。测定注射后4天卵巢卵泡大小和数量,测定注射后8天卵巢和子宫重量、黄体数量、黄体化细胞数量和闭锁黄体细胞比例。  结论:本实验中,豚鼠经eCG注射后卵巢变化结果显示:发情期豚鼠卵巢经 eCG 注射发生明显的形态改变(图1),50 IU组豚鼠卵巢在注射后8天出现了黄体化未破裂卵泡(LUF)现象(图3)。免疫组化结果显示增值细胞核抗原(PCNA)和类激素调节蛋白(StAR)都免疫定位于黄体化卵泡(图8)。综上所述,eCG 对于发情期豚鼠发挥了类似促黄体素的作用。%The effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on follicular development and ovulation in cyclic guinea pigs were investigated by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Three groups of guinea pigs (n=12) were administrated subcutaneously with saline, 20 or 50 IU of eCG, respectively, on cyclic Day 12 (Day 1=vaginal openings). Ovaries were collected at 4 and 8 d after administration (6 animals per group each time). The eCG ad-ministration induced significant and distinct morphological changes in the ovaries, as it promoted the luteinization of granulosa cel s, but not fol icular development. In addition, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and

  4. Paix et démocratie chez Kreisky – deux processus dynamiques indissociables

    Lise Barrière


    Full Text Available Bruno Kreisky, chancelier autrichien de 1970 à 1983 a, tout au long de sa carrière politique, manifesté un grand intérêt pour la construction de la paix et l’apaisement des conflits. Sa première action d’envergure eut lieu à partir de 1959, lorsqu’il devint ministre des Affaires étrangères autrichiennes et qu’il décida de s’emparer de la question du Tyrol méridional qui empoisonnait les relations entre l’Autriche et l’Italie depuis la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Pour tenter de mettre un terme à ce conflit, Kreisky privilégia la discussion avec l’Italie directement, puis ensuite par l’intermédiaire des Nations unies, lorsque les négociations bilatérales aboutirent à une impasse. Si Kreisky manifestait un tel intérêt pour la construction de la paix, c’est parce qu’il considérait que paix et démocratie étaient intimement liées. C’est également cette conviction qui le poussa à vouloir apaiser un conflit qui se déroula sur le territoire autrichien lui-même. Il s’agit du conflit à propos de la mise en place de panneaux bilingues en Carinthie. Dans ce cas, malgré ses efforts, Kreisky ne parvint pas à apaiser les opposants à la loi sur les panneaux bilingues qui refusaient et refusent toujours à l’heure actuelle de voir ériger des panneaux en allemand et en slovène dans les régions de Carinthie à forte minorité slovène.Bruno Kreisky, österreichischer Bundeskanzler von 1970 bis 1983, engagierte sich überaus stark in der Frage der Lösung (internationaler Konflikte. 1959 österreichischer Außenminister geworden, war der erste Konflikt, mit dem er sich auseinanderzusetzen hatte, die sog. „Südtirolfrage“. Überzeugt davon, dass sich diese nur im Rahmen der UNO lösen ließe, bestand der Chef der österreichischen Diplomatie 1960 darauf, das Problem den Vereinten Nationen vorzutragen. Die Vollversammlung der UNO verabschiedete in der Folge tatsächlich zwei Resolutionen, die

  5. Research on the Promotion Strategy of Regional Intellectual Property Operation Efficiency from the Perspective of Innovation Body%基于创新主体视角的区域知识产权运营效率提升对策

    田家林; 顾晓燕


    Improving the intellectual property operation efficiency is an important issue facing the regional innova-tion development. This paper firstly uses the super efficiency DEA model to compare differences of intellectual property operation efficiency in various regions of China according to three different types of innovation body. Finding that the efficiency during the period of creating the intellectual property is high while the efficiency dur-ing the period of marketing the intellectual property. The intellectual property operation efficiency obviously regional differences, but not the economic development level of regional higher fully corresponds to the operation efficien-cy. Enterprise is the main body of innovation, but its overall efficiency, in the intellectual property rights efficien-cy and scale efficiency and pure technical aspects are much lower than the universities and research institutes. Ad-ministration has higher scale effects in intellectual property operation than that of market allocation. Then this pa-per discusses the factors influent the efficiency, including the level of economic development, the protection level of intellectual property rights, market structure, financial support from government and degree of collaborative inno-vation. At last we put forward the countermeasures from the aspects of innovation environment, innovation regional, intellectual property rights definition, collaborative innovation, intellectual property services, fiscal funds operation performance evaluation.%提高知识产权运营效率是区域创新发展面临的重要问题。首先,使用超效率DEA模型比较了我国各区域三类不同创新主体的知识产权运营效率的差异。发现在知识产权运营价值链中,其前端的创造效率较高,而后端的市场化效率不高。区域知识产权运营效率差异明显,但较高的区域经济发展水平并非完全对应着较强的运营效率。企业是市场经济中的创

  6. Le roi, la Cour et les sciences en France, xviie-xviiie siècles

    Chantal Grell


    Full Text Available La cour de France n’a jamais eu la réputation d’être une cour « scientifique », ni aux yeux des contemporains, ni aux yeux des historiens. Le grand âge des « cours scientifiques » semble d’ailleurs révolu lorsque la cour de France s’installe à Versailles. En France, la grande institution où se fait la recherche, dans tous les domaines de la science, est l’Académie royale des sciences, créée par Colbert en 1666. Il existe une ample bibliographie sur l’Académie des sciences, sur l’évolution des sciences et sur les savants eux-mêmes ; les rois de France, la Cour et Versailles ont fait l’objet de publications plus nombreuses encore. Mais au-delà du mécénat princier dans ses formes variées, le lien entre le pouvoir et le savoir — qui évolue d’ailleurs au cours de ce siècle et demi — n’a pas été envisagé à travers le prisme de la cour, sinon à l’occasion de cette exposition. Aussi n’est-il pas possible de dresser un état des lieux, mais seulement d’esquisser quelques réflexions sur un sujet dont il convient de définir les contours, et sur des recherches qui restent, en grande partie, à réaliser. On s’interrogera, entre autres, sur les valeurs et les idéaux sociaux qui ont présidé, dans le cadre versaillais, à la rencontre de la Cour et des sciences ; sur les interactions entre sciences et vie curiale ; sur les choix des rois, des ministres, des savants, et les enjeux qu’ils recouvrent ; sur la manière dont l’existence même de la Cour a pu, au-delà de la théâtralisation, de la mise en scène et des besoins concrets, influer sur le contenu même des sciences.L’intitulé de l’exposition, qui associe « sciences » et « curiosités », est paradoxal. Le terme de « curiosités » évoque les cabinets qui eurent la faveur des princes, allemands ou italiens notamment, de la Renaissance, et se rapporte à un type de savoir déjà dépassé, à l’âge de la

  7. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei on Growth Performance, Organ Index and Intestinal Morphology of Piglets%植物乳杆菌和干酪乳杆菌对仔猪生长性能、器官指数及小肠形态的影响

    县怡涵; 赵秀英; 李晨博; 丁立人; 朱伟云; 杭苏琴


    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus ca-sei on growth performance, organ index and intestinal morphology of piglets. A total of 15 litters piglets ( Yorkshire × Landrace) at age of 7 days were randomly assigned to 3 groups with 5 replicates per group and 1 litter ( 8 to 10 piglets) per replicate, including the control group orally administrated with distilled water, Lac-tobacillus plantarum group orally administrated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei orally ad-ministrated with Lactobacillus casei. The experiment started at day 7 and ended at day 35 after birth. The pig-lets were slaughtered on day 21, 24 and 35 after birth for sampling. The results showed that compared with the control group, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei significantly increased average daily feed intake ( ADFI) and average daily gain ( ADG) and decreased feed/gain ( F/G) after weaning ( P0.05). Organ indexes of piglets at 35 days such as spleen and thymus were also significantly increased in the two tested strains group (P0.05) . Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacil-lus casei improved the villus development of jejunum and ileum of weaning piglets. The findings indicate that both Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei have potential benefits to the growth performance and in-hibition of diarrhea of piglets. However, further study of mechanisms and a large number of repeated experi-ments are needed for the evaluation of both tested strains for clinical use.%本试验旨在研究植物乳杆菌和干酪乳杆菌对仔猪生长性能、器官指数及小肠形态的影响. 选取15窝7日龄大×长仔猪,随机分为3组,每组5个重复,每个重复1窝仔猪( 8~10头).各组分别灌喂去离子水(对照组)、植物乳杆菌菌液和干酪乳杆菌菌液,试验从7日龄开始至35日龄结束,于21(断奶)、24和35日龄屠宰仔猪采样. 结果表明,与对照组相比,植物乳杆菌和

  8. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge and Skills Regarding Use of Glasgow Coma Scale in Neurological Assessment of Patients among Nurses Working in Critical Care Units of KLE Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum

    Milka Madhale


    observational checklist was prepared with the expert guidance. Pilot study was conducted and tool was found to be feasible and reliable. Data collected was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The findings of the study revealed that during pretest, 41(74.55% of the staff nurses had average knowledge and14(25.45% had poor knowledge. After the ad-ministration of Self Instructional Module in post test 38 (69.09% of staff nurses had good knowledge and 17(30.91% had average knowledge. The study also revealed that during the pre test all the staff nurses 46(83.64% had average skill. After the administration of the Self Instructional Module in post-test 35(63.64%of staff nurses had average skill and 20(36.36% had good skill. This proved that SIM is an effective method to increase the knowledge and skill of the staff nurses working in critical care units. Further computed paired ‘t’ test value (40.8 revealed that there was significant gain in knowledge and skill among staff nurses working in critical care units after administration of SIM and probability value of ÷2 contingency table revealed that the knowledge scores and sociodemographic variables were dependent on gender and the skill scores were dependent on the total years of experience. Conclusion: SIM was useful in including the knowledge & skill in using glasgow coma scale in neurological assessment of patients by the nursing staff

  9. Ateliê de projetos físicos: estratégia para aprendizagem de administração de recursos físicos em enfermagem Taller de diseño físico: estrategia hacia aprendizaje de administración de recursos físicos en enfermería Physical design atelier: strategy for physics resources administration learning on nursing

    Patricia Bover Draganov


    Full Text Available O sucesso da aprendizagem envolve estratégias adequadas. Aquelas inspiradas na Andragogia, que é a arte e a ciência de ensinar adultos, parecem ser ideais para o ensino do tema projetos, conteúdo de administração de recursos físicos ministrado na graduação em enfermagem. O objetivo é relatar estratégia de ensino que estimula a aquisição de competências que tornem o enfermeiro capaz de dialogar, com a equipe multiprofissional, sobre projetos. A estratégia envolveu oficina composta por quatro etapas: leitura de projetos, atribuições do estabelecimento assistencial de saúde (EAS, noções de dimensionamento físico e elaboração de glossário de termos. A estratégia, proposta por aluna de disciplina de prática educacional de programa de pós-graduação senso estrito, foi testada, avaliada e aprovada em oficina por alunos e professores. As condições para aplicação dessa estratégia envolvem trabalho com poucos alunos, salas próprias, equipamentos disponíveis e parcerias com EAS.El éxito de aprendizaje implica estrategias adecuadas. Aquellas inspiradas en la andragogia, que es la arte y la ciencia de enseñar adultos, parecen ser ideales hacia lo enseñanza de los proyectos, contenidos de administración de los recursos físicos ministró en la graduación de enfermería. El objetivo es describir una estrategia de enseñanza que búsqueda la adquisición de competencia que tornen el enfermero capaces de tratar, con el personal multiprofissional, sobre proyectos. El taller consta de cuatro pasos: lectura de proyectos, tareas de los establecimientos de salud, nociones de diseño físico y preparación de un glosario de términos. La estrategia, que fue propuesto por estudiante de la disciplina de la práctica educativa en el programa de postgrado sentido estricto, se puso a prueba en el taller cuando fue evaluado y aprobado por los estudiantes y profesores. Las condiciones para aplicación consiste en trabajar con pocos

  10. 注射用盐酸多西环素致静脉炎3例及不良反应文献复习%Literature Review of Doxycycline Hyclate for Injection Induced Phlebitis in 3 Adverse Reactions Cases

    吴蔚; 蓝茜榆


    Objective To enhance the knowledge of the adverse reaction induced by doxycycline hydrochloride,and to protect the safety of patients. Methods To report and analyze 3 cases of phlebitis caused by doxycycline hydrochloride for injection,relevant literatures in China National Knowledge Infrastructure,Wanfang Database,VIP network and PubMed were retrieved and collected to summary and analyze its adverse reactions. Results Doxycycline hydrochloride for injection can cause phlebitis. There were 8 cases of serious adverse reactions life-threatening in the literatures of adverse reactions caused by doxycycline hydrochloride,4 cases were induced by intra-venous administration,which accounted for 80. 00% in intravenous drug adverse reactions,and 4 cases were induced by oral administra-tion,which accounted for 9. 30% in oral drug adverse reactions. Conclusion Doxycycline hydrochloride for injection can cause the phlebitis and systemic serious adverse reactions,and the serious adverse reactions life-threatening is easily caused by intravenous ad-ministration. To ensure the safe and effective use of drugs,we should try to avoid intravenous administration when oral administration is allowed.%目的:提高临床医务人员对多西环素不良反应的认识,保障患者用药安全。方法报道并分析3例注射用盐酸多西环素所致静脉炎的药品不良反应,并检索中国知网、万方数据库、维普网、PubMed等数据库资源,收集使用注射用盐酸多西环素出现静脉炎的相关文献,对多西环素不良反应进行归纳分析。结果注射用盐酸多西环素可致静脉炎。近10年文献报道的多西环素不良反应病例中,危及生命的严重不良反应8例,其中静脉给药4例,占静脉给药不良反应的80.00%;口服给药4例,占口服给药不良反应的9.30%。结论注射用盐酸多西环素可引起静脉炎及全身性严重不良反应,静脉给药途径更易导致严重不良反应。建

