WorldWideScience

Sample records for lensed quasar q0957561

  1. Gravitational lensing of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenbrod, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...

  2. Statistics of gravitational lenses. III. Astrophysical consequences of quasar lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostriker, J.P.; Vietri, M.

    1986-01-01

    The method of Schmidt and Green (1983) for calculating the luminosity function of quasars is combined with gravitational-lensing theory to compute expected properties of lensed systems. Multiple quasar images produced by galaxies are of order 0.001 of the observed quasars, with the numbers over the whole sky calculated to be (0.86, 120, 1600) to limiting B magnitudes of (16, 19, 22). The amount of false evolution is small except for an interesting subset of apparently bright, large-redshift objects for which minilensing by starlike objects may be important. Some of the BL Lac objects may be in this category, with the galaxy identified as the parent object really a foreground object within which stars have lensed a background optically violent variable quasar. 24 references

  3. Gravitationally Lensed Quasars in Gaia: II. Discovery of 24 Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Cameron A.; Auger, Matthew W.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ostrovski, Fernanda

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery, spectroscopic confirmation and preliminary characterisation of 24 gravitationally lensed quasars identified using Gaia observations. Candidates were selected in the Pan-STARRS footprint with quasar-like WISE colours or as photometric quasars from SDSS, requiring either multiple detections in Gaia or a single Gaia detection near a morphological galaxy. The Pan-STARRS grizY images were modelled for the most promising candidates and 60 candidate systems were followed up with the William Herschel Telescope. 13 of the lenses were discovered as Gaia multiples and 10 as single Gaia detections near galaxies. We also discover 1 lens identified through a quasar emission line in an SDSS galaxy spectrum. The lenses have median image separation 2.13″ and the source redshifts range from 1.06 to 3.36. 4 systems are quadruply-imaged and 20 are doubly-imaged. Deep CFHT data reveal an Einstein ring in one double system. We also report 12 quasar pairs, 10 of which have components at the same redshift and require further follow-up to rule out the lensing hypothesis. We compare the properties of these lenses and other known lenses recovered by our search method to a complete sample of simulated lenses to show the lenses we are missing are mainly those with small separations and higher source redshifts. The initial Gaia data release only catalogues all images of ˜ 30% of known bright lensed quasars, however the improved completeness of Gaia data release 2 will help find all bright lensed quasars on the sky.

  4. A gravitationally lensed quasar discovered in OGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Lemon, Cameron; Anguita, T.; Greiner, J.; Auger, M. W.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Apostolovski, Y.; Bolmer, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of a new gravitationally lensed quasar (double) from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) identified inside the ˜670deg2 area encompassing the Magellanic Clouds. The source was selected as one of ˜60 `red W1 - W2' mid-infrared objects from WISE and having a significant amount of variability in OGLE for both two (or more) nearby sources. This is the first detection of a gravitational lens, where the discovery is made `the other way around', meaning we first measured the time delay between the two lensed quasar images of -132 Technology Telescope spectra. The spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with the fixed source redshift provided the estimate of the lensing galaxy redshift of z ≈ 0.9 ± 0.2 (90 per cent CL), while its type is more likely to be elliptical (the SED-inferred and lens-model stellar mass is more likely present in ellipticals) than spiral (preferred redshift by the lens model).

  5. Data mining for gravitationally lensed quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Adriano; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Gravitationally lensed quasars are brighter than their unlensed counterparts and produce images with distinctive morphological signatures. Past searches and target-selection algorithms, in particular the Sloan Quasar Lens Search (SQLS), have relied on basic morphological criteria, which were applied to samples of bright, spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The SQLS techniques are not sufficient for searching into new surveys (e.g. DES, PS1, LSST), because spectroscopic information is not readily available and the large data volume requires higher purity in target/candidate selection. We carry out a systematic exploration of machine-learning techniques and demonstrate that a two-step strategy can be highly effective. In the first step, we use catalogue-level information (griz+WISE magnitudes, second moments) to pre-select targets, using artificial neural networks. The accepted targets are then inspected with pixel-by-pixel pattern recognition algorithms (gradient-boosted trees), to form a final set of candidates. The results from this procedure can be used to further refine the simpler SQLS algorithms, with a twofold (or threefold) gain in purity and the same (or 80 per cent) completeness at target-selection stage, or a purity of 70 per cent and a completeness of 60 per cent after the candidate-selection step. Simpler photometric searches in griz+WISE based on colour cuts would provide samples with 7 per cent purity or less. Our technique is extremely fast, as a list of candidates can be obtained from a Stage III experiment (e.g. DES catalogue/data base) in a few CPU hours. The techniques are easily extendable to Stage IV experiments like LSST with the addition of time domain information.

