WorldWideScience

Sample records for lentinus panus tigrinus

  1. Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus augmentation of a historically contaminated soil: Matrix decontamination and structure and function of the resident bacterial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Federici, E.; Giubilei, M. A.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Petruccioli, M.; D´Annibale, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 186, 2-3 (2011), s. 1263-1270 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus * Aromatic hydrocarbons * Mycoremediation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  2. In vivo and in vitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation by Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus CBS 577.79

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Covino, S.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Křesinová, Zdena; Petruccioli, M.; Federici, F.; D’Annibale, A.; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 9 (2010), s. 3004-3012 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus * Ligninolytic enzymes * Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.365, year: 2010

  3. Chlorobenzoic acid degradation by Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus: In vivo and in vitro mechanistic study-evidence for P-450 involvement in the transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stella, Tatiana; Covino, Stefano; Křesinová, Zdena; D´Annibale, A.; Petruccioli, M.; Čvančarová, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 260, SEP 15 (2013), s. 975-983 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218; GA ČR GA13-28283S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chlorobenzoic acid * Lentinus tigrinus * Biodegradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.331, year: 2013

  4. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetonitrile and hexane extracts of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper highlighted the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour. Extracts of mushroom fruiting bodies were obtained using hexane and acetonitrile solvents. Acetonitrile extracts of both mushrooms exhibited higher biological activities than hexane extrac...

  5. Transformation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by the white rot fungi Panus tigrinus and Coriolus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontievsky, A A; Myasoedova, N M; Baskunov, B P; Evans, C S; Golovleva, L A

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of thirteen isomers of mono-, di-, tri- and pentachlorophenols was tested in potato-dextrose agar cultures of the white rot fungi Panus tigrinus and Coriolus versicolor. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was chosen for further study of its toxicity and transformation in liquid cultures of these fungi. Two schemes of 2,4,6-TCP addition were tested to minimize its toxic effect to fungal cultures: stepwise addition from the moment of inoculation and single addition after five days of growth. In both cases the ligninolytic enzyme systems of both fungi were found to be responsible for 2,4,6-TCP transformation. 2,6-Dichloro-1,4-hydroquinol and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone were found as products of primary oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP by intact fungal cultures and purified ligninolytic enzymes, Mn-peroxidases and laccases of both fungi. However, primary attack of 2,4,6-TCP in P. tigrinus culture was conducted mainly by Mn-peroxidase, while in C. versicolor it was catalyzed predominantly by laccase, suggesting a different mode of regulation of these enzymes in the two fungi.

  6. Panus tigrinus as a potential biomass source for Reactive Blue decolorization: Isotherm and kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monawar Munjid Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The biosorption process provided vital information on the process parameters required to obtain the optimum level of dye removal. The isotherm study indicated the homogeneous distribution of active sites on the biomass surface, and the kinetic study suggested that chemisorption is the rate-limiting step that controlled the biosorption process. According to the obtained results, P. tigrinus biomass can be used effectively to decolorize textile dyes and tackle the pollution problems in the environment.

  7. Crystal structure of a blue laccase from Lentinus tigrinus: evidences for intermediates in the molecular oxygen reductive splitting by multicopper oxidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovleva Ludmila A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in pathogenesis, immunogenesis and morphogenesis of organisms and in the metabolic turnover of complex organic substances. They catalyze the coupling between the four one-electron oxidations of a broad range of substrates with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. These catalytic processes are made possible by the contemporaneous presence of at least four copper ion sites, classified according to their spectroscopic properties: one type 1 (T1 site where the electrons from the reducing substrates are accepted, one type 2 (T2, and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair (T3 which are assembled in a T2/T3 trinuclear cluster where the electrons are transferred to perform the O2 reduction to H2O. Results The structure of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Lentinus (Panus tigrinus, a glycoenzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, was solved at 1.5 Å. It reveals a asymmetric unit containing two laccase molecules (A and B. The progressive reduction of the copper ions centers obtained by the long-term exposure of the crystals to the high-intensity X-ray synchrotron beam radiation under aerobic conditions and high pH allowed us to detect two sequential intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction pathway: the "peroxide" and the "native" intermediates, previously hypothesized through spectroscopic, kinetic and molecular mechanics studies. Specifically the electron-density maps revealed the presence of an end-on bridging, μ-η1:η1 peroxide ion between the two T3 coppers in molecule B, result of a two-electrons reduction, whereas in molecule A an oxo ion bridging the three coppers of the T2/T3 cluster (μ3-oxo bridge together with an hydroxide ion externally bridging the two T3 copper ions, products of the four-electrons reduction of molecular oxygen, were best modelled. Conclusion This is the first structure of a

  8. Effect of Tween 80 and Acetone on the Secretion, Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus tigrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the addition of Tween 80 and acetone on secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of Lentinus tigrinus exopolysaccharides (EPS were investigated. It was found that Tween 80 and acetone displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPS obtained by the addition of Tween 80 (EPS-T, acetone (EPS-A and control (EPS-C were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration chromatography and molecular mass of purified fractions was estimated to be 22.1, 137 and 12 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-A and EPS-C were mainly composed of glucose and mannose. Congo Red test indicated that EPS-T and EPS-A had a highly ordered conformation of triple helix, while EPS-C had a random coil conformation. Furthermore, EPS-A exhibited higher DPPH scavenging and antiproliferative activities than EPS-C and EPS-T, which might be attributed to the molecular mass.

  9. An efficient PAH-degrading Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus strain: Effect of inoculum formulation and pollutant bioavailability in solid matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Covino, S.; Čvančarová, M.; Muzikář, Milan; Svobodová, Kateřina; D´Annibale, A.; Petruccioli, M.; Federici, F.; Křesinová, Z.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, 1-3 (2010), s. 669-676 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Biodegradation * White rot fungi * Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2010

  10. Manusega panus / Heili Einasto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einasto, Heili

    2005-01-01

    14. sept. Kanuti Gildi saalis esietendunud K. Essensoni soololavastusest "Manusega mõtted". (dramaturg-konsultant T. Eelmaa) ja tantsuteatri Fine 5 lavastusest "Panus" (koreograafid R. Nõmmik ja T. Ollesk)

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and morphological evolution in Lentinus, Polyporellus and Neofavolus, emphasizing southeastern Asian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelan, Jaya Seelan Sathiya; Justo, Alfredo; Nagy, Laszlo G; Grand, Edward A; Redhead, Scott A; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lentinus (Polyporaceae, Basidiomycota) is widely documented from tropical and temperate forests and is taxonomically controversial. Here we studied the relationships between Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler (i.e. sections Lentinus, Tigrini, Dicholamellatae, Rigidi, Lentodiellum and Pleuroti and polypores that share similar morphological characters). We generated sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and partial 28S regions of nuc rDNA and genes encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), focusing on Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler and the Neofavolus group, combined these data with sequences from GenBank (including RPB2 gene sequences) and performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. We also evaluated the transition in hymenophore morphology between Lentinus, Neofavolus and related polypores with ancestral state reconstruction. Single-gene phylogenies and phylogenies combining ITS and 28S with RPB1 and RPB2 genes all support existence of a Lentinus/Polyporellus clade and a separate Neofavolus clade. Polyporellus (represented by P. arcularius, P. ciliatus, P. brumalis) forms a clade with species representing Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler (1983), excluding L. suavissimus. Lentinus tigrinus appears as the sister group of Polyporellus in the four-gene phylogeny, but this placement was weakly supported. All three multigene analyses and the single-gene analysis using ITS strongly supported Polyporus tricholoma as the sister group of the Lentinus/Polyporellus clade; only the 28S rRNA phylogeny failed to support this placement. Under parsimony the ancestral hymenophoral configuration for the Lentinus/Polyporellus clade is estimated to be circular pores, with independent transitions to angular pores and lamellae. The ancestral state for the Neofavolus clade is estimated to be angular pores, with a single transition to lamellae in L. suavissimus. We propose that Lentinus suavissimus (section

  12. Eesti annab oma panuse EL-i armeesse / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2000-01-01

    EL-i, NATO ja kandidaatriikide kaitseministrid arutasid Brüsselis EL-i kriisireguleerimisjõudude loomist. Eesti kaitseminister Jüri Luik tegi EL-ile teatavaks Eesti panuse. Diagramm: EL-i kiirreageerimisjõud

  13. Cultivo micelial in vitro e elaboração de “semente-inóculo” de Lentinus strigosus, um cogumelo comestível isolado na Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Isla, Ruby

    2008-01-01

    O Estado do Amazonas apresenta um cenário favorável para o desenvolvimento da fungicultura, pois reúne a diversidade nativa de espécies de cogumelos comestíveis e substratos lignocelulósicos em abundância. Entretanto, os protocolos de cultivo geralmente são descritos para espécies de clima temperado, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de protocolos para as espécies de clima tropical. A espécie Lentinus strigosus (Schwein.) Fr. (=Panus rudis Fr.) tem uma ampla distribuição mu...

  14. Bioremediation potential of Lentinus subnudus in decontaminating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. The aim of this work was to study the efficacy of using a white-rot fungi Lentinus subnudus to treat crude oil polluted soil by employing its biodegradation and bioaccumulation potentials. The polluted soil was amended with plantain peels and treated with spawns of. Lentinus subnudus for 180 days.

  15. Bioremediation potential of Lentinus subnudus in decontaminating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study the efficacy of using a white-rot fungi Lentinus subnudus to treat crude oil polluted soil by employing its biodegradation and bioaccumulation potentials. The polluted soil was amended with plantain peels and treated with spawns of Lentinus subnudus for 180 days. The physicochemical ...

  16. Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection using albino rat as animal model. ... The increasing awareness of inherent therapeutic and prophylactic benefits of some higher fungi and their products has been the recent trend for improving a healthy vigour. Mycomeat is a ...

  17. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Akiko Maihara; Patricia Landim da Costa Moura; Marília Gabriela Miranda Catharino; Edson Gonçalves Moreira; Lilian Pavanelli Castro; Rubens Cesar Lopes Figueira

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitak...

  18. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  19. High fecundity and predation pressure of the invasive Gammarus tigrinus cause decline of indigenous gammarids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänes, Holger; Kotta, Jonne; Herkül, Kristjan

    2015-11-01

    The North American amphipod Gammarus tigrinus is one of the most aggressive invaders recently expanding its distribution in the European waters. The species was detected in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in 2003 and has rapidly expanded its distribution ever since. This invasive amphipod has been notably successful in shallow, soft and mixed bottom habitats becoming one of the most abundant gammarid colonizing such environments. This study carried out two experiments: (1) an outdoor aquarium experiment to assess interspecific competition among the invasive G. tigrinus and the native Gammarus duebeni and compare their reproductive potential, and (2) an in situ meshbag experiment to determine the effect of adult G. tigrinus and native gammarids on juvenile gammarid amphipods. These demonstrated that the adult G. tigrinus had no effects on the adult G. duebeni; however, the invasive amphipod had higher reproductive potential compared to the native species such as G. duebeni. Moreover, almost all adult gammarids exerted a significant predation pressure on juvenile amphipods. Thus, the combined effect of predation on juvenile amphipods and large brood production of G. tigrinus could be plausible explanations describing increased abundance of G. tigrinus and decrease of local gammarid populations in the north-eastern Baltic Sea but plausibly in similar shallow water habitats in other seas.

  20. Expansion of the North American amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 to the Neva Estuary (easternmost Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda A. Berezina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The North American gammaridean amphipod, Gammarus tigrinus, was found in the easternmost part of the Baltic Sea (Neva Estuary near a new oil terminal. This species may well have been transportedto the Neva Estuary with ballast waters from the Finnish area of the Gulf of Finland, where it was recorded recently. In 2005, the mid-summer density of G. tigrinus was 27 indiv. m-2. By2006 this species had spread 100 km to the east from the first site, colonizing the northern coastal zone of the estuary. Its density reached 99-126 indiv. m-2. Fecund females and juvenilescontributed about 50% to the entire population density, which testifies to the successful reproduction and establishment of G. tigrinus in the Neva Estuary. There is a high risk of further expansions of G. tigrinus from the new area to the various lakes of Eastern Europe via inland canal-river systems, whichmay lead to unforeseeable changes in aquatic communities.

  1. Proximate analysis of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two mushroom species commonly found growing on dead leaves and logs, were collected from the Zaria environ and taken to the laboratory for further studies. Each of the mushroom species was separated into its stipe and pileus and used for proximate analysis.

  2. Studies on the degraduation of wood sawdust by Lentinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer, a basidiomycete also known as a white rot fungi, was immobilized on sodium alginate and tested for the effectiveness to degrade wood sawdust (WSD). Untreated and 0.1 M HCl-pretreated WSD samples were separately reacted in a micro-carrier bioreactor (mCBR) and the extent of ...

  3. Cultivation and fruit body production of Lentinus squarrosulus Mont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycelia growth of Lentinus squarrosulus culture on the leaves and bark of common fruit trees were investigated. The effect of supplementing these fruit trees with 25% each of rice bran, horse dung, poultry droppings, cow dung, fresh cassava flour and oil palm waste fiber on the mycelia growth of this fungus was also ...

  4. Comparative Study of Biological Activities of Venom from Colubrid Snakes Rhabdophis tigrinus (Yamakagashi and Rhabdophis lateralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Komori

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdophis lateralis, a colubrid snake distributed throughout the continent of Asia, has recently undergone taxonomic revisions. Previously, Rhabdophis lateralis was classified as a subspecies of R. tigrinus (Yamakagashi until 2012, when several genetic differences were discovered which classified this snake as its own species. To elucidate the toxicity of venom from this poorly studied colubrid, various biological activities were compared between the venom from the two snake species. The components of their venom were compared by the elution profiles of reversed-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE, and gel filtrated fractions were tested for effects on blood coagulation. Proteolytic activities of these fractions were also assayed by using synthetic substrates, fibrinogen, and matrix proteins. Similar to the R. tigrinus venom, the higher molecular weight fraction of R. lateralis venom contained a prothrombin activator. Both prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT of human plasma were shortened by the addition of R. lateralis and R. tigrinus venom. The thrombin formation was estimated by the uses of SDS-PAGE and chromogenic substrates. These venom fractions also possessed very specific proteinase activity on human fibrinogen, but the substrates for matrix metalloproteinase, such as collagen and laminin, were not hydrolyzed. However, there were some notable differences in reactivity to synthetic substrates for matrix metalloproteinase, and R. tigrinus venom possessed relatively higher activity. Our chemical investigation indicates that the components included in both venoms resemble each other closely. However, the ratio of components and proteolytic activity of some ingredients are slightly different, indicating differences between two closely-related snakes.

  5. TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE TIGRINA LEOPARDUS TIGRINUS (SCHREBER, 1775 SPECIES GROUP (CARNIVORA, FELIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tigrina Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775 is a small-sized Neotropical spotted cat found from northern Argentina and southern Brazil to Costa Rica. Four subspecies are traditionally recognized: L. t. tigrinus (Schreber, 1775 from northern Brazil, the Guianas and eastern Venezuela; L. t. pardinoides (Gray, 1867 from western Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; L. t. guttulus (Hensel, 1872 from southern Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina; and L. t. oncillus (Thomas, 1903 from Costa Rica. We studied external and craniodental morphology in quantitative and qualitative terms from 250 specimens in order to clarify the taxonomic status of tigrina. Based on the characters analyzed in this study, we recognize three diagnosable morphogroups, each with a distinct geographic distribution: northern/northwestern/west (samples from northern Brazil, the Guianas, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, northwestern Argentina and Costa Rica, eastern (samples from northeastern and central Brazil, and southern (samples from southern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. Taking into account the morphologic evidence presented here, supported by biogeographic data and molecular studies available, we recognize three full species for tigrinas: L. tigrinus (including the putative subspecies L. t. pardinoides and L. t. oncillus as junior synonyms for northern/northwestern/west group; L. emiliae (Thomas, 1914 for eastern group; and L. guttulus for southern group.

  6. The role of ion regulation in the control of the distribution of Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton) in salt-polluted rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, J H; Grieshaber, M K

    2000-02-01

    Fluctuating salinities at different sites on the German salt-polluted rivers Werra and Weser were compared with extracellular ion levels of specimens of Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton; Amphipoda, Crustacea), collected at the same sites. G. tigrinus regulated haemolymph concentrations of inorganic anions (Cl-, SO(4)2-, PO(4)3-) and cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) during fluctuations of salt pollution in the upper Weser. This capacity to regulate varying levels of salt pollution in the upper Weser, correlated well with the distribution of the brackish amphipods in this river ecosystem. G. tigrinus tolerated periods of Na+ and Cl- stress (> 380 mmol l-1) without compensating these maxima by regulating extracellular Na+ and Cl-. However, during such bursts of Na+ and Cl- stress in Werra and Weser, the ability to regulate extracellular [K+] at river water K+ stress of > or = 6.0 mmol l-1 may explain why this brackish species has been more successful in these rivers than its competitors like Gammarus pulex. The present investigation demonstrates that the water salinity affects the [NO3-] in the haemolymph of G. tigrinus. With increasing hypo-osmotic stress the animals accumulate increasing amounts of NO3-. A simultaneous increase in stream water [NO3-] causes an additional accumulation of NO3- in the haemolymph. The high extent of accumulation indicates that active ion transport systems may be involved. The accumulation of NO3- in the haemolymph has low physiological consequences to G. tigrinus, but when hypo-osmotically stressed under anoxic conditions, nitrite formed by the reduction of nitrate may have an adverse affect on the metabolism of G. tigrinus.

  7. Turmeric bioprocessed with mycelia from the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom lentinus edodes (agaricomycetes) protects mice against salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes and the spice tumeric (Curcuma longa) have both been reported to have health-promoting properties. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of a bioprocessed Lentinus edodes liquid mushroom mycelia culture supplemented with turmeric ...

  8. Oil palm fruit fibre promotes the yield and quality of Lentinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    palm and timber industries for the cultivation of Lentinus squarrosulus, a Nigerian edible mushroom. Mahogany sawdust (MSD), Gmelina sawdust ... Huge quantities of a wide variety of organic wastes are generated annually through the ..... to its involvement in protein, chitin and nucleic acid synthesis (Adebayo et al., 2009).

  9. LENTINUS VELUTINUS (LENTINACEAE - PORLALES, AN INDICATOR OF PIPES BETWEEN WOOD FOR GUARANÍES FROM MISIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the use of the pseudosclerotia of Lentinus velutinus Fr. as wood for pipes among an aboriginal community of Misiones is presented. The pileus of this species is used asan indicator of the presence of the wood in the forest litter

  10. Bioremediation of oil-polluted soil by Lentinus subnudus , a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspite of the realization and studies on the use of microorganisms in degrading hydrocarbons there has been very little work on indigenous white-rot fungi in Nigeria, a leading oil – producing country. the ability of Lentinus subnudus to mineralize soil contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil was tested. Organic ...

  11. Distribution and ecology of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 and some other amphipod Crustacea near Beaufort (North Carolina, U.S.A.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, van Marion J.

    1978-01-01

    During summer 1977 the distribution and ecology of amphipod Crustacea in the coastal plain of north Carolina were studied. Ecological data were collected in particular on Gammarus tigrinus, a North American species, which has been introduced in western Europe. The present gammarid, able to endure

  12. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species Determinação de cádmio em cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.Muitos estudos têm encontrado elementos tóxicos em cogumelos. Sabe-se que algumas espécies de cogumelos comestíveis acumulam elevados níveis de contaminantes inorgânicos, como cádmio, mercúrio e chumbo. Há cerca de duas mil espécies de cogumelos comestíveis, mas apenas 25 espécies são cultivadas e usadas como alimentos. No Brasil, as espécies mais comercializadas e consumidas são Agaricus bisporus, conhecida como Champignon de Paris; Lentinus edodes ou Shitake, e Pleurotus sp, também chamada de Shimeji ou Hiratake. Neste trabalho, o cádmio (Cd foi determinado em amostras de cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes cultivadas em diversas cidades do Estado de São Paulo e algumas amostras importadas do Japão e da China. O cádmio foi determinado por espectrometria de absor

  13. Partial Purification of Antimicrobial Compounds Isolated from Mycelia of Tropical Lentinus cladopus LC4

    OpenAIRE

    SUDIRMAN, LISDAR IDWAN

    2010-01-01

    Lentinus cladopus LC4 produced at least eight antimicrobial compounds (ACs) which are active against plant and human pathogens. Three ACs in its crude mycelial were extracted with methanol and partial purification was carried out with silicic acid column chromatography and by thin layer chromatography (PTLC). The antimicrobial activity was tested by paper disc method and antibiographic method. The chromatography purification eluted with dichloromethane containing 5% methanol gave one active f...

  14. Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, nuevo vector del Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus en condiciones experimentales Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, a new vector of the Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus under experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Velazquez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, agente causal de la enfermedad más importante del maíz en la Argentina, es transmitido principalmente por Delphacodes kuscheli. La presencia de otros delfácidos en áreas con la virosis, permite suponer que éstos podrían tener un rol en su epidemiología. Pyrophagus tigrinus fue hallada por primera vez en 1997 en Jesús María (Córdoba sobre cultivos de triticale afectados con el MRCV. El objetivo fue demostrar la capacidad de P. tigrinus para transmitir el MRCV a triticale en condiciones experimentales. Se inició la cría en condiciones controladas y se realizaron transmisiones a triticale, empleando el mismo cereal como fuente de inóculo. Los síntomas observados y el patrón electroforético del dsRNA viral se correspondieron con el del MRCV en transmisiones con D. kuscheli. Se observaron agregados de partículas virales en células floemáticas. La capacidad de P. tigrinus para transmitir el MRCV tiene importantes implicaciones en la epidemiología de esta enfermedad.Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, causal agent of the most important disease that affects maize in Argentina, is spread under natural conditions by Delphacodes kuscheli. The presence of other delphacid species in areas infected with this virus suggests that those species could have a function in the epidemiology of disease. Pyrophagus tigrinus was first found by chance in 1997 in Jesús María (Córdoba in triticale crops affected by MRCV. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the capacity of P. tigrinus to transmit the MRCV to triticale under experimental conditions. The culture of P. tigrinus under controlled conditions was initiated and transmissions to triticale using this cereal as source of inoculum were carried out. The symptoms observed and the electrophoretic pattern of viral dsRNA were corresponded with the MRCV using D. kuscheli as vector. Aggregates of MRCV-like particles in phloem tissue cells were also observed. The vector

  15. Enhancement of growth of Lentinus crinitus in soil using benomyl and vegetable oil Aumento do crescimento de Lentinus crinitus em solo usando benomil e óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M.G. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify alternatives for soil fumigation in bioremediation process, the addition of benomyl and vegetable oil on the growth of L. crinitus and mitosporic fungi were evaluated. Benomyl can be used as an alternative to methyl bromide. Addition of vegetable oil favors the growth of L. crinitus.Para identificar alternativas para a fumigação de solo em processos de biorremediação, foi avaliada a adição de benomil e de óleo vegetal no crescimento de Lentinus crinitus e fungos mitospóricos. Benomil pode ser usado como alternativa ao brometo de metila. A adição de óleo vegetal favoreceu o crescimento de L. crinitus.

  16. Decolorization of synthetic melanins by crude laccases of Lentinus polychrous Lév.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are complex natural pigments that darken the skin and are difficult to degrade. This study evaluated synthetic melanin decolorization by the crude laccase from fungus Lentinus polychrous in the absence and presence of selected redox mediators. The greatest melanin decolorization activity was 87 % at pH 6.5 within 3 h in the presence of 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), whereas only about 22 % melanin decolorized at pH 5.0 in case of no mediator. The optimum temperatures for melanin decolorization in the absence and presence of ABTS were 55 and 35°C, respectively. Using a natural redox mediator, 1.0 mmol/L vanillin leads to 45 % melanin decolorization. Our results suggest the possibility of applying vanillin for L. polychrous laccase-catalyzed decolorization of melanin.

  17. Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activities of Various Extracts from the Fruiting Bodies of Lentinus lepideus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Soo Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus lepideus is an edible mushroom currently available in Korea. The acetone, methanol and hot water extracts were prepared and assayed for their antioxidant and antityrosinase inhibitory activities. The hot water extract showed the strongest β-carotene-linoleic acid inhibition compared to the other extracts. At 8 mg/mL, the methanolic extract showed a high reducing power of 1.21. The acetone and methanol extracts were more effective in scavenging DPPH radicals than the hot water extract. The strongest chelating effect was obtained from the methanolic extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetonic, methanol and hot water extracts increased with increasing concentration. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillin, naringin, naringenin, formononetin, and biochanin-A were detected in the acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5:1 solvent extract. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of L. lepideus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants.

  18. Discrimination of wild-growing and cultivated Lentinus edodes by tri-step infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haojian; Liu, Gang; Yang, Weimei; An, Ran; Ou, Quanhong

    2018-01-01

    It's not easy to discriminate dried wild-growing Lentinus edodes (WL) and cultivated Lentinus edodes (CL) by conventional method based on the morphological inspection of fruiting bodies. In this paper, fruiting body samples of WL and CL are discriminated by a tri-step IR spectroscopy method, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, second derivatives infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy under thermal perturbation. The results show that the FT-IR spectra of WL and CL are similar in holistic spectral profile. More significant differences are exhibited in their SD-IR spectra in the range of 1700 - 900 cm-1. Furthermore, more evident differences have been observed in their synchronous 2D-IR spectra in the range of 2970 - 2900, 1678 - 1390, 1250 -1104 and 1090 - 1030 cm-1. The CL has thirteen auto-peaks at 2958, 2921, 1649, 1563, 1450, 1218, 1192, 1161, 1140, 1110, 1082, 1065 and 1047 cm-1, in which the four strongest auto-peaks are at 2921, 1563, 1192 and 1082 cm-1. The WL shows fifteen auto-peaks at 2960, 2937, 2921, 1650, 1615, 1555, 1458, 1219, 1190, 1138, 1111, 1084, 1068, 1048 and 1033 cm-1, in which the four strongest auto-peaks are at 2921, 1650, 1190 and 1068 cm-1. This study shows the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis in a simple and quick distinction of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms.

  19. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  20. Deteksi Senyawa Antimikrob yang Diisolasi dari Beberapa Lentinus Tropis dengan Metode Bioautografi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR I. SUDIRMAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial compounds extracted either from culture filtrates or mycelia of several tropical Lentinus species could be detected their existences and locations by bioautographic method. For this purpose, the crude extracts were deposited as spots on silica gel plates and developed in a n-butanol-acetic acid-water mixture (3:1:1. The dry silica gel plates were then seeded with Bacillus subtilis and incubated at 35 °C for one night. On these plates, the extracts were separated into several bioautographic spots or growth inhibition zones. In parallel, the spots were detected by viewing with chemical revelations or under ultraviolet radiations at 254 nm or 366 nm. On silica gel thin-layer chromatograms, the crude extracts of Lentinus were separated into several bioautographic spots; for the filtrate extracts of L. squarrosulus 55A into three spots (Rfs 0.75, 0.50, 0.17, the mycelial extracts of L. sajor-caju LSC8 into two spots (Rfs 0.77, 0.54, the mycelial extract of L. torulosus LU3 into two spots (Rfs 0.77, 0.48, the filtrate extracts of L. cladopus LC6 into one spot (Rf 0.76 but the mycelial extracts of this mushroom separated into two spots (Rfs 0.79, 0.54, the filtrate and mycelial extracts of L. cladopus LC4 into three spots respectively (Rfs 0.75, 0.61, 0.45 for the filtrate extract and Rfs 0.83, 0.73, 0.60 for mycelial extract. By this method, the active compounds were detected directly and it is a usual method for further work on the purification of the target compounds.

  1. Detection of Antimicrobial Compounds Isolated from Several Tropical Lentinus by Bioautographic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR I. SUDIRMAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial compounds extracted either from culture filtrates or mycelia of several tropical Lentinus species could be detected their existences and locations by bioautographic method. For this purpose, the crude extracts were deposited as spots on silica gel plates and developed in a n-butanol-acetic acid-water mixture (3:1:1. The dry silica gel plates were then seeded with Bacillus subtilis and incubated at 35 oC for one night. On these plates, the extracts were separated into several bioautographic spots or growth inhibition zones. In parallel, the spots were detected by viewing with chemical revelations or under ultraviolet radiations at 254 nm or 366 nm. On silica gel thin-layer chromatograms, the crude extracts of Lentinus were separated into several bioautographic spots; for the filtrate extracts of L. squarrosulus 55A into three spots (Rfs 0.75, 0.50, 0.17, the mycelial extracts of L. sajor-caju LSC8 into two spots (Rfs 0.77, 0.54, the mycelial extract of L. torulosus LU3 into two spots (Rfs 0.77, 0.48, the filtrate extracts of L. cladopus LC6 into one spot (Rf 0.76 but the mycelial extracts of this mushroom separated into two spots (Rfs 0.79, 0.54, the filtrate and mycelial extracts of L. cladopus LC4 into three spots respectively (Rfs 0.75, 0.61, 0.45 for the filtrate extract and Rfs 0.83, 0.73, 0.60 for mycelial extract. By this method, the active compounds were detected directly and it is a usual method for further work on the purification of the target compounds.

  2. A potent trypanocidal component from the fungus Lentinus strigosus inhibits trypanothione reductase and modulates PBMC proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Barros Cota

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Lentinus strigosus (Pegler 1983 (Polyporaceae, basidiomycete was selected in a screen for inhibitory activity on Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase (TR. The crude extract of L. strigosus was able to completely inhibit TR at 20 µg/ml. Two triquinane sesquiterpenoids (dihydrohypnophilin and hypnophilin, in addition to two panepoxydol derivatives (neopanepoxydol and panepoxydone, were isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation protocol. Hypnophilin and panepoxydone displayed IC50 values of 0.8 and 38.9 µM in the TR assay, respectively, while the other two compounds were inactive. The activity of hypnophilin was confirmed in a secondary assay with the intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi, in which it presented an IC50 value of 2.5 µ M. Quantitative flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that hypnophilin at 4 µM also reduced the proliferation of human peripheral blood monocluear cells (PBMC stimulated with phytohemaglutinin, without any apparent interference on the viability of lymphocytes and monocytes. As the host immune response plays a pivotal role in the adverse events triggered by antigen release during treatment with trypanocidal drugs, the ability of hypnophilin to kill the intracellular forms of T. cruzi while modulating human PBMC proliferation suggests that this terpenoid may be a promising prototype for the development of new chemotherapeutical agents for Chagas disease.