  11. The promotion of modern education and rural social disorder in the Late Qing Period%清末新式教育的推广与乡村社会的无序化--以劝学绅董的权力扩张为中心



    Since the Late Qing Reforms, the state began to promote the rural modern education in large scale .To meet the needs of the development of modern education and to strengthen the state's control of local education, the government began to establish the educational administrative agencies called Department for Encouraging Learning in districts and counties .Due to its late-development and exogenesis , as an important part of China's State-making, the expansion of local educational ad-ministrative agencies indicated a path different from that in the 18th century Europe.With the emergence of the Department for Encouraging Learning, the gentry entered the government and had a mandate covering the educational affairs .But because the state had no ability to make it completely bureaucratic or completely autonomous , under the government -gentry cooperation, the powers of the gentry got great expansion and were not under effective supervision .With the rapid expansion of state power and the trend that more gentry saw dealing with educational affairs as a tool for private benefits , the contradiction between the gentry and the peasants was becoming more and more sharp , and many rural areas were showing increasingly social disorder .%  清末“新政”以来,国家开始在乡村大规模推广新式教育。为了满足新式教育发展的需要,加强国家对地方教育的控制,国家开始陆续在地方建立教育行政机构劝学所。由于其后发、外生的特征,作为“国家政权建设”重要组成部分的地方教育行政机构的扩张预示着一种与18世纪欧洲不同的道路。随着劝学所的出现,各州县出现了一个劝学绅董群体,他们从体制外进入体制内,获得了办理地方学务的权力。但由于国家没有能力使其实现完全的官僚化或完全的自治,在“官绅通力合作”的办学模式下,这些劝学绅董的权力得到了极大的扩张,且没有

  12. Effect-site concentration of sufentanil blunting responses to tracheal intubation with video laryngoscope during propofol TCI%丙泊酚靶控输注时舒芬太尼抑制视频喉镜插管的效应室浓度

    邵伟栋; 胡渤; 张兴安; 钱传沐; 徐波


    目的:探讨丙泊酚靶控输注(TCI)时舒芬太尼抑制视频喉镜气管插管反应的效应室靶浓度(EC50和EC95)。方法:择期全麻手术患者23例,以效应室浓度 TCI 舒芬太尼,3 min 后给予血浆靶浓度为3μg/mL丙泊酚,给予顺式阿曲库铵0.15 mg/kg 行视频喉镜气管插管。舒芬太尼效应室靶浓度按改良序贯法增加或减少0.05 ng/mL,舒芬太尼靶控浓度从0.4 ng/mL 开始。结果:舒芬太尼抑制视频喉镜气管插管反应的 EC50为0.32 ng/mL,95%可信区间(CI)为0.29~0.35 ng/mL;相应的 ECZ 为0.38 ng/mL,95%CI 为0.35~0.55 ng/mL。结论:在复合 TCI 丙泊酚3μg/mL 时,舒芬太尼抑制视频喉镜气管插管反应的 ECZ 和 EC95分别为0.32 ng/mL和0.38 ng/mL。%Objective To deter mine the effect-site concentration of sufentanil blunting responses to tracheal intubation with video laryngoscope during propofol target controlled infusion (TCI). Methods Twenty-three patients undergoing selective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this study. Induction of anesthesia was initiated by TCI sufentanil at the target effect-site concentration 3 min later , TCI of propofol began at the target plasma concentration of 3 μg/mL. Cisatracurium 0.15 mg/kg was ad ministrated for video laryngoscope tracheal intubation after loss of consciousness. The target concentration of sufentanil for consecutive patients was deter mined using the modified Dixon′s up-and-down method by the intubation response of the previous patient , in an increment or decrement of 0.05 ng/mL. The initial concentration was set at 0.4 ng/mL. Results The EC50 of Sufentanil was 0.32 ng/mL with 95%confidence interval of 0.29~0.35 ng/mL; the EC95 was 0.38 ng/mL with 95%confidence interval 0.35-0.55 ng/mL during video laryngoscope tracheal intubation. Conclusion The EC50 and EC95of sufentanil blunting responses to tracheal intubation with video laryngoscope are

  13. « C’est eux contre nous » ou « Qui a peur de qui ? » : la rhétorique post-11 septembre de l’administration américaine vue par la caricature de presse

    Dominique CADINOT


    Full Text Available Dans les mois qui suivent les attentats du 11 septembre 2001, face aux douleurs encore vives et à la phobie anti-terroriste qui gagne du terrain, rares sont ceux qui s’interrogent sur le caractère liberticide de l’arsenal juridique mis en place par l’administration Bush. Encore plus rares sont les observateurs qui choisissent de jouer la carte de l’humour et de la dérision. Pourtant, en dépit du contexte, le 15 décembre 2001, soit trois mois après les attentats, le quotidien d’Atlanta en Géorgie, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, fait paraître un dessin humoristique de Mike Luckovich caricaturant la politique du ministre de la justice John Ashcroft. De prime abord, l’auteur de la caricature dénonce la diabolisation de l’ennemi interne que forme alors la communauté américaine de culture arabe ou islamique. Dans son dessin, Luckovich met en effet clairement en cause la pratique du profilage racial et le caractère artificiel de la division dichotomique mise en avant par l’administration fédérale. Cependant, le choix de caricaturer John Ashcroft, représentant notoire de la droite religieuse, nous porte à croire que c’est en fait la délicate problématique des relations entre pouvoir et religion qui est au cœur du message adressé par l’auteur.Le dessin humoristique constituant un instrument de lecture privilégié d’une époque, cette analyse sera l’occasion de mettre en évidence les sentiments d’une catégorie d’Américains qui, dans les mois ayant suivi la réaction des agences fédérales, se sont opposés aux manœuvres visant à réduire le patriotisme aux seules convictions religieuses.In the months following the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington when the anti-terrorist phobia was at its peak, very few Americans dared voice criticism of the Bush administration’s assault on civil liberties. Even fewer commentators dared to use humor in dealing with the tragedy. However, despite the

  14. 高良姜提取物对2型糖尿病小鼠的降糖作用%Hypoglycemic effects of the extracts of Alpinia officinarum Hance on type 2 diabetic model mice

    李咪; 谭银丰


    目的:研究高良姜提取物对2型糖尿病小鼠的降糖作用。方法采用高脂高糖饮食加小剂量链脲佐霉素(STZ)注射诱导2型糖尿病小鼠模型,饲养过程中动态监测小鼠的血糖水平、体质量变化,待小鼠血糖水平达到实验要求后,以高良姜提取物稀释不同倍数、二甲双胍、生理盐水灌胃。30 d后测定小鼠的空腹血糖、糖耐量等指标,并观察小鼠肝组织病理切片。结果高脂高糖饲料饲喂联合小剂量注射STZ诱导的2型糖尿病小鼠,高良姜提取物能显著降低糖耐量试验2 h血糖浓度(P<0.05),对体质量也具有一定的调节作用(P<0.05),50 mg/kg剂量组在给药后空腹血糖表现出显著改善(P<0.05),但对肝损伤、脂肪性病变无明显改善作用。结论高良姜提取物对糖尿病小鼠的血糖水平有一定的降糖作用。%Objective To study the hypoglycemic effects of extracts of Alpinia officinarum Hance (galangal) on type 2 diabetic model mice. Methods Streptozocin (STZ) and high fat and high-sugar diet were used to induce type 2 diabetes in mice. The glucose levels, body weight, and food intaking in feeding process were observed. After the blood sugar levels in mice reaching tested requirements, galangal extract, metformin, and normal saline were orally given to mice. After 30 days, the fasting blood glucose, pathological section, and other factors were investigated. Results Ad-ministrating galangal extract to mice led to a significant decrease in their 2 h blood glucose concentration after a glucose tolerance test (P<0.05), which also had a regulative effect on body weight (P<0.05). In the group of 50 mg/kg galangal extract, significant improvement was observed in the fasting blood glucose (P<0.05), but no significant improvement was found in the recovery of liver damage and fatty degeneration. Conclusion The galangal extract has hypoglycemic effects on the blood sugar in type 2 diabetic model mice.

  15. 抗甲状腺药物对妊娠合并甲状腺功能亢进患者的疗效及对胎儿的影响分析%Efficacy and impact on fetus of antithyroid drugs on pregnant women with hyperthyroidism

    施伟; 邱长莲


    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of antithyroid drugs on pregnant woMen with hyperthyroidisM and the iM-pact on fetus. Methods:96 cases of pregnant woMen with hyperthyroidisM in our hospital froM May 2009 to May 2014 were se-lected and randoMly divided into control group and observation group,each group 48 cases. Patients in control group were not adMinistrated with anti - thyroid drugs,and patients in observation group were dealed with antithyroid drugs. The thyroid func-tion,the pregnant woMen coMplications,the newborn average weight and the one Minute Apgar scores of two groups were ana-lyzed and coMpared. Results:The FT3,FT4 and TSH levels of observation group were significantly lower than control group(P﹤ 0. 05). The pregnant woMen coMplications rate of observation group was significantly lower than control group(P ﹤ 0. 05). The newborn average weight of observation group was significantly higher than control group,and the Apgar score high of obser-vation group was significantly higher than control group. The differences were statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:For pregnant woMen with hyperthyroidisM,antithyroid drugs can significantly iMprove thyroid function,the newborn average weight and one Minute Apgar scores.%目的:探讨抗甲状腺药物对妊娠合并甲状腺功能亢进患者的治疗效果及对胎儿的影响。方法:选取2009年5月—2014 年5月收治的妊娠合并甲状腺功能亢进患者96例,随机分成对照组和观察组,每组48例。对照组患者不接受抗甲状腺药物治疗,观察组接受抗甲状腺药物治疗。对两组患者甲状腺功能、孕妇并发症以及新生儿平均体重和1 Min Apgar 评分进行分析比较。结果:观察组患者的游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺激素(FT4)以及血清促甲状腺激素(TSH)水平均显著低于对照组;观察组并发症发生率显著低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05

  16. 橄榄油对高脂血症大鼠脂代谢的影响及其抗氧化作用%Influence of olive oil on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats and its antioxidative effect

    徐勤娥; 张娜娜


    [目的]探讨橄榄油对高脂血症大鼠血脂水平的影响。[方法]将50只成年 SD雄性大鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组和干预组(干预组又分为3个亚组,即干预低剂量组、干预中剂量组、干预高剂量组)。除正常对照组外的各组大鼠,每天喂食高脂饲料,建立高脂血症大鼠模型;各干预组分别灌胃5 mL/(kg·d)、10 mL/(kg·d)、20 mL/(kg·d)橄榄油,正常对照组和模型组大鼠均给予生理盐水灌胃4周;实验期间,观察记录大鼠摄食状况、体重变化等基本情况;4周后尾尖采血,分离血清,测定大鼠血清中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD )、丙二醛(MDA)、总胆固醇(TC )、三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL C )。[结果]与模型组相比,干预中剂量组MDA、TC、TG、LDL C显著降低,HDL C、SOD显著升高。[结论]10 mL/(kg·d)橄榄油灌胃可使高脂血症大鼠血脂水平下降,并可提高其抗氧化能力。%Obj ective:To probe into the influence of olive oil on lipid me-tabolism in hyperlipidemia rats.Methods:A total of 50 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group,model control group and intervention group (rats in intervention group were divided in-to 3 subgroups,namely the low dose group,middle dose group,high dose group).The rats in all intervention subgroups received intragastric ad-ministration respectively with 5 mL/(kg·d),10 mL/(kg·d),20 mL/(kg·d) olive oil.And rats in normal control group and model control group re-ceived gavage with normal saline for 4 weeks.At the same time,rats ex-cept in normal control group were fed a high fat diet every day to estab-lish the model of hyperlipidemia rats.During the experiment,the basic situation of feeding and rats body weight change were observed and re-corded.After 4 weeks,blood samples were collected from the tail end and separation of serum was conducted.And superoxide dismutase in serum of rats

  17. L’orthographe du français. Ce qu’en pensent les formateurs et futurs formateurs

    Moreau Marie-Louise


    Full Text Available Depuis 1900 au moins, la réforme de l’orthographe du français parait être en tout temps une question d’actualité. On ne peut être qu’impressionné par le nombre de commissions, projets, études, publications, pétitions, recommandations officielles... centrés sur cette thématique. L’époque actuelle semble même marquée par une certaine accélération, dont le point de départ pourrait être la publication au Journal officiel français, le 6 décembre 1990, des « rectifications orthographiques ». Toutes les publications scientifiques dédiées à cette question font état des difficultés que rencontrent les francophones dans l’écriture de leur langue. Beaucoup de ces travaux tentent de cerner les proportions respectives des pro- et des antiréformistes, analysent l’argumentaire des uns et des autres, essaient de déterminer sur quelles réformes les attentes pourraient s’accorder. C’est dans cette perspective que le présent travail s’inscrit, dans le contexte de la Belgique francophone. Dans cette communauté, en 1998, quatre circulaires ministérielles sont publiées à l’adresse des enseignants. Elles posent que les nouvelles graphies ont droit de cité dans l’enseignement, tout en mettant en avant un principe de tolérance : ni les nouvelles et ni les anciennes formes ne peuvent être considérées comme fautives. Ces circulaires n’ont apparemment suscité que des réactions assez molles. En septembre 2008, une nouvelle circulaire ministérielle (signée de quatre ministres se montre un peu plus incisive, invitant les enseignants, de tout niveau, à enseigner prioritairement les formes recommandées. La publication de ces circulaires s’est accompagnée de la diffusion, auprès de tous les enseignants, d’un dépliant, publié par le Service de la langue française, 7 Règles pour nous simplifier l’orthographe, qui synthétise les principales règles de la réforme. Remise alors sur le devant de la sc


    Naveed Ahmed


    stenosis. Survival rate is improved by prompt trea tment DISCUSSION: As all the cut throat injuries presented airway compromise we managed the patients by securing the airway by tracheostomy below the level of injury to airway. Apart from providing airway, this would give rest to the site of injury & avoid aspiration. Hypovolaemia was corrected with volume expanders and blood transfusion. After initial management patients were shifted to the operation theatre. Most of the patients were managed under General Anesthesia. Tracheostomy provided the route for ad ministration of General Anesthesia. Wound debridement was done as most of the cases presented more than 6 to 8 hrs from the time of injury. Exploration of the wound was done to identify vascular or neural damage and treated accordingly. RESULTS: In the pre sent study mortality rate is 10%. Complications are managed by conservative methods. Two patients required laryngeal and tracheal stents to correct stenosis.