  6. Is 1146+111B, C a lensed quasar or a quasar pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchra, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    It has been speculated that the quasar pair 1146+B, C are two bright images of a single quasar produced by a gravitational lens. The author reports additional observations of these objects, made with an ultraviolet-sensitive spectrograph on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. The ultraviolet spectra of the two quasars are different. There are also different velocity shifts between the quasars as measured by the C III] and Mg II lines. Although it is impossible to rule out the lensing hypothesis, these observations increase the probability that these objects are just two quasars at nearly the same redshift. (author)

  7. THE MICROLENSING PROPERTIES OF A SAMPLE OF 87 LENSED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, A. M.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool for probing the physical properties of quasar accretion disks and properties of the lens galaxy such as its dark matter fraction and mean stellar mass. Unfortunately, the number of lensed quasars (∼90) exceeds our monitoring capabilities. Thus, estimating their microlensing properties is important for identifying good microlensing candidates as well as for the expectations of future surveys. In this work, we estimate the microlensing properties of a sample of 87 lensed quasars. While the median Einstein radius crossing timescale is 20.6 years, the median source crossing timescale is 7.3 months. Broadly speaking, this means that on ∼10 year timescales roughly half the lenses will be quiescent, with the source in a broad demagnified valley, and roughly half will be active with the source lying in the caustic ridges. We also found that the location of the lens system relative to the cosmic microwave background dipole has a modest effect on microlensing timescales, and in theory microlensing could be used to confirm the kinematic origin of the dipole. As a corollary of our study we analyzed the accretion rate parameters in a sub-sample of 32 lensed quasars. At fixed black hole mass, it is possible to sample a broad range of luminosities (i.e., Eddington factors) if it becomes feasible to monitor fainter lenses.

  8. Gravitational lenses and the cosmological evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A heuristic model for the effect of gravitational lenses on the apparent cosmological evolution of quasars is considered. The model satisfies the requirement of average flux conservation and has no net mean amplification. This requirement is shown to be numerically important in studying the effect. On the basis of the values of the evolution indicators calculated from the model, it is concluded that it is premature to assert that lensing plays an important role in affecting the apparent evolution. A qualitative, model independent observational test for the effect is suggested. The test estimates the distances where lensing is dominant. An application of this test to a complete sample of quasars indicates that lensing cannot completely account for the apparent evolution, except in an extreme situation

  9. Effect of undetected gravitational lenses on statistical measures of quasar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Brightness amplifications by undetected gravitational lenses could be responsible in part for the apparent evolution of quasars, particularly for those which appear to be of high luminosity. It is shown that values of Vover-bar/over-barVover-bar/sub M/> or =0.6 and number-magnitude slopes > or =0.9 need not necessarily imply source density evolution if lensing events are common. Quasar samples which are defined by flux limits and minimum luminosities will preferentially include gravitational lens systems. Even if lensing events are quite rare, a large fraction of the lensed quasars will appear more luminous than the most luminous unlensed quasar

  10. A gravitationally lensed quasar with quadruple images separated by 14.62 arcseconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Pindor, Bartosz; Hennawi, Joseph F; Chiu, Kuenley; Zheng, Wei; Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi; Gregg, Michael D; Becker, Robert H; Suto, Yasushi; Strauss, Michael A; Turner, Edwin L; Keeton, Charles R; Annis, James; Castander, Francisco J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Frieman, Joshua A; Fukugita, Masataka; Gunn, James E; Johnston, David E; Kent, Stephen M; Nichol, Robert C; Richards, Gordon T; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Bahcall, Neta A; Brinkmann, J; Ivezić, Zeljko; Lamb, Don Q; McKay, Timothy A; Schneider, Donald P; York, Donald G

    2003-12-18

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful tool for the study of the distribution of dark matter in the Universe. The cold-dark-matter model of the formation of large-scale structures (that is, clusters of galaxies and even larger assemblies) predicts the existence of quasars gravitationally lensed by concentrations of dark matter so massive that the quasar images would be split by over 7 arcsec. Numerous searches for large-separation lensed quasars have, however, been unsuccessful. All of the roughly 70 lensed quasars known, including the first lensed quasar discovered, have smaller separations that can be explained in terms of galaxy-scale concentrations of baryonic matter. Although gravitationally lensed galaxies with large separations are known, quasars are more useful cosmological probes because of the simplicity of the resulting lens systems. Here we report the discovery of a lensed quasar, SDSS J1004 + 4112, which has a maximum separation between the components of 14.62 arcsec. Such a large separation means that the lensing object must be dominated by dark matter. Our results are fully consistent with theoretical expectations based on the cold-dark-matter model.

