WorldWideScience

Sample records for lentisphaera araneosa htcc2155t

  1. Neosordarin and hydroxysordarin, two new antifungal agents from Sordaria araneosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, Paolo; Engel, Günther; Werle, Andreas; Sterner, Olov; Anke, Timm

    2002-04-01

    Two novel antifungal agents belonging to the sordarin family have been isolated from fermentations of Sordaria araneosa by bioassay-guided purification and their structures elucidated by NMR techniques. Neosordarin (1) is closely related to the recently discovered hypoxysordarin (2), with only small differences on the aliphatic side chain acylating the hydroxyl in the 3'-position of the sordarose moiety. Hydroxysordarin (3) closely resembles sordarin (4), the only slight difference being the replacement of sordarose with altrose as the sugar unit.

  2. Molecular Signatures for the PVC Clade (Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae and Lentisphaerae of Bacteria Provide Insights into their Evolutionary Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey S. Gupta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The PVC superphylum is an amalgamation of species from the phyla Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae, along with the Lentisphaerae, Poribacteria and two other candidate divisions. The diverse species of this superphylum lack any significant marker that differentiates them from other bacteria. Recently, genome sequences for 37 species covering all of the main PVC groups of bacteria have become available. We have used these sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree based upon concatenated sequences for 16 proteins and identify molecular signatures in protein sequences that are specific for the species from these phyla or those providing molecular links among them. Of the useful molecular markers identified in the present work, 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs in the proteins Cyt c oxidase, UvrD helicase, urease and a helicase-domain containing protein are specific for the species from the Verrucomicrobia phylum; three other CSIs in an ABC transporter protein, cobyrinic acid ac-diamide synthase and SpoVG protein are specific for the Planctomycetes species. Additionally, a 3 aa insert in the RpoB protein is uniquely present in all sequenced Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae species, providing evidence for the shared ancestry of the species from these three phyla. Lastly, we have also identified a conserved protein of unknown function that is exclusively found in all sequenced species from the phyla Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes suggesting a specific linkage among them. The absence of this protein in Poribacteria, which branches separately from other members of the PVC clade, indicates that it is not specifically related to the PVC clade of bacteria. The molecular markers described here in addition to clarifying the evolutionary relationships among the PVC clade of bacteria also provide novel tools for their identification and for genetic and biochemical studies on these organisms.

  3. Genome mining of the sordarin biosynthetic gene cluster from Sordaria araneosa Cain ATCC 36386: characterization of cycloaraneosene synthase and GDP-6-deoxyaltrose transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Matsuura, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takaaki; Fukushima, Masayuki; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    Sordarin is a glycoside antibiotic with a unique tetracyclic diterpene aglycone structure called sordaricin. To understand its intriguing biosynthetic pathway that may include a Diels-Alder-type [4+2]cycloaddition, genome mining of the gene cluster from the draft genome sequence of the producer strain, Sordaria araneosa Cain ATCC 36386, was carried out. A contiguous 67 kb gene cluster consisting of 20 open reading frames encoding a putative diterpene cyclase, a glycosyltransferase, a type I polyketide synthase, and six cytochrome P450 monooxygenases were identified. In vitro enzymatic analysis of the putative diterpene cyclase SdnA showed that it catalyzes the transformation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to cycloaraneosene, a known biosynthetic intermediate of sordarin. Furthermore, a putative glycosyltransferase SdnJ was found to catalyze the glycosylation of sordaricin in the presence of GDP-6-deoxy-d-altrose to give 4'-O-demethylsordarin. These results suggest that the identified sdn gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of sordarin. Based on the isolated potential biosynthetic intermediates and bioinformatics analysis, a plausible biosynthetic pathway for sordarin is proposed.

  4. Some interesting Gasteroid ans Secotioid fungi from Sonora, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, G.; Esteve-Raventós, F.