  19. Doutorado-sanduíche em enfermagem: relato de experiência Doctorado sándwich en enfermería: relato de experiencia Sandwich doctoral program in nursing: an experience report

    Rosane Arruda Dantas


    Full Text Available Relato de experiência acerca de estágio de doutorando-sanduíche realizado com bolsa da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, durante o período de outubro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006, na Faculdade de Enfermagem de D. Ana Guedes, no Porto, em Portugal, instituição já visitada na graduação. Tive a oportunidade de replicar a metodologia de parte da dissertação com crianças portuguesas. Isso permitiu estudo comparativo entre duas culturas que guardam afinidades, mas têm características distintas. Além disso, ministrei aulas, participei de cursos e seminários e aprofundei os conhecimentos acerca da Teoria da Universalidade e Diversidade do Cuidado Cultural. Considero que esta experiência é um estímulo para a garantia da autonomia do enfermeiro na assistência de enfermagem, como pesquisador e docente, ampliando conhecimentos e os inserindo no processo de cuidado. Ademais, influencia positivamente no amadurecimento psicológico, cultural e social do doutorando.Relato de experiencia acerca de pasantía de doctorado sándwich realizado con suporte financiero de la Coordinación de Mejora del Personal del Nivel Superior, durante el período de octubre de 2005 a enero de 2006, en la Facultad de Enfermería de D. Ana Guedes, en Porto, Portugal, institución ya visitada durante la graduación. Tuve la oportunidad de replicar la metodología de parte de la disertación junto a niños portugueses. Esto permitió un estudio comparativo entre dos culturas que guardan afinidades, pero tienen características distintas. Además, ministré clases, participé de cursos y seminarios y me profundicé en los conocimientos acerca de la Teoría de la Universalidad y Diversidad del Cuidado Cultural. Considero que esta experiencia es un estímulo para la garantía de la autonomía del enfermero en la atención de enfermería, como investigadora y docente, ampliando conocimientos e insertándolos en el proceso de cuidado. Adem

  20. 论维吾尔族“塔拉克”离婚习俗的法律效力问题%On the Legal Effect of Divorce Customs of the Uighur "Talak"



    This article learned the basic reason of the existence of shout three times of "Talak",this kind of social phenomenon by way of carried on analysis and research and unified the manners and customs of our country border area Muslim religion community and so on.put for ward corresponding point of view and countermeasure A Muslim man achieved divorce goal by shouted three times of "Talak" this is a objective reality that generally existed in the Islam country and all the Muslim religion community countries and it is a realist ice question which does not allow to avoid.Nomatter how the public opinion was it has already evolved the Muslim populace's manners and customs with the aid of the strength of the religious belief in the process of the long-term historical development.our country is a socialist country of atheism,and our country law have special and concrete legal rules about citizen's marital question.Moreover,our country law explicitly stipulated that no one can interfere citizen's freedom of marriage by mean of religion.But we have to confess "shout three times of talak" this kind of illegal way of marriage relieves is actually asocial phenomenon which generally existed in the Xingjian augur national minority religion community.Mean while,it is an important pout of augur national minority's manners and customs and it is unable to be changed by the way of ad ministration and law in the short period.Today,with the great effort of promote to build a harmonious society,how can we keep these illegal national customs peace with our country's legislative work maintain our country border area's social stability and there unification of the motherland become more and more important.%穆斯林男子通过喊三声"塔拉克"来达到离婚的目的,是一个不容回避的社会问题。无论社会舆论怎样看待,它已经在长期的历史发展进程中借助于宗教信仰的力量演变成了维吾尔族婚姻习惯法的一个组成

  1. L-谷氨酰胺和左旋肉碱改善维持性血液透析患者营养状况的多中心、随机临床研究%L-Glutamine and L-Carnitine in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients to Improve Nutritional Status of the Multi-center Randomized Clinical Approach

    张琥; 何晓峰; 汪汉东


    目的:观察L-谷氨酰胺和左旋肉碱(L-肉碱)在维持性血液透析(maintain hemodialysis,MHD)患者营养不良治疗中的作用.方法:采用多中心、随机的方法将78例MHD患者随机分成A组、B组、C组,3组患者均皮下注射重组人促红细胞生成素(erythropoietinin,EPO)6 000 U,2次/周;A组每次血液透析结束时静脉注射L-肉碱2 g,3次/周;B组每日口服L-谷氨酰胺胶囊1.5 g(分3次口服);C组联合使用L-肉碱和L-谷氨酰胺,用法不变.观察时间3个月.结果:C组患者血细胞比容(haematocrit,HCT)、血红蛋白(haemoglobin,Hb)、血浆总蛋白(plasma total protein,Tp)、血浆白蛋白(serum albumin,Alb)上升幅度明显高于A组和B组(P<0.05或P<0.01),C组血C反应蛋白(C-reactive protein,CRP)水平明显低于A组和B组(P<0.01),免疫球蛋白(IgA、IgG、IgM)水平明显高于A组及B组(P<0.01).结论:MHD患者联合使用L-谷氨酰胺和L-肉碱可显著改善患者的营养状况及免疫功能;减轻体内微炎症反应;改善对EPO的敏感性,减少用量,提高疗效;安全性较好.%Objective: To assess the efficacy of L - glutamine and L - carnitine in the treatment of maintenance hemodialysis patients with malnutrition. Methods: A multi - center approach of seventy - eight on malnutrition maintenance hemodialysis patients were randomly divided in to 3 groups: group A,group B and group C. Three groups were treated by EPO ( 6 000 u,two times each week by subcutaneous injection ). In addition,2 g of L - carnitine was infused after each hemodialysis is treatment, three times each week in group A;oral L - glutamine administration( 1.5 g,three times each day )in group B;and L - glutamine and L - carnitine coad-ministration in group C. The patients were observed for three months. Results: Compared with group A and group B, haematocrit( Hct ) and plasma total protein( Tp )and serum albumin( Alb ) and haemoglobin( Hb ) were all significantly increased( P < 0. 05 or P < 0.01 ),but the

  2. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.


    , Kyushu G. R. Stewart, Gainesville C. Di Castro, Rome R. Osborn, Chicago H. Takagi, Tokyo M. Eremets, Mainz S. Ovchnikov, Krasnoyarsk L. Taillefer, Sherbrooke M. Fiebig, Bonn C. Panagopoulos, Singapore & Heraklion J. D. Thompson, Los Alamos Z. FiskIrvine S. Paschen, Vienna Y. Tokura, Tokyo J. Flouquet, Grenoble C. Pfleiderer, Munich K. Ueda, Tokyo P. Fulde, Dresden P. Phillips, Urbana C. M. Varma, Riverside A. Geim, Manchester D. Pines, Davis T. Vojta, Rolla J.C. Gomez-Sal, Santander T. V. Ramakrishnan, Bangalore N.L. Wang, Beijing A. Kavokin, Southampton A.K. Raychaudhuri, Calcutta T. Xiang, Beijing J. Goodenough, Austin M. Reifers, Kosice L. Yu, Beijing H. Hosono, Tokyo P. Riseborough, Philadelphia F. C. Zhang, Hong Kong S. Julian, Toronto M. L Saboungi, Orleans G. Zwicknagl, Braunschweig Operational Team Anson Cheung (co-ordinator)Hyeong Jin KimPaul Nahai-Williamson Beng Tan (co-ordinator)Jack GillettPeter Logg Cheng Liu (co-ordinator)Jo WensleyPrajakti Kalra Swee K. Goh (co-ordinator)Jonathan SilverRichard Brierley Adam HalskiLara SibleyRobert Hay Edd CavannaLeona HopeSeb Haines Felix NissenLina KlintbergSitikantha Das Gareth ConduitMarianne BauerStephen Rowley Gerie LonzarichMatt BurgessSven Friedemann Greg LeverMuhammad Ahsan ZebYang Zou Hannah PriceNick BristoweYiqian Xu Haruka TaniguchiOleksandr PoplavskyyZhuo Feng

  3. Understanding the Origin,Founding and Characteristics of Ethnic Regional Autonomy

    Qin Heping


    administration. Regional autonomy clearly confirms the unity of China from the aspect of the construction of a national system,and confirms that the country cannot be separated. The ethnic auton-omous region is a part of Chinese territory,and as such, the autonomous organ must accept the lead-ership of the upper level departments and central government. Therefore,zhonghua renmin gongheguo minzu quyu zizhi shishi gangyao ( The Implementa-tion Outline for Ethnic Regional Autonomy for the People’s Republic of China ) ( 1952 ) formulates that: “ Various ethnic autonomous regions are a part of the PRC’s territory which cannot be separa-ted. The autonomous departments of various ethnic autonomous regions are the first -level local ad-ministration under the unified leadership of the Central People’s Government,and led by the upper level People’s Government.” This regulation uni-fied the local system within China. The CCP’s proposing and establishment of eth-nic regional autonomy is doubtlessly important,but knowing how this system has been developed from words to the actual construction of the system,and, then,explaining it from the aspect of construction is more valuable. Most areas of ethnic concentration in China are actually not occupied by a single group,but are areas mixed with different groups. While setting up ethnic autonomous regions,how to confirm or divide the scope of these areas with con-centrations of ethnic minorities was a question that had to be faced. According to the rules in the gongtong gangling, in addition to the distribution of the ethnic minorities,the local reality and histor-ical politics should also be taken into considera-tion. The purpose of setting up autonomous regions is to ensure and promote the minority people’s rights,help them build political administrations,as-sist them to become masters of their land,and par-ticipate in the political life—all of these are based upon the principle of keeping national unification and ethnic unity

  4. Introducing the CEFR in BC: Questions and Challenges

    Meike Wernicke


    articulation claire de l'éducation linguistique de la province telle que conçue et développée au cours des 15 dernières années. La force du projet de curriculum se trouvait dans l'accent mis sur le plurilinguisme comme principe directeur pédagogique, une réponse aux recommandations récentes du Conseil des ministres du Canada à adopter le Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues dans un contexte canadien. Ce projet de curriculum a été révisé pour devenir le curriculum de français maintenant cependant le CECR en reste la base théorique. De plus, le projet de curriculum demeure pertinent d’un point de vue historique pour l'enseignement des langues en Colombie-Britannique en ce qu'il a mis en évidence la diversité linguistique de la province et le choix de valoriser plusieurs langues de différentes façons. Il opérationnalisait ainsi la reconnaissance de la pluralité linguistique dans un contexte officiellement bilingue et représentait une tentative concrète de reconnaître les pratiques langagières très dynamiques de la Colombie-Britannique. Dans cet article, nous examinons le projet de curriculum comme un moyen potentiel de négocier les questions historiques, politiques, culturelles et linguistiques à l'égard de l'enseignement des langues en Colombie-Britannique. Ainsi, nous considérons d’abord le développement historique de l'enseignement des langues en Colombie-Britannique dans le cadre du bilinguisme officiel, puis nous nous livrons à une analyse du discours thématique du document pour mettre en évidence l’articulation claire d’une éducation linguistique plurilingue en Colombie-Britannique, bien que celle-ci présente des défis.


    Ready, Casey


    mettre en œuvre un agenda féminisme dans le cadre de leurs activités auprès des femmes. La période à l’étude, en l’occurrence 2003 à 2008, s’appuie sur de vastes recherches académiques portant sur l’impact des politiques néolibérales mises en œuvre de 1995 à 2003, années au cours desquelles les Premiers ministres progressistes conservateurs Mike Harris et Ernie Eves étaient au pouvoir. Y sont analysées en détails les différences et la continuité entre les deux gouvernements en et relève de nombreux dangers pour les femmes, dissimulés dans des rapports complexes et souvent mal compris entre les organismes à but non lucratif et l’État.