  11. A closer look at the quadruply lensed quasar PSOJ0147: spectroscopic redshifts and microlensing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hsiu

    2018-04-01

    I present a timely spectroscopic follow-up of the newly discovered, quadruply lensed quasar PSOJ0147 from the Pan-STARRS 1 survey. The newly acquired optical spectra with GMOS onboard the Gemini North Telescope allow us to pin down the redshifts of both the foreground lensing galaxy and the background lensed quasar to be z = 0.572 and 2.341, providing a firm basis for cosmography with future high-cadence photometric monitoring. I also inspect difference spectra from two of the quasar images, revealing the microlensing effect. Long-term spectroscopic follow-ups will shed lights on the structure of the active galactic nucleus and its environment.

  12. Lens Model and Time Delay Predictions for the Sextuply Lensed Quasar SDSS J2222+2745*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Dahle, Hakon; Florian, Michael K.; Gladders, Michael D.; Johnson, Traci L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Rigby, Jane R.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Eva

    2017-01-01

    SDSS J2222+2745 is a galaxy cluster at z = 0.49, strongly lensing a quasar at z = 2.805 into six widely separated images. In recent Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field, we identify additional multiply lensed galaxies and confirm the sixth quasar image that was identified by Dahle et al. We used the Gemini-North telescope to measure a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.56 of one of the lensed galaxies. These data are used to refine the lens model of SDSS J2222+2745, compute the time delay and magnifications of the lensed quasar images, and reconstruct the source image of the quasar host and a lensed galaxy at z = 2.3. This galaxy also appears in absorption in our Gemini spectra of the lensed quasar, at a projected distance of 34 kpc. Our model is in agreement with the recent time delay measurements of Dahle et al., who found T(sub AB) = 47.7 +/- 6.0 days and T(sub AC) = 722 +/- 24 days. We use the observed time delays to further constrain the model, and find that the model-predicted time delays of the three faint images of the quasar are T(sub AD) = 502+/- 68 days, T( sub AE) = 611 +/- 75 days, and T(sub AF) = 415 +/- 72 days. We have initiated a follow-up campaign to measure these time delays with Gemini North. Finally, we present initial results from an X-ray monitoring program with Swift, indicating the presence of hard X-ray emission from the lensed quasar, as well as extended X-ray emission from the cluster itself, which is consistent with the lensing mass measurement and the cluster velocity dispersion.

  13. LENS MODEL AND TIME DELAY PREDICTIONS FOR THE SEXTUPLY LENSED QUASAR SDSS J2222+2745

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bayliss, Matthew B. [Colby College, 5800 Mayflower Hill, Waterville, 04901, Maine (United States); Dahle, Håkon [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Florian, Michael K.; Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Whitaker, Katherine E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Wuyts, Eva, E-mail: kerens@umich.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    SDSS J2222+2745 is a galaxy cluster at z = 0.49, strongly lensing a quasar at z = 2.805 into six widely separated images. In recent Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field, we identify additional multiply lensed galaxies and confirm the sixth quasar image that was identified by Dahle et al. We used the Gemini-North telescope to measure a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.56 of one of the lensed galaxies. These data are used to refine the lens model of SDSS J2222+2745, compute the time delay and magnifications of the lensed quasar images, and reconstruct the source image of the quasar host and a lensed galaxy at z = 2.3. This galaxy also appears in absorption in our Gemini spectra of the lensed quasar, at a projected distance of 34 kpc. Our model is in agreement with the recent time delay measurements of Dahle et al., who found τ {sub AB} = 47.7 ± 6.0 days and τ {sub AC} = −722 ± 24 days. We use the observed time delays to further constrain the model, and find that the model-predicted time delays of the three faint images of the quasar are τ {sub AD} = 502 ± 68 days, τ {sub AE} = 611 ± 75 days, and τ {sub AF} = 415 ± 72 days. We have initiated a follow-up campaign to measure these time delays with Gemini North. Finally, we present initial results from an X-ray monitoring program with Swift , indicating the presence of hard X-ray emission from the lensed quasar, as well as extended X-ray emission from the cluster itself, which is consistent with the lensing mass measurement and the cluster velocity dispersion.