  3. Studies on accumulation of uranium by fungus Lentinus sajor-caju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoğlu, Gülay; Celik, Gökce; Arica, M Yakup

    2006-08-21

    The untreated, heat- and alkali-treated Lentinus sajor-caju mycelia were used for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. The effect of pH, temperature, initial concentration of UO(2)(2+) ions and contact time parameters were investigated in a batch system. The particles sizes of the fungal mycelia were ranging from 100 to 200 microm. Biosorption equilibriums were established in about 30 min and the correlation regression coefficients show that the adsorption process can be well defined by the Freundlich equation. The alkali treated form had a high biosorption capacity (378 mg/g) than those of the untreated (268 mg/g) and heat-treated fungal mycelia (342 mg/g). Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 4.5 for all the tested fungal preparations and was independent of temperature (5-35 degrees C). In addition, the polarity and surface energy of the fungal biomass film preparations were determined by contact angle measurement. The fungal biomass could be regenerated using 10mM sodium carbonate, with up to 93% recovery. The biosorbents were used in six biosorption-desorption cycles and no considerable loss in the biosorption capacity was observed.

  4. Studies on accumulation of uranium by fungus Lentinus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramoglu, Guelay [Biochemical Processing and Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Kirikkale University, 71450 Yahsihan, Kirikkale (Turkey); Celik, Goekce [Biochemical Processing and Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Kirikkale University, 71450 Yahsihan, Kirikkale (Turkey); Arica, M. Yakup [Biochemical Processing and Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Kirikkale University, 71450 Yahsihan, Kirikkale (Turkey)]. E-mail: yakuparica@kku.edu.tr

    2006-08-21

    The untreated, heat- and alkali-treated Lentinus sajor-caju mycelia were used for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. The effect of pH, temperature, initial concentration of UO{sub 2} {sup 2+} ions and contact time parameters were investigated in a batch system. The particles sizes of the fungal mycelia were ranging from 100 to 200 {mu}m. Biosorption equilibriums were established in about 30 min and the correlation regression coefficients show that the adsorption process can be well defined by the Freundlich equation. The alkali treated form had a high biosorption capacity (378 mg/g) than those of the untreated (268 mg/g) and heat-treated fungal mycelia (342 mg/g). Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 4.5 for all the tested fungal preparations and was independent of temperature (5-35 deg. C). In addition, the polarity and surface energy of the fungal biomass film preparations were determined by contact angle measurement. The fungal biomass could be regenerated using 10 mM sodium carbonate, with up to 93% recovery. The biosorbents were used in six biosorption-desorption cycles and no considerable loss in the biosorption capacity was observed.

  5. Effective Removal of Cadmium Ions from a Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid by Lentinus edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus edodes, a functional food, was evaluated as a potential antidote for adsorption/removal of cadmium ion from simulated gastrointestinal fluids. An adsorption/removal capacity of 65.12 mg/g was achieved by L. edodes in solutions with a pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.0, while little if any adsorption was observed in solutions with a pH under 2.5. In solutions with pH 6.0, 84% of the cadmium adsorption by L. edodes occurred in the first minute. Scanning electronic microscopic examination showed that the cell wall polysaccharides of L. edodes provided a rough sponge-like surface for effective cadmium adsorption. FTIR indicated that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and –NH groups of the cell wall polysaccharides and proteins were the primary functional groups that chemically bind with cadmium ions. The energy dispersive spectrometry further revealed that cation exchange might be attributed to cadmium biosorption. These results suggested that L. edodes was effective for cadmium detoxication, especially in low concentration.

  6. CUPRAC assay-guided profiling of antioxidant compounds in methanol extract of Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiyah ABDULLAH

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC-guided purification approach was performed on a methanol extract of Lentinus squarrosulus (LsqMeOH by using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography, three fractions were separated arbitrarily named FR1, FR2 and FR3. Results showed that FR2 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in CUPRAC assay (A450, 0.86 but not significantly different from LsqMeOH (A450, 0.84. FR1 and FR3 showed much lower absorbance, with values (A450, 0.21 and (A450, 0.36 respectively at 1 mg ml-1. The most active fraction (F3 was further subjected to LC-MS/MS to obtain its detailed chemical profile. Uridine, ganoderic acid derivative, and flavonoids were the first time being found in L. squarrosulus antioxidative fractions. The present results indicate that the fraction extracts of L. squarrosulus possess antioxidant properties and can be used as free radical inhibitors. Therefore, this research suggested the potentials of L. squarrosulus as a source of antioxidant extract to be used in food industries (functional food.

  7. Effect of Media Components on the Mycelial Film Formation in Submerged Culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Tsivileva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between the chemical composition of nutrient medium, the activity of extracellular lectins of Lentinus edodes (Berk. Sing Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (shiitake, and the formation of pigmented mycelial film in liquid culture has been found. A possibility to regulate the lectin activity of shiitake using the synthetic components has been shown. The formulation of medium, on which the brown mycelial film appears in several days of submerged cultivation, has been proposed. Among the natural amino acids studied as nitrogen sources, and nine divalent metal cations as inorganic additives, L-asparagine and Ca2+ (Mn2+ in the simultaneous presence exhibited the explicit positive effect in respect to the above without regard to the age of the culture. Quantum chemical methods and QSAR were applied to test our supposition that a differential character of interaction between the studied amino acids and Ca2+ (Mn2+ cations should be related not to the distinct electron structures of zwitter ions, but most likely to their differing hydrophobicities. The results obtained seem to make some contribution to the present notion of biochemicalprocesses that give rise to the occurrence of the aforesaid morphological structure of shiitake.

  8. Partitioning behavior of laccase from Lentinus polychrous Lev in aqueous two phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Ratanapongleka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG and potassiumphosphate was employed to purify laccase produced by Lentinus polychrous. The assessments of system parameters such asmolecular weight of the PEG, PEG concentration, phosphate salt, system pH, and neutral salt (NaCl concentration on laccasepartitioning and purification were investigated. The enzyme preferentially partitioned in the top polymer-rich phase in alltested systems. Desirable conditions for partitioning were found in the system having polyethylene glycol of intermediatemolecular weight 4,000. This work revealed that the extraction efficiency was not much affected by PEG concentration. TheNaCl addition decreased greatly the partition coefficient of laccase. The optimal system was obtained at pH 7.0, containing12% w/w PEG 4,000 and 16% w/w potassium phosphate with enzyme partition coefficient of 88.30, purification factor of 3.01-fold, and 99.08% yield of enzyme activity in the top phase. Overall, the results obtained in this study revealed that ATPSscould be potentially useful technique for a first step purification of laccase from L. polychrous.

  9. Partial Purification of Antimicrobial Compounds Isolated from Mycelia of Tropical Lentinus cladopus LC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus cladopus LC4 produced at least eight antimicrobial compounds (ACs which are active against plant and human pathogens. Three ACs in its crude mycelial were extracted with methanol and partial purification was carried out with silicic acid column chromatography and by thin layer chromatography (PTLC. The antimicrobial activity was tested by paper disc method and antibiographic method. The chromatography purification eluted with dichloromethane containing 5% methanol gave one active fraction (FII. This fraction which was active against X. campestris pv. glycines and showing two inhibition zones against Bacillus subtilis on bioautographic plates with the Rfs 0.8 and 0.7. FI and FIII fractions eluted with dichloromethane containing 0 and 10% methanol performed one inhibition zone with Rfs 0.8 and 0.7 respectively. However, their activities were lower than that of FII fraction. The PLTC purification gave one separate fraction with Rf value of 0.73 and it was active against X. campestris pv. glycines. The compound of Rf 0.73 fraction should be further studied using TLC and HPLC to obtain the pure substance for molecule characterization.

  10. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharide extracts from the widely used mushrooms Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Vrvic, M.M.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovljevic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of polysaccharide extracts of four of the most widely known mushrooms often used in medicinal applications as well as in tea and food, namely Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor, were studied. G. applanatum and L edodes extracts

  11. The anti-adhesive mode of action of a purified mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract with anticaries and antigingivitis properties in two oral bacterial phatogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signoretto, C.; Marchi, A.; Bertoncelli, A.; Buralcchini, G.; Papetti, A.; Pruzzo, C.; Zaura, E.; Lingström, P.; Ofek, I.; Pratten, J.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Canepari, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background In previous works we have shown that a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction from mushroom (Lentinus edodes) homogenate interferes with binding of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite and Prevotella intermedia to gingival cells. Additionally, inhibition of biofilm formation of both odonto-

  12. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  13. Protective effect of polysaccharides of lentinus edodes on damage in mice induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiuling; Wang Hongfang; Qi Yanfei; Wang Xuerui; Chen Tian; Wang Quan; Li Juan; Li Jing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of polysaccharides of lentinus edodes (PLE) on immune and anti-oxidative and hematopoietic function of ionizing irradiated mice, and provide theoretical basis for its clinical application. Methods: Fifty ICR mice were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), irradiating control group (IC), low dose of PLE irradiating group (800 mg · kg -1 ), middle dose of PLE irradiating group (1600 mg · kg -1 ), and high dose of PLE irradiating group (2400 mg · kg -1 ) (n=10). The mice in PLE groups were gaster-poured by PLE for 7 d, the mice in NC group and IC group were gaster-poured by 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The mice in all groups except NC group were irradiated with 2 Gy X-ray on the eighth day. The spleen index, thymus index, the activity of SOD and content of MDA, the number of WBC, the micronucleus rate of bone marrow polychromalic erythrocytes (PCE)were detected at the 24th hour after radiation. Results: Compared with IC group,the spleen index, thymus index and activity of SOD in high dose of PLE irradiating group were increased markedly (P<0.05); the contents of MDA in middle and high dose of PLE irradiating groups were increased significantly (P<0.05). The number of WBC in PLE groups was increased significantly (P<0.05); the micronucleus rates of bone marrow PCE in middle and high dose of PLE irradiating groups were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: PLE has an obvious protective effect on damage in X-ray irradiated mice. (authors)

  14. Immunomodulating activities of water-soluble exopolysaccharides obtained from submerged culture of Lentinus lepideus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu-Sun; Yang, Byung-Keun; Jeong, Yong-Tae; Islam, Rezuanul; Kim, Sang-Min; Song, Chi-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Immunomodulating activities of water-soluble exopolysaccharides (LL-EX) obtained from submerged mycelial culture of Lentinus lepideus were studied and their effectiveness was compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The influence of the LL-EX on macrophage cellular lysosomal enzyme activity was to stimulate up to 267%, 392%, and 464% at the level of 10, 50, and 100 microg/ml, respectively. When the LL-EX was further fractionated into LL-Fr.I and Fr.II by Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography, the cellular lysosomal enzyme activity of LL-Fr.II (2.1- fold) was higher than Fr.I (1.2-fold). Moreover, both LL-Fr.I and Fr.II stimulated the cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in macrophages. In mixed lymphocyte reaction, LL-Fr.I and Fr.II enhanced the splenocyte proliferation up to 1.2-fold and 1.4-fold (50 microg/ml), respectively, stimulating only T lymphocytes. The fractions of LL-EX not show any direct toxicity against human gastric adenocarcinoma cell (AGS). The molecular masses of LL-Fr.I and Fr.II were estimated to be about 1,986 kDa and 21 kDa, respectively. The total sugar and protein contents of the two fractions were 84.97% and 69.88% and 15.03% and 30.12%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of the LL-Fr.I and Fr.II were also analyzed in detail.

  15. Characterization of Lentinus edodes β-glucan influencing the in vitro starch digestibility of wheat starch gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haining; Chen, Zhongqiu; Feng, Tao; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhaofeng; Ye, Ran

    2017-06-01

    Lentinus edodes β-glucan (abbreviated LEBG) was prepared from fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes. The average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of LEBG were measured to be 1.868×10 6 g/mol and 1.007, respectively. In addition, the monosaccharide composition of LEBG was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose with a molar ratio of 5:11:18:644:16. After adding LEBG, both G' and G″ of starch gel increased. This is mainly because the connecting points between the molecular chains of LEBG and starch formed so that gel network structures were enhanced. The peak temperature in the heat flow diagram shifted to a higher temperature and the peak area of the endothermic enthalpy increased. Furthermore, LEBG can significantly inhibit starch hydrolysis. The predicted glycemic index (pGI) values were reduced when starch was replaced with LEBG at 20% (w/w). It might indicate that LEBG was suitable to develop low GI noodle or bread. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste constituents. The results ...

  17. Sawdust and fruit residues of Central Amazonian for Panus strigellus spawn’s production Serragem e resíduos de frutos da Amazônia Central para produção de semente-inóculo de Panus strigellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Vargas-Isla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this work was to perform a screening of residues of forest species of the Central Amazon to prepare spawn of the edible mushroom Panus strigellus. Sawdust substrates from 11 forest species were tested. Then supplementation with beer yeast, cereal bran and regional fruit residues in sawdust:supplementation relation (5:1 and 10:1 were evaluated. Mycelial growth of P. strigellus occurred in all the substrates composed of the Amazonian forests species, suggesting that all have potential for use in spawn formulation and/or cultivation of this edible mushroom. Among these species the substrate formulated with Simarouba amara sawdust promoted higher mycelial growth (P<0.05. The formulation of S. amara supplemented with Astrocaryum aculeatum fruit shell bran (10:1 presented the best supplementation alternative among regional fruit residues. Three types of packaging for spawn preparation were evaluated, and the polypropylene sack (32×45 cm was considered the most appropriate. Simarouba amara sawdust and A. aculeatum fruit shell are readily available in the North region, and the results demonstrating that these residues might substitute Eucalyptus sp. sawdust and rice bran, commonly used in the South and Southeast of Brazil for mushroom spawn production.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.07

    Neste trabalho objetivou-se realizar uma triagem de resíduos de espécies florestais da Amazônia Central para o preparo da semente-inóculo do cogumelo comestível Panus strigellus. Foram testados substratos de serragem de 11 espécies florestais. Em seguida, suplementação com levedura de cerveja, farelos de cereais e resíduos de frutas regionais foram avaliados na relação serragem:suplemento (5:1 e 10:1. O crescimento micelial de P. strigellus ocorreu em todos os substratos formulados com espécies florestais da Amazônia, apresentando potencial de uso na formulação da semente-inóculo e/ou cultivo deste fungo comestível. Entre

  18. Purification and Antithrombotic Potential of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Shiitake Culinary- Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes GNA01 (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Seung

    2018-01-01

    We purified Lentinus edodes GNA01 fibrinolytic enzyme (LEFE) and identified it as a novel metalloprotease. LEFE was purified to homogeneity through a 2-step procedure, with an 8.28-fold increase in specific activity and 5.3% recovery. The molecular mass of LEFE was approximately 38 kDa, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its optimal pH, optimal temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability were 5, 30°C, 6-7, and 40°C, respectively. LEFE was inhibited by zinc and magnesium ions, and by EDTA and EGTA, indicating that LEFE is a metalloprotease. The protease exhibited fibrinolytic activity and a degradative effect on clot formation and blood clots. The protease prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and coagulation time as induced by platelet aggregators (collagen and epinephrine). Taken together, our results indicate that L. edodes GNA01 produces a metalloprotease/fibrinolytic enzyme and that this enzyme might be applied as a new thrombolytic and antithrombotic agent for thrombosis-related cardiovascular disorders.

  19. Turmeric Bioprocessed with Mycelia from the Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Protects Mice Against Salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of an extract from bioprocessed Lentinus edodes mycelial liquid culture supplemented with turmeric (bioprocessed Curcuma longa extract [BPCLE]) against murine salmonellosis. The BPLCE extract from the bioprocessed mycelia of the Salmonella Typhimurium into murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, elimination of intracellular bacteria, and elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Dietary administration of BPCLE activated leukocytes from the mice infected with Salmonella through the intraperitoneal route. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cytokines produced by splenocytes from infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology showed that dietary administration of BPCLE protected against necrosis of the liver resulting from a sublethal dose of Salmonella. In addition, the treatment (1) extended the lifespan of lethally infected mice, (2) suppressed the invasion of Salmonella into human Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, (3) increased excretion of the bacterium in the feces, (4) suppressed the translocation of the Salmonella to internal organs, and (5) increased total immunoglobulin A in both serum and intestinal fluids. BPCLE protected the mice against salmonellosis via cooperative effects that include the upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction, prevention of translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelial cells, and increased immunoglobulin A production in serum and intestinal fluids.

  20. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECI SALES-CAMPOS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. (“marupá”, Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. (“pau-de-balsa” and Anacardium giganteum (“cajuí” sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (“pupunheira” stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse. The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18 – 21.5% varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  1. A cell-based potentiometric biosensor using the fungus Lentinus sajor-caju for permethrin determination in treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arip, Mohamad Nasir Mat; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Ujang, Salmiah

    2013-11-15

    The characteristics of a potentiometric biosensor for the determination of permethrin in treated wood based on immobilised cells of the fungus Lentinus sajor-caju on a potentiometric transducer are reported this paper. The potentiometric biosensor was prepared by immobilisation of the fungus in alginate gel deposited on a pH-sensitive transducer employing a photocurable acrylic matrix. The biosensor gave a good response in detecting permethrin over the range of 1.0-100.0 µM. The slope of the calibration curve was 56.10 mV/decade with detection limit of 1.00 µM. The relative standard deviation for the sensor reproducibility was 4.86%. The response time of the sensor was 5 min at optimum pH 8.0 with 1.00 mg/electrode of fungus L. sajor-caju. The permethrin biosensor performance was compared with the conventional method for permethrin analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analytical results agreed well with the HPLC method (at 95% confidence limit). There was no interference from commonly used organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, parathion, paraoxon, and methyl parathion. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  3. Nutritional value and proteases of Lentinus citrinus produced by solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic waste from tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Gaia Machado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the growth and yield performance of Lentinus citrinus on cupuaçu exocarp (Theobroma grandiflorum mixed with litter (CE + LI or rice bran (Oryza sativa (CE + RB in the ratio of 2:1 (800 g:200 g to investigate the nutritional composition and proteolytic potential of the fruiting body produced. Significance values of yield were determined on substrate combinations. In CE + LI the biological efficiency of the mushrooms was 93.5% and the content of fat (4.5%, fiber (11.0%, protein (27.0% and amino acids were higher when compared with CE + RB. Among the amino acids, the amount of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, arginine and leucine was high. The biological efficiency on CE + RB reduced to 84.2% and based on the nutritional value, carbohydrates (53.59%, energy (324.33 kcal and minerals such as zinc, iron, copper, potassium and phosphorus were higher in this substrate combination. Protease activity from fruiting body was significant in CE + LI (463.55 U/mL. This protease showed an optimal activity at 50 °C in neutral and alkaline pH with maximum stability at 30 °C at alkaline pH. This is the first report of L. citrinus fruiting body nutritional composition with potential for human food and application in industrial processes.

  4. A Lentinus edodes polysaccharide induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Guowei

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (LEP1) with an average molecular weight of 53kDa was successfully purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes and its anticancer efficacy on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells in vitro and associated possible molecular mechanism were also evaluated. MTT assay showed that LEP1 exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells and caused apoptotic death. Our present findings provided the first evidence that LEP1 induced the apoptosis of HeLa cells via a mitochondria dependent pathway, as indicated by an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δym), the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in HeLa cells. These combined results unequivocally indicated that the involvement of mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway in LEP1-induced apoptosis and strongly provided experimental evidence for the use of LEP1 as a potential therapeutic agent in the prevention and treatment of human cervical carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DECOLORISATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF SYNTHETIC DYES BY Lentinus polychrous Lév. CULTIVATED ON CASSAVA RHIZOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirachaya Boonyarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cassava rhizomes are left in fields after harvesting. This agricultural waste is rich in lignocellulosic material which is a substrate for white rot fungi. Disposal of synthetic dyes poses a problem to the environment and it needs to be addressed. The ability of Lentinus polychrous Lév., a white rot fungus, grown on the cassava rhizome chips, to decolorise three kinds of synthetic dye was studied. The effects of the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome used for fungal cultivation, the temperature during the decolorisation, and the pH of synthetic dye solution on the extent of decolorisation were investigated. The decolorisations of Reactive blue 49, Navy blue and Acid blue 62 were affected by the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome. The highest extents of decolorisation of these dyestuffs were observed when the fungus was cultivated at 70% initial moisture content. Temperatures of 30, 37 and 45oC did not alter the extent of decolorisation of the dyestuffs. The most extensive decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62 (anthraquinone dyes were at pH 3.0 while that of Navy blue (azo dye was at pH 7.0. Adsorption was the main mechanism of decolorisation of Navy blue. However, both enzymic degradation and adsorption were involved in the decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62.

  6. The tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont.: lignocellulolytic enzymes activities and sugar release from cornstalks under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Adenipekun, Clementina O; Ohimain, Elijah I; Shahbazi, Ghasem

    2012-05-01

    Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., a high temperature tolerant white rot fungus that is found across sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia, is attracting attention due to its rapid mycelia growth and potential for use in food and biodegradation. A solid state fermentation (SSF) experiment with L. squarrosulus (strain MBFBL 201) on cornstalks was conducted. The study evaluated lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, loss of organic matter (LOM), exopolysaccharide content, and the release of water soluble sugars from degraded substrate. The results showed that L. squarrosulus was able to degrade cornstalks significantly, with 58.8% LOM after 30 days of SSF. Maximum lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were obtained on day 6 of cultivation: laccase = 154.5 U/L, MnP = 13 U/L, peroxidase = 27.4 U/L, CMCase = 6.0 U/mL and xylanase = 14.5 U/mL. L. squarrosulus is a good producer of exopolysaccharides (3.0-5.13 mg/mL). Glucose and galactose were the most abundant sugars detected in the substrate during SSF, while fructose, xylose and trehalose, although detected on day zero of the experiment, were absent in treated substrates. The preference for hemicellulose over cellulose, combined with the high temperature tolerance and the very fast growth rate characteristics of L. squarrosulus could make it an ideal candidate for application in industrial pretreatment and biodelignification of lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Nutritional value and proteases of Lentinus citrinus produced by solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic waste from tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Rita Gaia; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; de Souza Kirsch, Larissa; Campelo, Maria da Conceição Loureiro; de Aguiar Oliveira, Ila Maria

    2016-09-01

    This paper examined the growth and yield performance of Lentinus citrinus on cupuaçu exocarp (Theobroma grandiflorum) mixed with litter (CE + LI) or rice bran (Oryza sativa) (CE + RB) in the ratio of 2:1 (800 g:200 g) to investigate the nutritional composition and proteolytic potential of the fruiting body produced. Significance values of yield were determined on substrate combinations. In CE + LI the biological efficiency of the mushrooms was 93.5% and the content of fat (4.5%), fiber (11.0%), protein (27.0%) and amino acids were higher when compared with CE + RB. Among the amino acids, the amount of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, arginine and leucine was high. The biological efficiency on CE + RB reduced to 84.2% and based on the nutritional value, carbohydrates (53.59%), energy (324.33 kcal) and minerals such as zinc, iron, copper, potassium and phosphorus were higher in this substrate combination. Protease activity from fruiting body was significant in CE + LI (463.55 U/mL). This protease showed an optimal activity at 50 °C in neutral and alkaline pH with maximum stability at 30 °C at alkaline pH. This is the first report of L. citrinus fruiting body nutritional composition with potential for human food and application in industrial processes.

  8. Contenção farmacológica do gato-do-mato-pequeno, Leopardus tigrinus, para colheita de sêmen, pela associação de tiletamina zolazepam e xilazina Chemical restraint of tigrinas, Leopardus tigrinus, for semen collection with allometrically scaled doses of tiletamine, zolazepam, and xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Juvenal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos anestésicos da associação de cloridrato de tiletamina, cloridrato de zolazepam e cloridrato de xilazina para contenção farmacológica de gatos-do-mato-pequenos, Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 (Felidae, submetidos à colheita de sêmen por eletroejaculação. Formularam-se três diferentes protocolos, sendo as doses calculadas individualmente, por meio de extrapolação alométrica interespecífica, com base nas indicações posológicas usuais para o cão doméstico com massa de 10,0 kg. No Protocolo 1 (n=10 a base para o cálculo alométrico foi 5,0mg/kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 0,5mg/kg para xilazina; no Protocolo 2 (n=12, foi 5,0mg/kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 0,75mg/kg para xilazina; e no Protocolo 3 (n=11, foi 5,0mg/ kg para tiletamina + zolazepam e 1,0mg/kg para xilazina. Os animais foram anestesiados em três ocasiões, com intervalo mínimo de 30 dias. Após a administração dos fármacos, monitorizaram-se durante 120 minutos freqüência cardíaca, freqüência respiratória, temperatura retal, miorrelaxamento e nocicepção. Também foram avaliados período de latência, período anestésico hábil e contaminação do ejaculado por urina. De um total de 32 colheitas, houve contaminação por urina em 10 colheitas (31,2% e em 18 alíquotas (0,07%, as quais foram desprezadas, não inviabilizando a análise e o processamento do sêmen. Observou-se pequeno aumento da temperatura retal durante a eletroejaculação, justificado pela contração muscular, ocorrendo redução da temperatura após o procedimento. As freqüências cardíaca e respiratória oscilaram durante o experimento, porém se mantiveram dentro dos padrões fisiológicos para a espécie. Nos três protocolos analisados não houve diferença significativa de sensibilidade de membros torácicos entre momentos antes e durante a eletroejaculação (pe"0,10, caracterizando assim a eficácia dos protocolos em propiciar analgesia e

  9. Uso de resíduos madeireiros da Amazônia brasileira no cultivo in vitro de Lentinus strigosus / Use of wood waste from the Brazilian Amazon in the in vitro cultivation of Lentinus strigosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinus strigosus (Schwein. Fr. é um cogumelo comestível ainda pouco cultivado, de ocorrência na Amazônia brasileira, que pode ser explorado. Para viabilizar economicamente o seu cultivo, a exemplo de outros cogumelos comestíveis, é recomendado a utilização de resíduos regionais de baixo ou nenhum custo. Assim, verificou-se o crescimento micelial de L. strigosus em meios de cultura preparados à base de extrato de resíduos madeireiros regionais (serragem de breu (Protium puncticulatum, tauari (Cariniana micrantha e piquiarana (Caryocar glabum suplementadas com 20% de farelo de trigo (Triticum aestivum, farelo de milho (Zea sp. ou farelo de arroz (Oryza sp.. A serragem de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp. foi utilizada para comparação com os demais resíduos madeireiros, por ser um resíduo comumente utilizado no cultivo de fungos comestíveis. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 (serragens x farelos, totalizando 12 tratamentos com 5 repetições, sendo cada repetição correspondente a uma placa de Petri, totalizando 60 placas, incubadas a 35 ºC. Avaliou-se, diariamente, o diâmetro da colônia até que, em um dos tratamentos, o fungo atingiu as proximidades da placa de Petri. Após esse período, observou-se que o meio à base de extrato de serragem de breu proporcionou melhor desempenho de crescimento micelial do L. strigosus e apresenta, desta forma, potencial para ser utilizado como um resíduo alternativo em uma futura produção de L. strigosus no estado do Amazonas.

  10. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  11. Productivity, Physicochemical Changes, and Antioxidant Activity of Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Cultivated on Lignocellulosic Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Zavaleta, Marco Antonio Barradas; Aquino-Bolaños, Elia Nora

    2017-01-01

    The effects of substrate and strain on productivity, physicochemical characteristics, and compounds with antioxidant activity were evaluated in basidiomes of the shiitake mushroom, Lentinus edodes. Strains IE-245 and IE-256 and the substrates oak wood shavings (OW), sorghum stubble (SS), and sugar cane bagasse (SC) were used. Productivity was evaluated by measuring biological efficiency (BE), production rate (PR), and yield. Total sugars, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, color parameters, total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity of the basidiomes were measured. BE, PR and yield were higher with the combination IE-256/SS, at 103.71%, 1.32%, and 34.57%, respectively. The largest amount of total sugars (17.61 mg glucose · g-1 dry weight) was found with combination IE-256/SS. Variation was observed in basidiome color; the lowest luminosity (L*) value (darkest color) was found in the IE-256 strain on the OW substrate (L* = 30.45), whereas that of the IE-245 strain on the SC substrate was the lightest in color (L* = 57.00). The largest amounts of total phenolics were recorded in the IE-256 strain on the OW (6.50 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g-1 dry weight) and the SS substrates (5.85 mg GAE · g-1 dry weight). The best antioxidant activity was obtained with IE-256-0.80, 0.65, and 0.59 μmol Trolox equivalents · g dry weight-1-on the OW, SC, and SS substrates, respectively. Based on the values of BE, PR, and yield, IE-256/SS was the most productive. Substrate and strain, and their interactions, influenced the physicochemical characteristics of the basidiomes and the amounts of compounds with antioxidant activity they contained.