  6. Statistical analysis of infection rate before and after administration of antibiotics in plastic surgery%整形外科抗菌药物管理前后手术感染率的统计分析

    刘羽; 裴斌; 李德胜; 王谦; 艾金伟


    目的:分析对比抗菌药物管理前后医院整形外科手术感染率,探讨抗菌药物管理对控制整形外科手术感染的重要性,为临床治疗提供参考依据。方法回顾性分析2010年8月-2012年8月在医院整形外科手术的1550例患者临床资料,根据患者是否进行抗菌药物管理将其分为抗菌药物管理组(2011年8月-2012年8月)850例和抗菌药物未管理组(2010年8月-2011年8月),分析两组患者抗菌药物使用情况与手术感染率。结果抗菌药物管理组Ⅱ类和Ⅲ类手术患者抗菌药物使用率显著高于Ⅰ类手术患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);抗菌药物管理组I类手术患者抗菌药物使用率显著低于抗菌药物未管理组Ⅰ类手术患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);抗菌药物未管理组700例患者中,11例患者发生切口感染,感染率为1.57%;抗菌药物管理组850例患者中,5例患者发生感染,感染率为0.59%,抗菌药物管理组患者感染的发生率显著低于抗菌药物未管理组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在整形外科手术中,规范性使用抗菌药物可以减少外科手术中抗菌药物滥用的现象,可降低整形外科手术感染率,值得广泛推广。%OBJECTIVE To analyze the infection rate in plastic surgery after adopting antibiotic administration so as to investigate the importance of antibiotic management in the control of infections during orthopedic surgeries . METHODS From Jan .2012 to Apr .2013 ,the clinical data of 1550 cases who adopted plastic surgeries in our hos‐pital were retrospectively analyzed .They were divided into two groups according to whether given antibiotics ad‐ministration ,namely antibiotics management group (from Aug .2011 to Aug .2012) with 850 cases and antibiotics unmanaged using group (from Aug .2010 to Aug .2011) with 700 cases .The antibiotic using condition and opera

  7. Alterações histoquímicas das glicosaminoglicanas na cérvice uterina no final da prenhez da rata albina após ministração local de hialuronidase Histochemical changes of the glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix of pregnant rats after local injection of hyaluronidase

    Viviane Almeida de Alcântara Lopes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar as alterações histoquímicas relacionadas às glicosaminoglicanas da cérvice uterina da rata albina, após ministração local de hialuronidase no final da prenhez. MÉTODOS: dez ratas com teste de prenhez positivo foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos, numericamente iguais. O Grupo Controle (Gc foi constituído pelas ratas que receberam 1 mL de água destilada, dose única, no 18º dia da prenhez, sob anestesia, ministrado na cérvice uterina. O Grupo Experimental (Gex constou de ratas que receberam, sob as mesmas condições do Gc, 0,02 mL de hialuronidase, diluído em 0,98 mL de água destilada (total de 1 mL. No 20º dia de prenhez, as ratas foram novamente anestesiadas e submetidas à dissecção, preparando-se a cérvice uterina para estudo histoquímico com coloração de alcian blue e seus bloqueios (pH=0,5, pH=2,5, metilação e saponificação. RESULTADOS: verificou-se na lâmina própria no Gc, reação fortemente positiva (+3 e, no Gex, reação negativa, na coloração de alcian blue no pH=0,5. Em pH=2,5 a coloração também se apresentou fortemente positiva (+4 no Gc e fracamente positiva (+1 no Gex. Após metilação, tanto o Gc quanto o Gex mostraram reação negativa após coloração de alcian blue no pH=2,5. Com a reação de metilação seguida de saponificação e na digestão enzimática em lâmina, a coloração da lâmina própria se mostrou negativa em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: há uma nítida predominância de glicosaminoglicanas sulfatadas no Gc em relação ao Gex e uma tênue quantidade de glicosaminoglicanas carboxiladas identificadas no Gex. As modificações evidenciadas na matriz extracelular sugerem que a hialuronidase injetada localmente na cérvix uterina promoveu alterações bioquímicas compatíveis com maturação cervical.PURPOSE: to study the histochemical changes related to the uterine cervix glycosaminoglycan of the albino female rat, after local ministration of

  8. A educação na Itália fascista: as reformas Gentile (1922-1923 - Education in fascist Italy: the Gentile reforms (1922-1923

    José Silverio Baia Horta


    was put into effect in May 1923 and the Italian higher education teaching was reformed by Gentile in September 1923. This article analyzes these reforms. As a documentary research it uses as its primary sources, as well as books and periodicals from that time, the Gazetta Ufficiale and the Bolletino Uficiale del Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione. Keywords: Fascist Italy; education; Gentile Reform; authoritarianism and education.   LA EDUCACIÓN EN LA ITALIA FASCISTA: LAS REFORMAS GENTILE (1922-1923 Resumen Este artículo tiene por objetivo analisar la reforma realizada por el filósofo idealista Giovanni Gentile, primer Ministro de la Educación del régimen fascista. Entre 1922 y 1923, Gentile realiza una amplia reforma del sistema educacional italiano, tanto sobre el punto de vista administrativo como sobre el punto de vista didáctico-pedagógico. La reforma de la administración escolar trae las marcas de la aparente dualidad del pensamiento idealista que, en el caso, se traduce por la afirmación de la libertad didáctica del profesor, acompañada de un aumento acentuado de centralización y de control autoritario. La reforma de la enseñanza primária, realizada en 1923, tuvo en Lombardo-Radice su principal idealizador. El decreto de Reforma de Enseñanza Média fue promulgado en mayo de 1923 y la enseñanza superior italiana fue reformado por Gentile en setiembre de 1923. Este trabajo analiza estas reformas. Se trata de una pesquisa documentária que utiliza, como fuentes primarias, además de libros y periódicos de la época, a Gazetta Ufficiale y Bolletino Uficiale del Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione. Palabras-clave: Itália fascista; Educación; Reforma Gentile; autoritarismo y educación.   L'ÉDUCATION DANS L'ITALIE FASCISTE: LES RÉFORMES GENTILE (1922-1923 Résumé Cet article a pour but d'analyser la réforme réalisée par le philosopheidéaliste Giovanni Gentile, premier Ministre de l'Éducation du régime fasciste. Entre 1922 et 1923

  9. Assessment on Sustainability in Yangtze River Basin and Improvement%长江流域可持续发展能力评价

    陈利顶; 傅伯杰


    . From the real meaning of sustainable development, the authors take the viewpointthat the sustainable development can be considered as a process or re-lay competition between different genera-tions. Normally, when the present generation leave enough resource, or capital for the next generation, the so-cial and economic development process will be sustainable. Otherwise it will be unsustainable or destructive if thepresent generation consume much resource and leave less for the next generation. Therefore, the evaluation in-dices for sustainability of a region comprises of seven aspects: man-made capital accumulation, human resourcecapacity, scientific and technological resource supporting ability, natural resource supporting ability, environ-mental capacity and supporting ability, population pressure and social development administration level. Basedon the above evaluation indices, a case study focusing on assessing sustainability from natural and economic as-pects was carried out in the Yangtze River basin. The results indicate that since the 1990s, the man-made accumulation capacity, human resource capacity,scientific and technological supporting ability in all the administration regions in the Yangtze River basin are in asustainable growth, however the increase rate is quite different for different regions. In general, the supportingcapacity of natural resource for sustainable development is gradually decreased and the population pressure is be-coming higher since the 1990s. The supporting ability of environmental resource for sustainable development ischangeable for different regions in the Yangtze River basin. Based on the above results, some basic measures forenhancing the sustainability of whole Yangtze River basin are suggested. The most importance is that while en-hancing sustainability for individual administration regions, strengthening the cooperation between different ad-ministration regions and different departments on optimism utilization of the common

  10. 大鼠灌胃缩泉方制剂后尿、粪中的益智活性成分及代谢物的测定%Identification of known chemicals and their metabolites from Suoquan formula in rat urine and feces

    秦贞苗; 李海龙; 谭银丰; 赖伟勇; 蔡红蝶; 张小坡; 陈峰


    Objective To identify the flavonoids (tectochrysin, izalpinin, chrysin, kaempferide and apigen-in-4',7-dimethylether) and their metabolites, as well as diarylheptanoids (yakuchinone A, yakuchinone B and oxy-phyllacinol) and their metabolites, in rat urine and feces after oral administration of Suoquan capsules or pills. Methods After male Sprague Dawleyoral rats were administratered Suoquan pills (3.54 g/kg) and Suoquan capsules (3.77 g/kg), they were placed into the metabolism of the cage. Their urine and dung were collected 12 h later. The dung was weighed and added 9 volumes of deionized water and then homogenized at high speed divided method. 100μl homogenate of urine and dung were taken into centrifuge tube, with 300μl methanol added, shaked 5 min by vortex and centrifuged 10 min at 13 000 r/min. The supernatant were drawed and dried under N2. The residue was reconstitut-ed using 50μl methanol liquid, shaked and centrifugated again. 40μl supernatant was drawed and analyzed by liguid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results According to the peak LC-MS/MS case in the bi-ological sample of the mentioned control group, comparing the urine and dungs sample before and after the adminis-trated Suoquan pills and Suoquan capsules, we found that the main substances detected in urine and dungs were proto-type form and were not detected the phaseⅡmetabolites, such as glucuronide metabolites, in rats after intragastric ad-ministration. Conclusion Nootkatone, puzzle ketone A and Young shoots flavin and other ingredients are detected in the urine of rats, which may be the active constituents in regulating the bladder and bladder function.%目的:研究大鼠灌胃缩泉胶囊和缩泉丸后,诺卡酮、益智黄酮(杨芽黄素、伊砂黄素、白杨素、山奈素和芹菜素-4',7-二甲氧醚)和益智中二芳基庚烷类成分(益智酮甲、益智酮乙、益智醇)在尿和粪中的物质形式。方法雄性Sprague Dawley

  11. Holistic Spirituality in Gail Godwin’s Life and Fiction: Father Melancholy’s Daughter, The Good Husband, and Evensong

    Elaine LUX


    Full Text Available Cet essaise concentre sur la qualité holistique du voyage spirituel féminin qui est explorée essentiellement ici à travers deux personnages importants des romans de Gail Godwin (Margaret Gower dans Father Melancholy’s Daughter et Evensong, et Magda Danvers dans The Good Husbandainsi que par le biais d’une interview que Godwin a accordée à Elaine Lux en 2009. La spiritualité exprimée par Godwin, dans sa vie et sa fiction, a une qualité holistique en cela qu’elle met l’accent sur la spiritualité comme quête et processus, et non seulement comme résultat. Il s’agit d’un voyage héroïque qui explore tour à tour la maturation, l’amour, l’individualisation, la créativité, et l’intégration psychologique. On y rencontre « the sacred kingdom within» (Heart, 83 mais aussi une tradition chrétienne qui s’inscrit dans le contexte d’autres traditions et enseignements. Cet article entrelace les histoires de ces trois femmes, en analysant l’amour et le mariage dans le contexte de la spiritualité, la quête spirituelle comme voyage héroïque, et des analogies bibliques du voyage spirituel féminin. Dans The Good Husband, Magda Danvers, professeur d’anglais visionnaire et prophète, affiche une personnalité forte tandis que Margaret Gower, ministre du culte dans une église épiscopalienne, est un personnage plus stable et plus humble, dont le cheminement spirituel est plus lent et moins spectaculaire. Godwin n’a pas le magnétisme puissant de Magda, ni le dévouement de Margaret, mais les deux personnages sont inclus dans l’écrivaine, car elle les a imaginés, ainsi que leur spiritualité. Pour les trois femmes, amour et quête spirituelle s’entremêlent et s’inscrivent dans l’instant présent tout en laissant deviner une autre réalité. Le mariage est la métaphore spirituelle de l’union de l’âme avec le Christ et un symbole Jungien du soi divisé qui a besoin de synthétiser ses contraires

  12. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    against CV-ARS, Cr-ARS, GI -ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 4. Irradiated animals were treated with development of Cr -ARS, Cv-ARS, GI -ARS and Hp -ARS forms of the ARS -Combined administration of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants used for radiation protection and treatment. Equipment for irradiation: 60 Cobalt Facility : "Panorama", "Puma". Exposure rate: o.6 Gymin. During experiments, animals received the whole-body irradiation in a single dose. The radiation doses varied in a range from 7.5 Gy up to 10 Gy. These experiments were accomplished at the radio-biology department of Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology and Department of Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. Radioprotectants: 1. Antioxidants : The Antioxidant mixture contained Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin A(retinol), Vitamin C(ascorbic acid), natural beta-carotene, d-alphatocopherol succinate, d-alpha tocopherol acetate. The antioxidants mixture was prepared in a powder form. Method of administration: oral administration by gavage. The doses of antioxidants varied from 100 mg/kg up to 500 mg/kg. 2. Placebo: Method of administration: oral ad-ministration by gavage. Five days daily before and after the whole-body gamma-irradiation. 3. Antiradiation Vaccine (ARV) contained toxoid (inactivated) forms of radiomimetics -Neu-rotoxins SRD-1; SRD-2; SRD-3 and Hematotoxins SRD-4. Method of administration ARV: intramuscular or subcutaneous,24 days before irradiation. Animals: 15 Sheep, 50 rabbits. Re-sults: The results of oral administration of antioxidants mixture provided before and after the whole-body high doses of gamma-irradiation at doses 10030 had demonstrated that survival rate was similar to placebo group -all animals died in first 5-10 days after irradiation. Ra-dioprotection activity did not depend on the doses of the antioxidants preparation and seam that high doses of antioxidants administered before and after irradiation were even harmful. Comparing to

  13. 芎芷地龙汤对偏头痛风热证血管活性物质的影响%Effect of Xiongzhi Dilong Decoction on Vasoactive Substance in Migraine with Wind heat Syndrome