  14. Constraining the neutrino emission of gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars with ANTARES data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M. [Institut d' Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politècnica de València, C/ Paranimf 1, Gandia, 46730 Spain (Spain); Albert, A. [GRPHE - Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568, Colmar, 68008 France (France); André, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposició, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona, 08800 Spain (Spain); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, Erlangen, 91058 Germany (Germany); Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille, 13288 France (France); Baret, B. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, Paris Cedex 13, F-75205 France (France); Barrios-Martí, J. [IFIC - Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Edificios Investigación de Paterna, CSIC - Universitat de València, Apdo de Correos 22085, Valencia, 46071 Spain (Spain); Basa, S. [LAM - Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pôle de l' Étoile Site de Château-Gombert, rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie 38, Marseille Cedex 13, 13388 France (France); Biagi, S. [INFN - Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, Bologna, 40127 Italy (Italy); Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R. [Nikhef, Science Park 105, Amsterdam, 1098XG The Netherlands (Netherlands); Capone, A. [INFN -Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 2, Roma, 00185 Italy (Italy); Caramete, L., E-mail: antares.spokesperson@in2p3.fr [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Măgurele, R-77125 Romania (Romania); and others

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes to exploit gravitational lensing effects to improve the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to the intrinsic neutrino emission of distant blazar populations. This strategy is illustrated with a search for cosmic neutrinos in the direction of four distant and gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars. The magnification factor is estimated for each system assuming a singular isothermal profile for the lens. Based on data collected from 2007 to 2012 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope, the strongest constraint is obtained from the lensed quasar B0218+357, providing a limit on the total neutrino luminosity of this source of 1.08× 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}. This limit is about one order of magnitude lower than those previously obtained in the ANTARES standard point source searches with non-lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars.

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cross-Correlation of Cosmic Microwave Background Lensing and Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Blake D; Das, Sudeep; Haijian, Amir; Addison, Graeme; Bond, Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Gralla, Megan B.; Halpern, Mark; hide

    2012-01-01

    We measure the cross-correlation of Atacama cosmology telescope cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing convergence maps with quasar maps made from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 SDSS-XDQSO photometric catalog. The CMB lensing quasar cross-power spectrum is detected for the first time at a significance of 3.8 sigma, which directly confirms that the quasar distribution traces the mass distribution at high redshifts z > 1. Our detection passes a number of null tests and systematic checks. Using this cross-power spectrum, we measure the amplitude of the linear quasar bias assuming a template for its redshift dependence, and find the amplitude to be consistent with an earlier measurement from clustering; at redshift z ap 1.4, the peak of the distribution of quasars in our maps, our measurement corresponds to a bias of b = 2.5 +/- 0.6. With the signal-to-noise ratio on CMB lensing measurements likely to improve by an order of magnitude over the next few years, our results demonstrate the potential of CMB lensing crosscorrelations to probe astrophysics at high redshifts.

  16. Radio and Gamma-Ray Monitoring of Strongly Lensed Quasars and Blazars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbaugh, Nick; Fassnacht, Chris; McKean, John; Koopmans, Leon; Auger, Matthew; Suyu, Sherry; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    We observed six strongly lensed, radio-loud quasars (MG 0414+0534, CLASS B0712+472, JVAS B1030+074, CLASS B1127+385, CLASS B1152+199, and JVAS B1938+666) in order to identify systems suitable for measuring cosmological parameters using time delays between their multiple images. Two separate

  17. Mass Models and Environment of the New Quadruply Lensed Quasar SDSS J1330+1810

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

    2008-09-09

    We present the discovery of a new quadruply lensed quasar. The lens system, SDSS J1330+1810 at z{sub s} = 1.393, was identified as a lens candidate from the spectroscopic sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Optical and near-infrared images clearly show four quasar images with a maximum image separation of 1.76 inch, as well as a bright lensing galaxy. We measure a redshift of the lensing galaxy of z{sub 1} = 0.373 from absorption features in the spectrum. We find a foreground group of galaxies at z = 0.31 centred {approx} 120 inch southwest of the lens system. Simple mass models fit the data quite well, including the flux ratios between images, although the lens galaxy appears to be {approx} 1 mag brighter than expected by the Faber-Jackson relation. Our mass modeling suggests that shear from nearby structure is affecting the lens potential.