    2007-01-01

    Nine rare species of gasteroid and secotioid fungi from Sonora, Mexico are treated here: Agaricus texensis (= Longula texensis), Araneosa columellata, Calvatia bicolor, C. craniiformis, C. pygmaea, Disciseda hyalothrix, D. verrucosa, Endoptychum arizonicum, and D. stuckertii (= Abstoma stuckertii),

  5. The Microbiome in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma-Exposed Controls: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Sian M J; Malan-Müller, Stefanie; van den Heuvel, Leigh L; Demmitt, Brittany A; Stanislawski, Maggie A; Smith, David G; Bohr, Adam D; Stamper, Christopher E; Hyde, Embriette R; Morton, James T; Marotz, Clarisse A; Siebler, Philip H; Braspenning, Maarten; Van Criekinge, Wim; Hoisington, Andrew J; Brenner, Lisa A; Postolache, Teodor T; McQueen, Matthew B; Krauter, Kenneth S; Knight, Rob; Seedat, Soraya; Lowry, Christopher A

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate immunoregulation and elevated inflammation may be risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and microbial inputs are important determinants of immunoregulation; however, the association between the gut microbiota and PTSD is unknown. This study investigated the gut microbiome in a South African sample of PTSD-affected individuals and trauma-exposed (TE) controls to identify potential differences in microbial diversity or microbial community structure. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 was used to diagnose PTSD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from stool samples obtained from 18 individuals with PTSD and 12 TE control participants. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene V3/V4 amplicons were generated and sequenced. Microbial community structure, α-diversity, and β-diversity were analyzed; random forest analysis was used to identify associations between bacterial taxa and PTSD. There were no differences between PTSD and TE control groups in α- or β-diversity measures (e.g., α-diversity: Shannon index, t = 0.386, p = .70; β-diversity, on the basis of analysis of similarities: Bray-Curtis test statistic = -0.033, p = .70); however, random forest analysis highlighted three phyla as important to distinguish PTSD status: Actinobacteria, Lentisphaerae, and Verrucomicrobia. Decreased total abundance of these taxa was associated with higher Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores (r = -0.387, p = .035). In this exploratory study, measures of overall microbial diversity were similar among individuals with PTSD and TE controls; however, decreased total abundance of Actinobacteria, Lentisphaerae, and Verrucomicrobia was associated with PTSD status.

  6. Comparative metagenomics approaches to characterize the soil fungal communities of western coastal region, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A A Moussa

    Full Text Available A total of 145007 reads were obtained from pyrosequencing for all the 4 samples. The total count ranged from 11,301,014 (Mecca old road to 23,503,512 bp (Thuwal. A total of 460 fungal species belonging to 133 genera, 58 families, 33 orders, 13 classes and 4 phyla was identified across the four sites. The most abundant phylum at all four sites was Ascomycota followed by Basidiomycota. Four phyla (Ascomycota-99.31%, Basidiomycota-0.59%, Chytridiomycota-0.04%, Glomeromycota-0.03% were detected in Khulais. Except for Glomeromycota, all phyla were detected at Mecca old road (Ascomycota-74.26%, Basidiomycota-25.71%, Chytridiomycota-0.01% and Thuwal (Ascomycota-99.59%, Basidiomycota-0.40%, Chytridiomycota-0.002%; while only Ascomycota-90.98% and Basidiomycota-9.01% were detected in Asfan road. At the class level, Sordariomycetes was predominantly observed at Asfan road-59.88%, Khulais-68.26% and Thuwal-94.84%; while Pezizomycetes was dominant at Mecca old road-56.01%, was absent at Asfan road. Agaricomycetes was present only at Mecca old road-25.73%; while Tremellomycetes-5.77%, Malasseizomycetes-2.13% and Microbotryomycetes-1.10% were found only at Asfan road. The phylogenetic trees revealed that clear genus level differences are visible across all the four sites, with an overall predominance of Thielavia followed by Madurella, Aspergillus, and Gelasinospora. Chaetomium sp., Aspergillus caespitosus and Aspergillus sp. were found in moderate (Mecca old road and Thuwal to abundant (Asfan road and Khulais quantities. Thielavia sp., Thielavia hyalocarpa and Madurella sp. are found in moderate quantities at Khulais and Mecca old road, while in abundant levels at Asfan road and Thuwal. Fusarium equisati and F. oxysporum were detected at Thuwal and Khulais. Sordaria araneosa was present at Khulais, while Malasseiza globosa species was detected in moderate quantities across all sites except Khulais.