    赵永烈; 王玉来; 姚卓亭; 秦绍林; 高颖


    Objective To study the effect of Xiongzhi Dilong decoction(XDD)on vasoactive substance in migraine with wind heat syndrome.Methods To establish migraine with wind heat syndrome model by combining exterior pathogen (hot wind)and GTN ad-ministration,examine the frequency of scratching head within 2 h,and survey the content of thromboxane B2 (TXB2 ),6 Keto PGF1α,calci-tonin gene related peptide(CGRP),endothelin(ET)in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay technology.Results The content of TXB2 ,ET and CGRP in plasma of migraine model was significantly higher than normal group and wind heat group,and the content of 6 Keto PGF1αwas significantly lower than normal group and wind heat group.The content of TXB2 ,ET and CGRP in plasma of migraine with wind heat syndrome moldel persistently increased,and The content of 6 Keto PGF1αpersistently decreased,which is significant difference compared to normal group(P<0.01),and is significant difference compared to migraine model group(P<0.05). The content of TXB2 ,ET,CGRP and 6 Keto PGF1αin plasma of Chinese medicine treatment group is recovered,which was signifi-cant difference compared to migraine with wind heat syndrome model and migraine model group(P<0.05).Conclusion There was no significant effect on normal organism which sufferd from wind heat,But there was significant effect on migraine model induced by Nitroglycerin,The vasoactive substance of Migraine model which was invaded by wind and heat was disbalance severely.XDD could ameliorate remarkably disbalance state of vasoactive substance in wind heat syndrome migraine model.%目的:探讨芎芷地龙汤对偏头痛风热证血管活性物质的影响。方法使用热风及硝酸甘油协同诱导建立大鼠偏头痛风热证模型,观察2 h内搔头次数,用放免法测定血浆中内皮素(ET)、降钙素基因相关肽(CGRP)、血栓素 A2(TXA2)、前列环素(PGI2)含量。方法偏头痛模型组血浆 TXB2、ET、CGRP含量升高,6 Keto PGF1α含量降低,与正

  14. Effect of olanzapine or fluoxetine and combined olanzapine with fluoxetine on citrate synthase activity in rat brain%奥氮平与氟西汀单独或联合给药对大鼠脑内柠檬酸合成酶活性的影响

    张普; 孔丽敏


    目的:研究奥氮平与氟西汀单独或两药联合给药对大鼠脑内柠檬酸合成酶活性短期和长期的影响。方法135只Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组与实验组。对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,实验组再分为几个亚组。2个剂量奥氮平组(3,6 mg· kg-1),2个剂量氟西汀组(12.5,25.0 mg· kg-1),联合用药组:A组(3 mg· kg-1奥氮平+12.5 mg · kg-1氟西汀)、B 组(3 mg · kg-1奥氮平+25.0 mg· kg-1氟西汀)、C组(6 mg· kg-1奥氮平+12.5 mg · kg -1氟西汀)、D组(6 mg· kg-1奥氮平+25.0 mg· kg-1氟西汀),连续给药28 d。用分光光度法测定并比较第1次给药后2 h、末次给药后2,24 h的大鼠前额叶皮层、海马区和纹状体柠檬酸合成酶的活性。结果与对照组相比,在给药第1次后2 h,2个剂量奥氮平组、大剂量氟西汀组、联合A组的大鼠海马区柠檬酸合成酶活性明显增加( P<0.05)。结论短程小剂量奥氮平联合氟西汀可显著增加大鼠脑内柠檬酸合成酶活性。%Objective To evaluated the effect of acute and chronic ad-ministration of fluoxetine , olanzapine and the combination of fluoxetine/olanzapine on citrate synthase activity in rat brain.Methods One hun-dred and thirty-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and experimental group.The rats of the control group received injections of saline.The rats of the experimental group were divided into 8 sub groups by the ways of treament:low and high dose of olanzapine groups (3,6 mg· kg -1 ),the low and high dose of fluoxetine groups (12.5,25.0 mg· kg-1 ), the two -drug combination:A group(3 mg· kg -1 olanza-pine +12.5 mg· kg -1 fluoxetine), B group(3 mg· kg -1 olanzapine +25 mg · kg -1 fluoxetine ) , C group ( 6 mg · kg -1 olanzapine +12.5 mg· kg-1 fluoxetine), D group(6 mg· kg -1 olanzapine +25 mg· kg -1 fluoxetine ).Saline or medications were given once a day , which lasted

  15. The Major Changes in Xinjiang Cities during the Past Hundred Years:Quantity and Scale

    HE Yimin


    This article studies the major changes in Xinjiang during the past hundred years from the perspective of the increased number of cit-ies and the expansion of urban scale . 1.The Change in the Quantity of Xinjiang Cities in the 20 th Century 1 ) The Change in the Quantity of Xinjiang Cities in the first half of the 20th Century In the first half of the 20th century, Xinjiang, like other provinces and regions in China , experi-enced dramatic historical changes , including politi-cal change , destruction from wars , social turbu-lences etc . During the ruling period of Yang Zengxin ( from 1913 to 1928 ) in Xinjiang , Xin-jiang experienced its third upsurge in urban devel-opment since the Qianlong period .During that pe-riod, a total number of 21 counties were built up . In 1933 , a political coup occurred in Xinjiang , and Sheng Shicai began his rule (1933-1944) in Xinjiang.During that period , Xinjiang ’ s poli-tics, economy and culture developed and changed dramatically.At the same time, the numbers of cities with administrative power increased .Accord-ing to statistics , in 1947 , there were 82 local ad-ministrative units in Xinjiang .These included 1 municipality , 75 counties , and 6 shezhi bureaus . Most of the administrative seats were set in rela-tively large scale cities (towns). 2) The Change in the Number of Xinjiang Cities during the second half of the 20th Century In the second half of the 20th century, Xin-jiang changed dramatically under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party .The number of cit-ies in Xinjiang increased greatly .The period from 1950 to 1957 ( i.e.just after the founding of New China ) was a preliminary development stage of Xinjiang cities;the period from 1958 to 1964 was a “rising-falling development” stage of Xinjiang cities; and the period from 1978 to 2000 was a“fast development” stage.At the end of the 20th century, Urumchi, in Xinjiang, with a population of more than 2 million, became the biggest city a-mong the

  16. Un acercamiento engañoso: las relaciones políticas hispano-francesas entre 1958 y 1970

    Álvaro Fleites Marcos


    Full Text Available Con la llegada al Poder del general De Gaulle en junio de 1958 tuvo lugar una sustancial mejora de las relaciones políticas franco-españolas cuyo primer hito fue la solución del doble problema de los refugiados y que también se puso de manifiesto en las visitas de personalidades gubernamentales francesas a Madrid, que culminaron con el viaje del titular del Quai d’Orsay, Maurice Couve de Murville, en mayo de 1964. Del mismo modo, París apoyó la entrada española en la OECE e incluso su solicitud de asociación con el Mercado Común, pero no ocultó en ningún momento la escasa importancia concedida a las relaciones con su vecino transpirenaico en el marco de la estrategia exterior gaulliana, lo que dio lugar a unas relaciones totalmente desequilibradas entre ambos Estados. Este desequilibrio, junto a la preeminencia a ojos de Madrid de sus pactos con Washington y a la prevención gala respecto al régimen franquista constituyeron límites infranqueables de las relaciones bilaterales en el período de tal forma que será necesario esperar al final del régimen franquista para conseguir una verdadera amistad y voluntad de cooperación entre ambos lados de los Pirineos.L’arrivée au Pouvoir du général De Gaulle en juin 1958 entraîna une remarquable amélioration des relations franco-espagnoles, dont les premières manifestations furent la solution au double problème des exilés et les visites des membres du gouvernement français à Madrid comme celle du ministre des Affaires Etrangères Maurice Couve de Murville, en mai 1964. Paris défendit aussi l’entrée espagnole à l’OECE et même sa demande d’association au Marché Commun mais n’a pas caché la faible importance de Madrid dans la stratégie extérieure gaulliste, ce qui donnera lieu à des relations très déséquilibrées entre les deux pays. Ce déséquilibre, associé à l’importance pour Madrid de ses accords avec les États-Unis et à la prévention fran

  17. 基于空间场-水文模型的城市影响腹地界定及其空间演变分析--以河南省地级城市为例%Delimitation and Evolvement of Urban Hinterland Area in Henan Province Based on Spatial Field and Hydrologic Model

    潘竟虎; 戴维丽


    analysis method along with the indicators system were used to calculate urban nodali-ty index. With the application of raster cost weighted distance method and k-order data fields, this paper attempts to comprehensively measure the regional accessibility and the spatial field of 17 cities at the prefecture level in Henan Province. Furthermore, this paper delimits the urban hinterlands in 1991 and 2010 by using the hydrolog-ic analysis model. At last, the dynamic evolution characteristic of urban hinterland area was investigated in three perspectives:area levels, spatial morphology and spatial relationship between the urban hinterlands and the ad-ministrative districts. The results indicate that the accessibility condition keeps improving and the average acces-sibility is 45.41 min and 33.03 in 1991 and 2010 respectively, which is improved by 12.38 min. Spatial filed have been increasing significantly from 1991 to 2010, and the spatial difference of spatial field appears to be re-markable. The whole pattern of the urban hinterland area in Henan Province has not changed much. The hinter-land in Nanyang City had the largest increase in its area, while the hinterland area of Xinyang City shrinks most. With regard to the change ratio of urban hinterland area, Anyang City has the largest increasing ratio, while Luo-he City had the largest decreasing ratio. Zhengzhou City has the largest deviation rate between its urban hinter-land area and its administrative area.

  18. Study on Effect Difference between Guizhi Decoction and Huanglianjiedu Decoction on Immuno - inflammatory Factors and Myocardial Basement Membrane in Spontaneous Diabetic Rats%桂枝汤和黄连解毒汤对 GK 大鼠心肌炎症因子及基膜影响的差异研究

    姜萍; 戴玲玲; 王雪; 李晓


    目的:观察桂枝汤及黄连解毒汤对自发性糖尿病大鼠(GK 大鼠)心肌基膜厚度、心肌核因子-κB(NF -κB)、Ⅳ型胶原表达的作用,探讨有关炎症损伤的机制。方法以 Wistar 大鼠10只作为正常对照组,40只 GK 大鼠随机分为 GK 对照组、二甲双胍组、黄连解毒汤组、桂枝汤组,分别以相应药物灌胃给药12周,检测各组血糖、NF -κB、Ⅳ型胶原阳性表达程度及基膜厚度。结果 GK大鼠血糖升高,NF -κB 阳性表达增强,Ⅳ型胶原蛋白表达增强,基底膜厚度增加。二甲双胍、黄连解毒汤均可降低 GK 大鼠血糖(P ﹤0.01)。黄连解毒汤和桂枝汤均能降低 NF -κB 及Ⅳ型胶原蛋白表达、降低基底膜厚度与 GK 大鼠对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.01,P ﹤0.05)。在抑制 NF -κB阳性表达方面,桂枝汤和黄连解毒汤疗效无统计学意义。在抑制Ⅳ型胶原蛋白表达、降低基底膜厚度方面,桂枝汤作用强于黄连解毒汤(P ﹤0.01,P ﹤0.05)。结论桂枝汤和黄连解毒汤均可以抑制 NF-κB 阳性表达,抑制Ⅳ型胶原蛋白表达,降低基膜厚度,且桂枝汤优于黄连解毒汤,显示了其调和营卫治法的独特作用。%Objective To observe the effect of Guizhi decoction and Huanglianjiedu decoction on the thickness of myocardial basement membrane and the expression of NF - κB and type IV collagen,and to explore the mechanism of inflammatory injury in Spontaneous diabetic rats(GK rats). Methods Ten Wister rats were included in the control group,while forty GK rats were randomly divided into GK control group,met-formin group,Huanglianjiedu decoction group and Guizhi decoction group. Each group was respectively ad-ministrated the corresponding dose of drugs for 12 weeks. Then blood glucose,the degree of positive expres-sion of myocardial NF - κB and type IV collagen and the changes of basement membrane thickness were de

  19. 柠檬草水提物对高血糖模型小鼠降糖作用的实验研究%Experimental study of water extracts from lemon grass on hypoglycemic effect in hyperglycemia model rats

    陈丽芬; 施茂周; 蔡伟琼; 李观兰; 詹雄宇; 潘明珠; 刘钰瑜; 陈秋生


    目的:探讨柠檬草水提物对高血糖模型小鼠的降血糖作用。方法采用高脂饮食加小剂量链脲佐菌素建立高血糖小鼠模型,随机分为三组:高血糖模型组(模型组)、消渴丸组[给予1 g/(kg·d)消渴丸灌胃]、柠檬草水提物组[给予0.1 mL/(10 g·d)柠檬草水提物灌胃],每组8只,雌雄各半,连续给药28 d;同时随机抽取10只小鼠(雌雄各半)作为正常对照组。在实验的第7、14、21、28天测定各组小鼠的体质量和血糖值,在实验的第28天取小鼠肝、肾、脾、胸腺称其质量,比较各组小鼠体质量、血糖水平及内脏质量的变化。结果与正常对照组比较,模型组小鼠体质量下降,血糖升高,胸腺萎缩,胸腺质量下降,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论通过高脂饮食加链脲佐菌素成功复制了高血糖小鼠模型,与模型组比较,消渴丸对该模型小鼠的体质量下降和血糖升高有对抗作用;柠檬草水提物可对抗小鼠体质量的下降,但对造模引起的血糖升高无对抗作用。%Objective To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of water extracts from lemon grass on hyperglycemia model rats. Methods Hyperglycemia rats model was established by high-fat diet with small dosage of streptozotocin,and randomized into 3 groups:hyperglycemia model group(model group),Xiaoke pill group[treated with 1 g/(kg·d) Xiaoke pill for intragastric ad ministration] and lemon-grass extraction solution group[treated with 0.1 mL/(10 g·d) lemon-grass extraction solution for intragas-tric administration],8 cases in each group,half male and female for 28 d continous administration;meanwhile another 10 rats (half male and female) were selected randomly as control group. The body mass and blood glucose level in all the groups were detected on the 7th,14th,21st,28th d. The liver,kidney,spleen and thymus were taken from rats and measured on the 28th d of the experi