  18. Discovery of three strongly lensed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. R.; Agnello, A.; Treu, T.; Abramson, L. E.; Anguita, T.; Apostolovski, Y.; Chen, G. C.-F.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Hsueh, J. W.; Lemaux, B. C.; Motta, V.; Oldham, L.; Rojas, K.; Rusu, C. E.; Shajib, A. J.; Wang, X.

    2018-06-01

    We present the discovery of three quasar lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, selected using two novel photometry-based selection techniques. The J0941+0518 system, with two point sources separated by 5.46 arcsec on either side of a galaxy, has source and lens redshifts 1.54 and 0.343. Images of J2257+2349 show two point sources separated by 1.67 arcsec on either side of an E/S0 galaxy. The extracted spectra show two images of the same quasar at zs = 2.10. SDSS J1640+1045 has two quasar spectra at zs = 1.70 and fits to the SDSS and Pan-STARRS images confirm the presence of a galaxy between the two point sources. We observed 56 photometrically selected lens candidates in this follow-up campaign, confirming three new lenses, re-discovering one known lens, and ruling out 36 candidates, with 16 still inconclusive. This initial campaign demonstrates the power of purely photometric selection techniques in finding lensed quasars.

  19. Discovery and first models of the quadruply lensed quasar SDSS J1433+6007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Adriano; Grillo, Claudio; Jones, Tucker; Treu, Tommaso; Bonamigo, Mario; Suyu, Sherry H.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of the quadruply lensed quasar SDSS J1433+6007 (RA = 14:33:22.8, Dec. = +60:07:13.44), mined in the SDSS DR12 photometric catalogues using a novel outlier-selection technique, without prior spectroscopic or ultraviolet excess information. Discovery data obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (La Palma) show nearly identical quasar spectra at zs = 2.737 ± 0.003 and four quasar images in a fold configuration, one of which sits on a blue arc, with maximum separation 3.6 arcsec. The deflector redshift is zl = 0.407 ± 0.002, from Keck-ESI spectra. We describe the selection procedure, discovery and follow-up, image positions and BVRi magnitudes, and first results and forecasts from lens model fit to the relative image positions.

  20. Discovery of the First Quadruple Gravitationally Lensed Quasar Candidate with Pan-STARRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghea, C. T.; Nelson, George J.; Dudik, R. P. [U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO), 3450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Rusu, C. E. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, CA 95616 (United States); Keeton, C. R., E-mail: ciprian.t.berghea@navy.mil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of the first gravitationally lensed quasar candidate from Pan-STARRS. The grizy images reveal four point-like images with magnitudes between 14.9 and 18.1 mag. The colors of the point sources are similar, and they are more consistent with quasars than with stars or galaxies. The lensing galaxy is detected in the izy bands, with an inferred photometric redshift of ∼0.6, lower than that of the point sources. We successfully model the system with a singular isothermal ellipsoid with shear, using the relative positions of the five objects as constraints. While the brightness ranking of the point sources is consistent with that of the model, we find discrepancies between the model-predicted and observed fluxes, likely due to microlensing by stars and millilensing due to the dark matter substructure. In order to fully confirm the gravitational lens nature of this system and add it to the small but growing number of the powerful probes of cosmology and astrophysics represented by quadruply lensed quasars, we require further spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging.

  1. The central image of a gravitationally lensed quasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Joshua N; Rusin, David; Kochanek, Christopher S

    2004-02-12

    A galaxy can act as a gravitational lens, producing multiple images of a background object. Theory predicts that there should be an odd number of images produced by the lens, but hitherto almost all lensed objects have two or four images. The missing 'central' images, which should be faint and appear near the centre of the lensing galaxy, have long been sought as probes of galactic cores too distant to resolve with ordinary observations. There are five candidates for central images, but in one case the third image is not necessarily the central one, and in the others the putative central images might be foreground sources. Here we report a secure identification of a central image, based on radio observations of one of the candidates. Lens models using the central image reveal that the massive black hole at the centre of the lensing galaxy has a mass of 20,000M(o) pc(-2), which is in agreement with expections based on observations of galaxies that are much closer to the Earth.