  12. Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes): A Species with Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Hepatoprotective Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Jaweria; Mustafa, Imtiaz; Anwar, Haseeb; Sohail, Muhammad Umar; Hussain, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Faisal, Muhammad Naeem; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Basit, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Lentinus edodes is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has an established history of use in Asian therapies. The mushroom offers well-documented beneficial health effects such as antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, and antibacterial activities. In this study, dried powder of L. edodes fruiting bodies was used to evaluate immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. Albino rats (n = 24) were divided into 3 groups: the control (CON) group, the hypercholesterolemia-only group (HCG), and the L. edodes group (LEG). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats in the HCG and LEG by feeding cholesterol and cholic acid in a chow maintenance diet (CMD) for 24 days. The CON group was fed the CMD throughout the experiment. The HCG continued on the high-cholesterol diet without any L. edodes supplement. The LEG was fed the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L. edodes for an additional 42 days. Various biological health biomarkers, such as total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, arylesterase, paraoxonase activity, and liver enzymes in serum were studied to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective responses. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in each group through a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction. The total oxidant status decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after administration of L. edodes in the diet. The cell-mediated immune response significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in the LEG. The significant decrease in liver enzymes supports the hepatoprotective effect of L. edodes. In conclusion, the results show the immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities of L. edodes supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  13. Studies on structure and antioxidant properties of a heteroglycan isolated from wild edible mushroom Lentinus sajor-caju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Manabendra; Maity, Prasenjit; Samanta, Surajit; Sen, Ipsita K; Manna, Dilip K; Nandi, Ashis K; Ghosh, Sandipta; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2018-02-01

    A water-soluble heteroglycan (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of a wild edible mushroom Lentinus sajor-caju showed average molecular weight ∼1.79×10 5 Da. The structure of the polysaccharide was determined using chemical and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Acid hydrolysis indicated the presence of d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, and l-fucose in a molar ratio of nearly 4:4:1:1 respectively. The presence of terminal Fucp, terminal Galp, (1→3)-Glcp, (1→6)-Galp, (1→6)-Glcp, (1→4,6)-Galp, and (1→2,4)-Manp moieties were established from methylation analysis. The chemical and NMR analyses indicated that the PS-I was a heteroglycan composed of a repeating unit with backbone chain of three (1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl residues, two (1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues, one (1→4)-α-d-mannopyranosyl residue, and two (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues where one (1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl residue was branched at O-4 position with terminal α-l-fucopyranosyl residue and (1→4)-α-d-mannopyranosyl residue was branched at O-2 position with terminal α-d-galactopyranosyl residue and the structure was proposed as; The PS-I is a moderate antioxidant compound which showed DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging property, reducing power, and ferrous ion chelating ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosorption potential of synthetic dyes by heat-inactivated and live Lentinus edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Gabriela Gregolin; Ruiz, Suelen Pereira; Caetano, Wilker; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Matioli, Graciette

    2014-12-01

    Lentinus edodes CCB-42 was immobilized in loofa sponges and applied to the biosorption of the synthetic dyes congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet. Live immobilized microorganisms achieved average decolorations of congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet of 97.8, 99.7 and 90.6 %, respectively. The loofa sponge was the support and the coadjuvant promoting dye adsorption. The biosorption conditions were optimized for each dye, yielding 30 °C, pH 5.0 and a 12 h reaction time for congo red; 25 °C, pH 3.0 and 36 h for bordeaux red; and 25 °C, pH 8.0 and 24 h for methyl violet. Operational stability was evaluated over five consecutive cycles, with both bordeaux red and congo red exhibiting decolorations above 90 %, while the decoloration of methyl violet decreased after the third cycle. In the sixth month of storage, congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet had decolorations of 93.1, 79.4 and 73.8 %, respectively. Biosorption process best fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. Maximum biosorption capacity of heat-treated L. edodes immobilized in loofa sponge was determined as 143.678, 500.00 and 381.679 mg/g for congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet, respectively. Treatment with immobilized L. edodes reduced the phytotoxicity of the medium containing dyes. FT-Raman experiments suggested the occurrence of interactions between loofa sponge fibers, L. edodes and dye. L. edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges represents a promising new mode of treatment of industrial effluents.

  15. A Bioprocessed Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia Cultures with Turmeric Protects Chicks from a Lethal Challenge of Salmonella Gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dalmuri; Lee, Hyung Tae; Lee, June Bong; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, Sang Jong; Yoon, Jang Won

    2017-02-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes mushroom mycelia cultures supplemented with black rice bran can protect mice against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia and reduce the mortality from Salmonella Typhimurium infection through upregulated T-helper 1 immunity. Here, we report that a BPP from L. edodes mushroom mycelia liquid cultures supplemented with turmeric (referred to as BPP-turmeric) alters chicken macrophage responses against avian-adapted Salmonella Gallinarum and protects chicks against a lethal challenge from Salmonella Gallinarum. In vitro analyses revealed that the water extract of BPP-turmeric (i) changed the protein expression or secretion profile of Salmonella Gallinarum, although it was not bactericidal, (ii) reduced the phagocytic activity of the chicken-derived macrophage cell line HD-11 when infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, and (iii) significantly activated the transcription expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in response to various Salmonella infections, whereas it repressed that of IL-4, IL-6, interferon-β, and interferon-γ. We also found that BPP-turmeric (0.1 g/kg of feed) as a feed additive provided significant protection to 1-day-old chicks infected with a lethal dose of Salmonella Gallinarum. Collectively, these results imply that BPP-turmeric contains biologically active component(s) that protect chicks against Salmonella Gallinarum infection, possibly by regulating macrophage immune responses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of BPP-turmeric as a livestock feed additive for the preharvest control of fowl typhoid or foodborne salmonellosis.

  16. The β-glucan fromLentinus edodessuppresses cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan

    2017-10-17

    Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in worldwide women, and novel interventions are needed to overcome the resistance occurring in the estrogen-targeted endocrine therapy. Herein, we demonstrate that the β-glucan from Lentinus edodes (LNT) exhibited a profound inhibition ratio of ∼53% against estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 tumor growth in nude mice similar to the positive control of cisplatin. Immunohistochemistry images showed that LNT evidently suppressed cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in MCF-7 tumor tissues. The Western blotting analysis indicated that LNT up-regulated the tumor suppressor p53, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2), cleaved-Caspase 3 and poly [ADP (ribose)] polymerase 1 (PARP 1) protein levels, and reduced the expression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), estrogen receptor α (ERα), etc. in tumor tissues. Moreover, LNT significantly suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein levels. It was thus proposed that LNT inhibited MCF-7 tumor growth through suppressing cell proliferation and enhancing apoptosis possibly via multiple pathways such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NF-κB-, ERK-, ERα-, caspase- and p53-dependent pathways. Interestingly, the cell viability assay, siRNA transfection, Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis suggested that LNT targeted p53/ERα to only suppress cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase without apoptosis in vitro . The big difference between in vivo and in vitro data suggested that the immune responses triggered by the polysaccharide should mainly contribute to the apoptotic effect in vivo . Overall, this work provides a novel strategy to treat ER+ breast cancers by using a naturally occurring β-glucan from mushrooms.

  17. Development of compatible fungal mixed culture for composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six filamentous fungal strains/isolates such as Aspergillus niger (A), Trichoderma viride (Tv), Trichoderma reesei (Tr), Penicillium sp. (P), Basidiomycete M1 (M1) and Panus tigrinus M609RQY (IMI 398363)(M6) were tested to find their mutual growth in the laboratory. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a media was used for their ...

  18. The synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the industrially important white-rot fungus Lentinus sajor-caju under different culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurekli, Fusun; Geckil, Hikmet; Topcuoglu, Fatih

    2003-03-01

    The synthesis of plant growth hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is not only confined to flowering plants. Yeasts and other fungi are also known to produce this hormone and in many cases at higher levels than plants. The main concern of this study was to determine the physical and chemical conditions necessary for optimal biosynthesis of this hormone by Lentinus sajor-caju. Glucose was determined to be superior to sucrose as carbon and energy source. The synthesis of IAA in a nitrogen-free medium or in a medium with low external phosphate was substantially reduced. Light exposed and non-agitated cultures grown in dark had also reduced levels of IAA compared to agitated cultures grown in dark. The highest (0.18 mg ml-1) IAA level was determined in cultures grown in glucose containing medium (pH 7.5) on a rotary shaker (150 rpm) at 30 degrees C in dark. The biological activity of IAA obtained from the extra-cellular culture of Lentinus sajor-caju was determined using oat coleptile growth test.

  19. Enhancing nutritional contents of Lentinus sajor-caju using residual biogas slurry waste of detoxified mahua cake mixed with wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residual biogas slurries (BGS of detoxified mahua cake (DMC and cow dung (CD were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS. Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p≤0.05 in protein content (29.6-38.9%, sugars (29.1-32.3% and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%, lignin (%, celluloses (% and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%, hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1% and lignin (27.4-39.23% in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  20. Effect of lignin-derived phenolic monomers on the growth of the edible mushrooms Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y J; Buswell, J A; Chang, S T

    1993-09-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju was generally more tolerant to lignin-related phenolic monomers and tannin derivatives than Lentinus edodes and the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Several phenols, at up to 5 mM, enhanced mycelial growth of P. sajor-caju. No clear pattern was evident when the effects of phenols and tannins on the growth of V. volvacea and L. edodes were compared, but the lower concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin which were tested were markedly more toxic to the straw mushroom. The distribution of phenolic monomers and tannin derivatives in the agricultural wastes used for mushroom cultivation may be an important growth determinant. However, the differences in the growth inhibition profiles of L. edodes, P. sajor-caju and V. volvacea suggest that, alone, the effect of these compounds on fungal growth is unlikely to account for the varying abilities of the three mushroom species to grow and fruit on a particular lignocellulosic substrate.

  1. The influence of different submerged cultivation conditions on mycelial biomass and protease production by Lentinus citrinus Walleyn et Rammeloo DPUA 1535 (Agaricomycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Larissa de Souza; Pinto, Ana Carolina dos Santos; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different carbon and nitrogen sources, pH of the culture medium, and temperature and period of cultivation on mycelial biomass production and protease activity by Lentinus citrinus DPUA 1535 were investigated in submerged culture. A 2(5) full factorial design with three central points was employed, and the results showed that at a significance level of 95% only nitrogen source and temperature were statistically significant for mycelial biomass production. On the other hand, for protease activity all factors and some interactions were significant, and the temperature and nitrogen source had the most significant effect. The best condition for mycelial biomass production (5.76 mg mL(-1)) and protease activity (32.3 U mL(-1)) was obtained in medium formulated with 0.5% soluble starch, 0.2% gelatin, pH 7.0, 25 degrees C, in 5 days.

  2. HS/GC-MS analyzed chemical composition of the aroma of fruiting bodies of two species of genus Lentinus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gerardo; Valdez, Karina; Mendoza, Remedios; Trigos, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the aroma of fresh fruiting bodies of the cultivated mushroom Lentinus boryanus is described here and compared with medicinal shiitake mushroom L. edodes. Volatile compounds were analyzed through headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mushrooms under study were grown on different substrates based on barley straw, sugarcane bagasse, oak wood sawdust, and beech leaf litter. It was determined that L. boryanus as well as L. edodes contain an abundant amount of a volatile compound identified as 3-octanone with a sweet fruity aroma. On the other hand, only L. boryanus produced 3-octanol a characteristic aroma of cod liver oil. In total, 10 aromatic compounds were identified, some of which were obtained exclusively in one species or substrate.

  3. The Influence of the Disturbed Continuity of the River and the Invasive Species— Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on Benthos Fauna: A Case Study on Urban Area in the River Ruda (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Kubicka, Justyna; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    The progressive degradation of aquatic ecosystems and ecohydrological role of rivers is one of the most important global environmental issues. The loss of the ability of rivers to self-purify waters due to the disturbances of river continuity cause a lack of biological life in parts of rivers or even in an entire river. The appearance of alien species in degraded aquatic environments is an increasingly common phenomenon and constitutes one of the threats to biodiversity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible impact of alien species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on native invertebrates as well as the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence benthos fauna including also alien species. The study conducted in industrial area, in the River Ruda (Poland), showed that at the sites at which the occurrence of the two alien species was observed, the density of native benthos and diversity decreased significantly. CCA analysis showed that non-native species occurred in fast water velocity and that their presence was associated with high values of conductivity, hardness, and a high chloride content. The arrival of new species from other geographical areas is one of the factors that influences the species balance in native aquatic fauna. The number of alien species in freshwater ecosystems probably will increase in the future as new aliens are moved outside of their native ranges.

  4. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-03

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  5. Immunomodulatory beta-glucan from Lentinus edodes activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Pan, Chen; Zhang, Lina; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2011-09-09

    Lentinan, a cell wall β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, is well known to be a biological defense modifier, but the signal transduction pathway(s) induced by Lentinan have not been elucidated. In this study, we extracted Lentinan (LNT-S) by ultrasonication from Lentinus edodes and report that, in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, LNT-S glucan activated NF-κB p65 and triggered its nuclear translocation as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, LNT-S enhanced NF-κB-luciferase activity in the Dual-Luciferase gene system assay. Its upstream signaling molecules, MAPKs such as ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, were shown to be activated by assessing the level of phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but its downstream proinflammatory enzyme, inducible NOS, was not observed. The data evaluated using a TNF-α ELISA kit and Griess reagent further demonstrated that no proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and NO were produced by LNT-S stimulation in RAW 264.7 cells. In contrast, LPS significantly induced inducible NOS expression and increased NO and TNF-α production, which are associated with activation of the NF-κB p65/p50 heterodimer complex. It is possible that LNT-S did not activate NF-κB p65/p50, and the activation of NF-κB p65 was not sufficient to stimulate cytokine production. These data demonstrate that LNT-S glucan carries out its immunomodulating activity by activating MAPK signaling pathways without secretion of TNF-α and NO.

  6. Análise citogenética de oócitos de jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis e gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus coletados após estimulação ovariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Rodrigues da Paz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo representa a primeira avaliação da maturação nuclear de oócitos por análise citogenética realizada em duas espécies de felídeos brasileiros ameaçados de extinção: L. pardalis (n=5 e L. tigrinus (n=4. Os animais foram submetidos à estimulação ovariana alternada com eCG-hCG e pFSH-pLH a cada quatro meses pelo período de dois anos, perfazendo um total de 6 intervenções. Os oócitos foram recuperados por vídeo-laparoscopia, caracterizados quanto à morfologia e utilizados para determinação dos estágios do ciclo meiótico por análise citogenética e maturação pela caracterização de metáfase II. Dos 33 oócitos de jaguatirica avaliados 12% (n=4 apresentaram cromossomos condensados em seu interior e dos 11 oócitos de gato-do-mato-pequeno avaliados 36% (n=4 apresentaram cromossomos condensados em seu interior, no entanto, nenhum oócito encontrava-se em metáfase II. Avaliação morfológica dos oócitos mostrou as mesmas características encontradas em outros mamíferos. Comparando os tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa (p>;0,05 no número total de estruturas ovarianas (folículos e corpos lúteos recentes observadas em estimulações alternadas sucessivas, nas duas espécies estudadas. Também não houve diferença significativa em relação ao total de estruturas ovarianas encontradas em cada tratamento (5,7±1,2 eCG/hCG; 7,9±0,9 pFSH/pLH para L. pardalis e (2,6±0,7 eCG/hCG; 2,0±0,5 pFSH/pLH para L. tigrinus. Apesar das limitações deste experimento e do número reduzido de oócitos avaliados podemos sugerir que a aspiração folicular após estimulação ovariana com eCG/hCG e pFSH/pLH alternadamente resulta na recuperação de oócitos imaturos, que necessitam de cultivo em meios específicos para atingir o estágio de Metáfase II.

  7. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Apoptotic Responses Induced by Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Aqueous Extract against a Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finimundy, Tiane C; Scola, Gustavo; Scariot, Fernando J; Dillon, Aldo J P; Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Henriques, João Pegas; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Cumulative evidence from research studies has shown that the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is an excellent source of natural antitumor agents and is capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. However, the cell signaling pathway that leads tumor cells to apoptosis is not well understood because many chemical compounds may be acting. This study investigated the chemopreventive effects of an L. edodes aqueous extract on human HEp-2 epithelial larynx carcinoma cells and normal human MRC-5 lung fibroblasts by identifying proliferative and apoptotic pathways. The chemical characterization of the dry powder was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects induced by the extract were evaluated by assessing proliferative markers, cell sorting through flow cytometry, and expression levels of apoptotic proteins with Western blotting. The results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation was more prominent in HEp-2 than in MRC-5 cells. Cell death analysis showed the appearance of cell populations in the sub-G1 phase, with late apoptotic signal increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the aqueous extract induced depolarization of mitochondria, activating the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HEp-2 cells. These observations suggest that L. edodes extract may exert a chemopreventive effect, regulating mitotic induction of apoptogenic signals. These findings highlight the mushroom's pharmacological potential in cancer treatment.

  8. Enhancing Nutritional Contents ofLentinus sajor-cajuUsing Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg -1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase ( p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  9. Biosorption of Reactive Red-120 dye from aqueous solution by native and modified fungus biomass preparations of Lentinus sajor-caju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arica, M Yakup; Bayramoğlu, Gülay

    2007-10-22

    The capacities and mechanisms of native and treated white-rot fungus "Lentinus sajur-caju" biomass preparations in removing of textile dye (i.e. Reactive Red-120) from aqueous solution was investigated with different parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature and ionic strength. In the batch system, the maximum dye uptake on all the tested fungal biomass preparations was observed at pH 3.0, and the dye uptake capacities of the biosorbents (at 800 mg/l dye concentration) were found to be 117.8, 182.9, 138.6 and 57.2mg/g for native and heat-, acid- and base-treated dry fungal preparations, respectively. The uptake capacities order of the fungal preparations for the dye were found as heat-treated>acid-treated>native>base-treated. The Langmuir, Freundlih and Temkin adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium. The Freundlich and Temkin models were able to describe the biosorption equilibrium of Reactive Red-120 on the fungal biomass preparations. The dye biosorption on the fungal biomass preparations followed second-order kinetic model and equation.

  10. Enhancing Nutritional Contents of Lentinus sajor-caju Using Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS. PMID:27790187

  11. Bioactive ergostanoids and a new polyhydroxyoctane from Lentinus polychrous mycelia and their inhibitory effects on E2-enhanced cell proliferation of T47D cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangkrathok, Niramai; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    From mycelia of Lentinus polychrous, a Thai local edible mushroom cultured under solid-state fermentation, a new compound, 6-methylheptane-1,2,3,4,5-pentaol (1), and five ergostanoids, namely (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol (2), 3β,5α-dihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (3), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (4), (3β,5α,8α,22E)-5,8-diepoxy-ergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol (5) and 5,8-epidioxy-(3β,5α,8α,22E)-ergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3-ol (6), was isolated and characterised. The compounds were determined for their oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic activities by using human breast cancer T47D cells. All compounds had no oestrogenic activity but exhibited suppressive effect on oestradiol-enhanced cell proliferation. Among these compounds, only 4 significantly competed with oestradiol in the binding to oestrogen receptors (ERs) with higher selectivity to ERα than ERβ. These results may suggest that most compounds suppressed this oestradiol-enhanced T47D proliferation via other mechanisms rather than ER binding.

  12. Structural elucidation of novel bioactive compound (2-chloro-1-(2-chlorocyclopropyl-2-(4-nitrophenylethanone from basidiomycetous fungus Lentinus squarrosulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While screening for bioactive compounds from macrofungi of Western Ghats of Karnataka, Lentinus squarrosulus a member of polyporaceae was collected and mycelium of the fungus was obtained on potato dextrose agar medium and cultured in a liquid medium (containing 2% glucose, 1% peptone and 2% yeast extract for 20 days on a rotary shaker for the production of secondary metabolites. The cell free culture fluid (100ml was subjected to solvent extraction with dichloromethane (100ml and the extract was evaluated for antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion method and cytotoxic activity of the extract was also determined by MTT and SRB assay on MCF7 cell line. The results revealed that the dichloromethane extract was inhibitory against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilus and also fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani and Trichoderma harzianum. The extract showed 13-27% cell inhibition at 63-1000 µg/ml concentration by MTT and SRB assays on MCF7 cell line. The structural elucidation of the compound by spectroscopic NMR (1H and C13, IR and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed the presence of 2-chloro-1-(2-chlorocyclopropyl-2-(4-nitrophenylethanone responsible for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.

  13. Cloning and heterologous expression of a hydrophobin gene Ltr.hyd from the tiger milk mushroom Lentinus tuber-regium in yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by filamentous fungi, which show a highly surface activity. Because of the signally self-assembling abilities and surface activities, hydrophobins were considered as candidates in many aspects, for example, stabilizing foams and emulsions in food products. Lentinus tuber-regium, known as tiger milk mushroom, is both an edible and medicinal sclerotium-producing mushroom. Up to now, the hydrophobins of L. tuber-regium have not been identified. Results: In this paper, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Ltr.hyd, was cloned from L. tuber-regium and expressed in the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression vector pGEH-GH was under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd promoter. The integration of Ltr.hyd into the genome of T. fuciformis was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE demonstrated that recombinant hydrophobin rLtr.HYD with an expected molecular mass of 13 kDa was extracted. The yield of rLtr.HYD was 0.66 mg/g dry weight. The emulsifying activity of rLtr.HYD was better than the typical food emulsifiers sodium caseinate and Tween 20. Conclusions: We evaluated the emulsifying property of hydrophobin Ltr.HYD, which can be potentially used as a food emulsifier. Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Emulsifier, Expression vector, Filamentous fungi, Gel electrophoresis, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Heterogenous expression, Hydrophobin, Quantitative real-time PCR, Southern blot, Surface activity

  14. Characterization and Antiproliferative Effect of Novel Acid Polysaccharides from the Spent Substrate of Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chunping; Huang, Wei; He, Peixin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a high yield of crude polysaccharide (16.73 ± 0.756%) was extracted from the spent mushroom substrate of Lentinus edodes using a hot alkali extraction method. Two groups of polysaccharides (designated as LSMS-1 and LSMS-2) were obtained from the crude extract by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and their molecular characteristics were examined by a multiangle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector system. The weight-average molar masses of LSMS-1 and LSMS-2 were determined to be 6.842 × 106 and 2.154 × 106 g/mol, respectively. The SEC/MALLS analysis revealed that the molecular shapes of LSMS-1 and LSMS-2 were sphere-like forms in aqueous solution. Carbohydrate composition analysis using chromatography--mass spectrometry revealed that they were both acid heteropolysaccharides. LSMS-1 comprised mainly glucose and galacturonic acid, whereas LSMS-2 mainly consisted of xylose and glucuronic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis of the purified fractions revealed typical characteristic polysaccharide groups. In addition, MTT assays with refined polysaccharide doses of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL suggested that both of the polysaccharide fractions exhibited antiproliferative activity against 6 tested human tumor cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, and LSMS-2 had better anticancer capacity in vitro than LSMS-1. The inhibition ratio of LSMS-2 against A549 human lung cancer cells, the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell line, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line, and the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line reached 43.55%, 29.97%, 19.63%, 18.24%, and 17.93%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 µg/mL.

  15. Modification of surface properties of Lentinus sajor-caju mycelia by physical and chemical methods: evaluation of their Cr6+ removal efficiencies from aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoğlu, Gülay; Celik, Gökçe; Yalçin, Emine; Yilmaz, Meltem; Arica, M Yakup

    2005-03-17

    The hexavalent chromium biosorption onto untreated and heat-, acid- and alkali-treated Lentinus sajor-caju mycelia were studied from aqueous solutions. The particles sizes of the fungal mycelia ranged from 100 to 200 microm. The effect of pH, temperature, biosorbent dose, initial concentration of chromium ions, contact time parameters were investigated in a batch system. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 4 h. The surface charge density of the fungal preparations varied with pH, and the maximum absorption of chromium ions on the fungal preparations were obtained at pH 2.0. The biosorption of chromium ions by the tested fungal preparations increased as the initial concentration of chromium ions increased in the medium. The maximum biosorption capacities of the untreated and heat, HCl- and NaOH-treated fungal biomass were 0.363, 0.613, 0.478 and 0.513 mmol Cr6+ per gram of dry biomass, respectively. The correlation regression coefficients and the Langmuir constant values show that the biosorption process can be well defined by Langmuir equation. The chromium adsorption data were analysed using the first- and the second-order kinetic models. The first-order equation is the most appropriate equation to predict the biosorption capacities of all the fungal preparations. In addition, the polarity and surface energy of the untreated and all the modified biomass film preparations were determined by contact angle measurement. All the tested fungal biomass preparations could be regenerated using 0.1 M NaOH solution.

  16. The anti-adhesive mode of action of a purified mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract with anticaries and antigingivitis properties in two oral bacterial phatogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretto, Caterina; Marchi, Anna; Bertoncelli, Anna; Burlacchini, Gloria; Papetti, Adele; Pruzzo, Carla; Zaura, Egija; Lingström, Peter; Ofek, Itzhak; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2014-02-24

    In previous works we have shown that a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction from mushroom (Lentinus edodes) homogenate interferes with binding of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite and Prevotella intermedia to gingival cells. Additionally, inhibition of biofilm formation of both odonto- and periodonto-pathogenic bacteria and detachment from preformed biofilms have been described for this compound. Further purification of mushroom extract has been recently achieved and a sub-fraction (i.e. # 5) has been identified as containing the majority of the mentioned biological activities. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacterial receptors for the purified mushroom sub-fraction #5 in order to better elucidate the mode of action of this compound when interfering with bacterial adhesion to host surfaces or with bacteria-bacteria interactions in the biofilm state. Candidate bacterial molecules to act as target of this compound were bacterial surface molecules involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation, and, thus, we have considered cell wall associated proteins (CWPs), teichoic acid (TA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of S. mutans, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. intermedia. Fifteen S. mutans CWPs and TA were capable of binding sub-fraction #5, while LTA did not. As far as P. intermedia is concerned, we show that five OMPs interact with sub-fraction # 5. Capacity of binding to P. intermedia LPS was also studied but in this case negative results were obtained. Binding sub-fraction # 5 to surface molecules of S. mutans or P. intermedia may result in inactivation of their physiological functions. As a whole, these results indicate, at molecular level, the bacterial surface alterations affecting adhesion and biofim formation. For these antimicrobial properties, the compound may find use in daily oral hygiene.

  17. Relationship of two ribonucleases with molecular masses of 45 kDa and 37 kDa from the culture medium of Lentinus edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Hara, J; Itagaki, T; Inokuchi, N; Koyama, T; Sanda, A; Iwama, M; Ohgi, K; Irie, M

    2000-07-01

    Lentinus edodes (shiitake) produces three base non- specific and acid ribonucleases, RNase Le2, RNase Le37 and RNase Le45. The primary structures of the former two RNases, having molecular masses about 24 and 37 kDa, respectively, have been elucidated to be members of the RNase T2 family. The latter two are excreted from mycelia into the medium. In this report, we estimated the primary structure of RNase Le45 using the following experimental evidence. (i) The partial amino acid sequence of RNase Le45 determined that up to about 60% of total protein was identical with that of RNase Le37. (ii) The amino acid composition of RNase Le45 was identical to that of RNase Le37. (iii) The elution profiles on HPLC of lysylendopeptidase and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digests of RCM-RNase Le45 (reduced and S-carboxymethylated RNase Le45) were very similar to those of RNase Le37, except for the absence of C-terminus peptide which contained O-glycosylated peptides. However, RNase Le45 contained about 70 residues of mannose and 4 residues of hexosamine. These values were more than twice those of RNase Le37. (iv) RNase Le45 was immunologically indistinguishable from RNase Le37. (v) After treatment with both glycosidase EndoH and alpha-mannosidase, RNases Le37 and Le45 gave complex bands by slab-gel electrophoresis. However, one of the major bands with the highest mobility from RNase Le45 and Le37 showed the molecular mass of 29 kDa in common, which is slightly larger than that of RNase Le2 containing no carbohydrate. These results indicated that RNase Le45 is an enzyme which is a heavily glycosylated species of RNase Le37.

  18. Effect of L-Cysteine Pretreatment on the Control of Formaldehyde and Browning of the Culinary-Medicinal Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) during Drying and Canning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijie; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Fresh culinary-medicinal Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were pretreated by soaking in 0.1 mg/mL of L-cysteine solution for 1 hour; then the variation in formaldehyde content and browning degree were studied during hot air-drying and canning processes. The results indicated that L-cysteine pretreatment significantly inhibited the increase of formaldehyde content and browning during the drying process; these increases in the pretreatment groups ranged from 7.0% to 14.0% and 65.4% to 68.9%, respectively, of that of the control groups. While the L-cysteine pretreatment did not seem to have a significant effect on controlling the formaldehyde content during the canning process, the increase of the browning degree of the canned products of the pretreatment groups ranged from 64.8% to 78.5% of that of the control groups, indicating the inhibitive effect of L-cysteine on browning during the canning process of L. edodes. Overall, L-cysteine pretreatment improved the sensory quality of both dried and canned L. edodes.

  19. A Polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against salmonellosis through upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-03-19

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, it did, however, stimulate uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages incubated with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts drastically increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection BPP extract-treated cells showed lower bacterial counts than the vehicle (saline phosphate pH 7.4 buffer, PBS)-treated control. BPP elicited altered morphology and markedly elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression in the infected macrophage cells. BPP also activated leukocytes in S. Typhimurium-infected mice, as determined by spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in mice sera. ELISA analysis on cytokine production by Th1 and Th2 immune cells from splenocytes of infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of the following Th1 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that BPP, administered daily through an intraperitoneal (ip) or oral route, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespan of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) was significantly extended by ip injection or oral administration of the BPP without side effects. These results suggest that the activity of BPP against bacterial infection in mice occurs mainly through the activation of macrophage-mediated immune response resulting from augmented Th1 immunity. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health and further

  20. JBANC ja baltlaste panus (1)-(2) / Vello Ederma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ederma, Vello, 1934-

    2009-01-01

    Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee (Joint Baltic American National Committee/JBANC) sünnile 1961. a. eelnenud poliitilisest olukorrast, selle komitee loomiseks kujunenud eeldustest ja rollist Balti riikide vabadusvõitluses läbi külma sõja, laulva revolutsiooni ja teel NATOsse

  1. IKEA teeb panuse Briti ja Venemaa turule / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    Rootsi mööblikontsern IKEA laiendab müügipindu Suurbritannias, Venemaal ja Jaapanis. Diagramm: Suurbritannia turg IKEA-le ka praegu tähtsuselt teine. Vt. samas: IKEA firmakultuur ei näe ette juhtivtöötajate poputamist

  2. Ameliorative effect of Lentinus squarrosulus mycomeat against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... chronically infects the lungs of most cystic fibrosis patients, causing serious infections of burn wounds and eye lesions, and systemic infections in immuno- compromised individuals (Holder, 1993). The bacterium's pathogenicity is displayed via its secreted and surface- associated virulence factors and the ...

  3. Enzyme and fungal treatments and a combination thereof reduce olive mill wastewater phytotoxicity on Zea mays L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaratino, Daniele; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Federici, Federico; Cereti, Carlo Fausto; Rossini, Francesco; Fenice, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) has been suggested to be mainly due to its phenolic components. This study investigated the impact of three different low-cost dephenolization treatments on the wastewater phytotoxicity. To this aim, germinability of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds sown on a sandy-loamy soil which had been spread with different volumes (from 40 to 160m(3)ha(-1)) of either biologically-treated OMW or relative incubation control was determined. Biological treatments included either Panus tigrinus liquid cultures or incubation with commercial laccase (1UIml(-1)) or an innovative sequential combination of laccase and P. tigrinus cultures. All treatments markedly reduced phytotoxicity and promising results were obtained with commercial laccase. In fact, germinability and mean germination times in soil spread with laccase-treated OMW, did not significantly differ from those observed in soil irrigated with tap water (control) up to OMW volumes of 120m(3)ha(-1). Although the highest phenol reduction (ca. 81%) was obtained by the sequential use of laccase and P. tigrinus, the feasibility of the enzyme treatment is undoubtedly more convincing under the technological point of view.