  7. Comparison of the microbial communities in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) reactors operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    The microbiomes involved in liquid anaerobic digestion process have been investigated extensively, but the microbiomes underpinning solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) are poorly understood. In this study, microbiome composition and temporal succession in batch SS-AD reactors, operated at mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures, were investigated using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A greater microbial richness and evenness were found in the mesophilic than in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors. Firmicutes accounted for 60 and 82 % of the total Bacteria in the mesophilic and in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, respectively. The genus Methanothermobacter dominated the Archaea in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, while Methanoculleus predominated in the mesophilic SS-AD reactors. Interestingly, the data suggest syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as an important pathway for biogas production during the thermophilic SS-AD. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that temperature was the most influential factor in shaping the microbiomes in the SS-AD reactors. Thermotogae showed strong positive correlation with operation temperature, while Fibrobacteres, Lentisphaerae, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were positively correlated with daily biogas yield. This study provided new insight into the microbiome that drives SS-AD process, and the findings may help advance understanding of the microbiome in SS-AD reactors and the design and operation of SS-AD systems.

  8. Dynamic Distribution of the Gut Microbiota and the Relationship with Apparent Crude Fiber Digestibility and Growth Stages in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qing; Li, Pinghua; Hao, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Yeqiu; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Huizhi; Ma, Xiang; Gao, Shuo; He, Lichun; Wu, WangJun; Huang, Xuegen; Hua, Jindi; Zhou, Bo; Huang, Ruihua

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in nutrient digestibility in animals. To examine changes in the pig gut microbiota across growth stages and its effects on nutrient digestion, the gut microbiota population in pigs at 28 days (before weaning), and 60, 90, and 150 days of age was assessed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The apparent digestibility of crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was also assessed in these pigs. A total of 19,875 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from all samples. Both bacterial abundance and diversity increased with age. A total of 22 phyla and 249 genera were identified from all fecal samples; Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla in all samples. With increasing age, the proportion of TM7 and Tenericutes increased, whereas the proportion of Lentisphaerae and Synergistetes decreased. The abundance of 36 genera varied with age, and the apparent digestibility of CF increased with age. Three phyla, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and TM7, and 11 genera, including Anaeroplasma, Campylobacter, and Clostridium, were correlated with apparent CF digestibility. PMID:25898122

  9. Comprehensive in silico prediction and analysis of chlamydial outer membrane proteins reflects evolution and life style of the Chlamydiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Garry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising some of the most important bacterial pathogens of animals and humans. Although chlamydial outer membrane proteins play a key role for attachment to and entry into host cells, only few have been described so far. We developed a comprehensive, multiphasic in silico approach, including the calculation of clusters of orthologues, to predict outer membrane proteins using conservative criteria. We tested this approach using Escherichia coli (positive control and Bacillus subtilis (negative control, and applied it to five chlamydial species; Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila caviae, and Protochlamydia amoebophila. Results In total, 312 chlamydial outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins in 88 orthologous clusters were identified, including 238 proteins not previously recognized to be located in the outer membrane. Analysis of their taxonomic distribution revealed an evolutionary conservation among Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes as well as lifestyle-dependent conservation of the chlamydial outer membrane protein composition. Conclusion This analysis suggested a correlation between the outer membrane protein composition and the host range of chlamydiae and revealed a common set of outer membrane proteins shared by these intracellular bacteria. The collection of predicted chlamydial outer membrane proteins is available at the online database pCOMP http://www.microbial-ecology.net/pcomp and might provide future guidance in the quest for anti-chlamydial vaccines.