  20. Effect of perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine on postoperative ileus after laparocolectomy%围术期应用右美托咪定对结肠癌根治术后肠麻痹的影响

    周斌; 肖凡; 陈勇; 徐国海; 周志东; 李昌; 罗振中


    Objective To evaluate the effect of perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine on postoperative ileus after laparocolectomy.Methods Sixty patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomly divided into two groups,30 in each group.Group D received dexme-detomidine administeration at a loading dose of 0.6 μg/kg for 10 minutes before induction,followed by an infusion rate of 0.5 μg·kg-1 ·h-1 to 30 min before the end of surgery.The control group re-ceived saline instead of Dex.After the surgery,Group C received intravenous sufentanyl 2 μg/kg, while group D sufentanyl 2 μg/kg combined with Dex 2 μg/kg.Heart rate variability (HRV)were detected before Dex infusion (T0 ),10 minutes after intubation (T1 ), 10 minutes after CO 2 insufflation (T2 ),1 hour after CO 2 insufflation (T3 ),10 minutes after CO 2 desufflation (T4 ),and 10 minutes after extubation(T5 ).The plasma concentrations of epinephrine(E)and norepinephrine (NE)were determined at T0 ,T3 ,T5 ,T7 and T1 0.The recovery of bowel function was evaluated in terms of the first time to fart and intake food.Results Compared with T0 ,HRV of power (TP), high-frequency (HF)power,low-frequency (LF)power and the ratio of LF/HF power were signifi-cantly decreased at T1-T4 in group C and at T1-T5 in group D.The plasma concentrations of E and NE were higher at T3 ,T5 ,T7 and T1 0 in both group C and group D (P <0.05).Compared with T1 ,TP, LF and the ratio of LF/HF were increased at T2-T4 (P <0.05).Compared with group C,TP,LF and the ratio of LF/HF were decreased at T2-T5 ,The plasma concentrations of E and NE were decreased at T3 ,T5 ,T7 and T10 and the time of first flatus was earlier(P <0.05).Conclusion The perioperative ad-ministration of dexmedetomidine during laparocolectomy facilitated the early recovery of bowel func-tion after surgery and decreasede the time of postoperative ileus.%目的:探讨围术期应用右美托咪定对结肠癌根治术后肠麻痹的影响。方法择期行腹腔镜下

  1. Study on Human Body Bioequivalence of Amoxicillin Dispersible Tablets%阿莫西林分散片人体生物等效性研究

    李晋峰; 沙莹; 李佩琼; 王九辉; 林明琴


    目的:测定健康志愿者阿莫西林血浆药物质量浓度,评价阿莫西林分散片的人体生物等效性。方法采用双周期交叉试验设计,20名健康男性受试者随机交叉单剂量口服试验制剂与参比制剂,反相高效液相色谱(RP - HPLC)法紫外检测法测定给药前及给药后不同时间点的阿莫西林血药浓度,用 DAS 2.0软件计算药代动力学参数并进行统计学分析。结果参比制剂与试验制剂的达峰时间( tmax )、峰浓度( C max )、0~8 h 药时曲线下面积( AUC0→8)、0~∞药时曲线下面积( AUC0→∞)分别为(1.35±0.24)h 和(1.30±0.25)h,(9.83±2.11)μg / mL 和(10.031±1.928)μg / mL,(24.85±3.98)μg /(h·mL)和(25.10±4.41)μg /(h·mL),(25.56±4.24)μg /(h·mL)和(25.81±4.48)μg /(h·mL)。统计结果显示,试验制剂与参比制剂主要药代动力学参数无显著性差异。试验制剂 Cmax,AUC0→8,AUC0→∞的90%可信区间分别为99.5%~105.7%,97.4%~104.4%,96.6%~105.5%。结论试验制剂与参比制剂具有生物等效性。%Objective To determine the plasma concentration of amoxicillin in healthy volunteers and to evaluate the human body bioe-quivalence of Amoxicillin Dispersible Tablets. Methods A single oral dose of tested and reference preparations were given to 20 healthy male volunteers in a randomized two - period cross - over design. The plasma concentrations of amoxicillin before and after ad-ministration at different time points were determined by RP - HPLC with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and analyzed using the DAS 2. 0 software. Results The tmax,Cmax,AUC0 - 15 and AUC0 - ∞ of the tested and reference preparations were (1. 35 ± 0. 24)h and (1. 30 ± 0. 25)h,(9. 83 ± 2. 11)μg / mL and (10. 03 ± 1. 93)μg / mL,(24. 85 ± 3. 98)μg · h / mL and (25. 10 ± 4. 41)μg·h / mL,(25. 56 ± 4. 24)μg·h / mL and(25. 81 ± 4. 48)μg·h / m

  2. Effects of Qianlongtong Capsule on Prostate Stromal Cell Fibronectin and Collagen Ⅳ Gene Expression%前癃通对前列腺间质细胞Fibronectin和CollagenⅣ基因表达的影响

    陈其华; 刘慧; 凌智; 杨赛; 杨晶; 贺菊乔


    in clinic,selected 5 patients according to the number of outpatients randomly select-ed from them,venous blood,anticoagulation,centrifugal,extract plasma as blank control group before oral administration.Divided select-ed 15 patients into high,medium and low dose group according to the number of outpatients randomly,each group of five people,oral ad-ministration.High-dose group oral Qianlongtong Capsule 6 per time,Dose group oral Qianlongtong Capsule 3 per time,low-dose group o-ral Qianlongtong Capsule 1 .5 per time,all three times a day.Continuous medication 7 d,venous blood、anticoagulation、centrifugal,plas-ma containing extract 2 h after the last medication.Immunofluorescence to identify prostate stromal cell,real-time quantitative PCR to detect interstitial cells Fibronectin and CollagenⅣgene expression(Plasma containing high doses in high-dose group;dose plasma con-taining in dose group;plasma containing low doses in low-dose group;plasma containing blank doses in blank control group;No plasma group without plasma).Results:Fibronectin mRNA in stromal cells relative expression levels were decreased with increasing dose after drug-containing plasma treated(high-dose group:0.446 ±0.029;middle-dose group:0.713 ±0.045;low-dose group:1.027 ±0.044;blank group:1.043 ±0.051;no-plasma group:1.000 ±0.000).High-dose group,middle-dose group and among the groups,the differ-ences were statistically significant(P0.05);high-dose group and middle dose group,the difference was not statisti-cally significant (P>0.05 );among other groups,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01 ).Conclusion:Qianlongtong Capsule drug-containing plasma can inhibition of prostate stromal cells cultured in vitro Fibronectin and Collagen Ⅳ gene expression. Reference citation:CHEN Qihua,LIU Hui,LING Zhi,et al.Effects of Qianlongtong Capsule on Prostate Stromal Cell Fibronectin and Collagen Ⅳ Gene Expression[J].China Journal of Chinese Medicine,2015,30(5):719-721.

  3. Effect of sevoflurane preconditioning on lung compliance and oxygenation index during one lung ventilation%七氟醚预处理对单肺通气时肺顺应性和氧合指数的影响

    陶洪霞; 沈启英; 李元海


    目的:探讨七氟醚预处理对单肺通气( OLV)患者肺顺应性和氧合指数的影响。方法选择拟行肺叶切除术的肺癌患者60例,美国麻醉医师协会( ASA)分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,随机均分为七氟醚预处理组(n=30)、全凭静脉组(n=30)。两组患者采用相同全麻诱导后,行机械通气。七氟醚预处理组手术开始OLV前吸入1个肺泡最小有效浓度(1MAC)七氟醚30 min,全凭静脉组采用丙泊酚维持麻醉。两组患者分别于麻醉前(T0)、侧卧位双肺通气30 min(T1)、OLV 30 min (T2)、OLV 60 min(T3)、恢复双肺通气20 min(T4)记录血流动力学指标、脉搏氧饱和度( SpO2)、气道平台压( Pplat)、计算动态气道顺应性(Cdyn),T1~T4时采集桡动脉血测动脉血CO2分压( PaCO2)、动脉血氧分压( PaO2)和pH,计算氧合指数(动脉血氧分压/吸入氧浓度, PaO2/FiO2)。结果与T1时比较,两组T2、T3时PaO2/FiO2和Cdyn均明显下降( P<0.05)。与全凭静脉组比较, T2、T3时七氟醚预处理组Cdyn明显升高( P<0.05)。两组间各时间点PaO2/FiO2差异无统计学意义。结论与丙泊酚全凭静脉麻醉相比,七氟醚预处理可增加肺癌患者OLV时肺顺应性,对OLV时氧合指数的影响和丙泊酚没有差别。%Objective To investigate the effect of sevoflurane preconditioning on lung compliance and oxygenation index during one lung ventilation( OLV) . Methods In this study, sixty patients, ASAⅠorⅡ, scheduled for pul-monary surgeries were enrolled, and randomly divided into two groups:sevoflurane preconditioning group(n=30) and total intravenous group( n=30 ) . For preconditioning, patients in sevoflurane preconditioning group were ad-ministrated with one minimal alveolar concentration(1MAC) sevoflurane for 30 min after general anesthesia induc-tion and then followed with total intravenous anesthesia. While in total intravenous group, only intravenous anes-thetic agents were administrated for maintenane of anesthesia after

  4. 参芪扶正注射液联合甲地孕酮改善晚期恶性肿瘤患者癌因性疲乏的临床研究%Clinical study on the effect of Shenqifuzheng injection combined with megestrol acetate in improving cancer - related fatigue in patients with advanced cancer

    刘志勇; 周建伟; 潘龙赐; 葛婷


    目的:探讨参芪扶正注射液联合甲地孕酮改善晚期恶性肿瘤患者癌因性疲乏的临床效果。方法选择恶性肿瘤患者60例为研究对象,随机分作两组,一组为中西药联合组(30例),另一组为西药组(30例),前者使用参芪扶正注射液联合甲地孕酮加对症支持治疗,后者予甲地孕酮加对症支持治疗,比较两组治疗后 Piper 评分、血红蛋白(Hb)、总 T 细胞(CD3+)、Th 细胞(CD3+ CD4+)比例、TNF -α和 TGF -β1的水平。结果治疗后两组在 Pipper 评分各项中得分相比,中西医联合组显著低于西药组( t =2.412~3.723,P =0.008~0.040)。治疗后中西医药联合组 Hb、总T 细胞(CD3+)、Th 细胞(CD3+ CD4+)比率显著高于治疗后的西药组( t =2.543~3.812,P =0.011~0.039)。治疗后中西医药联合组静脉血 TNF -α、TGF -β1的水平显著低于西药组( t =2.913,4.223,P =0.002,0.034)。结论参芪扶正注射液联合甲地孕酮改善晚期恶性肿瘤患者癌因性疲乏具有较好的治疗效果,其机制可能与提高总 T 细胞、Th 细胞比例,降低 TGF -β1、TNF -α等细胞因子水平有关。%Objective To explore the effect of Shenqifuzheng injection combined with megestrol acetate in improving the effect of cancer- related fatigue in patients with advanced cancer. Methods A total of 60 cases of cancer were collected and randomly divided into Chinese com-bined western medicine group and western medicine group,each with 30 cases. In Chinese combined western medicine group,patients were ad-ministrated with Shenqifuzheng injection combined with megestrol acetate plus symptomatic and supportive treatment. In western medicine group, patients were given with megestrol acetate plus symptomatic and supportive treatment. Piper scoring,level of hemoglobin(Hb),total number of T cells(CD3 + ),ratio of Th cells(CD3 + and CD4 + )and levels of TNF -

  5. Patients. comprehension of arterial hypertension and its management versus blood pressure control Avaliação da compreensão dos pacientes hipertensos a respeito da hipertensão arterial e seu tratamento versus controle pressórico

    Marciele V Guimarães


    Secretaria Municipal de Curitiba adotadas na Unidade Básica de Saúde Vista Alegre quanto à hipertensão arterial e seu tratamento. Realizou-se coleta de dados sobre ações promovidas no local, entrevista informal com profissionais de saúde sobre o Programa do Hipertenso e questionário a 50 pacientes inscritos no Programa e selecionados por sorteio, com abordagem na Unidade ou domiciliar, sendo mensurada sua pressão arterial. Avaliou-se que: 38% não sabem definir hipertensão; 72% apresentam nervosismo/preocupação como causa; 84% indicam derrame como conseqüência de pressão elevada; a maioria sabe qual é seu medicamento e como ministrá-lo; 41% esquecem, algumas ou várias vezes, de tomá-los, 10% pensam não haver problema em deixar de ingeri-lo, às vezes; boa parte dos que não tomam é por esquecimento, e não por dificuldade de acesso à medicação. Além disso, dois terços não seguem dieta favorável e 52% não praticam atividades físicas, mas quase todos dizem que estas ajudam a controlar a pressão. Dos pacientes, os que já sofreram derrame ou infarto seguem melhor as recomendações. Dos 50, 96% concordam que emagrecer também ajuda, mas 72% estão acima do peso. Relativo à mensuração, 26% estavam com pressão considerada normal; 18% com hipertensão grave e 20%, moderada. Muitos não sabem definir hipertensão, mas, apesar de não modificarem seus hábitos de vida, sabem as conseqüências da doença e como controlá-la. Não se adaptam a alterações dos hábitos, argumentando falta de tempo e estímulo ou evidência de seu real benefício.