  4. TLÜ teadlased andsid panuse avastusse, mis tõotab läbimurret Alzheimeri ravis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Tallinna ülikooli teadlased professor Jan Johansson ja dr Jenny Presto teevad koostööd kolleegidega Karolinska instituudist, Cambridge’ist ja Lundi ülikoolist. Uurimisrühm leidis Alzheimeri tõbe käivitava molekuli ning seda on õpitud blokeerima

  5. Olympicu panused olid liialt õhku täis / Tarvo Vaarmets, Mariliis Pinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Olympic Entertainment Groupi kolmanda kvartali kasum kukkus 30%, millele ettevõtte aktsia hind reageeris langusega. Diagrammid: Aktsia hind; Majandusnäitajad. Kommenteerivad Ülo Pärnits ja Henrik Igasta. Lisa: Mis kukutas kasumi?

  6. Muuga terminal 2 - panus Vene Raudteele. Konkurent tooks terminali teenuste odavnemise / Jaroslav Tavgen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tavgen, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Muuga konteinerterminali operaatori konkursi kaotanud Muuga CT omanik AS Transiidikeskus ei ole Tallinna Sadama otsusega rahul ja leiab, et selle konkursi võitnud Rail Garant ei suuda kaubavedu suurendada

  7. Tänavuses Nobeli meditsiinipreemias on ka saarlaste panus / Heidi-Ingrid Maaroos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid, 1942-

    2005-01-01

    Tänavuse Nobeli meditsiinipreemia said Austraalia teadlased Barry J. Marshall ja Robin Warren Helicobacter pylori nimelise bakteri avastamise eest mao limaskesta põletiku ning mao- ja kaksteistsõrmiku haavandi tekitajana 1982. aastal. Saaremaaga on seekordne preemia seotud seetõttu, et 1979. aastal osalesid paljud saarlased mao limaskesta põletiku uuringus. Uuringute tulemusi kasutasid tulevased meditsiinipreemia laureaadid

  8. Tiit Land : Anname panuse Alzheimeri tõve võimalikuks raviks / Kristel Toom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toom, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    Matemaatika ja loodusteaduste instituudis töötab uurimisrühm, kes tegeleb organismis toimuva raua ainevahetuse ning selle häirete tagajärjel ilmnevate haiguslike protsessidega, mille hulka kuulub ka Alzheimeri tõbi

  9. Tiit Land: Anname panuse Alzheimeri tõve võimalikuks raviks / Kristel Toom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toom, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Matemaatika ja Loodusteaduste Instituudis töötab uurimisrühm, kelle huvi on seotud organismis toimuva raua ainevahetuse ning selle häirete tagajärjel ilmnevate haiguslike protsessidega, mille hulka kuulub ka Alzheimeri tõbi. Teadusprojekte juhivad Tiit Land ja Sandra Zetterström Fernaeus

  10. Nähtamatu naise nähtav panus / Eerik Purje ; fotod: V. Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Eerik, 1927-

    2006-01-01

    17. oktoobri õhtul Tartu College´i saalis toimunud pidulikust õhtust, mis oli pühendatud Vaiki Toile, esitades Roman Toi loomingut ja tähistades Romani 90. sünnipäeva. Õhtut juhtis Avo Kittask, esinesid Estonia Koor, Toronto Eesti Meeskoor, lauluansambel Helin, klaveril saatis Asta Ballstadt, koore juhatasid Margit Viia-Maiste, Ingrid Silm, Charles Kipper. Avati kunstnik Josef Milczarski portree juubilarist

  11. Successful domestication of Lentinus sajor-caju from an indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Indigenous forests in Tanzania provide a good environment for saprophytic wild edible mushrooms (SWEM) to grow. In rural areas, mushroom eaters rely on seasonal collection of wild edible mushrooms during the rain seasons, which make them unreliable source of nutrients during dry seasons. The study aims ...

  12. Structural Identification of Lentinus edodes Cellulose Derivative that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zjalic S, Reverberi M, Ricelli A, Mario Granito V, Fanelli. C, Adele Fabbri A. Trametes versicolor: a possible tool for aflatoxin control. Int J Food Microbiol 2006;. 107: 243-249. 7. Yan FY, Krishniah D, Rajin M, Bono A. Cellulose extraction from palm kernel cake using liquid phase oxidation. J Eng Sci Technol 2009; 4: 57-68. 8.

  13. Proximate analysis of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each of the mushroom species was separated into its stipe and pileus and used for proximate analysis. There was a highly significant difference (p<0.01) in the proximate composition of the two species. P. atroumbonata had significantly higher crude protein, crude fibre and moisture content than L. squarrosulus while the ...

  14. Successful domestication of Lentinus sajor-caju from an indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-12-31

    Dec 31, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Indigenous forests in Tanzania provide a good environment for saprophytic wild edible mushrooms. (SWEM) to grow. In rural areas, mushroom eaters rely on seasonal collection of wild edible mushrooms during the rain seasons, which make them unreliable source of nutrients ...

  15. Cultivation and fruit body production of Lentinus squarrosulus Mont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... poultry droppings, cow dung, fresh cassava flour and oil palm waste fiber on the mycelia growth of this fungus was also observed. All the ... Mushrooms are cultivated world wide for their taste, nutritional attributes and potential ..... Sustainable mushroom production in Africa: A case study in Ghana.

  16. Structural Identification of Lentinus edodes Cellulose Derivative that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aspartic acid, leucine and alanine. Conclusion: CED was identified as a complex of peptide and polysaccharide structures possessing β- (1, 4)-glucan backbones, and it provides a theoretical basis for developing polysaccharide preparations to control aflatoxin contamination with medical and food science applications.

  17. Perception and response to gravity in higher fungi--a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D

    1991-01-01

    hymenophore (gill, tube or tooth) is positively gravitropic and responds independently of the stem. Bracket polypores do not show tropisms but exhibit gravimorphogenetic responses such that gross disturbance leads to renewal of growth to produce and entirely new fruiting structure suitably reoriented to the new spatial position. One experiment performed on an orbiting space station suggests that, in the absence of a light stimulus, gravity may be required for initiation of fruiting in Polyporus brumalis. Otherwise, the indications from both clinostat and space-borne experiments are that the basic form of the mushroom (overall tissue arrangement of stem, cap, gills, hymenium, veil) in agaric and polypore alike is established independently of the gravity vector. Abnormal stem growth has been observed in clinostat cultures of Panus (= Lentinus) tigrinus and Polyporus brumalis, but the morphogenetic event which seems most dependent on gravity is sporulation (in the broadest sense). Cultures of P. brumalis on orbiting space craft fail to produce the poroid hymenophore and in clinostat experiments on the ground even karyogamy was rare in similar cultures. Coprinus cinereus grown on the clinostat was able to produce apparently normal fruit body primordia which failed to produce spores and then aborted, forming a new flush of primordia on the old. Taken together with the clear association between observation of gravitropism and the onset of sporulation, the implication is that commitment to the meiosis-sporulation pathway both requires the gravity vector and couples it in some way to fruit-body growth. There is no convincing evidence for a graviperception mechanism in fungi. There is no evidence for any organised means of communicating the gravitropic stimulus once it has been perceived. Reports of three different experimental studies reveal the authors' conviction that the apparently coordinated expression of gravitropic response is in truth a common, but independent, response by

  18. Sisearhitekt annab panuse : hea disaini mõõdupuuks ratsionaalsus ja omapära / Tea Taruste ; kommenteerinud Loreida Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taruste, Tea

    2011-01-01

    Tomomi Hayashi, Ahti Grünbergi ja Kerli Valgu projekteeritud ADM Interactive'i bürooruumidest. Sisearhitekt Priit Põldme nõuandeid bürooruumide ümberkujundamiseks. Loreida Heina kommentaar "Bürood uuendades pole mõtet kogu mööblit välja vahetada"

  19. Sjögren, Wiedemann ja liivi keele sõnaraamat. Panus 19. sajandi teadusajalukku / Eberhard Winkler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Winkler, Eberhard, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    Uuritakse, milline võis olla kummagi teadlase osa esimese liivi keele sõnaraamatu koostamisel: Sjögren, Andreas Johan. Gesammelte Schriften. Band II. Theil I., Joh. Andreas Sjögren's Livische Grammatik nebst Sprachproben ; Band II. Theil II., Joh. Andreas Sjögren's livisch-deutsches und deutsch-livisches Wörterbuch / bearbeitet von Ferdinand Joh. Wiedemann. St. Petersburg, 1861

  20. Juhan Parts : "Panus tuleks teha tipptehnoloogiale ja koostööle teadlastega" / Juhan Parts ; interv. Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Jõgevamaal visiidil viibinud majandusminister Juhan Parts ettevõtete Valmeco ja Werol Tehased külastusest ja seal nähtust, Venemaa puidutarnetest, Eesti metsanduspoliitikast, Tallinn-Tartu maantee ehitusest, reisirongiliiklusest, ettevõtluse arengu võimalustest regioonis

  1. Medicinal and edible lignicolous fungi as natural sources of antioxidative and antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, M; Jovin, E; Malbasa, R; Matavuly, M; Popović, M

    2010-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of organic extracts of eight fungal species, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma applanatum, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Flammulina velutipes, Coriolus versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Panus tigrinus, was evaluated for free radical (DPPH· and OH·) scavenging capacity and an effect on lipid peroxidation, and the antibacterial activity was tested by the agar well diffusion method. The highest DPPH· scavenging activity was found in the methanol extract of G. applanatum (12.5 μg/mL, 82.80%) and the chloroform extract of G. lucidum (510.2 μg/mL, 69.12%). The same extracts also showed the highest LP inhibition (91.83%, 85.09%) at 500 μg/mL, while the methanol extracts of G. applanatum and L. sulphureus showed the highest scavenging effect on OH· radicals (68.47%, 57.06%, respectively) at 400 μg/mL. A strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria was also manifested. The antioxidative potencies correlated generally with the total phenol content (0.19-9.98 mg/g). The HPLC determination showed that the majority of analysed species contained gallic and protocatechic acids. Consequently, these fungi are shown to be potential sources of antioxidative and antibacterial agents. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  3. Oil palm fruit fibre promotes the yield and quality of Lentinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural production and the agro-food industry furnish large volumes of solid wastes, which when unutilized could lead to environmental pollution. ... oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) significantly influenced crop cycle time, yield, nutritional properties and market quality of the mushroom.

  4. Synergistic Effect of Dietary Curcuma, Capsicum, and Lentinus on enhancing local immunity against Eimeria acervulina infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, the application of prophylactic antibiotics has been successful in reducing infection-related morbidity and mortality in animal production. However, with increasing concerns over the widespread use of feed-added chemicals in animal production and the emergence of antibiotic resistant ...

  5. Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes dried formulations: chemical composition and antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Carneiro, Andreia A.J.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    A balanced diet is one of themainstays ofiherapyfor the prevention of the oxidative stress, which if cannot beeliminated, at leastcan be controlled. Food antioxidants may help intrinsic antioxidant mechanisms to fight against oxidative stress. Several mushroom species have been pointed out as sources of antioxidant compounds, besides their nimportant nutritional value. Agaricus blazei and Lentimrs edodes are among the most studied species all over the world, but those studies focused on...

  6. Eesti tippteadlaste panus maailma : päästvad bakterid ja täiustatud elektroonika / koost. Jüri Allik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Jüri Allik lappas maailma suurimat teaduskirjanduse andmebaasi ISI Web of Science. Enimviidatud Eesti teadlased on: Jaan Aarik, Jaak Jürimäe, Mati Karelson, Marco Kirm, Eero Vasar, Mihkel Zilmer, Ülo Niinemets, Kaupo Kukli, Enn Lust

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Interactions between Xylotrophic Mushrooms and Mycoparasitic Fungi in Dual-Culture Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Badalyan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen wood-decaying mushroom species (Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma sp., Hypholoma fasciculare, H. sublateritium, Kühneromyces mutabilis, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus tigrinus, Pholiota alnicola, Ph. aurivella, Ph. destruens, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Pl. ostreatus, Polyporus subarcularius, Po. squamosus, Po. varius and Schizophyllum commune were paired with three Trichoderma species (T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, and T. viride and Clonostachys rosea in dual-culture experiments on an agar-based medium. Xylotrophic mushrooms and mycoparasitic fungi in general showed similar competitive ability; deadlock, or mutual inhibition after mycelial contact, was observed in 45.6% of pairings, while stable inhibition at a distance occurred in 4.4% of pairings. Replacement, or overgrowth of xylotrophic mushroom by a mycoparasitic fungus was observed in 29.4% of pairings; the opposite, overgrowth of the xylotrophic mushroom on the mycoparasitic fungus in 20.6%. of pairings. Of the xylotrophic mushrooms, Pl. ostreatus, Ganoderma sp., F. velutipes and H. fasciculare, showed the highest competitive ability against mycoparasitic fungi. Of the mycoparasitic fungi, T. harzianum showed the strongest competitive activity against xylotrophic mushrooms.

  9. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. An ethnomycological survey of macrofungi utilized by Aeta communities in Central Luzon, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leon AM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaires and formatted interviews were used to determine mushrooms used as food and as materials for societal rituals and beliefs among six Aeta communities in three provinces of Central Luzon, Northern Philippines. Thirty-eight different fungi were utilized by the Aeta communities: 21 in Pampanga, 10 in Tarlac, and 19 in Zambales. Fourteen fungal species were collected and identified based on their morphological characters: Auricularia auricula, A. polytricha, Calvatia sp., Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus tigrinus, L. sajor-caju, Mycena sp., Pleurotus sp., Schizophyllum commune, Termitomyces clypeatus, T. robustus, Termitomyces sp. 1, Termitomyces sp. 2, and Volvariella volvacea. Twelve of the identified macrofungi were consumed as food while Ganoderma lucidum and Mycena sp. were used as house decoration and medicine, respectively. The Aeta communities also performed rituals prior to the collection of these mushrooms, including tribal dancing, praying and kissing the ground. Their indigenous beliefs regarding mushrooms are also documented. This is the most extensive enthnomycological study on the Aeta communities in the Philippines.

  11. Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Viñas, M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A

    2013-03-15

    High recalcitrant characteristics and low bioavailability rates due to aging processes can hinder high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) bioremediation in real industrial polluted soils. With the aim of reducing the residual fraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and (HMW-PAHs) in creosote-contaminated soil remaining after a 180-d treatment in a pilot-scale biopile, either biostimulation (BS) of indigenous microbial populations with a lignocellulosic substrate (LS) or fungal bioaugmentation with two strains of white-rot fungi (WRF) (i.e., Trametes versicolor and Lentinus tigrinus) were comparatively tested. The impact of bivalent manganese ions and two mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., Soybean Oil and Brij 30) on the degradation performances of biostimulated and bioaugmented microcosms was also compared. The results reveal soil colonization by both WRF strains was clearly hampered by an active native soil microbiota. In fact, a proper enhancement of native microbiota by means of LS amendment promoted the highest biodegradation of HMW-PAHs, even of those with five aromatic rings after 60 days of treatment, but HMW-PAH-degrading bacteria were specifically inhibited when non-ionic surfactant Brij 30 was amended. Effects of bioaugmentation and other additives such as non-ionic surfactants on the degrading capability of autochthonous soil microbiota should be evaluated in polluted soils before scaling up the remediation process at field scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. O uso de altrenogest para protocolos de reprodução assistida em gato-do-mato-pequeno (leopardus Tigrinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Tatiane Micheletti Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O desmatamento é comprovadamente uma das maiores causas da perda de biodiversidade no planeta. Esforços para evitar que mais espécies sejam perdidas são necessários em diversas frentes. Uma das frentes que vem sendo propagada, em especial na conservação de animais de topo de cadeia como os felídeos, é a conservação ex situ. A manutenção de diversidade biológica e genética é uma das preocupações dos pesquisadores que atuam com a conservação de espécies de felídeos, já que estes são ani...

  13. Environ: E00646 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00646 Colubridae slough (Japan) Crude drug ... Elaphe climacophora [TAX:31143], Elap...he quadrivirgata [TAX:86195], Rhabdophis tigrinus [TAX:126484] ... Colubridae Elaphe climacophora, Elaphe quadrivirgata, Rhabdophis tigrinus slough (dried) ...

  14. Enhancement of nutritive value of tea leaf waste by solid-state fermentation with Lentinus sajor–caju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah-Al-Mahin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional value of tea leaf waste was improved significantly (p<0.05 by solid-state fermentation for 8 weeks with a white rot fungus, Pleurotus sajor-caju. The proximate analysis revealed that crude protein, ash, cellulose-lignin ratio and reducing sugar contents were increased by 2001.53, 117.62, 31.38, and 619.10%, respectively. In contrary, crude fiber, lipid, carbohydrate, lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses contents were decreased by 40.70, 71.87, 47.65, 35.63, 15.26, and 61.03%, respectively. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid were also increased by 129.17 and 398.79%, respectively. At 7 weeks of fermentation, the crude tea leaf waste extract showed very high CMCase, avicelase, cellobiase and amylase activity, moderate pectinase and poor xylanase activity. Furthermore, In-vitro dry matter digestibility was increased by 50.35% at the end of fermentation. Therefore, it was concluded that P. sajor-caju efficiently degraded tea leaf waste and improved its nutritive value.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of the Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Sixteen Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Varshney, Vinay K; Harsh, N S K; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The fruiting bodies and the submerged cultured mycelia of 16 higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms- Agaricus bisporus, Armillaria mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinus tigrinus, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Polyporus arcularius, Russula brevipes, Schizophyllum commune, Sparassis crispa, and Spongipellis unicolor-from different taxonomic groups were examined for their antioxidant capacity (AOXC) and total phenolics content (TPC). Extraction of the freeze-dried and pulverized fruiting bodies and mycelia with methanol and water (8:2, v/v), followed by evaporation of the solvent under a vacuum, created their extracts, which were analyzed for their AOXC and TPC using a DPPH· scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The fruiting bodies and the culture mycelia of all the mushroom species exhibited varied antioxidant capacity; however, the fruiting bodies had more potent DPPH· scavenging than the corresponding mycelia irrespective of the mushroom species, as evident by the effective concentrations of extract that scavenges 50% of DPPH· (EC50) of the former (0.56-1.24 mg mL-1) being lower than those of the latter (2.51-8.39 mg mL-1). TPC in the fruiting bodies (6.08-24.85 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE] g-1) were higher than those in the mycelia (4.17-13.34 mg GAE g-1). AOXC of the fruiting bodies (r = -0.755) and the culture mycelia (r = -0.903) also was correlated to their TPC. Among the cultured mycelia, A. bisporus, A. mellea, L. tigrinus, P. ostreatus, and S. crispa were highly promising in terms of their highest TPC (10.55, 13.34, 11.00, 10.37, and 10.19 mg GAE g-1, respectively) and the lowest EC50 values (3.33, 2.85, 2.51, 3.65, and 3.17 mg mL-1, respectively) as they relate to the development of antioxidants.

  16. Euroopa konsensus / Lappalainen Rilli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lappalainen Rilli

    2008-01-01

    2007. a. novembris Lissabonis vastuvõetud Euroopa Liidu dokumendist "Euroopa arengukonsensus: maailmahariduse ja -teadlikkuse kasvu panus" ning käivitatud protsessist, mis aitab saavutada Euroopa arengukonsensust

  17. Testing a low molecular mass fraction of a mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract formulated as an oral rinse in a cohort of volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signoretto, C.; Burlacchini, G.; Marchi, A.; Grillenzoni, M.; Cavalleri, G.; Ciric, L.; Lingström, P.; Pezzati, E.; Daglia, M.; Zaura, E.; Pratten, J.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Canepari, P.

    2011-01-01

    Although foods are considered enhancing factors for dental caries and periodontitis, laboratory researches indicate that several foods and beverages contain components endowed with antimicrobial and antiplaque activities. A low molecular mass (LMM) fraction of an aqueous mushroom extract has been

  18. Fine 5 kolib Kumu lavale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kumu kunstimuuseumi auditooriumis toimub 21. veebruaril Fine 5 kaasaegse tantsu etendus "Panus". Esinevad Tiina Ollesk, Irina Pähn, žonglöör Dimitri Kruus, disainer Rain Saukas ja muusik Mattias Siitan

  19. Keskkonnademokraatia ja arengumaad / Piret Kuldna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuldna, Piret

    2007-01-01

    Keskkonnademokraatia on viimasel ajal laiemalt kasutusele tulnud mõiste, millega rõhutatakse, et keskkonnakaitseks on vajalik kõigi inimeste panus. Artiklis pööratakse tähelepanu olukorrale Sri Lankas

  20. Kodanikuõpetus kui õppeaine ja selle sisu kujundavad faktorid / Edgar Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Edgar

    2001-01-01

    Kodanikuõpetuse korraldusest ja sisust eri riikides, toetudes CICE4 (Childrens̀ Identity and Citizenship in Europe) andmebaasidele, mis sisaldavad informatsiooni õpilaste identiteeditaju ja kodanikuteadvuse, kodanikuõpetuse ainekavade ning õpetajakoolituse panuse kohta õpetajate ettevalmistamisel kodanikuõpetuseks

  1. After MacIntyre : Kaasaegsest vooruseetikast / Meego Remmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmel, Meego

    2006-01-01

    Alasdair MacIntyre panus 20. sajandi eetikasse. Tema käsitlus vooruseetikast ja vooruseetilisest perspektiivist, mida on võimalik näha komplekselt, vaadeldes voorust, praktikat, narratiivi ja traditsiooni mõisteid

  2. Prantsuskeelsete poliitikute lahkumine / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Kolm hiljuti lahkunud prantsuskeelset poliitikut, Prantsusmaa endised peaministrid Pierre Messmer ja Raymond Barre ning Luksemburgi endine peaminister Gaston Thorn andsid suure panuse nii Euroopa kui oma kodumaa poliitikasse ja majandusse

  3. Uus ajastu - las vabatahtlikud arendavad sinu äri / Cook Scott

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Scott, Cook

    2008-01-01

    Kuidas luua ettevõtte jaoks kasumit teeniv tarbijate panuse süsteem. Skeem: Tarbijate panuste liigitus. Vt. samas: Panuste süsteemide kasutamine; Kuidas see meil Intuitis edeneb?; Miks panustajad panustavad?

  4. Erik Puura näeb tulevikku teaduse ja tootmise harmoonias / Erik Puura ; interv. Kairi Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puura, Erik, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli tehnoloogiainstituudi direktor Erik Puura leiab, et tootmises on esmatähtis globaalne mõtlemine ja rahvusvaheline turundus. Vt. samas: CV: Erik Puura; TÜTI annab panuse tootearendusse; Blogi viib keskkonnateaduse massidesse

  5. Ocorrência de Platynosomum illiciens em felinos selvagens mantidos em cativeiro no estado da Bahia, Brasil Occurrence of Platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. de Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de ovos de Platynosomum illiciens nas fezes de três espécies de felídeos silvestres Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Panthera onca e Leopardus tigrinus coletados nos recintos do Parque Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Sendo o primeiro registro deste parasito em P. onca e F. tigrinus.This paper reports the occurrence of eggs of Platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the Park Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is the first record of this parasite in P. onca and L. tigrinus.

  6. Discovery of Larval Gnathostoma nipponicum in Frogs and Snakes from Jeju-do (Province), Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ho-Choon; Oh, Hong-Shik; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2011-01-01

    A survey was performed to find out the intermediate hosts of Gnathostoma nipponicum in Jeju-do (Province), the Republic of Korea. In August 2009 and 2010, a total of 82 tadpoles, 23 black-spotted pond frogs (Rana nigromaculata), 7 tiger keelback snakes (Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus), 6 red-tongue viper snakes (Agkistrodon ussuriensis), and 2 cat snakes (Elaphe dione) were collected in Jeju-do and examined by the pepsin-HCl digestion method. Total 5 gnathostome larvae were detected in 3 (50%) of 6 A. ussuriensis, 70 larvae in 3 of 7 (42.9%) R. tigrinus tigrinus, and 2 larvae in 2 of 82 (8.7%) frogs. No gnathostome larvae were detected in tadpoles and cat snakes. The larvae detected were a single species, and 2.17×0.22 mm in average size. They had characteristic head bulbs, muscular esophagus, and 4 cervical sacs. Three rows of hooklets were arranged in the head bulbs, and the number of hooklets in each row was 29, 33, and 36 posteriorly. All these characters were consistent with the advanced third-stage larvae of G. nipponicum. It has been first confirmed in Jeju-do that R. nigromaculata, A. ussuriensis, and R. tigrinus tigrinus play a role for intermediate and/or paratenic hosts for G. nipponicum. PMID:22355217

  7. Üheksa aastat Redmondis, Microsoftis / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ühe esimese eestlasena Microsofti peakontoris Redmondis töötanud tarkvaraspetsialist Targo Tennisberg asus Eestis tööle Webmedia arendusjuhina. Vt. samas: Microsoft kui suur rahvaste katel; Taavi Kotka: tegu on üliandeka inimesega. Webmedia juhatuse esimehe kommentaar; Panus Microsoft Office'i väljatöötamisse

  8. Maarja küla loodab eestlaste abiga kokku saada uue maja raha / Villu Päärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Vaimupuudega inimestele mõeldud Maarja küla tähistas möödunud nädalalõpul kuuendat sünnipäeva. Külla plaanitava Eesti maja ehitamiseks tuleb põhitoetus Rotary ja Lions-klubidelt, samuti on oma panuse andnud Eesti lauljad, näitlejad, ettevõtjatest ja eraisikutest annetajad

  9. Eesti majandus on loterii / Hardo Pajula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajula, Hardo, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti majandus kui poliitiline ettevõtlus: panused tehakse valimistel ning järgnevatel aastatel tõmmatakse seadusandlikust loosirattast välja üksikud suurvõidud ja hulk lohutusauhindu. Autor soovitab tutvuda Nobeli majandusauhinna laureaadi Ronald Coase artiklitekogumikuga "Firma, turg ja õigus"

  10. Riskantne 21. sajandi äri / Isabel Frommelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Frommelt, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Artiklis otsitakse vastust küsimustele, kuidas ettevõtted saaksid anda panuse julgeoleku suurendamisse, eriti seoses terrorismiohu vähendamisega ja kas äritegevus toimib endiselt tavapäraselt või on see nüüd riskantsem

  11. Kaup kai kõrvalt maailma / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 23. juuli lk. 16. Tallinna Sadam investeerib Muuga ja Paldiski lõunasadama tööstusparkide arendamisse paarsada miljoni krooni. Lisa: Number; Panus pidevasse kaubavoogu; Üle 100 hektari tööstusparki

  12. Ando Keskküla, kas sa arvad, et 'Interstanding'u'-taolised üritused suudavad kuidagi mõjutada meie praegust tegelikkust ja kui, siis kuidas? / Ando Keskküla ; interv. Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keskküla, Ando, 1950-2008

    1999-01-01

    "Interstanding'u" missioon: tõestada, et infoühiskond ei ole ainult e-kaubandus ja kiire kasumi võimalus. Esimese ja teise "Interstanding'u" panus Eestile, kolmanda "Interstanding'u" 'Ülalpool piire' üleskutse.

  13. Sõmeru keskushoone = Sõmeru centre building / Ralf Lõoke ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõoke, Ralf, 1978-

    2011-01-01

    Sõmeru keskushoone (Kooli 2, Sõmeru alevik) arhitektuursest lahendusest. Arhitektid Maarja Kask, Karli Luik ja Ralf Lõoke pälvisid Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemia (2010) kõrgetasemelise panuse eest Eesti maa-arhitektuuri: Sõmeru keskushoone (kaasautorid Kristiina Arusoo ja Margit Argus) ja Eesti Maanteemuuseumi välialad (kaasautor Pelle-Sten Viiburg)

  14. Eestlannast major aitab luua Bosniale ühtset kaitseväge / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2005-01-01

    Bosnias ja Hertsegoviinas ühendatakse varem sõdinud poolte armeed, oma panuse selleks annavad kolm Eesti kaitseväelast. Eestlanna Gerbel Mikk rahuvalvajate elust ja olukorrast Bosnias. Vt. samas: SFOR-i asemel tagavad rahu nüüd EUFOR ja NATO eraldi

  15. Vastutustundlik ettevõtlus pöörab rohkem tähelepanu juhi rollile / Piret Potisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Potisepp, Piret, 1984-

    2016-01-01

    Riigi rollist vastutustundliku ettevõtluse arendamisel. Küsitlusest ja analüüsist vastutustundliku ettevõtluse arendamise võimaluste kohta Eestis. OECD suunistest rahvusvahelistele ettevõtetele, mille järgimine peaks tagama ettevõtete panuse kasvu jätkusuutlikku arengusse

  16. Lahkunud maailmaparandaja Robert Lepikson jäi igavesti otsijaks / Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalamees, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade riigikogu liikme, endise siseministri, Tallinna linnapea ja Võru maavanema Robert Lepiksoni elukäigust, meenutused tuntud ühiskonnategelastelt. Lisad: Robert Lepikson; Kõva sõnaga mees. Vt. samas: Turvavaatleja vastutusrikas töö viimasel rallil; Ivar Raidam: Lepiksoni panus autosporti oli tohutu; Hans H. Luik: Respect, Robert!