  2. Quasar lenses and pairs in the VST-ATLAS and Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A.; Schechter, P. L.; Morgan, N. D.; Treu, T.; Grillo, C.; Malesani, D.; Anguita, T.; Apostolovski, Y.; Rusu, C. E.; Motta, V.; Rojas, K.; Chehade, B.; Shanks, T.

    2018-04-01

    We report on discovery results from a quasar lens search in the ATLAS-DR3 public footprint. Spectroscopic follow-up campaigns, conducted at the 2.6 m Nordic Optical Telescope (La Palma) and 3.6 m New Technology Telescope (La Silla) in 2016, yielded seven pairs of quasars exhibiting the same lines at the same redshift and monotonic flux ratios with wavelength (hereafter NIQs, nearly identical quasar pairs). Magellan spectra of A0140-1152 (01h40m03{^s.}0-11d52m19{^s.}0, zs = 1.807) confirm it as a lens with deflector at zl = 0.277 and Einstein radius θE = (0.73 ± 0.02) arcsec. Follow-up imaging of the NIQ A2213-2652 (22h13m38{^s.}4-26d52m27{^s.}1) reveals the deflector galaxy and confirms it as a lens. We show the use of spatial resolution from the Gaia mission to select lenses and list additional systems from a WISE-Gaia-ATLAS search, yielding three additional lenses (02h35m27{^s.}4-24d33m13{^s.}2, 02h59m33s-23d38m01{^s.}8, 01h46m32{^s.}9-11d33m39{^s.}0). The overall sample consists of 11 lenses/NIQs, plus three lenses known before 2016, over the ATLAS-DR3 footprint (≈3500 deg2). Finally, we discuss future prospects for objective classification of pair/NIQ/contaminant spectra.

  3. Gas-rich galaxy pair unveiled in the lensed quasar 0957+561

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planesas; Martin-Pintado; Neri; Colina

    1999-12-24

    Molecular gas in the host galaxy of the lensed quasar 0957+561 (QSO 0957+561) at the redshift of 1.41 has been detected in the carbon monoxide (CO) line. This detection shows the extended nature of the molecular gas distribution in the host galaxy and the pronounced lensing effects due to the differentially magnified CO luminosity at different velocities. The estimated mass of molecular gas is about 4 x 10(9) solar masses, a molecular gas mass typical of a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way. A second, weaker component of CO is interpreted as arising from a close companion galaxy that is rich in molecular gas and has remained undetected so far. Its estimated molecular gas mass is 1.4 x 10(9) solar masses, and its velocity relative to the main galaxy is 660 kilometers per second. The ability to probe the molecular gas distribution and kinematics of galaxies associated with high-redshift lensed quasars can be used to improve the determination of the Hubble constant H(0).

  4. Models of the strongly lensed quasar DES J0408-5354

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A.; Lin, H.; Buckley-Geer, L.; Treu, T.; Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F.; Lemon, C.; Morishita, T.; Amara, A.; Auger, M. W.; Birrer, S.; Chan, J.; Collett, T.; More, A.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Frieman, J.; Marshall, P. J.; McMahon, R. G.; Meylan, G.; Suyu, S. H.; Castander, F.; Finley, D.; Howell, A.; Kochanek, C.; Makler, M.; Martini, P.; Morgan, N.; Nord, B.; Ostrovski, F.; Schechter, P.; Tucker, D.; Wechsler, R.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Eifler, T. F.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gill, M. S.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We present detailed modelling of the recently discovered, quadruply lensed quasar J0408-5354, with the aim of interpreting its remarkable configuration: besides three quasar images (A,B,D) around the main deflector (G1), a fourth image (C) is significantly reddened and dimmed by a perturber (G2) which is not detected in the Dark Energy Survey imaging data. From lens models incorporating (dust-corrected) flux ratios, we find a perturber Einstein radius 0.04 arcsec ≲ RE, G2 ≲ 0.2 arcsec and enclosed mass Mp(RE, G2) ≲ 1.0 × 1010 M⊙. The main deflector has stellar mass log _{10}(M_{\\star }/M_{⊙})=11.49^{+0.46}_{-0.32}, a projected mass Mp(RE, G1) ≈ 6 × 1011 M⊙ within its Einstein radius RE, G1 = (1.85 ± 0.15) arcsec and predicted velocity dispersion 267-280 km s-1. Follow-up images from a companion monitoring campaign show additional components, including a candidate second source at a redshift between the quasar and G1. Models with free perturbers, and dust-corrected and delay-corrected flux ratios, are also explored. The predicted time-delays (ΔtAB = (135.0 ± 12.6) d, ΔtBD = (21.0 ± 3.5) d) roughly agree with those measured, but better imaging is required for proper modelling and comparison. We also discuss some lessons learnt from J0408-5354 on lensed quasar finding strategies, due to its chromaticity and morphology.