  6. 制度压力感知与官员独董辞职--基于“中组部18号文”的实证研究%Perceived Institutional Pressure and the Resign of Independent Directors with Official Identity:An Empirical Study Based on the Document No.1 8 of the Organization Department of the Central Committee of the CPC

    辛宇; 邓晓飞; 滕飞


    现有文献发现,官员特征(如官员的任期、异地交流、更替等)对地方经济增长和公司财务行为有重要影响,但是由于不易准确度量及缺少恰当的研究情境,对官员对制度压力的感知情况考察不足。作为外生的政策冲击,“中组部18号文”的颁布及施行提供了难得的研究机会。使用手工搜集的自“中组部18号文”发布以来的官员独董辞职数据,本文从制度压力感知的角度,考察了官员行政级别、公司产权性质和地区政治强度对官员独董辞职时间早晚的影响。研究发现:行政级别越高、国有控股上市公司以及上市公司所属地区政治强度越大的官员独董,对制度压力的感知越深刻、越敏锐,辞职时间也就越早。可见,企业经营者需要深入思考政治关联的不确定性和脆弱性,认清其可能存在的潜在风险。此外,文章还考察了外部治理环境对官员独董辞职行为特征的调节效应,并且发现,良好的外部治理环境有助于提升政策的执行效率。%The current literature argues that the characteristics of officials (e.g.ten-ure,cross-district switching mechanism,turnover,etc.)have important impacts on local economic growth and corporate financing behavior.However,owing to the difficulty in ac-curate measurement and a lack of proper research context,little investigation with respect to perceived institutional pressure of government officials has been done.As an exogenous policy shock,the issuance and implementation of the Document No.1 8 of the Organization Department of the Central Committee of the CPC provide a rare research opportunity.U-sing hand-collected data of the resign of independent directors with official identity since the issuance of the Document No.18,this paper empirically investigates the impacts of ad-ministrative rank,firm ownership type,and regional political intensity on the resign tim-ing of independent

  7. Effects of new drug T-006 on improving learning and memory abilities in scopolamine-induced dementia Kunming mice%新药T-006对东莨菪碱所致记忆障碍模型动物学习记忆的改善作用

    宋奇; 王琴; 吴韦黎; 邵敏; 张宇; 张在军; 王玉强; 陶亮


    Aim ToexploretheeffectsofnewdrugT-006 on improving learning and memory abilities in scopolamine-induced dementia mice and its possible mechanism.Methods 72maleKunmingmicewere randomly divided into six groups:normal control group,model group,donepezil treatment group,T -006 treatment group with different doses(1,3 and 10 mg·kg-1 ).All mice were treated by intragastric ad-ministration for 14 consecutive days. Learning and memory abilities were tested by a five-day Morris water maze trial from the 1 1 th day.the first 4 days of the five-day Morris water maze,the navigation test was performed,the last day of Morris water maze is the spatial probe test.During the navigation test, mice were intraperitoneally given 2 mg · kg-1 scopolamine 20 minutes before entering the water,while normal control group mice administrated with sterile saline in-stead.Mice were not given T-006 nor scopolamine in spatial probe test.After Morris water maze,all mice were sacrificed for hippocampus and cortex.The activi-ties of AchE and SOD and the levels of GSH and MDA in hippocampus and cortex were measured after tissue harvesting.Results Comparedwithmodelgroup,T-006 could obviously improve learning and memory abil-ities in scopolamine-induced mice, significantly in-crease the levels of SOD and GSH and decrease the levelsofMDAandAchE.Conclusion T-006can significantly improve cognitive abilities in scopolamine-induced dementia mice,and its relevant mechanism may be closely related to its antioxidative effect and the ability to decrease AchE level.%目的探讨新药T-006对东莨菪碱所致小鼠学习记忆障碍的影响及其作用机制。方法将72只♂昆明小鼠随机分为6组:正常对照组、模型组(给予东莨菪碱)、阳性药对照组(多奈哌齐+东莨菪碱)、T-006组(T-006+东莨菪碱,包括T-0061 mg·kg-1组、T-0063 mg·kg-1组和T-00610 mg·kg-1组)。连续给药14 d,给药d 11进行Morris水迷宫实验

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Galla chinensis in Spinibarbus sinensis%五倍子在中华倒刺鲃体内的药动学研究

    郭海燕; 张耀光


    The study reports the pharmacokinetics of Galla chinensis in Spinibarbus sinensis with a single-dosing oral ad-ministration of 20 mg drug per kilogram weight at the water temperature 25.0 ℃.The designed experiment took the active ingredient gallic acid ( GA) as the object drug , and the drug concentration in the tissues was determined by high perform-ance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) method.Both compartment and non -compartment model analysis were used to obtain the pharmacokinetic parameters.The serum concentration -time data were fitted to a two-compartment open model with 1st order absorption.Some of the serum parameters , as well as the liver and renal concentration -time data were calculated with non -compartment model analysis.The absorption half -life ( t1/2 Kα) was 0.523 h and the distribution half -life ( t1/2α) was 1.054 h and the elimination half -life ( t1/2β) was 10.501 h in the serum.And the studied tissues of serum , liver and renal all reached the maximum concentration (Cmax) at the time point of 1 h and the values were 9.166, 76.214 and 85.860 μg/mL, respectively.The area under the concentration -time curve ( AUC ) and mean residence times (MRT) were 77.397 μg h/mL and 19.309 h in the serum, 402.106 μg h/mL and 25.935 h in the liver, and 258.047μg h/mL and 6.480 h in the renal, respectively.The results showed that G.chinensis can be absorbed preferably and rapid-ly in S.sinensis.At the same time , it can be kept in vivo for enough time to get curative effect .%以五倍子的有效成分没食子酸为目标药物,采用高效液相色谱法检测药物浓度,用房室模型和非房室模型法同时分析药动学数据,获得25.0℃水温条件下20 mg/kg单剂量口灌五倍子( Galla chinensis)后中华倒刺鲃( Spinibarbus sinensis)体内的药物代谢情况。结果表明:血液中的药动学数据可以用一级吸收二室开放模型描述,一些血液的药动参数和肝脏、肾脏的数据用非房室

  9. Clinical observation of methadone hydrochloride tablet in the treatment of moderate and severe cancer pain%盐酸美沙酮片治疗中重度癌性疼痛的临床观察

    陈碧茵; 林丹; 李一璟


    目的:观察盐酸美沙酮片(美沙酮)治疗中重度癌性疼痛的临床效果、不良反应及生活质量改善情况。方法42例中重度癌性疼痛患者给予美沙酮镇痛治疗,初始剂量5 mg/12 h,根据疼痛情况调整剂量,直至患者无痛或基本无痛,每位患者至少治疗15 d以上。观察患者的疼痛缓解情况、生活质量评分及不良反应。结果42例患者经过个体化给药后确定最终剂量为5~70 mg,每12小时1次,绝大部分患者疼痛达到明显缓解以上,疼痛的总缓解率为90.5%,其中完全缓解11例(26.2%),明显缓解27例(64.3%),对中度疼痛的缓解率为93.8%,重度疼痛的缓解率为88.5%。治疗前中位KPS评分为50分,治疗后中位KPS评分为75分,患者的生活质量明显改善(P<0.05)。全组KPS评分9例(21.4%)明显改善,13例(31.0%)有改善,20例(47.6%)达到稳定,无评分下降病例;不良反应少且轻微。结论美沙酮治疗中重度癌性疼痛安全有效,不良反应发生率较低,能够明显提高患者的生活质量。%Objective To observe the clinical effect,adverse reaction,and improvement of patient’s living quality of methadone hydrochloride tablet (methadone) treating moderate and severe cancer pain. Methods Forty-two patients suf-fering from moderate or severe cancer pain were treated by methadone at an initial dosage of 5 mg/12 h.According to severity of pain,the dosage of methadone was adjusted until these patients didn’t feel pain or basically had no sensation of pain.The course of treatment for each participant lasted at least 15 days.At the same time,pain relief and quality of life were scored,and adverse reaction were observed. Results After 42 patients were given the individualized drug ad-ministration,the final dosage was set from 5 to 70 mg,at an interval of 12 h.After taking methadone,the vast majority of patients with pain was more than significantly alleviate,and the total alleviation

  10. 桑枝多糖对糖尿病肾病小鼠肾皮质氧化应激作用的影响%The anti-oxidative effect of Ramulus mori polysaccharides on diabetic nephropathy mice

    郭福团; 许雄伟; 潘建峰; 林佩莉; 郑妮


    Aim To investigate the influence of Ramu-lus mori polysaccharides ( RMP) on blood glucose and anti-oxidative effect in streptozotocin ( STZ )-induced diabetic mice .Methods Diabetic mice were induced by intraperitoneal injection with 120 mg・ kg -1 STZ and were randomly divided into the following 5 groups with 20 animals per group: model group , valsartan group ( 20 mg・ kg -1 ) , low-, medium-, high-dose (0.3,0.6,1.2 g・ kg -1 ) of RMP groups.Other 20 normal mice were treated as normal control group .The mice were administered orally for 90 d.On 45 d of ad-ministration , the 24 h urine was collected through met-abolic cages for urine protein detection .Pathological changes of kidney tissues were observed through HE staining .The serum levels of urea nitrogen ( BUN) and creatinine ( Cr ) were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer; and the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase(CAT), malonaldehyde(MDA) and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex Ⅰ,Ⅲac-tivity of kidney tissues were also determined .ELISA method was used to detect ROS content in renal cortex . The SIRT1 , FOXO1 and NF-κB protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot .Results Compared with model group, the FBG, microalbuminuria, BUN and Cr were decreased by RMP medication ( P <0.05).The activities of Mn-SOD, CAT and mitochon-drial respiratory chain complex Ⅰ,Ⅲ in RMP groups were enhanced , while MDA and ROS levels were re-duced. Moreover, the expressions of SIRT1 and FOXO1 were up-regulated by RMP , the expression of NF-κB was down-regulated ( P<0.05) .Conclusion RMP exerts renal protective effect through up-regula-ting the expressions of SIRT1 and FOXO1 in renal cor-tex , which may relate to the improvement of anti-oxida-tive capability .%目的:研究桑枝多糖对链脲佐菌素( STZ)诱导糖尿病肾病小鼠肾皮质氧化应激作用的影响。方法 STZ (120 mg・ kg-1)尾静脉注射诱导糖尿病小鼠模型,并随机分为

  11. 甲状腺功能亢进对大鼠红细胞系列指标及血清铁的影响%The impact of hyperthyroidism on erythrocyte indices and serum iron of rats

    赵晋英; 王培培; 谢颖; 黄作良; 马新华; 李艳伟


    Objective To study the change of erythrocyte indices and serum iron in hyperthyroidism rats .Methods SD female rats were randomly divided into hyperthyroidism group and control group .Hyperthyroidism rats were induced by intragastric ad‐ministration of Euthyrox (Levothyroxine) and their blood and serum were obtained after administration of 1-8 weeks ,respective‐ly .And the control rats were given normal saline .Levels of T3 ,T4 and TSH were determined by a radioimmunoassay .Erythrocyte index were measured by automatic blood cell analyzer .Serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity were determined by chromatometry .Results The concentration of serum T3 and T4 increased in hyperthyroidism rats ,whereas the TSH decreased . RBC was higher in hyperthyroidism rats at 2-8 weeks compared with the control rats (P<0 .05) .HCT was higher in hyperthy‐roidism rats at 1-8 weeks compared with the control rats (P<0 .01) .MCV was lower in hyperthyroidism rats at 2-8 weeks com‐pared with the control rats (P<0 .05) .MCHC was lower in hyperthyroidism rats at 1 -8 weeks compared with the control rats (P<0 .01) .RDW SD and RDW CV was higher hyperthyroidism rats at 1-2 weeks compared with the control rats(P<0 .01) .Ser‐um iron concentration and total iron binding capacity increased in hyperthyroidism rats at 4 -8 weeks compared with the control rats(P<0 .01) .Conclusion The hyperthyroidism rats in the present study is absent significant manifestation of anemia ,whereas the hypochromic changes of erythrocyte is significant .Serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity increase in hyperthy‐roidism rats ,which demonstrate the iron utilization disorder .%目的:研究甲状腺功能亢进(简称甲亢)对大鼠红细胞系列指标及血清铁的影响。方法SD雌性大鼠分为甲亢模型组和对照组,优甲乐灌胃制造甲亢模型,对照组灌服生理盐水。分别在灌胃给药后的第1~8周采血,采用放射免疫法测定

  12. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative.

    Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Safdie, Margarita; Rodin, Rachel


    le Mexique ont établi un partenariat pour combattre l'épidémie croissante d'obésité chez les enfants dans la région nord-américaine. Cet effort de collaboration, connu sous le nom d'Initiative de Coopération Trilatérale pour Réduire l'Obésité de l'Enfant, est la première initiative de la Région pour lutter contre les maladies chroniques non transmissibles en réunissant des experts techniques et stratégiques, sous le solide leadership et avec le soutien des secrétaires et des ministres de la Santé. Les objectifs de l'initiative visent à accroître les niveaux d'activité physique et réduire les comportements sédentaires grâce à 1) une augmentation de la mobilisation sociale et de la participation des citoyens, 2) une sensibilisation au niveau de la communauté et 3) des modifications de l'environnement bâti (par l'homme). Cet article décrit le contexte et le processus de conception et d'élaboration de l'initiative, les objectifs spécifiques atteints à ce jour, ainsi que les activités et les actions réalisées, les perspectives et les étapes à venir. Cette information peut être utile à ceux qui établissent des partenariats en vue de combattre l'obésité chez les enfants ou de relever d'autres défis difficiles de santé publique dans la Région.