  17. Pikaealisuse piirkonnad ehk nn Blue Zone'id / Anne Herm, Michel Poulain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Herm, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Käimasolevate uuringutega loodetakse paremini mõista looduskeskkonna ja toitumisega seotud tegurite rolli pikaealisuse kujunemisel. Uurimistöö võib anda väärtusliku panuse tervena vananemise mudeli väljatöötamisele

  18. Moldova aitavad jalule majandusreformid / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Moldova on teinud Transnistria konflikti lahendamises panuse koostööle EL-iga ning on alustanud oma seaduste ühtlustamist EL-iga. Kirjeldades Moldova majanduse arengu teel seisvaid raskusi, on autor seisukoha, et eestlastel tasub moldovlasi aktiivsemalt nõustada, aidata arendada demokraatiat ning ellu viia majandusreforme. Lisa: Moldova tee Euroopasse

  19. Kohtumine endast erinevaga - õpilaste arusaam / Olga Schihalejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schihalejev, Olga, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Artikkel on uurimusest, mis valmis projekti "Religioon ja haridus. Panus dialoogiks või konfliktifaktor Euroopa muutuvates ühiskondades" raames ning mille eesmärk on uurida võimalusi ja ülesandeid, millega seisab silmitsi tänapäeva kooliharidus, püüdes kujundada erisuguse religioosse kuuluvusega inimeste üksteisemõistmist

  20. Нобелевская сверхпроводимость

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Nobeli füüsikapreemia tänavused laureaadid on Vene teadlased Aleksei Abrikosov ja Vitali Ginzburg ning Briti päritolu ameeriklane Anthony J. Leggett, kes pälvisid preemia teedrajava panuse eest ülijuhtivuse ja ülivoolavuse teooriasse

  1. Václav Klausi promotsioon / Kersti Vähi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vähi, Kersti

    2006-01-01

    24. mail promoveeriti Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli nõukogu pidulikul istungil ülikooli audoktoriks Tšehhi Vabariigi president Václav Klaus. Audoktori tiitli pälvis Tšehhi president panuse eest majandusuuringutesse ning saavutuste eest majanduse ja demokraatia arendamisel

  2. Kujundades ja tootes / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Uurimata disain. Tsaariaegse tööstuse eripära. Lutheri vabrik. Teised mööblivalmistajad. Ilmus sisearhitekt. Kujundatud ühiskauplus. Uued tootmisharud. Kunsttööstuskooli panus. Nahkehistöö. Langebrauni kirjatud nõud. Lorupi klaas ja kristall. Kopfi ja Tavasti metallitööd. Naiste näputööd

  3. Defense policy during the new reality of tight budgets / Karoliina Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Karoliina

    2011-01-01

    30. ja 31. augustil Eestit külastanud Suurbritannia kaitseminister Liam Fox kohtus ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja kaitseminister Mart Laariga. Liam Fox tänas Eestit Afganistani panuse eest ja rõhutas kaitsekulutuste NATO-s kokkulepitud kahe protsendi tasemel SKP-st hoidmise tähtsust

  4. Vabariigi president kohtus OECD peasekretäriga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 12. veebruaril 2008 Tallinnas Majandusliku Koostöö ja Arengu Organisatsiooni (OECD) peasekretäri Angel Gurria'ga, tänades teda panuse eest organisatsiooni laienemispoliitika edendamisel. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 20. veebr. 2008, lk. 3, pealk.: President Ilves kohtus OECD peasekretäriga (Allk. Kristel Peterson)

  5. New species of Gorgoderina (Digenea; Gorgoderidae) and other helminths in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Dehradun, (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab

    2014-10-01

    Gorgoderina spinosa sp. nov. (Digenea, Gorgoderidae) from the bladder of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Gorgoderina spinosa is the 6th Indian species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of vitelline glands and the presence of a spinose integument. Two additional digenean species, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Ganeo tigrinus, and 3 nematode species, Cosmocerca kalesari, Gendria chauhani, and unidentified larvae were found. Diplodiscus amphichrus, Ganeo tigrinus, Cosmocerca kalesari, and Gendria chauhani have previously been reported to infect Indian individuals of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis.

  6. Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae parasitizing four species of wild felines in Southern Brazil Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae parasitando quatro espécies de felinos silvestres no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus and Puma yagouaroundi are wild feline species endangered mainly due to habitat destruction and vehicle run overs. Seventeen felines hit on the roads were collected in Southern Brazil and examined for parasites. Cestodes were identified as Mesocestoides sp. The parasites were found in the small intestine of the hosts with a prevalence of 66.7% (L. colocolo and L. tigrinus, 60% (P. yagouaroundi and 50% (L. geoffroyi. Rodents and lizards were found in the stomach contents and they possibly were intermediate hosts of Mesocestoides sp. This is the first report of Mesocestoides sp. in wild felines in Brazil.As espécies Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus e Puma yagouaroundi, são felídeos silvestres ameaçados de extinção, principalmente pela destruição do hábitat e morte em rodovias. Dezessete felídeos foram coletados atropelados no sul do Brasil e, analisados na pesquisa de parasitos. Cestóides encontrados foram identificados como Mesocestoides sp. Os parasitos foram encontrados no intestino delgado dos hospedeiros com prevalência de 66,7% (L. colocolo e L. tigrinus, 60% (P. yagouaroundi e 50% (L. geoffroyi. Roedores e lagartos foram encontrados no conteúdo estomacal, podendo ser os hospedeiros intermediários para Mesocestoides sp. Este é o primeiro registro de Mesocestoides sp. em felídeos silvestres no Brasil.

  7. Heinrich Stahlist värske pilguga / Piret Lotman, Kristiina Ross, Aivar Põldvee, Annika Viht ; intervjueerinud Külli Habicht, Külli Prillop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Heinrich Stahli keelelise ja kultuurilise panuse ning tema rolli väärtustamise teemadel vahetasid mõtteid Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu vanemteadur, teose "Heinrich Stahli elu ja looming" autor Piret Lotman, EKI vanemteadur Kristiina Ross, EKI ja TLÜ ajaloo instituudi vanemteadur Aivar Põldvee, TLÜ lektor Annika Viht ning Stahli teoste "Hand- und Hauszbuch" ja "Leyen-Spiegel" sõnastiku koostajad Külli Prillop ja Külli Habicht

  8. Tere tulemast hetkesituatsiooni : märkmed olemisest kunstiteosena = Welcome to this situatsion : notes on being an artwork / David Rothenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rothenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    Saksamaal elava rootsi-india päritolu kunstniku Tino Sehgali (1976) näitusest "This situation" New Yorgis 2007. aasta lõpul - näitus oli situatsioon, kuhu kolmkümmend palutud osavõtjat-vestlejat andsid oma panuse. Näitust ei jäädvustata, see peaks säilima mälus ja tundeelus

  9. Infoajastu teerajajad / Henn Käämbre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käämbre, Henn, 1935-

    2009-01-01

    Nobeli füüsikapreemia said tänavu kolm füüsikut panuse eest infotehnoloogilisse revolutsiooni: hiinlasest Briti-USA füüsik Charles Kuen Kao optiliste kaablite arendamisel ning kaks tema kolleegi, Kanada-USA füüsik Willard Sterling Boyle ja USA füüsik George Elwood Smith sensoritüübi CCD leiutamisel

  10. Robert J. Aumann - matemaatikust Nobeli preemia laureaat / Peeter Puusemp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusemp, Peeter, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    2005. a. Nobeli preemia majanduse alal silmapaistva panuse eest mänguteooria ülesannete lahendamisse saanud Robert J. Aumannist ja D. Saari loetelu matemaatikutest - Nobeli preemia laureaatidest: John Nash'ist, Herbert Hauptman'ist, John Pople'ist, Bertrand Arthur William Russell'ist, Kenneth Joseph Arrow'ist, Gerard Debreu'ist, Leonid Vitaljevitš Kantorovitš'ist, Reinhard Selten'ist, Jan Tinbergen'ist

  11. Identiteet läbi integratsiooni : Eesti eelistused muutuvas Euroopas / Kristiina Ojuland

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojuland, Kristiina, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 9th international conference "Estonia and the European Union: Estonia on its way to a changing Europe" : October 30-November 1, 2002, Tallinn, Estonian National Library. - Tallinn, lk. 34-38. Välisminister leiab, et euroopalikul integratsioonipoliitikal on mõte vaid siis, kui ta on suuteline täitma kahte sihti: esiteks, mõjutada tulevikku kujundavat globaalpoliitikat ja teiseks, anda konkreetne ja efektiivne panus iga Euroopa kodaniku elukvaliteeti

  12. Eesti Maanteemuuseumi välialad = Estonian Road Museum, outdoor areas / Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik, Maarja Kask ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõoke, Ralf, 1978-

    2011-01-01

    Arhitektid: Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, Pelle-Sten Viiburg (Salto AB). Näituse kujundajad: Malle Jürgenson, Tea Tammelaan, Krista Lepland (Laika, Belka & Strelka). Maarja Kask, Karli Luik ja Ralf Lõoke pälvisid Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemia (2010) kõrgetasemelise panuse eest Eesti maa-arhitektuuri: Eesti Maanteemuuseumi välialad (kaasautor Pelle-Sten Viiburg), Sõmeru keskushoone (kaasautorid Kristiina Arusoo ja Margit Argus)

  13. La mycothérapie au Burkina Faso : État des lieux et perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit de : Daldinia eschscholzii, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma resinaceum, Phellinus pachyphloeus, Podaxis pistillaris, Lentinus squarrosulus, Lycoperdon sp et Scleroderma sp. L'analyse des données montre que le genre et l'âge des personnes interrogées n'ont pas d'influence sur la connaissance des espèces ...

  14. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1

  15. Bacteria associated with compost used for cultivation of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria involved in an outdoor single phase composting using sawdust and wheat bran as substrates for cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer, and Lentinus squarrosulus (Berk.), two Nigerian edible mushrooms were identified. Composting was carried out for 2 weeks. The highest core and peripheral ...

  16. Volume 8 No. 4 2008 December 2008 480 THE EFFECT OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    addition, lipids such as crude and refined vegetable oils, as well as fish oil may also be used to stimulate fruiting [8,9,10]. The effect of factors such as spawn grain, culture medium, oil type and rate on the culture of Psathyrella atroumbonata and Lentinus squarrosulus has been reported. [11,12,13]. The current investigation ...

  17. Effects of Crude Oil and Oil Products on Growth of Some Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative growth response of three local edible mushrooms: Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pp), Pleurotus tuber-regium (Pt) and Lentinus squarrosulus (Ls) on different concentrations of Crude oil (COIL), Automotive Gasoline Oil (AGO), Fresh Engine Oil (ENGOIL) and Spent Engine Oil (SENGOIL) was investigated. The result ...

  18. The effect of the interaction of various spawn grains and oil types on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that the interaction of the different spawn grains with the various oil types produced a highly significant effect (p<0.01) on the stipe length, dry weight, and stipe and pileus diameters of Lentinus squarrosulus. The interactions of corn x coconut and corn x butterfat, respectively produced stipe lengths that ...

  19. The effects of the interaction of various oil types and rates on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two edible indigenous mushroom species, were cultured in various different media supplemented with coconut, cotton, groundnut, butterfat, palm kernel and palm oil respectively, at 5 different rates. The interaction of the various oil types with different rates produced ...

  20. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat ... Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom ...

  1. Optimization of laccase and manganese peroxidase production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... tation (SSF) (Orth et al., 1993; Stajic´ et al., 2006). There are few studies on the ligninolytic activities of tropical white-rot fungi such as Trametes species, Lentinus velutinus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Datronia concentrica,. Irpex spp, Creptidotus mollis (Tekere et al., 2001). However, the ligninolytic activities of ...

  2. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 29 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioremediation potential of Lentinus subnudus in decontaminating crude oil polluted soil · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... The Use of DNA Barcoding in Identification of Genetic Diversity of Fish in Ugwu-Omu Nike River in Enugu · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. Unliganded and substrate bound structures of the cellooligosaccharide active lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase LsAA9A at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kristian Erik Høpfner; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Tandrup, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    carried out at pH 5.5 of the LPMO from Lentinus similis belonging to the fungal LPMO family AA9 have provided the first atomic resolution view of substrate-LPMO interactions. The LsAA9A structure presented here determined at pH 3.5 shows significant disorder of the active site in the absence of substrate...

  4. Coccidiosis Immunization: Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Eimeria Tenella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Suo, X.; Li, W.K.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracts (E) of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on the immune responses of chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. A total of 180 broiler

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwanze, PI. Vol 8, No 4 (2008) - Articles The effect of the interaction of various spawn grains and oil types on carpophore dry weight, stipe length and stipe and pileus diameters of lentinus squarrosulus (mont.) singer. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5374. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  6. Production and regulation of lignin degrading enzymes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of mycelia extension and enhanced enzyme production has biotechnological applications in wood and pulp, textile and tanning, as well as in oil industries. Key words: Basidiomycetes, Lentinus squarrosulus, Psathyrella atroumbonata, ligninase, cofactors. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.2(11) 2003: ...

  7. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 4, No 6 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of spawn grains, culture media, oil types and rates on carpophore production of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P I Nwanze, A U Khan, J B Ameh, V J Umoh, 478-482 ...

  8. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and mineral analysis of five species of mushroom, Lentinus squarrosulus, Volvariella volvacea, Coprinus micaceus, Lepiota procera, and Auricularia auricula were examined in this study to determine their nutritional value. These mushrooms were found to contain on the average, 3.24 to 8.70% of crude fibre; 4.12 ...

  9. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  10. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  11. The effect of media, oil type and rate on the mycelia wet and dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two edible indigenous mushroom species, were cultured in four different submerged liquid media supplemented with coconut, cotton, groundnut, butterfat, palm kernel and palm oil at 5 different rates. The differences in the means due to the different media types were ...

  12. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  13. COMPARISON OF STRESS PROTEINS PARTICIPATION IN ADAPTATION MECHANISMS OF BAIKALIAN AND PALEARCTIC AMPHIPOD (AMPHIPODA; CRUSTACEA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofeyev M.A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was a study of the influence different stressful factor on syntheses and activity of the stress proteins (HSP70, sHSP and peroxidase of freshwater organism. Six freshwater amphipod species were investigated: Eulimnogammarus cyaneus (Dyb., E verrucosus (Gerstf., E vittatus (Dyb. - endemic species from Lake Baikal which were compared with Palearctic species - Gammarus lacustris Sars., G tigrinus (Sexton, Chaetogammarus ischnus (Stebbins. It was shown expression of sHSP by heat and toxic stresses for all amphipods species. Oxidative stress induced HSP70 for Palearctic species G tigrinus and C ischnus but not for baikalian species. Heat stress did not caused the increase of HSP70 level for Baikalian species of amphipods. The activity of the peroxidase was decrease by heat and toxic stresses. Oxidative stress caused the increase of peroxidase activity for Palearctic species, and the decrease for Baikalian once.

  14. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  15. Shifts in the gammarid (Amphipoda) fauna of brackish polder waters in Flanders (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Boets, P.; Lock, K.; Goethals, P.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The macrocrustacean community of brackish polder waters in Flanders was investigated based on a twenty year survey comprising 430 biological samples taken at 218 different locations. A clear shift in the gammarid community could be observed. After its introduction, the alien Gammarus tigrinus, originating from North America, reached high abundances and became widely spread in the polder waters within a few years. Simultaneously, a decrease in the prevalence of the indigenous brackish water ga...

  16. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil.

  17. Europe's long-term decline is alarming, but not inevitable / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu konkurentsivõimest globaliseeruvas maailmas. Autor toob eeskujuks postsovetliku Eesti, kes tegi panuse uusimale infotehnoloogia infrastruktuurile. Euroopa arengusuundadest ning vajadusest ühise energiapoliitika järele. Ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna 25. okt. 2007, lk. 12 ja 1. nov. 2007, lk. 12; eesti k. ilmunud ka: Äripäev 1. nov. 2007, lk. 23, pealk.: Euroopat saab aidata ta ise; vene k. ilmunud ka: Den za Dnjom 26. okt. 2007, lk. 26 (tõlk. Jevgenija Unanjants); Delovõje Vedomosti 7. nov. 2007, lk. 14; Ekonomitsheskoje obozrenije - LOGOS-PRESS (Moldova), 26. okt. 2007, nr. 39

  18. Two-and-a-half targets for Estonian foreign policy / Karmo Tuur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuur, Karmo

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli politoloogia õppejõu arvates võiksid Eesti peamisteks välispoliitilisteks sihtideks olla koostöö Põhjamaade ja Venemaa lääneosaga ning olla hästi informeeritud meist kaugemate riikide sündmustest. Olgugi, et meie panus võib olla vaid sümboolne, on väga tähtis osaleda ka rahvusvahelistes kriisireguleerimis- ja arenguprogrammides, et end nähtavaks ja usaldusväärseks teha

  19. Vana mees, kes ei taha rahu / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    AS-ist Mainor on aastate jooksul kujunenud kontsern, mis pakub haridusteenuseid, tegeleb kinnisvaraarendusega ning osaleb puidutööstuses. Ettevõtte ajalukku on oma panuse andnud paljud tänased tipp-poliitikud ja -ettevõtjad. Eesti ettevõtluse grand old man Ülo Pärnits. Tagasivaade Mainori lähiminevikku. Investeeringud Ülemiste City ehitamisesse, koostöö Eestisse tuuleparke rajava AS Raunistaliga. Vt. samas: Ülemiste Cityst võib saada ekspordiartikkel; Kolmveerand miljardit omakapitali; Mainori haare

  20. Muusika : Stephan Oliva kvartett Eestis. Yamaha stipendium Hando Nahkurile. Eespere neljas autoriplaat. Uus rahvamuusikafestival. Uus orel uude kirikusse! Valga klaveriansamblite festival. Rahvusooperi poistekoor kutsub / Marje Laugen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laugen, Marje

    2002-01-01

    Prantsuse dzhässpianist Stephan Oliva annab oma kvartetiga Eestis 6 kontserti. Yamaha konkursi stipendiumi võitis EMA I kursuse klaveri eriala üliõpilane Hando Nahkur. Rene Eespere neljanda autoriplaadi "Skulptuuri hommik" esitletakse EMA suures kammersaalis. 7.-9. märtsini saavad Tartus ja Tallinnas teoks muusikapäevad "MAA ja ILM". Kontserdisarjas "Orel kirikusse!" teeb järjekordse panuse Tallinna Metodisti kiriku oreli heaks Raekoja kammerkoor oma kontserdiga. 16. ja 17. veebr. Valga muusikakoolis toimunud VII rahvusvahelisest laste- ja noorte klaveriansamblite festivalist. Rahvusooperi poistekoor kutsub oma ridadesse uusi lauljaid

  1. Jüri Talveti filoloogiline teekond: hispaaniakeelsest maailmast Eestisse ja tagasi / Jüri Talvet’s Philological Journey: from the Spanish-speaking World to Estonia and Back

    OpenAIRE

    Rein Veidemann

    2016-01-01

    Teesid: Artikkel esitab bio-bibliograafilise ülevaate luuletaja, esseisti, kirjandusteadlase, tõlkija ning õppejõu Jüri Talveti (s 1945) loomingulisest teest. Talveti kui erakordselt laiahaardelise loomingulise isiksuse panus hispaaniakeelse kirjandusruumi vahendamisel ja uurimisel Eestis on jätnud püsiva jälje. Tema viljeldava komparativismi keskmeks olev võrdlus ei piirdu üksnes võrreldavate objektidega, vaid viib põimumiste ja mõjutuste väljaselgitamisele ning uue sünteesini. Niisugune läh...

  2. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  3. Pengaruh Bobot Dan Komposisi Media, Rangsangan Suhu Dan Kimiawi Terhadap Pembentukan Tubuh Buah Jamur Shiitake {Lenhnus Edodes*the Effect of Weight and Composition of Media, Temperatures and Chemically Stimulation on Fruiting Body Formation of Shiitake (

    OpenAIRE

    Subowo, YB; Latupapua, HJD

    1998-01-01

    Research on the effect of weight and composition of media, temperature and chemically stimulation on fruiting body formation of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) had been done in Wamena, Jayawijaya district, Irian Jay a. The research consisted of three experiments. The first experiment consisted of 3 kinds of media such as media A, B and C(A- sawdust and 100% standard nutrition; B = sawdust and 50% standard nutrition; and C = sawdust without nutrition) and three kinds of temperatures were 20°C (room...

  4. Culture de trois espèces fongiques sauvages comestibles du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des essais de culture de trois souches de trois espèces de champignons lignicoles comestibles: Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller, Lentinus cladopus Lév. et Marasmius buzungolo Singer isolées sur milieu gélosé PDA et dont les mycéliums ont été repiqués sur substrats de semis de grains de maïs et de sciure de bois ont ...

  5. 15-2-13 :難分解性物質分解に向けた酵素ライブラリーの構築 : 染色剤脱色酵素の開発

    OpenAIRE

    野崎, 功一

    2004-01-01

    The decolorization activities of industrial dyes were investigated using extracellular enzymes produced by 21 kinds of basidiomycetes. Most of them showed decolorization activity against some dyes at acidic pH, but the ability and specificity were different. Among these, Agaricus bisporus, Armillariella mellea and Lentinus edodes showed high decolorization activities against azo, phthalocyanine and triphenylmethane dyes. Pleurotus salmoneostramineus showed strong activities for azo and phthal...

  6. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN THE AROMA OF THREE SPECIES OF WOOD-ROTTING BASIDIOMYCETES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana Virginia PETRE; Alin Constantin DÎRȚU; Marius NICULAUA; Cătălin TĂNASE

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the volatile organic compounds synthesized by three species of wood-rotting basidiomycetes: Coriolopsis gallica, Megacollybia platyphylla and Lentinus arcularius and test their antifungal potential. The species were cultivated on liquid media and kept for 25 days at 25 °C. The surface cultures were then homogenized, filtrated and extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile compounds identified were mainly alcohols, ketones, aldehydes...

  7. [Antiviral properties of basidiomycetes metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M

    2014-01-01

    The data on the antiviral action of the Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Agaricus brasiliensis and other basidiomycetes metabolites are summurized. The metabolites of these species of basidiomycetes exhibit a direct antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus types I and II, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, influenza virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and others. Moreover, metabolites of basidiomycetes increased antiviral immunity.

  8. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  9. Natural radiation dose to Gammarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Wrenn, M.E.; Eisenbud, M.

    1975-01-01

    The natural radiation dose rate to whole body and components of the Gammarus species (i.e., G. Tigrinus, G. Fasciatus and G. Daiberi) that occurs in the Hudson River is evaluated and the results compared with the upper limits of dose rates from man made sources to the whole body of the organisms. Methods were developed to study the distribution of alpha emitters from 226 Ra plus daughter products in Gammarus using autoradiographic techniques, taking into account the amount of radon that escapes from the organisms. This methodology may be adapted to study the distribution of alpha emitters in contaminated tissues of plants and animals

  10. The first record of Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Paratenuisentis ambiguus, an acanthocephalan originating from North America,is an alien species parasitising the European eel Anguilla anguilla. It was first recorded in Lake Lebsko,on the central coast of Poland. The report gives morphometric measurements of male and female P. ambiguus from this locality. Because of the spread of the intermediate host Gammarus tigrinus andthe appearance of new adults in eels along the southern Baltic Coast, P. ambiguus is evidently able to complete its life cycle in Baltic coastal waters.

  11. Alien species of fish parasites in the coastal lakes and lagoons of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alien species are now found all over the world. New fish parasites have been unintentionally introduced with infected alien fish imported for aquaculture or have sometimes spread with their intermediate invertebrate hosts transported in the ballast waters of ships. Four alien fish parasites have been recorded in Polish coastal lakes and lagoons, all parasitising eels. Three were introduced with the final host - the Japanese eel - introduced for aquaculture (Anguillicola crassus, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini and one (Paratenuisentis ambiguus with its sole intermediate host (Gammarus tigrinus.

  12. SHIP HULL FOULING AS A MEANS OF MAKROZOOBENTHOS DISPERSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Cupak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hulls of 9 boats operating in inland waterways and coastal Baltic waters along were examined for the presence of fouling organisms. A total of 23 animal taxa were recorded, 8 of them being alien species known to have been earlier introduced into the Baltic Sea basin. The most frequent taxa were: Amphibalanus improvisus, Chironomidae, Dreissena polymorpha, and Gammarus tigrinus. The fi ndings of this study clearly demonstrate the important role potentially played by small crafts in the introduction and spread of alien species not only in the River Odra estuary, but also in the coastal Baltic waters outside of the Odra plume.

  13. The role of melanism in oncillas on the temporal segregation of nocturnal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME Graipel

    Full Text Available The occurrence of coat colour polymorphisms in populations may promote the ecological success of species by permitting a wider spectrum of use of different subsets of available resources. We conducted an analysis of temporal segregation by comparing night brightness with nocturnal activity of spotted and melanistic oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus. Melanistic oncillas were more active during bright nights and spotted oncillas and other species were more active during dark nights. Each colour morph occupied a temporal niche outside the confidence interval of the other colour morph, demonstrating the ecological significance of polymorphic colour patterns in this felid species.

  14. Freqüência de parasitas intestinais em felinos mantidos em zoológicos Frequency of intestinal parasites in felines kept in zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C.K. Müller

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The endoparasites occurrence in felines confined in two Zoos, between December 1999 and April 2000, was studied. Fecal samples of 18 felines (Panthera tigris, Panthera leo, Felis serval, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii were collected and the methods of Faust, modified Baermann and Hoffmann, were used for fecal analyses. Three genera were identified in the feces: Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp. In the zoo of Pomerode, six animals (46% were infected by Trichuris spp. and/or Giardia spp. and all samples from the zoo of Brusque were infected by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp.

  15. Benthic non-indigenous species among indigenous species and their habitat preferences in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Janas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To date 11 non-indigenous benthic taxa have been reported in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea. Five of the 34 taxa forming the soft bottom communities are regarded as non-indigenous to this area. They are Marenzelleria spp., Mya arenaria, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus tigrinus and Amphibalanus improvisus. Non-indigenous species comprised up to 33% of the total number of identified macrofaunal taxa (mean 17%. The average proportion of aliens was 6% (max 46% in the total abundance of macrofauna, and 10% (max 65% in the biomass. A significant positive relationship was found between the numbers of native taxa and non-indigenous species. The number of native taxa was significantly higher on a sea bed covered with vascular plants than on an unvegetated one, but no such relationship was found for their abundance. No significant differences were found in the number and abundance of non-indigenous species between sea beds devoid of vegetation and those covered with vascular plants, Chara spp. or mats of filamentous algae. G. tigrinus preferred a sea bed with vegetation, whereas Marenzelleria spp. decidedly preferred one without vegetation.

  16. Benthic non-indigenous species among indigenous species and their habitat preferences in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea* This work was carried out under the ‘Ecosystem Approach to Marine Spatial Planning – Polish Marine Areas and the Natura 2000 Network’ project founded by an EEA grant from Iceland, Lichtenstein and Norway and partly by research grant BW/G 220-5-0232-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Janas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To date 11 non-indigenous benthic taxa have been reported in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea. Five of the 34 taxa forming the soft bottom communities are regarded as non-indigenous to this area. They are Marenzelleria spp., Mya arenaria, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus tigrinus and Amphibalanus improvisus. Non-indigenous species comprised up to 33% of the total number of identified macrofaunal taxa (mean 17%. The average proportion of aliens was 6% (max 46% in the total abundance of macrofauna, and 10% (max 65% in the biomass. A significant positive relationship was found between the numbers of native and non-indigenous taxa. The number of native taxa was significantly higher on a sea bed covered with vascular plants than on an unvegetated one, but no such relationship was found for their abundance. No significant differences were found in the number and abundance of non-indigenous species between sea beds devoid of vegetation and those covered with vascular plants, Chara spp. or mats of filamentous algae. G. tigrinus preferred a sea bed with vegetation, whereas Marenzelleria spp. decidedly preferred one without vegetation.

  17. Effects of anthropogenic salinization on biological traits and community composition of stream macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöcs, Eduard; Coring, Eckhard; Bäthe, Jürgen; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2014-01-15

    Salinization of rivers resulting from industrial discharge or road-deicing can adversely affect macroinvertebrates. Trait-based approaches are a promising tool in ecological monitoring and may perform better than taxonomy-based approaches. However only little is known how and which biological traits are affected by salinization. We investigated the effects of anthropogenic salinization on macroinvertebrate communities and biological traits in the Werra River, Germany and compared the taxonomic and trait response. We found a change in macroinvertebrate community and trait composition. Communities at saline sites were characterized by the three exotic species Gammarus tigrinus, Apocorophium lacustre and Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The frequencies of trait modalities long life cycle duration, respiration by gill, ovoviviparity, shredder and multivoltinism were statistically significantly increased at saline sites. The trait-based ordination resulted in a higher explained variance than the taxonomy-based ordination, indicating a better performance of the trait-based approach, resulting in a better discrimination between saline and non-saline sites. Our results are in general agreement with other studies from Europe, indicating a trait convergence for saline streams, being dominated by the traits ovoviviparity and multivoltinism. Three further traits (respiration by gill, life cycle duration and shredders) responded strongly to salinization, but this may primarily be attributed to the dominance of a single invasive species, G. tigrinus, at the saline sites in the Werra River. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  19. Soil-Geomorphic and Paleoclimatic Characteristics of the Fort Bliss Maneuver Areas, Southern New Mexico and Western Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-07

    Palynological Names SCIENIFC NAME- COMMON NAME Arberoal Tom. Carya Pecan Juglans Walnut Juniperus Juniper Picea Spruce Panus Pine Fragmentsl3 Pinus...type 0.5 1.0 Pinus 1.0 0.5 1.0 Juniperus 5.0 1.0 Quercus 1.5 6.0 Juglans X Carya X Nonarboreal Pollen Low-spine Compositae 18.0 28.5 12.0 High-spine...Quercus 6.0 1.5 0.5 2.0 Salix X 0.5 Carya X Juglans 0.5 X U/mus X 1.0 Prosopis 1.5 0.5 Nonarbereal Pollen Low-spine Compositae 35.0 13.0 33.0 19.0

  20. Toetades Ilvest, aitame Eestit!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    80 kultuuritegelase ja teadlase pöördumine valijameeste poole, milles nad võtavad endale vastutuse olla Toomas Hendrik Ilvese usaldusmeesteks ja tagavad, et nende presidendikandidaadist saab hea riigipea. Allakirjutanud tunnustavad president Arnold Rüütlit panuse eest Eesti ühinemisel Euroopa Liiduga, kuid heidavad ette tema viimase aja tegevust Eestimaa Rahvaliidu ja Eesti Keskerakonna huvides. Ilmunud ka: Eesti Päevaleht 14. sept. 2006, lk. 3; Järva Teataja 14. sept. 2006, lk. 2, pealk.: Ilvest toetades aitame Eestit; Virumaa Teataja, SL Õhtuleht, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 14. sept. 2006, lk. 11,12,2,2; Sakala, Hiiu Leht, Sirp, Meie Maa, Linnaleht : Tartu 15. sept.2006, lk. 2,2,19,2,A6; Lääne Elu 16. sept.2006, lk. 2, Vaba Eesti Sõna 15. sept. 2006, lk. 2

  1. Growth of higher fungi on wheat straw and their impact on the digestibility of the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyson, E.; Verachtert, H. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven (Belgium). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1991-12-01

    The influence of the growth of three higher fungi on the composition of wheat straw was investigated. Pleurotus pulmonarius, P. sajor-caju and Lentinus edodes grew very well on lignocellulosic substrates, breaking down a considerable amount of lignin. The initial lignin concentration of straw was halved after 12 weeks of fungal growth, doubling the enzymic digestibility. Together with lignin, the higher fungi consumed half of the amount of hemicellulose (i.e. 15%), leaving cellulose fairly intact, which should remain as an energy source for ruminants. (orig.).