  10. The Paradigms They Are a-Changin': past, present and future of PVC bacteria research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Devos, Damien P

    2018-06-01

    These are exciting times for PVC researchers! The PVC superphylum is composed of the bacterial phyla Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae (those three founders giving it its name), Lentisphaerae and Kirimatiellaeota as well as some uncultured candidate phyla, such as the Candidatus Omnitrophica (previously known as OP3). Despite early debates, most of the disagreements that surround this group of bacteria have been recently resolved. In this article, we review the history of the study of PVC bacteria, with a particular focus on the misinterpretations that emerged early in the field and their resolution. We begin with a historical perspective that describes the relevant facts of PVC research from the early times when they were not yet termed PVC. Those were controversial times and we refer to them as the "discovery age" of the field. We continue by describing new discoveries due to novel techniques and data that combined with the reinterpretations of old ones have contributed to solve most of the discordances and we refer to these times as the "illumination age" of PVC research. We follow by arguing that we are just entering the "golden age" of PVC research and that the future of this growing community is looking bright. We finish by suggesting a few of the directions that PVC researches might take in the future.

  11. Bacterial Community in the Crop of the Hoatzin, a Neotropical Folivorous Flying Bird▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Ley, Ruth E.; Gao, Zhan; Pei, Zhiheng; Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto; Pericchi, Luis R.; Garcia-Amado, Maria A.; Michelangeli, Fabian; Blaser, Martin J.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Domínguez-Bello, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    The hoatzin is unique among known avian species because of the fermentative function of its enlarged crop. A small-bodied flying foregut fermenter is a paradox, and this bird provides an interesting model to examine how diet selection and the gut microbiota contribute to maximizing digestive efficiency. Therefore, we characterized the bacterial population in the crop of six adult hoatzins captured from the wild. A total of 1,235 16S rRNA gene sequences were grouped into 580 phylotypes (67% of the pooled species richness sampled, based on Good's coverage estimator, with CACE and Chao1 estimates of 1,709 and 1,795 species-level [99% identity] operational taxonomic units, respectively). Members of 9 of the ∼75 known phyla in Bacteria were identified in this gut habitat; the Firmicutes were dominant (67% of sequences, belonging to the classes Clostridia, Mollicutes, and Bacilli), followed by the Bacteroidetes (30%, mostly in the order Bacteroidales), Proteobacteria (1.8%), and Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, TM7, Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria, and Aminanaerobia (all <0.1%). The novelty in this ecosystem is great; 94% of the phylotypes were unclassified at the “species” level and thus likely include novel cellulolytic lineages. PMID:18689523

  12. Studies on bacterial community composition are affected by the time and storage method of the rumen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Ramirez-Uscategui, Ricardo Andrés; Machado, Elwi Guillermo; Duarte Messana, Juliana; Takeshi Kishi, Luciano; Lino Dias, Ana Veronica; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate three storage methods and four storage times for rumen sampling in terms of quality and yield of extracted metagenomic DNA as well as the composition of the rumen bacterial community. One Nellore steer fitted with a ruminal silicone-type cannula was used as a donor of ruminal contents. The experiment comprised 11 experimental groups: pellet control (PC), lyophilized control (LC), P-20: pellet stored frozen at -20°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months, P-80: pellet stored frozen at -80°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months, and L-20: lyophilized sample stored frozen at -20°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months. Metagenomic DNA concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically and fluorometrically and ion torrent sequencing was used to assess the bacterial community composition. The L-20 method could not maintain the yield of DNA during storage. In addition, the P-80 group showed a greater yield of metagenomic DNA than the other groups after 6 months of storage. Rumen samples stored as pellets (P-20 and P-80) resulted in lower richness Chao 1, ACE, and Shannon Wiener indices when compared to PC, while LC and PC were only different in richness ACE. The storage method and storage time influenced the proportions of 14 of 17 phyla identified by sequencing. In the P-20 group, the proportion of Cyanobacteria, Elusimicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Lentisphaerae, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes phyla identified was lower than 1%. In the P-80 group, there was an increase in the proportion of the Bacteroidetes phylum (p = 0.010); however, the proportion of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, SR1, Synergistetes, TM7, and WPS.2 phyla were unchanged compared to the PC group (p > 0.05). The class Clostridium was the most abundant in all stored groups and increased in its proportion, especially in the L-20 group. The rumen sample storage time significantly reduced the yield of metagenomic DNA extracted. Therefore, the storage method can