  13. Overwiew of Clinical Study of Small Dose Recombinant Tissue Plas-minogen Activator in Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction%小剂量重组组织纤溶酶原激活剂治疗急性心肌梗死临床研究概况



    Since the mid-1990s, more than 130 domestic hospitals enrolled 9378 cases of acute myocardial in-farction patients, the treatment of 6693 cases with a small dose(50 mg) of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), the patency of related artery occlusion of 5318 cases, patency rate of 79.46%, 293 cases of death, mor-tality 4.38%, bleeding 550 cases, of which 7 cases of severe bleeding, bleeding rate of 8.22%, intracranial hemor-rhage 21 cases(0.31%), reinfarction 60 cases(0.90%). The efficacy of rt-PA 50 mg and urokinase for the treat-ment of acute myocardial infarction were compared in more than 40 hospitals with a total enrollment of 3449 cas-es of acute myocardial infarction, rt-PA 1689 case, the first bolus iv of rt-PA 8 mg, the rest of 42 mg infusion for 30 or 60 and 90 minutes. Urokinase in 1760 cases, 1.5 million units of infusion for 30 minutes. The results had showed patency of coronary of occlusion related rates were 79.40%(1341 cases) and 57.33%(1009 cases), re-spectively, the difference was very significant(P<0.001). The efficacy of rt-PA 50 and 100 mg of the treatment of acute myocardial infarction were compared in the 12 hospitals, a total of 1054 patients were enrolled, 487 cases for 50 mg group, 567 cases for 100 mg group, the infarction related artery patency obstruction rates were 78.85%and 82.36%, respctively. Another 22 hospitals enrolled 1017 cases of patients do rt-PA 50 mg 30 minutes of ad-ministration of clinical trials, the patency rate of occluded coronary artery reached 80.53%; 18 hospital enrolled 942 cases of patients, rt-PA 50 mg 60 minute clinical trial was carried out, the patency rate of occlusion related coronary artery was 77.92%; 50 hospitals with rt-PA 50 mg 90 minute dosing regimen made clinical trial in 2768 patients with acute myocardial infarction, the patency rate of obstructive coronary artery was 77.89%. In addition, the efficiency of rt-PA 50 mg and streptokinase for treating acute myocardial infarction compared

  14. Staatsfreiheit ou intervention de l’État ? Le modèle allemand de l’audiovisuel public

    Valérie Robert


    Full Text Available En Allemagne, la Staatsfreiheit (liberté par rapport à l’Etat de l’audiovisuel a une valeur constitutionnelle. Pourtant, l’Etat dans ses différentes acceptions (exécutif et parlements de l’Etat fédéral et des Länder, mais aussi partis politiques exerce une forte emprise sur les instituts de l’audiovisuel public par le biais de la composition de leurs conseils et par une pratique bien établie de répartition proportionnelle des postes parmi les partis (Proporz. Cette mainmise, dénoncée depuis longtemps par les juristes mais aussi de manière ponctuelle par les journalistes, est devenue particulièrement visible lors de « l’affaire Brender » en 2009, lorsque des ministres-présidents de la CDU et leurs alliés siégeant au conseil d’administration de la chaîne de télévision ZDF ont refusé de prolonger le contrat du rédacteur en chef. Ceci a mené finalement au dépôt par les gouvernements sociaux-démocrates de plusieurs Länder d’un recours en contrôle de constitutionnalité auprès de la Cour constitutionnelle, portant sur la composition des conseils administrant la ZDF. Une analyse du discours de la presse allemande à ce sujet montre que la représentation d’un audiovisuel public indépendant de l’État semble avoir pour les journalistes allemands une fonction identitaire, celle d’un mythe professionnel qui fait passer à l’arrière-plan le caractère structurel de l’influence de l’Etat. Le discours oscille entre une solidarisation démonstrative avec Brender et une mémoire sélective quant aux précédents d’influence politique sur l’audiovisuel public. Des systèmes étrangers (la France mais surtout l’Italie ont dans ce discours une fonction de repoussoir, et la comparaison sert davantage à entretenir la mobilisation qu’à décrire des ressemblances qui pourtant existent mais remettraient en question le mythe de l’indépendance.In Germany the constitution (Grundgesetz guarantees

  15. Un « gouvernement des journalistes par le Pouvoir politique » par défaut ?

    Matthieu Lardeau


    Full Text Available Cet article présente les interactions de deux mouvements concomitants apparusprincipalement dans les décennies 1950 à 1970 dans le champ de la presse française : d’un côté les initiatives – consécutives à la démarche pionnière, en 1951, de création de la première Société des journalistes (SDJ au sein du Monde – menées par les journalistes de rédactions de quotidiens pour créer des SDJ dont la destination peut aller jusqu’à gouverner les journaux; de l’autre côté, les « réponses » apportées par les Pouvoirs politique et public pour contenir ces initiatives visant à étendre le pouvoir des journalistes dans la gestion et la gouvernance de leurs journaux. Cette étude exploratoire repose principalement sur l’analyse de deux types de littérature, souvent déconsidérés ou négligés par le champ académique, en dépit de leur grande richesse : (1 la littérature professionnelle, ayant pour principaux auteurs les journalistes et managers de presse (Périer Daville, Boegner, Pigasse, etc., florissante depuis 1944 et singulièrement durant les décennies 1960 et 1970 ; (2 la littérature grise constituée notamment par des rapports publics rédigés par des institutions comme les services du Premier ministre (commissions Lindon de 1970 et Serisé de 1972, le Conseil économique et social, etc. Nos principaux résultats montrent que les propositions ou actions menées par les journalistes (1 restent le plus souvent inexploitées in concreto par les journalistes eux-mêmes; (2 entrent le plus souvent en opposition avec les politiques de nouveaux actionnaires ou directions de journaux et avec les projets des autorités politiques et publiques qui cherchent à encadrer l’autonomie de la profession journalistique pour mieux gouverner celle-ci ; (3 combien in fine les représentants des différents acteurs impliqués s’accordent pour contenir l’émergence d’un « gouvernement des journalistes » par les

  16. Evaluation of probiotics effectiveness in hospitalized pneumonia children by elec-tronic medical records%基于医嘱数据的肺炎住院儿童肠道微生态制剂应用的疗效分析

    孙华君; 顾之睿; 车大钿; 高春辉; 于广军


    Objective To describe the profile of probiotics utilization in hospitalized pneumonia children and evaluate the ef -fectiveness of probiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in hospitalized children combined with antibiotics. Methods Descriptive data a-nalysis was obtained from the medical records in one children′s hospital in one year period. The clinical data including patient charac-teristics, drug prescribed time, drug use duration, and length of stay was reviewed. Ridit analysis was used to compare the data. Re-sults Data of 2 974 children hospitalized for pneumonia was accessed. Antibiotics were prescribed to 99.1 % ( n=2 948) of pa-tients, probiotics were prescribed to 42.1%(n=1 252) of patients, and both antibiotics and probiotics were prescribed to 41.9%(n=1 246 ). The median of the time to start administration of probiotics was the second day of hospitalization and the mode was the first day of hospitalization. For those patients who were prescribed antibiotics combined with probiotics, the median of the duration of ad-ministration of antibiotics before accepting probiotics was 3 days and the mode was 1 day.After administrating probiotics, the median of the duration of accepting of antibiotics was 5 days, the mode was 4 days, and the median and the mode of the duration of administration of probiotics were 4 days.21%(n=626) of all hospitalized patients were administrated anti-diarrheals.The most common age group of them were neonates and infants (82.3%, n=515).The patients with anti-diarrheal who was administrated antibiotics with or with-out probiotics were 585(47.0%), 34(2.0%), respectively (P0.05).The median of the length of stay in those administrated antibiotics with probiotics was 7 days, the mode was 6 days and the interquartile range was 6-9 days.For those administrated antibiotics without probiotics, the median and the mode of the length of stay were 7 days and the interquartile range was 6-9 days(P>0.05).Conclusion The time of starting to

  17. Úvodník 2011/VI/2

    Jana Dlouhá


    čitele fyzicky vůbec nepotkává. Celý proces učení i vzájemné interakce jsou zcela virtuální. Dochází k zajímavému závěru, že podstatnou roli zde hraje samotné prostředí, tedy elektronická aplikace vytyčující hranice či mantinely pro jednání, jež už je ovšem plně reálné (je totiž víceméně autentickým projevem vztahů v procesu vzdělání.   Texty v nerecenzované části jsou tentokrát věnovány procesu Životní prostředí pro Evropu, sérii ministerských konferencí zahájené v Dobříši roku 1991, a prozatím završené letošní konferencí v kazašské Astaně. Základy tohoto procesu ‑ 7 bodů přijatých na Dobříšském jednání ‑ rekapituluje Mikuláš Huba. Všímá si naplnění těchto výzev, poukazuje na původní hybné síly environmentální politiky a táže se, jak pokračovat. Kolektiv autorů – spoluorganizátorů první Vavrouškovy Dobříšské konference ministrů – se zabývá procesem Životní prostředí pro Evropu nejen z hlediska jeho geneze, ale i současného stavu (shrnuje jednání v Astaně i jeho závěry a jeho dopadem do oblasti vzdělávací (přijetí a implementace Strategie VUR v regionu EHK a v ČR. Protože ministerská jednání otevírají napětí mezi povinnostmi (evropskou legislativou a vůlí ke změně (nové strategie i nástroje institucionální, právní atd., s tématem těsně souvisí i příspěvek přednesený Mikulášem Hubou na konferenci Forum 2000 věnované otázkám práva a demokracie. Blok završují vzpomínky Jana Mikoláše, bývalého náměstka ministra – předsedy FVŽP, a intervence Jirky Dlouhého na ministerském jednání v rámci bloku Ozeleňování ekonomie. Máme tu ještě recenzi Pavla Žďárského na novou knihu o etice vědy, která vyšla pod editorským vedením Wendy Drozenové, a informaci Mikuláše Huby o vyhlášení výsledků soutěže Udržateľný spôsob života, o které pravidelně referujeme; s tím se pro

  18. 右美托咪啶对单肺通气时肺内分流及血液氧合的影响%Effects of Dexmedetomidine on Intrapulmonary Shunt and Arterial Oxygenation During One~lung Ven-tilation

    李琦; 沈颖彦; 周清河; 周红梅


    intrapulmonary shunt and arterial oxy⁃genation during one~lung ventilation. Methods Forty patients schedule for elective esophagus cancer surger⁃ies was divided into dexmedetomidine group (Gruop D) and normal saline group (Group N) randomly of 20 in each group. In Group D, dexmedetomidine was administrated with a bolus of 0.5 μg/kg in 10 min, and then maintained with 0.5 μg/(kg·h)until the thoracic incision was closed. The same volume of normal saline was ad⁃ministrated in Group N. After the left side double lumen endotracheal tube was inserted with suitable position, mechanical ventilation started. The MAP, HR and CVP were recorded at supine position before anesthesia (T0), double lung ventilation 15 min (T1), one-lung ventilation 15 min (T2), one-lung ventilation 30 min (T3), one-lung ventilation 60 min (T4), and double lung ventilation 15 min (T5) once again. Blood gas was analyzed at all six time points and the Qs/Qt was calculated. Results A total of 19 patients were enrolled in the study in each group. In group D, the Qs/Qt were (18.8±4.6)%,(35.6±6.3)%,(38.2±6.6)%,(36.5±6.1)% and(21.2±5.3)%at T1 to T5 separately. In group N, the Qs/Qt were(17.1 ± 3.8)%,(26.8 ± 5.9)%,(28.2 ± 6.3)%,(28.1 ± 7.2)% and (19.5 ± 4.5)% at T1 to T5 separately. Compared with group N, the Qs/Qt increased significantly at T2 to T4 in group D (P<0.01). In group D, the PaO2 were (328.9 ± 66.8) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), (121.4 ± 42.8) mmHg, (129.6±35.1) mmHg, (145.6±31.5) mmHg and (284.8± 55.9) mmHg at T1 to T5 separately. In group N, the PaO2 were (312.6 ± 70.2) mmHg, (199.3 ± 38.9) mmHg, (210.3±32.4) mmHg, (217.3±29.9) mmHg and (286.2±47.7) mmHg at T1 to T5, separately. Compared with group N, the PaO2 decreased significantly at T2 to T4 in group D (P<0.01). Compared with T1, the Qs/Qt raised obviously at T2 to T4 while PaO2 reduced obviously at T2 to T5 in group D(P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with T1, the Qs/Qt raised obviously while PaO2 reduced obviously at T2 to T4 in group

  19. Estado absoluto e ensino das primeiras letras: as escolas régias (1772-1794, na tese de Áurea Adão (1997 - Absolutist state and alphabetization classes: escolas régias (1772-1794, as postulates Áurea Adão (1997

    Maria Juraci Maia Cavalcante


    elle se base sur la lecture intérrogative dês sources choisies et dans la confrontation historiographique, à l’égard de la recherche de la compréhension de l’influence reçue, par cette reforme-là, de l’ambiance idéologique et politique de l’Europe illuministe dans la période analysée. Considéré du point de vue temporel, son étude, bien qu’il soit centré dans la courte période déjà signalée, se base évidemment sur une ingénieuse stratégie de reculs et d’avancements, qui reconstruit la reforme de Pombal à partir de la confrontation entre ses antécédents et la dynamique postérieure au règne de D. José, pour observer d’où cette reforme-là a parti relativement à la structure scolaire et où est-elle arrivée dans la phase postérieuse à la chute du Ministre Pombal. Ainsi elle recrée la tríade passé/présent/futur comme place d’observation de l’Histoire et elle évite la narration de base chronologique-linéaire, si freqüente dans les études d’histoire de l’éducation basés sur des sources documentaires et des archivesofficielles.Mots-clé: Histoire de l’éducation; Cours Royaux; Áurea Adão.