  2. Effect of type of fungal culture, type of pellets and pH on the semi-continuous post-treatment of an anaerobically-pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo-Narvaez, P. N.; Ortega-Clemente, L. A.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N. F.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that fungi belonging to the Basidiomycetes (such as Trametes versicolor, Lentinus edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) are microorganisms with a demonstrated capability of degrading lignin and its derivatives using a powerful and diverse group of enzymes. Because of these features, ligninolytic fungi have been used for the treatment or post-treatment of a variety of recalcitrant and toxic effluents, those of the Kraft industry among them. Yet, most of reported fungal treatments so far required the supplementation with glucose or other soluble carbohydrates, pH 4 to 4,5, and their effective performance was demonstrated only for short periods of operation time. (Author)

  3. Effect of type of fungal culture, type of pellets and pH on the semi-continuous post-treatment of an anaerobically-pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo-Narvaez, P. N.; Ortega-Clemente, L. A.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N. F.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is well known that fungi belonging to the Basidiomycetes (such as Trametes versicolor, Lentinus edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) are microorganisms with a demonstrated capability of degrading lignin and its derivatives using a powerful and diverse group of enzymes. Because of these features, ligninolytic fungi have been used for the treatment or post-treatment of a variety of recalcitrant and toxic effluents, those of the Kraft industry among them. Yet, most of reported fungal treatments so far required the supplementation with glucose or other soluble carbohydrates, pH 4 to 4,5, and their effective performance was demonstrated only for short periods of operation time. (Author)

  4. Survey of radiocesium in domestic mushrooms on the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Uchiyama, Sadao; Saito, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    Domestic mushrooms on the market were tested for concentration of radiocesium; cesium-134 and 137 by γ-ray spectrometer. Cesium-137 was detected in most samples of dried and raw shiitake (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing.). The concentrations were from 6.7 to 73.9 Bq/kg in dried ones and from 1.3 to 6.4 Bq/kg in raw ones. It was not detected in enokitake (Flammulina veltipes (Fr.) Sing.) and shimeji (Lyophyllum aggregatum (Secr.) Kuhner and Pliurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Quel.). Cesium-134 was not found in all samples. (author)

  5. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the umami taste amino acids recovery from several cultivated mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Orlien, Vibeke; Passamonti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus...... significantly up to 20-fold compared to conventional HCl mediated extraction, depending on the mushroom species. The optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: water as extraction solvent (initial pH = 7), enzyme concentration of 5% v/w each of β-glucanase and Flavourzyme®, temperature 50 °C...

  6. A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-10-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on CM-cellulose. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees C and a pH optimum at 3.5.

  7. Evaluación de la actividad biológica de extractos acuosos de macromicetos del noreste de México

    OpenAIRE

    GARZA OCAÑAS, LOURDES; RAMÍREZ GÓMEZ, XÓCHITL S.; GARZA OCAÑAS, FORTUNATO; SALINAS CARMONA, MARIO C.; WAKSMAN DE TORRES, NOEMÍ; ALCARAZ CONTRERAS, YOLANDA; TORRES ALANÍS, OSCAR

    2006-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la citotoxicidad, el efecto inmunomodulador y antioxidante de extractos acuosos de Lentinus lepideus, Ganoderma applanatum, Armillaria tabescens y Calvatia cyathiformis. El efecto inmunomodulador se evaluó en ratones BALB/c de acuerdo a la técnica de Cunningham. La citotoxicidad se evaluó en células de hígado de Chang y Hep G2. El efecto antioxidante se determinó mediante la prueba del DCFDA. Todos los extractos produjeron un efecto antioxi...

  8. Antioxidant activity of edible fungi (truffles and mushrooms): losses during industrial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, M Antonia; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Jiménez, Antonia M; Vera, Ana M; Honrubia, Mario; Parras, Pilar

    2002-10-01

    The antioxidant properties of two raw truffles (Terfezia claveryi Chatin and Picoa juniperi Vittadini) and five raw mushrooms (Lepista nuda, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe cylindracea, Cantharellus lutescens, and Hydnum repandum) were tested by subjecting these truffles and mushrooms to different industrial processes (freezing and canning) and comparing them with common food antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol [E-307], BHA [E-320], BHT [E-321], and propyl gallate [E-310]) with regard to their ability to inhibit lipid oxidation. All of the truffles and mushrooms analyzed exhibited higher percentages of oxidation inhibition than did the food antioxidants according to assays based on lipid peroxidation (LOO*), deoxyribose (OH*), and peroxidase (H2O2). Frozen samples exhibited a small reduction in free radical scavenger activity, but the results did not show a significant difference (P Terfezia, Picoa, and Hydnum showed high or medium antioxidant activity. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay was used to provide a ranking order of antioxidant activity as measured against that of Trolox (a standard solution used to evaluate equivalent antioxidant capacity). The order of raw samples with regard to antioxidant capacity was as follows (in decreasing order): Cantharellus, Agrocybe, Lentinus, Terfezia, Picoa, Lepista, and Hydnum. Losses of antioxidant activity were detected in the processed samples of these truffles and mushrooms.

  9. Shiitake dermatitis: the first case reported in Brazil Dermatite flagelada por shiitake, primeiro relato de caso no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Adriano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake Dermatitis is often presented as papules and erythemato-violaceous linear streaks. It can be associated with bleomycin treatment, dermatomyositis and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes. There is not any previous report concerning this rare etiology in our country. Shiitake is the second most consumed mushroom worldwide and it can cause flagellate erythema when ingested raw or half cooked. It has a higher incidence in Oriental countries because of their eating habits, this is the first case reported in Brazil, in a male patient that presented a cutaneous rash after consuming this raw mushroom.A dermatite flagelada é caracterizada por pápulas eritematosas lineares com aspecto de "chicotada". A etiologia pode ser associada ao uso de bleomicina, dermatomiosite e shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Este é o segundo cogumelo mais consumido no mundo e pode ser causa de dermatite flagelada quando ingerido cru ou mal cozido. Não há relatos nas literaturas de quadro de dermatite flagelada por shiitake em nosso país, reportamos o primeiro caso no Brasil de um paciente masculino que desenvolveu o quadro após a ingesta desse cogumelo cru.

  10. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and sustainable exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been appreciated as sources of food nutrients and pharmacologically important compounds useful in medicine. Yet not all the medicinal properties of mushrooms have been exploited. The above statement is more pertinent to mushrooms that are indigenous to Nigeria. There are inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of these wild mushrooms. Information on the ethnomedicinal uses of some mushrooms such as Pleurotus tuber-regium used for headache, stomach pain fever, cold, constipation; Lentinus squarullosus for mumps, heart diseases; Termitomyces microcarpus for gonorrhea; Calvatia cyathiformis for leucorrhea, barreness; Ganoderma lucidum for treating arthritis, neoplasia; G. resinaceum used for hyperglycemia, liver diseases (hepatoprotector); G. applanatum used as antioxidant and for diabetes had been gathered through survey. The above information is mostly obtained from traditional herbalists who in most cases will not disclose their preparation compositions. A lot of these mushrooms are obtained only in the wild. Scientific documents of the identities and medicinal properties are still scanty. Preliminary studies on some species of Temitomyces, Lenzites and Lentinus species showed that they possess appreciable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Moreover, molecular characterization also reveals that they are not 100% homologous with existing sequences under the same name in GenBank. It is therefore pertinent that well structured studies on their ecology, identification and medicinal uses be carried out. This will make the full exploitation of the medicinal potentials of mushrooms indigenous to Nigeria realizable.

  11. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase. The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P<0.01 higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels.

  12. Parámetros genético poblacionales en seis especies de Felidae neotropicales ( Leopardus tigrina, L. wiedii, L. pardalis, Herpailurus jagouroundi, Puma concolor y Pantera onca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-García

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 196 muestras pertenecientes a 68 Leopardus pardalis (Ocelote; Colombia, Perú, a12 L. wiedi (Margay; Colombia y Bolivia, a 24 L. tigrinus (Tigrillo; Colombia, a 16 Herpailurus jagouroundi (yagouroundi; Colombia, Venezuela, Brasil a 50 Puma concolor (Puma; Colombia, Perú, Bolivia y a 24 Panthera onca (Jaguar; Colombia con 6 marcadores microsatélites diferentes (FCA08, FCA43, FCA45, FCA90, FCA96 y FCA126. Los resultados y conclusiones más obvias fueron las siguientes: (1 Para la mayoría de esas especies no se dio equilibrio Hardy- Weinberg cuando se analizaron individuos de localidades diferentes por exceso de homocigotos. Probablemente, el efecto Wahlund es responsable de ese hecho.

  13. Spatiotemporal Co-variability of Surface Climate for Renewable Energy across the Contiguous United States: Role of the North Atlantic Subtropical High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, K.; Steinschneider, S.

    2017-12-01

    The variability of renewable energy supply and drivers of demand across space and time largely determines the energy balance within power systems with a high penetration of renewable technologies. This study examines the joint spatiotemporal variability of summertime climate linked to renewable energy production (precipitation, wind speeds, insolation) and energy demand (temperature) across the contiguous United States (CONUS) between 1948 and 2015. Canonical correlation analysis is used to identify the major modes of joint variability between summer wind speeds and precipitation and related patterns of insolation and temperature. Canonical variates are then related to circulation anomalies to identify common drivers of the joint modes of climate variability. Results show that the first two modes of joint variability between summer wind speeds and precipitation exhibit pan-US dipole patterns with centers of action located in the eastern and central CONUS. Temperature and insolation also exhibit related US-wide dipoles. The relationship between canonical variates and lower-tropospheric geopotential height indicates that these modes are related to variability in the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH). This insight can inform optimal strategies for siting renewables in an interconnected electric grid, and has implications for the impacts of climate variability and change on renewable energy systems.

  14. MYCOBIOTA ASSOCIATED WITH Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN LUMBER DURING AIR DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Basílio Mesquita

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work’s main objective was to follow the air-drying of Eucalyptus grandis lumber, carried out in Lavras, MG, and to identify the mycobiota associated with the lumber at various phases of drying. The lumbers were obtained from eight 3.0 meter long logs from 27 year-old trees, planted in an experimental area of UFLA. Results showed that the air-drying of Eucalyptus grandis, started in January, demanded 158 days to achieve moisture content around 12.5 %. The moisture content-time curve was represented by a logarithmic equation with coefficient of determination equal to 98.3 %. The highest occurrence of fungi that cause surface mold and stain was observed at the beginning of the drying. The highest frequencies of fungi were verified at the beginning of the drying for Penicillium spp and Pestalotiopsis sp. The fungus Lentinus lepideus occurred with higher frequency at the end of the drying.

  15. Micobiota associada à madeira serrada de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden durante a secagem ao ar livre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Basílio Mesquita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work’s main objective was to follow the air-drying of Eucalyptus grandis lumber, carried out in Lavras, MG, and to identify the mycobiota associated with the lumber at various phases of drying. The lumbers were obtained from eight 3.0 meter long logs from 27 year-old trees, planted in an experimental area of UFLA. Results showed that the air-drying of Eucalyptus grandis, started in January, demanded 158 days to achieve moisture content around 12.5 %. The moisture content-time curve was represented by a logarithmic equation with coefficient of determination equal to 98.3 %. The highest occurrence of fungi that cause surface mold and stain was observed at the beginning of the drying. The highest frequencies of fungi were verified at the beginning of the drying for Penicillium spp and Pestalotiopsis sp. The fungus Lentinus lepideus occurred with higher frequency at the end of the drying.

  16. Rapid and efficient protocol for DNA extraction and molecular identification of the basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, S C O; Pungartnik, C; Cascardo, J C M; Brendel, M

    2006-12-14

    DNA isolation from some fungal organisms is difficult because they have cell walls or capsules that are relatively unsusceptible to lysis. Beginning with a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic DNA isolation method, we developed a 30-min DNA isolation protocol for filamentous fungi by combining cell wall digestion with cell disruption by glass beads. High-quality DNA was isolated with good yield from the hyphae of Crinipellis perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease in cacao, from three other filamentous fungi, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus blazei, Trichoderma stromaticum, and from the yeast S. cerevisiae. Genomic DNA was suitable for PCR of specific actin primers of C. perniciosa, allowing it to be differentiated from fungal contaminants, including its natural competitor, T. stromaticum.

  17. Physiological Characterization of Fungal Inoculum for Biotechnological Remediation of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Ballaminut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the bioremediating potential of Lentinus crinitus CCIBt2611 according to the physiological condition of the inoculum. Inoculum was prepared using sugarcane ground husk (C:N 90, at several physiological ages and applied in soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol. The inoculum's potential was assessed by evaluating the mycelium's vigor at soil's colonization, determination of peroxidase and phenoloxidase activities, in vitro degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and in vivo degradation of pentachlorophenol. The results showed that the assessed parameters were relevant to identify the quality of the inoculum. For L. crinitus, 10 day old inoculum showed good soil-colonization speed with significant enzymatic activities, indicating the role of Manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase in degradation, and efficient degradation of pentachlorophenol.

  18. Concentration of radiocesium in cultivated mushrooms and substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Higasa, Mamoru; Urabe, Ken-ichi; Haraguchi, Masato; Omura, Toshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in mushrooms cultivated in Saitama prefecture and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In all mushrooms and substrates, 134 Cs was not detected. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms were in the range of 0.012 - 2.1 Bq/kg·fresh, and those in substrates were in the range of 0.080 - 1.8 Bq/kg·dry. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms varied widely with mushroom species, and the average concentration of 137 Cs in Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) was over 30 times higher than that in Pleurotus ostreatus (Hiratake). Mushroom-to-substrate concentration ratios of 137 Cs (fresh/dry) were 0.11-0.53. They were higher than the reported transfer factors for common agricultural plants. (author)

  19. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  20. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  1. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  2. Measurement of activity concentrations for 137Cs and 40K in edible wild mushrooms collected from Mangshi, Yunnan province and evaluation of dose to adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Fei; Xu Cuihua; Zhang Jing; Li Wenhong; Zhou Qiang; Zhang Qing; Su Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity concentration of radionuclides for 137 Cs and 40 K in edible wild mushrooms, and to evaluate the extent of radioactive contamination and ingestion doses to adults from consumption of these wild mushrooms. Methods: A total of 33 samples for 18 edible wild mushroom species were collected from natural forest Mangshi, Yunnan province. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K were analyzed by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. Results: Except for one sample that was below the MDA, 137 Cs artificial radionuclides were detected in other 32 samples, with activity concentration of 137 Cs in the range of 0.45-339.58 Bq/kg (dry weight) and an average of 25.47 Bq/kg (dry weight). In regards to 40 K in edible mushrooms, all species presented the activity concentrations for this radionuclide and the levels varied from 453.4 to 1882.6 Bq/kg (dry weight), with an average of 815.1 Bq/kg (dry weight). After species of mushroom with only one sample were eliminated, there was significant difference for 137 Cs(F = 21.13, P < 0.05) among 6 species of mushroom named Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing., Boletus edulis bull, Boletus edulis bull, Tylopllus bolloul (Peck) Sing., Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. and Boletus brunneissimus W.F.Chin, but without significant difference for 40 K. Conclusions: These 6 different mushroom species have different capacity to retain radionuclides of 137 Cs in soil. These wild mushrooms, such as Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing. and Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. have large affinity ability for radionuclides 137 Cs. The effective dose to adults attributable to consuming these kinds of mushrooms is small and below the level that could cause harm. (authors)

  3. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes Produção de ligninases por linhagens de fungos Basidiomicetos usando resíduos agrícolas lignocelulósicos e aplicação das enzimas na descoloração de corantes sintéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL-1 and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP and lignin peroxidase (LiP (7 and 8 U mL-1, respectively, when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60°C while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55°C. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes.Fungos decompositores de madeira, do grupo Basidiomicetes, coletados na "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, pertencentes a ordem Aphyllophorales e identificados como Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp. SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 e Phellinus rimosus SXS47 foram estudados para a produção de ligninases por FES (fermentação em estado sólido usando farelo de trigo ou palha de arroz como meio de cultura. A espécie C

  4. The vertebrates’ fauna from Universidade Estadual de Londrina campus, northern Paraná State, Brazil A fauna de vertebrados do campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, região norte do estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Assêncio Machado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective to make a survey of vertebrates’ fauna from Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL campus, for the compilation of literature, in order to help its management and preservation. 250 species were identified, being nine of fish, 15 of amphibians, 16 of reptiles, 32 of mammals and 178 of birds. Two species, the gato-do-mato Leopardus tigrinus and the jandaia-da-testa-vermelha Aratinga auricapillus, are in the list of species threatened by extinction. Most species, however, are not stenoecious or endemic to the area, which corresponds to an environment under stress and often visited by humans. Despite UEL’s rich diversity of wild animals, the burying of stream Esperança, the reduction of green areas and waterproofing of the ground can reduce de diversity of species in a medium or long term. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um levantamento da fauna de vertebrados do campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL, pela compilação da literatura, com vistas a auxiliar o seu manejo e preservação. Foram registradas 250 espécies, sendo nove de peixes, 15 de anfíbios, 16 de répteis, 32 de mamíferos e 178 de aves. Duas espécies, o gato-do-mato Leopardus tigrinus e a jandaia-de-testa-vermelha Aratinga auricapillus figuram em listas de fauna ameaçada de extinção. A maioria das espécies, no entanto, não é estenóica ou endêmica da área, o que condiz com um ambiente perturbado e muito freqüentado pela população humana. O assoreamento do ribeirão Esperança, a redução de áreas verdes e a impermeabilização do solo podem reduzir a diversidade de espécies em médio a longo prazos.

  5. Contrasting patterns in genetic diversity following multiple invasions of fresh and brackish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David W; Muirhead, James R; Heath, Daniel D; Macisaac, Hugh J

    2006-10-01

    Biological invasions may combine the genetic effects of population bottlenecks and selection and thus provide valuable insight into the role of such processes during novel environmental colonizations. However, these processes are also influenced by multiple invasions, the number of individuals introduced and the degree of similarity between source and receiving habitats. The amphipod Gammarus tigrinus provides a useful model to assess these factors, as its invasion history has involved major environmental transitions. This species is native to the northwest Atlantic Ocean, although it invaded both brackish and freshwater habitats in the British Isles after introduction more than 65 years ago. It has also spread to similar habitats in Western Europe and, most recently, to Eastern Europe, the Baltic Sea, and the Laurentian Great Lakes. To examine sources of invasion and patterns of genetic change, we sampled populations from 13 native estuaries and 19 invaded sites and sequenced 542 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene. Strong native phylogeographical structure allowed us to unambiguously identify three allopatrically evolved clades (2.3-3.1% divergent) in invading populations, indicative of multiple introductions. The most divergent clades occurred in the British Isles and mainland Europe and were sourced from the St Lawrence and Chesapeake/Delaware Bay estuaries. A third clade was found in the Great Lakes and sourced to the Hudson River estuary. Despite extensive sampling, G. tigrinus did not occur in freshwater at putative source sites. Some European populations showed reduced genetic diversity consistent with bottlenecks, although selection effects cannot be excluded. The habitat distribution of clades in Europe was congruent with the known invasion history of secondary spread from the British Isles. Differences in salinity tolerance among lineages were suggested by patterns of habitat colonization by different native COI clades. Populations consisting of admixtures

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  7. Running over of mammals on roads of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Road deaths represent a factor of great impact on fauna. This is probably one of the main causes of mortality, even for threatened species. However, studies on this subject are unknown in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Considering this lack, the present study presents records of medium to large-sized mammals killed by vehicles on the roads of this state between August 2000 and November 2005. In total, 257 records were made from 20 mammal species, most of which were obtained from the BR 116, BR 282 and BR 470 highways. Cerdocyon thous was the commonest species (82 records; 31.9%, followed by Didelphis albiventris (44; 17.1%, Procyon cancrivorus (21; 8.2%, Conepatus chinga (19; 7.4%, Dasypus novemcinctus (14; 5.4%, Tamandua tetradactyla (14; 5.4% and Sphiggurus villosus (13; 5.1%. Leopardus tigrinus (5; 1.9%, L. wiedii (1; 0.4% and one unidentified Leopardus individual were recorded as threatened species. This indicates a high number of mammals run over on the roads of Santa Catarina state, and hence the necessity of specific studies on this subject and the construction of tunnels and fences for animal passage.

  8. Wolbachia Occurrence in Planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Vectors of Cereal Viruses in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattio, M F; Argüello Caro, E B; Rodriguero, M S; Dumón, A D; Alemandri, V M; Truol, G

    2015-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are the most important cereal crops for the Argentinean economy and are affected by several diseases. Different planthopper species transmit causal agents of some of those diseases, including Mal de Río Cuarto virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus, and the recently proposed maize yellow striate virus. Many planthopper species are sap feeders and therefore are expected to host bacteria providing essential nutrients lacking in the diet. Previous studies have evidenced that some of these bacterial symbionts are involved in the virus transmission. Wolbachia is a group of obligate intracellular bacteria infecting numerous arthropod species and causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. These bacteria have been detected in planthopper species, considered rice pests in various regions of the world. To date, Wolbachia infection status of planthopper species of Argentina is unknown. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA, wsp- and ftsZ-specific genes demonstrated Wolbachia infection in Caenodelphax teapae (Fowler), Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah, Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir), and Toya propinqua (Fieber). This is the first report of Wolbachia in delphacid vectors of viruses affecting maize and wheat. An understanding of the bacterial diversity harbored by these insect vectors could lead to new options for future management of diseases of economically important crops in a developing country. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsback, Luciane; Cardoso, Mauro José Lahm; Fagnani, Rafael; Patelli, Thaís Helena Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.

  10. Non-native marine invertebrates are more tolerant towards environmental stress than taxonomically related native species: results from a globally replicated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Mark; da Gama, Bernardo A P; Gerner, Nadine V; Gobin, Judith; Gröner, Frederike; Harry, Anil; Jenkins, Stuart R; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Mummelthei, Corinna; Sareyka, Jörg; Xavier, Eduardo A; Wahl, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To predict the risk associated with future introductions, ecologists seek to identify traits that determine the invasiveness of species. Among numerous designated characteristics, tolerance towards environmental stress is one of the most favored. However, there is little empirical support for the assumption that non-native species generally cope better with temporarily unfavorable conditions than native species. To test this concept, we ran five pairwise comparisons between native and non-native marine invertebrates at temperate, subtropical, and tropical sites. We included (natives named first) six bivalves: Brachidontes exustus and Perna viridis, P. perna and Isognomon bicolor, Saccostrea glomerata and Crassostrea gigas, two ascidians: Diplosoma listerianum and Didemnum vexillum as well as two crustaceans: Gammarus zaddachi and G. tigrinus. We simulated acute fluctuations in salinity, oxygen concentration, and temperature, while we measured respiration and survival rates. Under stressful conditions, non-native species consistently showed less pronounced deviations from their normal respiratory performance than their native counterparts. We suggest that this indicates that they have a wider tolerance range. Furthermore, they also revealed higher survival rates under stress. Thus, stress tolerance seems to be a property of successful invaders and could therefore be a useful criterion for screening profiles and risk assessment protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological indicators of environmental quality in the Elbe-, Weser- and Ems-estuary. Pt. 1. Distribution and life-cycle of euryhaline gammarid species (Amphipoda, Crustacea). Untersuchungen zur Verwendung von Bioindikatoren fuer die Umweltueberwachung im Aestuarbereich der Elbe, Weser und Ems. T. 1. Zum Vorkommen und Lebenszyklus euryhaliner Gammariden im Elbe-, Weser- und Ems-Astuar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurs, H.G.; Todeskino, D.; Baeumer, H.P.; Butte, W.; Zauke, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    Euryhaline gammarids from the Elbe-, Weser- and Ems-estuary are biologically characterised as a basis for the valuation of their heavy metal body burden. Subjects of this investigation are: 1) Species distribution within estuaries in relation to the salinity regime, 2) seasonal changes in species composition within specific habitats of the mixo-mesohaline region and 3) analysis of the life-cycle of the dominant species on the basis of monthly taken samples. With increasing salinity the following species have been found: Gammarus duebeni, G. tigrinus, G. zaddachi, G. salinus and Chaetogammarus marinus. G. salinus is in reproduction from March until November with a maximum in May/June. After an estimated life-span of approximately 9-12 months, the G. salinus specimen from the previous reproduction phase are supposed to die in the following July. Regarding specific habitats within the mixo-mesohaline region, G. salinus is displaced by immigrating G. zaddachi during the winter. The immigration is discussed in relation to the evolution of reproductive strategies. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 23 figs., 188 refs.

  12. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  13. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  14. Using detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat to expand knowledge and assist felid conservation in Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatteo, Karen E; Rinas, Miguel A; Argüelles, Carina F; Holman, Bernardo E; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Davenport, Barbara; Parker, Patricia G; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-11-01

    Many carnivores require large ranges to meet their ecological and energetic needs; however, anthropogenic changes threaten species and their habitats. Camera traps have been used to effectively collect data on carnivores in a variety of habitat types; however, a single survey effort is typically limited to species that have similar body size, habitat use and movement patterns, and individual identification of animals is not always possible. We evaluated whether scat detection dogs could effectively survey for 4 wide-ranging felids that vary in these characteristics: jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). From June to October 2009 and May to August 2011, a detection dog-handler team detected 588 scats, from which 176 unique genotypes were detected. We assigned sex to 84.7% of the genotyped scats and identified 55 individuals multiple times. The effectiveness of these noninvasive techniques (detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat) not only opens the door for additional studies in areas that were previously difficult or impossible with standard survey techniques, but also provides conservationists with a set of tools that overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of camera traps alone. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  16. ARTRÓPODOS ASOCIADOS A SEIS ESPECIES DE HONGOS COMESTIBLES DE OCURRENCIA NATURAL EN MANAUS, AMAZONAS, BRASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andre Amaringo-Cortegano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los artrópodos pueden afectar directamente el desarrollo micelial y de basidiomas, siendo el cultivo de hongos una actividad perjudicada, produciéndose daños reflejados en pérdidas de producción y calidad del hongo. De ahí la importancia del conocimiento de artrópodos asociados a hongos comestibles en estados silvestres puede ayudar en el establecimiento de sistemas de prevención, que permitan controlar y manejar las posibles plagas potenciales de especies de hongos en el futuro. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar artrópodos asociados a seis especies de hongos comestibles de ocurrencia natural en Manaus-Amazonas-Brasil. Las muestras de artrópodos pertenecieron a colectas de basidiomas de Lentinula raphanica, Favolus brasiliensis, Oudemansiella cf. platensis, Panus strigellus, Pleurotus djamor y Pleurotus sp., encontrados en diferentes zonas de Manaus, desde noviembre del 2008 hasta mayo del 2011. Los grupos de artrópodos encontrados con mayor frecuencia fueron Staphylinidae (Coleoptera en L. raphanica, P. strigellus y Pleurotus sp.; Siphonophorida (Diplopoda en O. cf. platensis; Mesostigmata (Acari en F. brasiliensis y P. djamor. Además, se observó que Staphylinidae (Coleoptera y Formicidae (Hymenoptera se encontraron asociados a las especies de hongos comestibles en estudio, excepto en O. cf. platensis. De esta manera podemos afirmar que los artrópodos asociados a hongos comestibles amazónicos con potencial de cultivo, se constituyen por ser posibles plagas y considerando los daños causados por artrópodos podrían afectar la calidad comercial de los hongos en un cultivo comercial. Palavras-chave: cultivo de hongos; plagas potenciales; basidioma; micofagia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p54-63

  17. Influence of pH on the growth, laccase activity and RBBR decolorization by tropical basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Moreira Neto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungi Lentinus crinitus and Psilocybe castanella are being evaluated in a bioremediation process of soils contaminated with organochlorine industrial residues in the Baixada Santista, São Paulo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of pH on the fungal growth, in vitro decolorization of anthraquinonic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR and laccase activity. The pH of the culture medium influenced the growth of L. crinitus and P. castanella, which presented less growth at pH 5.9 and pH 2.7, respectively. The fungi were able to modify the pH of the culture medium, adjusting it to the optimum pH for growth which was close to 4.5. Decolorization of the RBBR was maximal at a pH of 2.5 to 3.5. Higher laccase activity was observed at pH 3.5 and pH 4.5 for L. crinitus and P. castanella, respectively. pH was found to be an important parameter for both the growth of these fungi and the enzymatic system involved in RBBR decolorization.Os fungos basidiomicetos Lentinus crinitus e Psilocybe castanella estão sendo avaliados em processo de biorremediação de solos contaminados com resíduos industriais organoclorados, na Baixada Santista, SP. O presente estudo avaliou a influência do pH no crescimento, na descoloração in vitro do corante Azul Brilhante de Remazol R (RBBR e na atividade de lacase durante cultivo destes fungos, de forma a subsidiar a otimização do processo. O pH do meio influenciou o crescimento de L. crinitus e de P. castanella, com menor biomassa em pH 5,9 e pH 2,7, respectivamente. Os fungos foram capazes de modificar o pH inicial do meio de cultura, de modo a ajustá-lo ao valor ótimo de crescimento, próximo a 4,5. Descoloração in vitro do RBBR foi máxima em pH 2,5 e 3,5. Maiores atividades de lacase foram obtidas em pH 3,5 e em pH 4,5 para L. crinitus e P. castanella, respectivamente. Evidenciou-se que o pH é um parâmetro importante para o crescimento destes fungos, atividade de lacase

  18. Radiopasteurization of sawdust media used in propagation of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Sato, Tomotaro

    1975-01-01

    In our country, cultivation of mushrooms such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Kuehneromyces nameko, and Lentinus edodes (Cortinellus shiitake) are expanding, and has reached considerable amounts. These mushrooms are cultivated generally on decaying logs of broad leaf trees. Recently, these mushrooms are also cultivated artificially on the sawdust-media containing rice bran and other nutrient in the room of which temperature is controlled. However, these artificial culture media must be germicidated for 2 or 6 hours at 100 to 120 0 C before inoculation of mushroom spawn. In this study, attempts were made to cultivate Pleurotus ostreatus on the sawdust-media pasteurized by ionizing radiation. Inhibition of mushrooms growth were caused mainly by multiplication of Citrobacter and Fusarium, and these organisms were eliminated by a dose of 0.5 Mrad gamma irradiation. A surprising result was that many of sawdust media subjected to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad increased mycelial growth rates more than heat treatments, and also mushroom yields were enhanced. The multiplication of remaining microorganisms such as Bacillus and yeasts after irradiation with a dose of 0.5 Mrad or 1.0 Mrad did not inhibit the mycelial growth of mushrooms. (auth.)