  13. Ubiquity and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes in diverse marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Jiang

    Full Text Available Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB. In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the α-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III. Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with β-Proteobacteria, ε-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating

  14. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs Part 2: Ewe lamb rumen microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, S L; Yeoman, C J; Whitney, T R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated effects of ground redberry juniper () and urea in dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48) on rumen physiological parameters and bacterial diversity. In a randomized study (40 d), individually-penned lambs were fed ground sorghum-sudangrass hay and of 1 of 8 supplements (6 lambs/treatment; 533 g/d; as-fed basis) in a 4 × 2 factorial design with 4 concentrations of ground juniper (15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 levels of urea (1% or 3% of DM). Increasing juniper resulted in minor changes in microbial β-diversity (PERMANOVA, pseudo F = 1.33, = 0.04); however, concentrations of urea did not show detectable broad-scale differences at phylum, family, or genus levels according to ANOSIM ( > 0.05), AMOVA ( > 0.10), and PERMANOVA ( > 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis indicated some genera were specific to certain dietary treatments ( < 0.05), though none of these genera were present in high abundance; high concentrations of juniper were associated with and , low concentrations of urea were associated with , and high concentrations of urea were associated with and . were decreased by juniper and urea. , , and increased with juniper and were positively correlated (Spearman's, < 0.05) with each other but not to rumen factors, suggesting a symbiotic interaction. Overall, there was not a juniper × urea interaction for total VFA, VFA by concentration or percent total, pH, or ammonia ( 0.29). When considering only percent inclusion of juniper, ruminal pH and proportion of acetic acid linearly increased ( < 0.001) and percentage of butyric acid linearly decreased ( = 0.009). Lamb ADG and G:F were positively correlated with (Spearman's, < 0.05) and negatively correlated with Synergistaceae, the BS5 group, and Lentisphaerae. Firmicutes were negatively correlated with serum urea nitrogen, ammonia, total VFA, total acetate, and total propionate. Overall, modest differences in bacterial diversity among

  15. Characterization of the abundant ≤0.2 μm cell-like particles inhabiting Lake Vida brine, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, E.; Ichimura, A.; Peng, V.; Fritsen, C. H.; Murray, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    Most lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys are perennially covered with 3 to 6 m of ice, but Lake Vida is frozen from the surface through the lake bed, with ice permeated by brine channels. Brine collected from within the ice of Lake Vida is six times saltier than seawater, anoxic, with temperature of -13.4 C, pH of 6.2, high concentrations of ferrous iron (>300 μM), NH4+ (3.6 mM), and N2O (>58 μM), making it a unique environment. The first analysis of Vida brine microbial community (sampled in 2005) detected a cell rich environment (107 cells/mL), with cells falling into two size classes: ≥0.5 μm (105 cells/mL) and ~0.2 μm (107 cells/mL). Microorganisms in the domain Bacteria were detected, but Eukarya and Archaea were not. The clone library from 2005 identified Bacteria related to the phyla Proteobacteria (γ, δ, and ɛ), Lentisphaera, Firmicutes, Spirochaeta, Bacterioidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and candidate Division TM7. Brine samples were collected again in the austral summer of 2010 in which one of the focus areas is interrogating the ~0.2 μm cell size class. Molecular, imaging, and elemental analyses were employed to characterize the population of nano-sized particles (NP) that pass through 0.2 μm filters. The aim of testing was to determine whether or not these particles are cells with a morphology resulting from environmental stresses. These results are being compared to the same analyses applied in the whole brine microbial community. A 0.2 μm filtrate of brine incubated for 25 days at -13 C was collected on a 0.1 μm filter. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene DGGE profile showed differences in the banding pattern and relative intensity when comparing the 0.2 μm filtrate to the whole brine community. A 16S rRNA clone library from the 0.2 μm filtrate indicated the presence of genera previously described in the 2005 whole brine community clone library like Pscychrobacter, Marinobacter, and members related to candidate Division TM7. Also, the