  19. Evaluation of the Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild and Cultivated Mushrooms of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Obodai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarrosulus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Three Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Tripura, Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparajita Roy; Borthakur, Madhusmita; Saha, Ajay Krishna; Joshi, Santa Ram; Das, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 3 wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms using molecular tools and to analyze their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties were studied by evaluating free radical scavenging, reducing power, and chelating effect. The mushrooms were identified as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium, and Macrocybe gigantean by amplifying internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of M. gigantean has the highest free radical scavenging effect and chelating effect, whereas the methanolic extract of L. squarrosulus has the highest reducing power. The highest total phenol content and the most ascorbic acid were found in the M. gigantean extracts. Among the 3 mushroom extracts, M. gigantean displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. Molecular characterization using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region as a universal DNA marker was an effective tool in the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the studied mushrooms. The study also indicated that these wild macrofungi are rich sources of natural antioxidants.

  1. Vitamin D2 Stability During the Refrigerated Storage of Ultraviolet B-Treated Cultivated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Jablonska-Rys, Ewa; Parfieniuk, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on the synthesis of vitamin D2 and its stability during refrigerated storage was determined in fresh cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinus edodes) after harvest. The irradiated mushrooms were stored at 4°C for up to 10 days. The concentrations of vitamin D2 and ergosterol were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The cultivated mushrooms not treated with UVB were devoid of vitamin D2. After UVB irradiation, we obtained mushrooms with a large amount of ergocalciferol. A. bisporus showed the lowest vitamin D2 content (3.55 ± 0.11 μg D2/g dry weight); P. ostreatus contained 58.96 ± 1.15 μg D2/g dry weight, and L. edodes contained 29.46 ± 2.21 μg/g dry weight. During storage at 4°C, the amount of vitamin D2 was gradually decreased in P. ostreatus and L. edodes, whereas in A. bisporus vitamin D2 gradually increased until the sixth day, then decreased. Mushrooms exposed to UVB radiation contain a significant amount of vitamin D2 and are therefore an excellent food source of vitamin D.

  2. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  3. Is Widely Cultivated "Pleurotus sajor-caju", Especially in Asia, Indeed an Independent Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmitrovich, Ivan V; Wasser, Solomon P

    2016-01-01

    In modern mycology, the name "Pleurotus sajor-caju" has 2 meanings: a strict taxonomical meaning refers to its nomenclatural synonym Lentinus sajor-caju, and a more widely distributed biotechnological meaning refers to a strain determined as "Pleurotus sajor-caju" but that belongs to true Pleurotus. The main purpose of this article is to highlight the taxonomic status and to give the correct name for this problematic member of Pleurotus. Both microscopic analysis and BLAST search results (internal transcribed spacer homology varies between 97% and 100%) provide the position of the fungus in question into the range of infraspecific radiation of P. pulmonarius. It was shown that the fungus represents a tropical ecotype of P. pulmonarius, and a new variety (P. pulmonarius var. stechangii) was described for its taxonomic representation. This variety was named in honor of Professor S.-T. Chang, a great mycologist who introduced this taxon to the mushroom industry. A formal change in the anamorphic name of the fungus in question is provided, too, and a new name is presented: Antromycopsis stechangii.

  4. Study on the effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions; Seitai kino eno bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions and vital reaction was studied using the facility of Underground Gravity-free Experiment Center Co. On the effect on osteoblast shape and gene expression, although fluorochrome reacting with Ca was well taken into cells, no significant difference in Ca content in cells was observed before/after falling. Expression of genes related to cell propagation was controlled under micro-gravity. Protoplast fusion of Lentinus was unaffected by micro-gravity. The mRNA fragments of gravity sensitive mutant of rice plant were affected by micro-gravity. Paramecium was set swimming in solutions with different specific gravities. The reaction behavior of Paramecium was affected by the difference in specific gravity between cell bodies and solutions. The water content metabolism functions of a mouse with needle stimulus, in particular excretory, were slightly promoted by micro- gravity. The cortisol level in blood of a falling mouse group rose showing strong stress. As the preliminary study on the geotaxis of insects, motion of bagworm was observed. 12 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Personal-Care Products Formulated with Natural Antioxidant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Soto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of some vegetal raw materials in personal-care products. Four ethanolic extracts (grape pomace, Pinus pinaster wood chips, Acacia dealbata flowers, and Lentinus edodes were prepared and total phenolics, monomeric sugars, and antioxidant capacity were determined on alcoholic extracts. Six of the most important groups of cosmetics products (hand cream, body oil, shampoo, clay mask, body exfoliating cream, and skin cleanser were formulated. Participants evaluated some sensory attributes and overall acceptance by a 10-point scale; the results showed differences among age-intervals, but not between males and females. The results confirmed that all extracts presented characteristics appropriate for their use in cosmetic formulations and their good acceptability by consumers into all cosmetic products. Texture/appearance, spreadability, and skin feeling are important attributes among consumer expectations, but odor and color were the primary drivers and helped differentiate the natural extracts added into all personal-care products.

  6. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, S P; Weis, A L

    1999-01-01

    This review highlights some of the recently isolated and identified substances of higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms origin that express promising antitumor, immune modulating, cardiovascular and hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. Medicinal mushrooms have a long history of use in folk medicine. In particular, mushrooms useful against cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lungs, etc. are known in China, Russia, Japan, Korea, as well as the U.S.A. and Canada. There are about 200 species of mushrooms that have been found to markedly inhibit the growth of different kinds of tumors. Searching for new antitumor and other medicinal substances from mushrooms and to study the medicinal value of these mushrooms have become a matter of great significance. However, most of the mushroom origin antitumor substances have not been clearly defined. Several antitumor polysaccharides such as hetero-beta-glucans and their protein complexes (e.g., xyloglucans and acidic beta-glucan-containing uronic acid), as well as dietary fibers, lectins, and terpenoids have been isolated from medicinal mushrooms. In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Inonotus obliquus, and Flammulina velutipes). Both cellular components and secondary metabolites of a large number of mushrooms have been shown to effect the immune system of the host and therefore could be used to treat a variety of disease states.

  7. The Anticaries Effect of a Food Extract (Shiitake in a Short-Term Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lingström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to investigate whether low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom shiitake extract (Lentinus edodes possesses caries-preventive properties. The study was designed as a double-blind, three-leg, cross-over, randomized, controlled clinical trial carried out on two series of volunteers at the University of Gothenburg, and the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam. Volunteers rinsed twice daily with a solution containing low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom, placebo (negative control without active ingredients, or Meridol (positive control, AmF-SnF2 for two weeks, with a two-week washout period between each rinsing period. Changes in the acidogenicity of dental plaque before and after a sucrose challenge, shifts in microbial composition, and plaque scores were determined. Frequent rinses with shiitake reduced the metabolic activity of dental plaque. No reduction of plaque scores and no inhibition of the production of organic acids in plaque was found. Minor differences in microbial composition between test sessions were found. To conclude, the results indicate that shiitake extract has anticariogenic potential, but not to the same extent as the positive control.

  8. On the reaction of some bacteria and fungi on coal tar creosote. Zur Verhalten einiger Bakterien und Pilze gegenueber Steinkohlenteeroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, O.; Dittberner, D.; Faix, O. (Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Ordinariat fuer Holzbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    To contribute to the waste management of wood preservatives, the biodegradability of coal tar creosote by bacteria and fungi has been investigated. Microorganisms comprised 24 bacterial strains and 31 fungi from different systematic and ecological groups as well as isolates from contaminated soils. Based on countings of viable cells, the experiments with various nutrient media, methods of cultivation, preservative concentrations, and organic solvents yielded some bacteria which could grow in the presence of creosote: {ital Aeromonas hydrophila}, {ital Flavobacterium} sp., {ital Pseudomonas arvilla}, {ital P. fluorescens}, and {ital P. putida}. The white-rot fungi {ital Bjerkandera adusta}, {ital Heterobasidion annosum}, {ital Hirschioporus abietinus}, {ital Lentinula edodes}, {ital Peniophora gigantea}, {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Schizophyllum commune}, and {ital Trametes versicolor}, the brown-rot fungus {ital Lentinus lepideus}, the staining fungi {ital Ceratocystis piceae} and {ital Stereum sanguinolentum}, and the moulds {ital Paecilomyces variotii} and {ital Trichoderma viride} also grew with creosote. To prepare samples for IR-measurements, continuous extraction of creosote from the nutrient liquid by percolation with methylene chloride was suitable. However, the IR-spectra of creosote did not show any measurable changes after incubation with 16 bacterial strains and 6 fungi. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. ACCELERATED LABORATORY TEST OF THREE AMAZONIAN WOOD SPECIES CALLED TAUARI, EXPOSED TO WHITE- AND BROWN-ROT FUNGI AND COLOR RESPONSE ACCORDING TO CIE L* A* B* SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to: evaluate de natural durability of three species of tauari ( Couratari guianensis Aublet , Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & R.Knuth and Couratari stellata A.C.Smith, report the colorimetric parameters according to CIE L*a*b* 1976 system and also show the appearance of control and attacked wood blocks. Two brown-rot [ Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon ex Fries Murril. and Lentinus lepideus Fr.] and two white-rot [ Trametes versicolor (Linnaeus ex Fries Pilat and Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. ex Wallr.] fungi were used . Tauari wood was classed as “moderately resistant” to “resistant” when exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum fungi. All extractives’ contents of attacked samples decreased when compared with the control (sound wood, except Couratari stellata exposed to Ganoderma applanatum. Conversely, all ash contents increased when compared with the control, except Couratari stellata exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum. All attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples were darker, except wood meal from Couratari stellata exposed to Trametes versicolor , and redder than the control. The ∆ E* mean value in attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples attained 29.5 and 14.3, respectively.

  10. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN THE AROMA OF THREE SPECIES OF WOOD-ROTTING BASIDIOMYCETES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Virginia PETRE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the volatile organic compounds synthesized by three species of wood-rotting basidiomycetes: Coriolopsis gallica, Megacollybia platyphylla and Lentinus arcularius and test their antifungal potential. The species were cultivated on liquid media and kept for 25 days at 25 °C. The surface cultures were then homogenized, filtrated and extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile compounds identified were mainly alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes. The most common volatiles identified in the experiment are: 1-octen-3-ol, 3-hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-octanone, 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, and limonene. The volatiles metabolites of these species were tested for their antifungal activity using the bi-compartmented Petri dishes method against two species of plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, on three media. The volatiles produced by Coriolopsis gallica showed the highest antifungal potential against the phytopathogens. The results revealed the importance of media composition in the synthesis of antifungal volatile compounds.

  11. Impact of fire on the macrofungal diversity in scrub jungles of south-west India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammatanda A. Greeshma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly survey in control and fire-impacted regions of scrub jungle of south-west coast of India during south-west monsoon (50 m2 quadrats up to 10 weeks yielded 34 and 25 species of macrofungi, respectively. The species as well as sporocarp richness were the highest during the fourth week, while the diversity attained the highest during the second week in control region. In fire-impacted region, the species and sporocarp richness and diversity peaked at sixth week. Seven species common to both regions were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Lepiota sp., Leucocoprinus birnbaumii, Marasmius sp. 3, Polyporus sp., Schizophyllum commune and Tetrapyrgos nigripes. The overall sporocarp richness was higher in fire-impacted than in control region. The Jaccard’s similarity between regions was 13.5%, while fortnights of regions ranged from 0% (10th week to 11.7% (eighth week. Control region showed single-species dominance by Xylaria hypoxylon, while multispecies dominance by Cyathus striatus and Lentinus squarrosulus in fire-impacted region. Except for air temperature, nine abiotic factors significantly differed between control and fire-impacted regions. The Pearson correlation was positive between species richness and phosphorus content in fire-impacted region (r = 0.696, while sporocarp richness was negatively correlated with pH in control region (r = −0.640. Economically viable species were 12 and 10 without overlap in control and fire-impacted regions, respectively.

  12. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-01-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  13. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum.

  14. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  15. Quantification of Water-Soluble Metabolites in Medicinal Mushrooms Using Proton NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Mishchuk, Darya O; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble metabolites in 5 mushrooms were identified and quantified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and software for targeted metabolite detection and quantification. In total, 35 compounds were found in Agaricus brasiliensis, 25 in Taiwanofungus camphoratus, 23 in Ganoderma lucidum (Taiwan) and Lentinus edodes, and 16 in G. lucidum (China). Total amounts of all identified metabolites in A. brasiliensis, T. camphoratus, G. lucidum, G. lucidum (China), and L. edodes were 149,950.51, 12,834.18, 9,549.09, 2,788.41, and 111,726.51 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. These metabolites were categorized into 4 groups: free amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleosides. Carbohydrates were the most abundant metabolites among all 4 groups, with mannitol having the highest concentration among all analyzed metabolites (848-94,104 mg/kg dry weight). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed obvious distinction among the metabolites of the 5 different kinds of mushrooms analyzed in this study. Thus PCA could provide an optional analytical way of identifying and recognizing the compositions of flavor products. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that NMRbased metabolomics is a powerful tool for differentiating between various medicinal mushrooms.

  16. Edible wild mushrooms of the Western Ghats: Data on the ethnic knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namera C. Karun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible wild mushrooms are most important in food security of ethnic groups and tribals throughout the world. Various indigenous strategies are followed to trace wild mushrooms suitable for human consumption. Data presented in this article projects ethnic knowledge on 51 edible wild mushrooms (in 23 genera in the Western Ghats region of India. Information collected with support of ethnic groups/tribals pertains to habitats, substrates, mutualistic association, extent of availability, extent of edibility and method of processing of wild mushrooms. Extensive field visits and interactions with ethnic groups were performed to collect the data on each mushroom. Initially, most of these mushrooms were identified based on the indigenous methods and designated with vernacular names (Are-Gowda, Kodava and Tulu. Based on macromorphology (in field and micromorphology (in laboratory, each mushroom was identified with its systematic name. Among the 51 wild mushrooms irrespective of extent of availability, the most preferred include Astraeus hygrometricus, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Fistulina hepatica, Lentinus sajor-caju, Pleurotus (5 spp. and Scleroderma citrinum and Termitomyces (18 spp.. This data forecasts the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge, protection of habitats, management of resources (tree species and substrates and sustainable exploitation of wild mushrooms.

  17. MICOBIOTA ASSOCIADA À MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN DURANTE A SECAGEM AO AR LIVRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o de acompanhar a secagem ao ar livre da madeira serrada de Eucalyptus grandis conduzida na região de Lavras, MG e identificar a micobiota associada à madeira em diversas fases da secagem. As tábuas foram cortadas de oito toras de 3,0 m de comprimento, oriundas de três árvores, com 27 anos de idade, plantadas em área experimental da UFLA. Dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis ao ar livre, iniciada em janeiro, consumiu 158 dias até atingir umidade próxima a 12,5%. A curva de secagem foi representada por uma equação logarítmica com coeficiente de determinação (R2 igual a 98,3%. Os fungos causadores de bolores superficiais e de manchas tiveram maior ocorrência no início da secagem. As mais altas freqüências de fungos, verificadas no início da secagem, foram observadas para Penicillium spp. e Pestalotiopsis sp. O fungo Lentinus lepideus ocorreu com maior freqüência no final da secagem.

  18. Edible wild mushrooms of the Western Ghats: Data on the ethnic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karun, Namera C; Sridhar, Kandikere R

    2017-10-01

    The edible wild mushrooms are most important in food security of ethnic groups and tribals throughout the world. Various indigenous strategies are followed to trace wild mushrooms suitable for human consumption. Data presented in this article projects ethnic knowledge on 51 edible wild mushrooms (in 23 genera) in the Western Ghats region of India. Information collected with support of ethnic groups/tribals pertains to habitats, substrates, mutualistic association, extent of availability, extent of edibility and method of processing of wild mushrooms. Extensive field visits and interactions with ethnic groups were performed to collect the data on each mushroom. Initially, most of these mushrooms were identified based on the indigenous methods and designated with vernacular names (Are-Gowda, Kodava and Tulu). Based on macromorphology (in field) and micromorphology (in laboratory), each mushroom was identified with its systematic name. Among the 51 wild mushrooms irrespective of extent of availability, the most preferred include Astraeus hygrometricus, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Fistulina hepatica, Lentinus sajor-caju, Pleurotus (5 spp.) and Scleroderma citrinum and Termitomyces (18 spp.). This data forecasts the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge, protection of habitats, management of resources (tree species and substrates) and sustainable exploitation of wild mushrooms.

  19. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus, Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo, pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus, green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus, turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood. Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  20. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals Infecção natural por endoparasitas em animais silvestres de vida-livre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Holsback

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani. Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira. Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus. It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a frequência de ocorrência e a variedade de parasitas intestinais de animais silvestres de vida livre. Amostras de fezes de mamíferos e aves silvestres de centros de reabilitação dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, foram analisadas pelos métodos de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação. Foram encontrados ovos, oocistos, cistos e/ou trofozoítos de parasitas em 71% das amostras. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. foram detectados em amostras de fezes de gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus e maritacas (Pionus maximiliani. Cistos de Giardia

  1. Italian Dermestidae: notes on some species and an updated checklist (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Nardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An up-to-date checklist of the Italian Dermestidae is provided. The presence of 95 species in Italy is confirmed, while further 5 species (Dermestes (Dermestes vorax Motschulsky, 1860, Thorictus pilosus Peyron, 1857, T. wasmanni Reitter, 1895, Attagenus (Attagenus simonis Reitter, 1881 and Globicornis (G. breviclavis (Reitter, 1878 and 1 subspecies (A. (A. tigrinus pulcher Faldermann, 1835 are excluded from the Italian fauna.Attagenus (Attagenus calabricus Reitter, 1881 and A. (A. lobatus Rosenhauer, 1856 are for the first time recorded from Abruzzi and Tuscany respectively; A. (A. silvaticus Zhantiev, 1976 is recorded for the first time from mainland Italy (Apulia; Anthrenus (Anthrenus angustefasciatus Ganglbauer, 1904 is new to northern Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia, central Italy (Tuscany, Apulia and Basilicata; A. (A. munroi Hinton, 1943 is new to central Italy (Elba Island; A. (A. delicatus Kiesenwetter, 1851 is for the first time recorded from Apulia; Globicornis (Globicornis fasciata (Fairmaire & Brisout de Barneville, 1859 is new to southern Italy (Basilicata; G. (Hadrotoma sulcata (C.N.F. Brisout de Barneville, 1866 is for the first time recorded from central Italy (Abruzzi, Campania and Sicily, while Trogoderma inclusum LeConte, 1854 is new to Apulia.Seven species (Dermestes (Dermestes peruvianus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840, D. (Dermestinus carnivorus Fabricius, 1775, D. (Dermestinus hankae Háva, 1999, D. (Dermestinus intermedius intermedius Kalík, 1951, D. (Dermestinus szekessyi Kalík, 1950, Anthrenus (Anthrenops coloratus Reitter, 1881 and Trogoderma angustum (Solier, 1849 recently recorded from Italy (without further details are discussed.The lectotype and a paralectotype are designated for Attagenus (A. calabricus Reitter, 1881 from Calabria.Attagenus pellio (Linnaeus, 1758 var. pilosissimus Roubal, 1932 is removed from synonymy with A. (A. pellio and recognized as a valid species (stat. prom.; it is known from Lombardy, Apulia

  2. Diversity and distribution of genetic variation in gammarids: Comparing patterns between invasive and non-invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar-Soares, Miguel; Paiva, Filipa; Chen, Yiyong; Zhan, Aibin; Briski, Elizabeta

    2017-10-01

    Biological invasions are worldwide phenomena that have reached alarming levels among aquatic species. There are key challenges to understand the factors behind invasion propensity of non-native populations in invasion biology. Interestingly, interpretations cannot be expanded to higher taxonomic levels due to the fact that in the same genus, there are species that are notorious invaders and those that never spread outside their native range. Such variation in invasion propensity offers the possibility to explore, at fine-scale taxonomic level, the existence of specific characteristics that might predict the variability in invasion success. In this work, we explored this possibility from a molecular perspective. The objective was to provide a better understanding of the genetic diversity distribution in the native range of species that exhibit contrasting invasive propensities. For this purpose, we used a total of 784 sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-COI) collected from seven Gammaroidea, a superfamily of Amphipoda that includes species that are both successful invaders ( Gammarus tigrinus , Pontogammarus maeoticus, and Obesogammarus crassus ) and strictly restricted to their native regions ( Gammarus locusta , Gammarus salinus , Gammarus zaddachi, and Gammarus oceanicus ). Despite that genetic diversity did not differ between invasive and non-invasive species, we observed that populations of non-invasive species showed a higher degree of genetic differentiation. Furthermore, we found that both geographic and evolutionary distances might explain genetic differentiation in both non-native and native ranges. This suggests that the lack of population genetic structure may facilitate the distribution of mutations that despite arising in the native range may be beneficial in invasive ranges. The fact that evolutionary distances explained genetic differentiation more often than geographic distances points toward that deep lineage

  3. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken from 130 adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions (Panthera leo, 12 tigers (Panthera tigris, 6 jaguars (Panthera onca, 4 leopards (Panthera pardus, 2 snow leopards (Panthera uncia, 2 pumas (Puma concolor, 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, 1 ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, 28 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus, 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 8 geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi, 22 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo. The samples were obtained by rubbing the haircoat of the animals with squares of sterile carpet, and then seeded onto Petri dishes containing Mycobiotic agar (Difco(TM. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 4 weeks. The isolates were subcultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (100mg/L and cultured on slides for posterior identification by their macro- and microscopic characteristics. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses (1.6%, both kept in terrariums. The most prevalent contaminants were of the genera Penicillium (27.9%; Cladosporium (24.5%; Acremonium (12.1%; Scopulariopsis and Chrysosporium (9.8%; and Aspergillus (5.3%. The occurrence of dermatophytes in the haircoat of healthy wild felids, maintained in captivity, confirms their status as asymptomatic carriers and characterizes them as sources of infection for other animals and for humans.

  4. Detecção de Chlamydophila felis e Herpesvirus felino tipo 1 em felídeo não doméstico no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Christina Seki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poucos trabalhos descrevem a ocorrência dos agentes do complexo respiratório felino, Herpesvírus Felino tipo 1 (FHV-1 e Chlamydophila felis, e a coinfecção com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV e leucemia viral felina (FeLV em felinos não domésticos no Brasil. Entre 2009 e 2010, 72 amostras de swab de conjuntiva e de soro foram coletados de oito espécies de felinos não domésticos (Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Panthera leo, Panthera tigris, Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Oncifelis colocolo, and Panthera onca mantidos em cativeiro em zoológicos brasileiros. O DNA foi extraído das amostras de swab de conjuntiva para detecção de Chlamydophila sp e FHV-1 pela PCR. Anticorpos para FIV e antígeno para FeLV foram determinados pelo kit comercial de ELISA. Anticorpos para FIV foram detectados em cinco felídeos (6,9%. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para a presença de antígeno de FeLV. Um (1,3% dos 72 felinos não domésticos apresentou fragmentos de DNA de Chlamydophila sp e FHV-1 pela PCR. Este felino era uma jaguatirica que não apresentou anticorpos para FIV e nem antígeno para FelV. Estes resultados demonstram a ocorrência de coinfecção de C. felis e FHV-1 em uma jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis no Brasil.

  5. Assessing the efficacy of hair snares as a method for noninvasive sampling of Neotropical felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Portella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hair snares have been used in North and Central America for a long time in assessment and monitoring studies of several mammalian species. This method can provide a cheap, suitable, and efficient way to monitor mammals because it combines characteristics that are not present in most alternative techniques. However, despite their usefulness, hair snares are rarely used in other parts of the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hair snares and three scent lures (cinnamon, catnip, and vanilla in the detection of felids in one of the largest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We performed tests with six captive felid species - Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758, L. tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, L. wiedii (Schinz, 1821, Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, and P. yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803 - to examine their responses to the attractants, and to correlate those with lure efficiency in the field. The field tests were conducted at the Parque Estadual Pico do Marumbi, state of Paraná, Brazil. Hair traps were placed on seven transects. There were equal numbers of traps with each scent lure, for a total of 1,551 trap-days. In captivity, vanilla provided the greatest response, yet no felids were detected in the field with any of the tested lures, although other species were recorded. Based on the sampling of non-target species, and the comparison with similar studies elsewhere, this study points to a possible caveat of this method when rare species or small populations are concerned. Meanwhile, we believe that improved hair snares could provide important results with several species in the location tested and others.

  6. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2010-08-27

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P

  7. Serologic survey for Leptospira spp. in captive neotropical felids in Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Hoffmann, Juliano L; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Camossi, Lucilene Granuzzio; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander W

    2012-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of worldwide distribution and is endemic in tropical countries, where rodents and other wild mammals are abundant and may act as reservoirs. Leptospirosis has become a concern in captive wild animals, due mostly to their exposure to contaminated urine or environment. Although domestic cats (Felis catus) have been reported refractory to leptospirosis, serology and disease in captive wild felids is still unclear. In this study 57 adult, clinically healthy felids, including 1 Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi), 3 jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi), 17 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 22 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), and 14 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) kept in captivity at the Sanctuary at the Itaipu Binacional hydroelectric power plant (Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary), Foz do Iguacu City, Paraná State, Brazil, were serologically surveyed for the presence of antibodies against 28 serovars of Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test (MAT). Two animals (3.5%) were seropositive: one male ocelot to the serovar Cynopteri (titer 100) and one female margay to Autumnalis (100) and Butembo (200). The captive-born, 5-yr-old ocelot had been solitary housed in an individual cage. The approximately 21-yr-old wild-caught margay was also kept individually. None of the tested animals showed signs ofleptospirosis. During a study conducted 4 yr previously in the same facility, this particular margay also tested positive for the same two serovars, among others. The present study indicates that the felids tested for Leptospira spp. by MAT were exposed to serovars, but did not demonstrate clinical signs of disease. Comparison with a previous study suggests that serovar titers may vary over time and that leptospirosis dynamics remains unclear in wild felids.

  8. Mamíferos terrestres em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Wolfart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p111 O grau de ameaça e a importância ecológica dos mamíferos terrestres evidenciam a necessidade da constante realização de pesquisas com o intuito de acrescentar informações ao conhecimento atual sobre esse tema. Este estudo teve por objetivo fornecer uma lista de espécies de mamíferos terrestres em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica localizado no sudoeste do estado do Paraná. A riqueza de espécies e a frequência de ocorrência foram estudadas de abril a outubro de 2009, utilizando dois métodos: observação direta e registro de vestígios. Foram registrados 20 táxons distribuídos em sete ordens: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia e Xenarthra. Dentre estes, quatro táxons foram registrados tanto por observação direta quanto pelo registro de vestígios e os demais foram registrados somente por meio de vestígios. As espécies com ocorrência mais frequente foram Didelphis sp. (30,6% e Cerdocyon thous (25,6%. Dos 20 táxons registrados, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus e Cuniculus paca constam como vulneráveis no Livro Vermelho da Fauna Ameaçada no Estado do Paraná. Apesar de pequena, a área de estudo deve auxiliar na disponibilidade de alimento e abrigo para a mastofauna, representando um importante elemento da paisagem regional.

  9. Ixodídeos em animais silvestres na Região do Planalto Serrano, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sangaletti Lavina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da fauna de ixodídeos, bem como a potencialidade como transmissores de patógenos aos seus hospedeiros e em alguns casos aos humanos, é de grande importância para o estabelecimento de programas de saúde pública e vigilância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de identificar ixodídeos de mamíferos silvestres no Planalto Serrano de Santa Catarina foram examinados carrapatos, coletados ou recebidos no Laboratório de Parasitologia e Doenças Parasitárias do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias – CAV/UDESC no período 2001 a 2011. Os ixodídeos eram provenientes de animais silvestres que passaram pelo processo de triagem do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias (HCV do CAV e de animais encontrados mortos em rodovias do Estado. De acordo com as chaves dicotômicas específicas identificou-se Amblyomma aureolatum coletados em Pseudalopex gymnocercus, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous, Leopardus tigrinus, Puma concolor e Bufo sp.; A. dubitatum em Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris; A. rotundatum em Puma concolor e Bohtrops sp.; A. ovale em Bufo sp.; e Rhipicephalus microplus em Mazama gouazoubira. Foi identificado um exemplar de A. longirostre que se encontrava em uma residência da área urbana do município de Lages. As espécies A. rotundatum em Bohtrops sp. e em Puma concolor; e A. longirostre, encontrada no ambiente, foram relatadas pela primeira vez no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. 

  10. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chia-Wei; Wong, Wei-Lun; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-07-19

    Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom's aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite stimulation. Hence, this mushroom may be

  11. Conocimiento etnoecólogico de los hongos entre los indígenas Uitoto, Muinane y Andoke de la Amazonía Colombiana Conhecimento etnoecológico de fungos entre os indígenas Uitoto, Muinane e Andoke da Amazônia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Marcela Vasco-Palacios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto es el resultado de un compartir de conocimientos acerca de los hongos y sus relaciones ecológicas con animales y plantas, con las etnias Uitoto, Andoke y Muinane que habitan la región del medio Caquetá. Gran parte de la información ecológica encontrada está contenida en la tradición oral de estas etnias, y refleja la capacidad integradora y descriptiva que tienen los indígenas sobre el medio natural circundante. En la zona de estudio la madera es un sustrato muy abundante debido principalmente al tipo de agricultura que tienen los indígenas, y por tanto se desarrollan una gran cantidad de especies de hongos lignícolas. Muinanes, Uitotos y Andokes conocen algunas de las especies vegetales que sirven de sustrato para los hongos, sobretodo aquellas utilizadas en la alimentación tales como Lentinula raphanica y Lentinus scleropus, entre otros. El conocimiento ecológico que tienen estos indígenas sobre los hongos, incluye además datos acerca de cucarrones (Coleoptera y larvas (Diptera, mamíferos como venados (Mazama americana y M. gouazoubira y ardillas (Microsciurus flaviventer y tortugas que incluyen los hongos en su dieta, así como sobre especies de hongos que parasitan plantas e insectos.O presente texto é o resultado de um intercâmbio de conhecimentos sobre os fungos e as suas relações ecológicas com animais e plantas, com as etnias Uitoto, Andoke e Muinane que habitam a região do Medio Caquetá. Grande parte da informação ecológica encontrada está contida na tradição oral destas etnias e reflete a capacidade integradora e descritiva que os indígenas possuem sobre o meio natural que os circunda. Na zona de estudo a madeira é um substrato abundante devido principalmente ao tipo de agricultura que os indígenas têm, portanto uma grande quantidade de espécies de fungos lignícolas se desenvolve perto dessas tribos. Os Muinanes, Uitotos e Andokes conhecem algumas das espécies vegetais que servem de

  12. Characterization of fungal inoculum used in soil bioremediation Caracterização de inóculo fúngico em biorremediação de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Ballaminut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have indicated the capacity of basidiomycetes to degrade recalcitrant organopollutants. However, the age of the fungal inoculum to obtain a more effective degradation has not been defined. The criterion used is total colonization of the substrate. Psilocybe castanella CCB444 and Lentinus crinitus CCB274 have been evaluated in soils containing hexachlorobenzene. In the present study, the physiological conditions of the fungal inocula were characterized on solid substrate (sugarcane bagasse, starch and soy flour. Colonization of the substrate, loss of organic matter, pH variation, organic carbon, total nitrogen, fungal biomass and enzymatic activity were evaluated over 30 days of incubation. Colonization of the substrate was almost complete after 20 days for both species, with about 90% of organic matter remaining on the substrates. The pH continued to be acid during incubation. The highest enzymatic production was observed at 10 days for L. crinitus and at 5 days for P. castanella. The fungi presented growth up to 30 days. The C/N ratio of the inocula showed little variation. The use among 10 and 15-day-old inoculum is adequate since sufficient nutrients are left to guarantee survival of the fungus, vigorous colonization of the substrate, a growing biomass and an active enzymatic system, thus permitting fungal growth in soil.Estudos indicam capacidade de basidiomicetos em degradar organopoluentes recalcitrantes. Porém, ainda não foi padronizada a idade do inóculo fúngico a ser aplicado para que ocorra uma degradação mais efetiva. O critério utilizado é colonização total do substrato. Psilocybe castanella CCB444 e Lentinus crinitus CCB274 têm sido avaliados em solos com hexaclorobenzeno. No presente trabalho, foram caracterizadas as condições fisiológicas dos inóculos fúngicos em substrato sólido (bagaço de cana-de-açúcar , amido e farinha de soja. Determinou-se a colonização do substrato, perda de matéria org

  13. Novel and rapid method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in edible fungus using direct gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Jingxi; Wang, Juan; Piao, Xiangfan; Yang, Cui; Wu, Xue; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-09-01

    In this work a new analytical method for a rapid and simultaneous determination of 28 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in edible fungus using gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE), coupled with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GP-MSE-GC-MS) has been developed and optimized. GP-MSE, a novel gas flow liquid-phase microextraction technique, has been then fruitfully used as innovative and one-step extraction procedure, allowing a direct injection into the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) system without any further cleaning step. Once optimized, the GP-MSE-GC-MS analysis procedure showed reproducibility values, resolutions, linear responses, detection and quantification limits that allowed to consider this method suitable for the analysis of the 28 OPPs in real samples. Furthermore, OPP recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 85.26% to 100.21%, and from 1.6% to 6.9%, respectively. This procedure was then used for the analysis of real samples and the obtained results were compared with those of ultrasonic extraction-solid phase extraction. Among the 28 OPPs, 14 of them were found in Lentinus edodes and Enoki mushrooms fungus samples, with a total concentrations of 112.7 and 210.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated then that GP-MSE-GC-MS provided a highly efficient, solvent-saving, accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis method for a rapid determination of OPPs in edible fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  15. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  16. Removal of acetaminophen in water by laccase immobilized in barium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapongleka, Karnika; Punbut, Supot

    2018-02-01

    This research has focused on the optimization of immobilized laccase condition and utilization in degradation of acetaminophen contaminated in aqueous solution. Laccase from Lentinus polychrous was immobilized in barium alginate. The effects of laccase immobilization such as sodium alginate concentration, barium chloride concentration and gelation time were studied. The optimal conditions for immobilization were sodium alginate 5% (w/v), barium chloride 5% (w/v) and gelation time of 60 min. Immobilized laccase was then used for acetaminophen removal. Acetaminophen was removed quickly in the first 50 min. The degradation rate and percentage of removal increased when the enzyme concentration increased. Immobilized laccase at 0.57 U/g-alginate showed the maximum removal at 94% in 240 min. The removal efficiency decreased with increasing initial acetaminophen concentration. The K m value for immobilized laccase (98.86 µM) was lower than that of free laccase (203.56 µM), indicating that substrate affinity was probably enhanced by immobilization. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high activity and good acetaminophen removal at pH 7 and temperature of 35°C. The activation energies of free and immobilized laccase for degradation of acetaminophen were 8.08 and 17.70 kJ/mol, respectively. It was also found that laccase stability to pH and temperature increased after immobilization. Furthermore, immobilized laccase could be reused for five cycles. The capability of removal and enzyme activity were retained above 70%.

  17. EFFECTS OF LIGHT WAVELENGTHS AND COHERENCE ON BASIDIOSPORES GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Poyedinok

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light wavelengths and coherence on basidiospore germination of Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus have been studied. Short-term low-intensity irradiation by coherent (laser light wavelength 488.0 nm and 632.8 nm at doses 45 and 230 mJ/cm2 has significantly increased the number of germinated basidiospores. It has established that there are differences in the photosensitivity not only between species but also between strains. Spores irradiation by 514.5 nm light has been either neutral or inhibitory. A comparative analysis of basidiospores sensitivity to laser and LED light has also been conducted. To stimulate germination of basidiospores and growth of monokaryons the most suitable solution was to use red coherent and incoherent light of 632.8 nm and 660,0 nm for A. bisporus, G. applanatum and P. ostreatus, red and blue coherent light of 632.8 nm and 488,0 nm for F. velutipes, and both red and blue laser and LED light G. lucidum and H. erinaceus and for L. edodes. No essential difference of a continuous wave mode and intermittent mode light effect at the same doses and wavelength on spore germination were revealed. Light influence has reduced germination time and formation of aerial mycelium on agar medium as compared to the original value and increased the growth rate of monosporous isolates. Characterization of basidiospores photosensitivity and development of environmentally friendly stimulating methods of their germination is important for creating highly effective technologies of mushrooms selection and cultivation.

  18. A CTAB Procedure Of Total Genomic DNA Extraction For Medicinal Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Muhammad Hussaini Mohd Mustafa; Muhammad Hanif Azhari Noor; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hasan Hamdani Hasan Mutaat; Meswan Meskom; Mat Rasol Awang

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushroom is defined as mushrooms used in medicine or medical research. Isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. The most important and prerequisite towards reliable molecular biology work is the total genomic DNA of a sample must be in good quality. Five freshly samples of medicinal mushroom were used in this work known as Auriculariapolytricha, Lentinus edode, Pleurotus sayorcaju, Sczhizopyllum commune and Ganodermalucidum. 5 mg of each sample were used to extraction the DNA, prepared in 3 replications and repeated twice. PCR based technique by using ISSR markers were used in checking the amplification ability of the total genomic extraction. A standard Doyle and Doyle protocol for genomic DNA extraction was modified in optimizing the total genomic DNA from the medicinal mushroom.The modification parameters were percentage of CTAB, incubation period and temperature. The results reveal that each sample required a certain combinations of time and period of incubation. Besides, percentage of CTAB in the buffer was found significant in giving a high yielding of extracted total genomic DNA. The extracted total genomic DNA from the medicinal mushroom yielded from 39.7 ng/ μl to 919.1 ng/ μl. The different yield among the samples found to be corresponded to polysaccharide content in the medicinal mushrooms. The objective of this works is to optimize total genomic DNA extraction of medicinal mushrooms towards a high quality intact genomic DNA for molecular activities. (author)

  19. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretto, Caterina; Marchi, Anna; Bertoncelli, Anna; Burlacchini, Gloria; Milli, Alberto; Tessarolo, Francesco; Caola, Iole; Papetti, Adele; Pruzzo, Carla; Zaura, Egija; Lingström, Peter; Ofek, Itzhak; Spratt, David A; Pratten, Jonathan; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2013-05-29

    Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed. This report has shown an antibiotic-like mode of action of mushroom and chicory extracts as demonstrated by induced morphogenetic effects and inhibition of specific macromolecular synthesis. This feature as well as the safe use of this extract as result of its natural origin render the LMM both mushroom and chicory extracts

  20. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LACCASE FROM WILD, MUTANTS AND HYBRID STRAINS OF TWO WHITE-ROT FUNGUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DECOLOURIZATION AND LIGNINOLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Majolagbe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular laccases were extracted from a 5-day old submerge cultures of the wild, mutants and hybrid of Lentinus subnudus. Mutants were generated by exposure of the wild strain of L. subnudus to ultraviolet radiation (ג = 280 nm at specific time intervals while the hybrid was produced by cross-breeding L. subnudus with L. edodes. The crude enzyme was fractionated with 80% ammonium sulphate and further purified on DEAE column. The laccase has a molecular weight of about 45 KDa. Purification yield on DEAE column gave the highest purification yield of 23.25% in SWT and least in SHT (5.29%. Its potentials in decolourization of 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye at different pH conditions were investigated. Five out of the six fungal strains tested gave significant (P<0.05 percentage decolourization (≥43.94% at pH 8. The fungus was further studied for their ability in degrading wheat and paddy straws. The solid substrate fermentation was inoculated with two pieces (0.6cm diameter mycelial agar blocks of each of the fungal strains, supplemented with 30mg/100g sucrose, 24mg/100g KNO3 and 60mg/100g CaCO3. The periodic reduction in weight of the solid substrate medium and enzymatic activity of laccase for each of the fungal strains was assessed. Therefore, the ability of the wild, mutants and hybrid of L subnudus strains to produce laccase enzyme shows their significant potential in textile industry, especially in decolourization of dye and bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes.

  1. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, T.P.S., E-mail: pgalindo@ua.pt [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, R. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Freitas, A.C.; Santos-Rocha, T.A.P. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Rasteiro, M.G.; Antunes, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Rodrigues, D. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M.; Gonçalves, F. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2013-08-01

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NP) tend to aggregate when in aqueous suspensions. • Chemical composition revealed to be very important in the ecotoxicity of NP. • Observed effects suggested diversified modes of action of different NP. • White-rot fungi species exhibit great differences in their sensitivity to NP.

  2. Effectiveness of thermoluminescence analysis to detect low quantity of gamma-irradiated component in non-irradiated mushroom powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Jo, Deokjo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) dried mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) powders were mixed at different ratios (1–10%) in the non-irradiated samples and investigated using photostimulated-luminescence (PSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The PSL results were negative for all samples at 1% mixing ratio, whereas intermediate results were observed for the samples containing 5% or 10% irradiated component with the exception (positive) of 10% mixing of 10 kGy-irradiated sample. The ESR analysis showed the presence of crystalline sugar radicals in the irradiated samples but the radiation-specific spectral features were absent in the mixed samples. TL analysis showed the radiation-specific TL glow curves; however, the complicated results were observed at 1% mixing of 2 and 5 kGy-irradiated samples, which required careful evaluations to draw the final conclusion about the irradiation status of the samples. TL ratios could only confirm the results of samples with 5% and 10% mixing of 10 kGy, and 10% mixing of 5 kGy-irradiated components. SEM-EDX analysis showed that feldspar and quartz were major contaminating minerals, responsible for the radiation-specific luminescence characteristics. -- Highlights: ► Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. ► The effectiveness of TL analysis was investigated to detect irradiated component. ► The TL results were compared with those from PSL and ESR analysis. ► TL analysis was most effective to characterize the irradiation status of samples. ► SEM-EDX analysis showed feldspar and quartz as the main source of TL properties

  3. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  4. DNA accumulation on ventilation system filters in university buildings in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhung, Irvan; Wu, Yan; Xu, Siyu; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Nazaroff, William W

    2017-01-01

    Biological particles deposit on air handling system filters as they process air. This study reports and interprets abundance and diversity information regarding biomass accumulation on ordinarily used filters acquired from several locations in a university environment. DNA-based analysis was applied both to quantify (via DNA fluorometry and qPCR) and to characterize (via high-throughput sequencing) the microbial material on filters, which mainly processed recirculated indoor air. Results were interpreted in relation to building occupancy and ventilation system operational parameters. Based on accumulated biomass, average DNA concentrations per AHU filter surface area across nine indoor locations after twelve weeks of filter use were in the respective ranges 1.1 to 41 ng per cm2 for total DNA, 0.02 to 3.3 ng per cm2 for bacterial DNA and 0.2 to 2.0 ng DNA per cm2 for fungal DNA. The most abundant genera detected on the AHU filter samples were Clostridium, Streptophyta, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Ktedonobacter for bacteria and Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Rigidoporus and Lentinus for fungi. Conditional indoor airborne DNA concentrations (median (range)) were estimated to be 13 (2.6-107) pg/m3 for total DNA, 0.4 (0.05-8.4) pg/m3 for bacterial DNA and 2.3 (1.0-5.1) pg/m3 for fungal DNA. Conditional airborne concentrations and the relative abundances of selected groups of genera correlate well with occupancy level. Bacterial DNA was found to be more responsive than fungal DNA to differences in occupancy level and indoor environmental conditions.

  5. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, T.P.S.; Pereira, R.; Freitas, A.C.; Santos-Rocha, T.A.P.; Rasteiro, M.G.; Antunes, F.; Rodrigues, D.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Gonçalves, F.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NP) tend to aggregate when in aqueous suspensions. • Chemical composition revealed to be very important in the ecotoxicity of NP. • Observed effects suggested diversified modes of action of different NP. • White-rot fungi species exhibit great differences in their sensitivity to NP

  6. DNA accumulation on ventilation system filters in university buildings in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Luhung

    Full Text Available Biological particles deposit on air handling system filters as they process air. This study reports and interprets abundance and diversity information regarding biomass accumulation on ordinarily used filters acquired from several locations in a university environment.DNA-based analysis was applied both to quantify (via DNA fluorometry and qPCR and to characterize (via high-throughput sequencing the microbial material on filters, which mainly processed recirculated indoor air. Results were interpreted in relation to building occupancy and ventilation system operational parameters.Based on accumulated biomass, average DNA concentrations per AHU filter surface area across nine indoor locations after twelve weeks of filter use were in the respective ranges 1.1 to 41 ng per cm2 for total DNA, 0.02 to 3.3 ng per cm2 for bacterial DNA and 0.2 to 2.0 ng DNA per cm2 for fungal DNA. The most abundant genera detected on the AHU filter samples were Clostridium, Streptophyta, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Ktedonobacter for bacteria and Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Rigidoporus and Lentinus for fungi. Conditional indoor airborne DNA concentrations (median (range were estimated to be 13 (2.6-107 pg/m3 for total DNA, 0.4 (0.05-8.4 pg/m3 for bacterial DNA and 2.3 (1.0-5.1 pg/m3 for fungal DNA.Conditional airborne concentrations and the relative abundances of selected groups of genera correlate well with occupancy level. Bacterial DNA was found to be more responsive than fungal DNA to differences in occupancy level and indoor environmental conditions.

  7. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts.The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum asthe longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for theirvalorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  8. Utilization of Bagasse Cellulose for Ethanol Production through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Samsuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse is a solid residue from sugar cane process, which is not many use it for some product which have more added value. Bagasse, which is a lignosellulosic material, be able to be use for alternative energy resources like bioethanol or biogas. With renewable energy resources a crisis of energy in Republic of Indonesia could be solved, especially in oil and gas. This research has done the conversion of bagasse to bioethanol with xylanase enzyme. The result show that bagasse contains of 52,7% cellulose, 20% hemicelluloses, and 24,2% lignin. Xylanase enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to hydrolyse and fermentation in SSF process. Variation in this research use pH (4, 4,5, and 5, for increasing ethanol quantity, SSF process was done by added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and also pre-treatment with white rot fungi such as Lentinus edodes (L.edodes as long 4 weeks. The SSF process was done with 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour's incubation time for fermentation. Variation of pH 4, 4,5, and 5 can produce ethanol with concentrations 2,357 g/L, 2,451 g/L, 2,709 g/L. The added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and L. edodes can increase ethanol yield, The highest ethanol concentration with added chloride acid (HCl concentration 0.5% and 1% consecutively is 2,967 g/L, 3,249 g/L. The highest ethanol concentration with pre-treatment by L. edodes is 3,202 g/L.

  9. Effectiveness of thermoluminescence analysis to detect low quantity of gamma-irradiated component in non-irradiated mushroom powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Kashif [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Ahn, Jae-Jun [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Jo, Deokjo [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho, E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) dried mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) powders were mixed at different ratios (1–10%) in the non-irradiated samples and investigated using photostimulated-luminescence (PSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The PSL results were negative for all samples at 1% mixing ratio, whereas intermediate results were observed for the samples containing 5% or 10% irradiated component with the exception (positive) of 10% mixing of 10 kGy-irradiated sample. The ESR analysis showed the presence of crystalline sugar radicals in the irradiated samples but the radiation-specific spectral features were absent in the mixed samples. TL analysis showed the radiation-specific TL glow curves; however, the complicated results were observed at 1% mixing of 2 and 5 kGy-irradiated samples, which required careful evaluations to draw the final conclusion about the irradiation status of the samples. TL ratios could only confirm the results of samples with 5% and 10% mixing of 10 kGy, and 10% mixing of 5 kGy-irradiated components. SEM-EDX analysis showed that feldspar and quartz were major contaminating minerals, responsible for the radiation-specific luminescence characteristics. -- Highlights: ► Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. ► The effectiveness of TL analysis was investigated to detect irradiated component. ► The TL results were compared with those from PSL and ESR analysis. ► TL analysis was most effective to characterize the irradiation status of samples. ► SEM-EDX analysis showed feldspar and quartz as the main source of TL properties.

  10. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts. The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum as the longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for their valorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  11. Cytotoxic, antimigratory, pro-and antioxidative activities of extracts from medicinal mushrooms on colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šeklić Dragana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of five commercially available mushroom species (Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt Teng, Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc., Lentinus edodes (Berk. Pegler, Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll. Pers. and Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst, traditionally used as anticancer agents, were evaluated in vitro for their total phenol and flavonoid contents, cytotoxic and antimigratory activities and antioxidant/prooxidant effects on colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and SW-480. Spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of total phenol content, flavonoid concentrations and DPPH activity of the extracts. Cytotoxic activity was measured by the MTT assay. The antimigratory activity of extracts was determined using the Transwell assay and immunofluorescence staining of β-catenin. The prooxidant/antioxidant status was followed by measuring the superoxide anion radical (O2•-, nitrite and reduced glutathione (GSH concentrations. Our results show that the highest phenolic and flavonoid content was found in P. linteus, and its DPPH-scavenging capacity was significantly higher than in other samples. The P. linteus extract significantly decreased cell viability of both tested cancer cell lines. All other extracts selectively inhibited SW-480 cell viability, but did not show significant cytotoxic activity. The mushroom extracts caused changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant status of cells, inducing oxidative stress. All extracts tested on HCT-116 cells demonstrated significant antimigratory effects, which correlated with increased production of O2•- and a reduced level of β-catenin protein expression, while only P. linteus showed the same effect on SW-480 cells. The results of the present research indicate that the mushroom extracts causes oxidative stress which has a pronounced impact on the migratory status of colon cancer cell lines. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41010

  12. Using niche-modelling and species-specific cost analyses to determine a multispecies corridor in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurano, Juan Pablo; Selleski, Nicole; Schneider, Rosio G.

    2017-01-01

    Misiones, Argentina, contains the largest remaining tract of Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion; however, ~50% of native forest is unprotected and located in a mosaic of plantations, agriculture, and pastures. Existing protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated due to ongoing habitat modification. These factors, combined with lower than expected regional carnivore densities, emphasize the need to understand the effect of fragmentation on animal movement and connectivity between protected areas. Using detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat, we collected data on jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus), and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) across habitats that varied in vegetation, disturbance, human proximity, and protective status. With MaxEnt we evaluated habitat use, habitat suitability, and potential species richness for the five carnivores across northern-central Misiones, Argentina. Through a multifaceted cost analysis that included unique requirements of each carnivore and varying degrees of overlap among them, we determined the optimal location for primary/secondary corridors that would link the northern-central zones of the Green Corridor in Misiones and identified areas within these corridors needing priority management. A secondary analysis, comparing these multispecies corridors with the jaguar’s unique requirements, demonstrated that this multispecies approach balanced the preferences of all five species and effectively captured areas required by this highly restricted and endangered carnivore. We emphasize the potential importance of expanding beyond a single umbrella or focal species when developing biological corridors that aim to capture the varied ecological requirements of coexisting species and ecological processes across the landscape. Detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat allow data on multiple species to be collected efficiently across multiple habitat

  13. Salinity induced effects on the growth rates and mycelia composition of basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, C; Pereira, R; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; da Costa, J P; Duarte, A C; Lopes, I

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinization, as the combination of primary and secondary events, can adversely affect organisms inhabiting this compartment. In the present study, the effects of increased salinity were assessed in four species of terrestrial fungi: Lentinus sajor caju, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Rhizopus oryzae and Trametes versicolor. The mycelial growth and biochemical composition of the four fungi were determined under three exposure scenarios: 1) exposure to serial dilutions of natural seawater (SW), 2) exposure to serial concentrations of NaCl (potential surrogate of SW); and 3) exposure to serial concentrations of NaCl after a period of pre-exposure to low levels of NaCl. The toxicity of NaCl was slightly higher than that of SW, for all fungi species: the conductivities causing 50% of growth inhibition (EC 50 ) were within 14.9 and 22.0 mScm -1 for NaCl and within 20.2 and 34.1 mScm -1 for SW. Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed to be the less sensitive species, both for NaCl and SW. Exposure to NaCl caused changes in the biochemical composition of fungi, mainly increasing the production of polysaccharides. When fungi were exposed to SW this pattern of biochemical response was not observed. Fungi pre-exposed to low levels of salinity presented higher EC 50 than fungi non-pre-exposed, though 95% confidence limits overlapped, with the exception of P. chrysosporium. Pre-exposure to low levels of NaCl also induced changes in the biochemical composition of the mycelia of L. sajor caju and R. oryzae, relatively to the respective control. These results suggest that some terrestrial fungi may acquire an increased tolerance to NaCl after being pre-exposed to low levels of this salt, thus, suggesting their capacity to persist in environments that will undergo salinization. Furthermore, NaCl could be used as a protective surrogate of SW to derive safe salinity levels for soils, since it induced toxicity similar or higher than that of SW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Comparison of two continuous fungal bioreactors for posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Marín-Mezo, G; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Montes-Horcasitas, M C; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare two continuous systems of posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor (WBL). The first system consisted of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with Trametes versicolor (Tv) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak (biocubes). The second system was a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with Lentinus edodes (Le) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak. The reactors operated for 65 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days, at 28 degrees C, with continuous aeration. Response variables monitored were conventional and specific, unit, net removal efficiency (eta and eta(sun), respectively) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and ligninoids, and enzymatic activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and proteases. The PBR showed an average color eta superior to that of the FBR (52.42 +/- 21.78% and 25.34 +/- 14.38% for PBR and FBR, respectively); removals of COD and ligninoids presented a similar pattern to that of color. Lac activity was significantly larger in PBR than in FBR. Activity of MnP in PBR was higher than that of the FBR (0.004 and 0.002 U MnP/mL, respectively). This difference could be ascribed to the different fungi present in each bioreactor. LiP activity was very low in both reactors. Average value of proteases was almost double in the FBR as compared with PBR (0.472 and 0.209 U Proteases/mL, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of operation, biocubes in the FBR experienced a significant loss of the attached Le biomass, probably by attrition. This and higher protease activity in the FBR could explain the lower pollutant removals achieved in the FBR. Overall, PBR with immobilized Tv showed a better performance than the FBR with Le for the posttreatment of the recalcitrant anaerobic effluent. Extended and sustained pollutant removal (65 days) was achieved in the PBR, although more research is needed to evaluate bioreactor performance at shorter hydraulic

  15. Decontamination Trials for the Bed-Log Cultivation of Mushroom in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Hirano, Yurika; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Murayama, Kazunari [Macoho Co. Ltd., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Suzuki, Kin-ichi [Abukuma Cooperative for Best Use of Broad-leaved Trees (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive nuclear dispersed in environment from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNP) Accident-contaminated forests in Fukushima Prefecture, especially in Abukuma mountainous region located 10 to 20 Km west from FNP. Broad-leaved trees such as Quercus serrata, chestnut tree, oak, chinquapin tree, Japanese beech are widely planting in Abukuma area. Many prefectures in Japan depends on supply of bed-log from Fukushima prefecture, especially Abukuma area. North part of Abukuma mountain area has highly contaminated by radioactive nuclear, however, the contamination level in the south part of Abkuma area was about ten times lower than the north part. The outside (bark, leaves and twigs) of broad-leaved trees was highly contaminated above 10,000 Bq/kg in Iidate and Kawamata villages located the north part of Abkuma ears, 35 to 40 km from FNP. On the other hand, the contamination level of the outside of broad-leaved trees in the south part of Abukuma ears was 100-500 Bq/kg and the contamination of the inside tree was lower than 10 Bq/kg. For the bed-log cultivation of mushrooms using broad-leaved trees, two methods were used in Japan. The mushrooms incubated broad-leaved trees (90 cm of length and 15 cm of diameter) were setting in the lack on the ground in forest from winter to autumn. This method was mainly used for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The second method was used for Maitake (Grifola frondosa) cultivation. The mushroom incubated broad-leaved trees (20 cm of length and 20 cm of diameter) were setting in the ground holes and covered by soil (2 cm) and litters. The maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms harvesting October 2013 at Iidate, the evaluation area, contained 120 Bq/kg, even though the soil on the broad-leaved trees contained more than 20,000 Bq/kg. The outside contamination of broad-leaved trees supplied from the south part of Abkuma ears were washed by the wet blasting. 80 % of radiocesium on the bark was efficiently

  16. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  17. Zur Ökophysiologie, Sexualität und Populationsgenetik litoraler Gammaridea — ein Überblick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulnheim, H.-P.

    1991-09-01

    disappearance of O. effeminans. In both microsporidians, long exposure to low temperatures (≤4°C) produces eggs which are not all parasitized. Furthermore, intersexuality can be induced by changing environmental factors. Microsporidian species have no influence on sex differentiation in G. duebeni celticus, G. salinus, G. locusta and G. pulex. Patterns of relative electrophoretic mobilities of proteins and the distribution of allele frequencies at polymorphic gene loci can be utilized for species diagnosis and for the evaluation of the relationships between different taxa, particularly at and below the species level. As exemplified by studies on several gammarids from marine, brackish and freshwater environments, inter- and infraspecific gene-enzyme variation is described. Electrophoretic investigations on natural populations of the euryhaline amphipods G. zaddachi, G. salinus, G. tigrinus and others from different geographic areas provided evidence of considerable biochemical genetic variation. In Talitrus saltator- and Talorchestia deshayesii-populations the extent of variability based on micro-and macrogeographic aspects is illustrated. The large-scale genetic divergence is demonstrated by comparison of samples obtained from the Baltic, North, Atlantic and northern Mediterranean Seas.

  18. Jüri Talveti filoloogiline teekond: hispaaniakeelsest maailmast Eestisse ja tagasi / Jüri Talvet’s Philological Journey: from the Spanish-speaking World to Estonia and Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Veidemann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel esitab bio-bibliograafilise ülevaate luuletaja, esseisti, kirjandusteadlase, tõlkija ning õppejõu Jüri Talveti (s 1945 loomingulisest teest. Talveti kui erakordselt laiahaardelise loomingulise isiksuse panus hispaaniakeelse kirjandusruumi vahendamisel ja uurimisel Eestis on jätnud püsiva jälje. Tema viljeldava komparativismi keskmeks olev võrdlus ei piirdu üksnes võrreldavate objektidega, vaid viib põimumiste ja mõjutuste väljaselgitamisele ning uue sünteesini. Niisugune lähenemine võimaldab Talvetil esitada mitmeid eesti kirjanduskultuuri keskseid autoreid ja teoseid maailmakirjanduslikus kontekstis. Luuletajana esindab Talvet hingestatud intellektuaalsust, milles intertekstuaalsed osutused toimivad kultuuridevahelise sillana.   The article presents a bio- and bibliographical overview of the creative work of Jüri Talvet (born in 1945 – a poet, essayist, literary scholar, translator and university professor. The creative scope of Talvet is exceptionally wide and his decades-long contribution to the mediation and exploration of the Spanish-speaking literary space in Estonia has left permanent traces. The comparative method cultivated by Talvet does not border merely on the literary texts considered but lead to the establishment of reciprocal impact and a new level of synthesis. Terms such as “symbiosis”, “symbiotic unity” and “synthesis” play an important role in Talvet’s contemplations of life, literature and culture; they are not only part of his epistemological ’toolkit’ but also represent a relation of value. In the semiotic approach such discourse may be viewed as the replacement of binary structure with a ternal one, a change elaborated already by Talvet’s most famous colleague Juri Lotman in 1992 when his intellectual testament Culture and Explosion was published: “Ternal structures retain certain values of the previous period by shifting them from the periphery into the centre

  19. Ligninolytic enzymes production and Remazol brilliant blue R decolorization by tropical brazilian basidiomycetes fungi Produção de enzimas ligninolíticas e descoloração do corante azul brilhante de Remazol R por fungos basidiomicetos tropicais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. G. Machado

    2005-09-01

    em solo contaminado com organoclorados foi também avaliada. Cento e seis fungos descoloriram o RBBR durante o crescimento em meio sólido (agar extrato malte; noventa e seis desses fungos mostraram crescimento micelial e descoloração superiores a uma cepa de Phanerochaete chrysosporium usada como referência. Trinta e cinco fungos foram crescidos em meio sólido contendo bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (BGS e seus extratos foram avaliados quanto a descoloração do RBBR e a produção de atividade de peroxidases. Todos os fungos mostraram atividade de peroxidases, mas 5 foram incapazes de descolorir o RBBR. Diferentes padrões de enzimas lignolíticas foram detectados em 12 desses extratos fúngicos, porém todos mostraram atividade de laccase. Atividade de peroxidase dependente de manganês (MnP foi produzida por Melanoporia nigra, Peniophora cinerea, Psilocybe castanella, três cepas de Trametes villosa, T. versicolor e Trichaptum byssogenum. Trogia buccinalis apresentou a maior descoloração do RBBR e não produziu MnP. Descoloração do RBBR sem produção de MnP foi também observada para as três cepas de Lentinus testadas. Altos níveis de atividades de peroxidases e laccases não mostraram relação com significativa descoloração do RBBR. Foi observada descoloração do RBBR por extratos obtidos de P. castanella, L. crinitus, P. cinerea e duas cepas de T. Villosa durante crescimento em solos contaminados com pentaclorofenol e hexaclorobenzeno. Estes fungos mostraram maior descoloração de RBBR na presença de compostos organoclorados do que em solos não contaminados.