  5. Time Delay Measurements for the Cluster-lensed Sextuple Quasar SDSS J2222+2745

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, H.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Bayliss, M. B.; Rigby, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report first results from an ongoing monitoring campaign to measure time delays between the six images of the quasar SDSS J2222+2745, gravitationally lensed by a galaxy cluster. The time delay between A and B, the two most highly magnified images, is measured to be {τ }{{AB}}=47.7+/- 6.0 days (95% confidence interval), consistent with previous model predictions for this lens system. The strong intrinsic variability of the quasar also allows us to derive a time delay value of {τ }{{CA}}=722+/- 24 days between image C and A, in spite of modest overlap between their light curves in the current data set. Image C, which is predicted to lead all the other lensed quasar images, has undergone a sharp, monotonic flux increase of 60%-75% during 2014. A corresponding brightening is firmly predicted to occur in images A and B during 2016. The amplitude of this rise indicates that time delays involving all six known images in this system, including those of the demagnified central images D-F, will be obtainable from further ground-based monitoring of this system during the next few years. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and including observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologi´a e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  6. Spectroscopic Observations of the Outflowing Wind in the Lensed Quasar SDSS J1001+5027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Toru; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Koyamada, Suzuka; Itoh, Daisuke

    2018-02-01

    We performed spectroscopic observations of the small-separation lensed quasar SDSS J1001+5027, whose images have an angular separation θ =2\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 86, and placed constraints on the physical properties of gas clouds in the vicinity of the quasar (i.e., in the outflowing wind launched from the accretion disk). The two cylinders of sight to the two lensed images go through the same region of the outflowing wind and they become fully separated with no overlap at a very large distance from the source (∼330 pc). We discovered a clear difference in the profile of the C IV broad absorption line (BAL) detected in the two lensed images in two observing epochs. Because the kinematic components in the BAL profile do not vary in concert, the observed variations cannot be reproduced by a simple change of ionization state. If the variability is due to gas motion around the background source (i.e., the continuum source), the corresponding rotational velocity is {v}rot} ≥ 18,000 km s‑1, and their distance from the source is r≤slant 0.06 pc assuming Keplerian motion. Among three Mg II and three C IV NAL systems that we detected in the spectra, only the Mg II system at {z}abs} = 0.8716 shows a hint of variability in its Mg I profile on a rest-frame timescale of {{Δ }}{t}rest} ≤slant 191 days and an obvious velocity shear between the sightlines whose physical separation is ∼7 kpc. We interpret this as the result of motion of a cosmologically intervening absorber, perhaps located in a foreground galaxy. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  7. A TWO-YEAR TIME DELAY FOR THE LENSED QUASAR SDSS J1029+2623

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Wambsganss, Joachim [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Falco, Emilio E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Oguri, Masamune [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Dai, Xinyu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We present 279 epochs of optical monitoring data spanning 5.4 years from 2007 January to 2012 June for the largest image separation (22.''6) gravitationally lensed quasar, SDSS J1029+2623. We find that image A leads the images B and C by {Delta} t {sub AB} = (744 {+-} 10) days (90% confidence); the uncertainty includes both statistical uncertainties and systematic differences due to the choice of models. With only a {approx}1% fractional error, the interpretation of the delay is limited primarily by cosmic variance due to fluctuations in the mean line-of-sight density. We cannot separate the fainter image C from image B, but since image C trails image B by only 2-3 days in all models, the estimate of the time delay between images A and B is little affected by combining the fluxes of images B and C. There is weak evidence for a low level of microlensing, perhaps created by the small galaxy responsible for the flux ratio anomaly in this system. Interpreting the delay depends on better constraining the shape of the gravitational potential using the lensed host galaxy, other lensed arcs, and the structure of the X-ray emission.

  8. DES meets Gaia: discovery of strongly lensed quasars from a multiplet search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnello, A.; et al.

    2017-11-10

    We report the discovery, spectroscopic confirmation and first lens models of the first two, strongly lensed quasars from a combined search in WISE and Gaia over the DES footprint. The four-image lensWGD2038-4008 (r.a.=20:38:02.65, dec.=-40:08:14.64) has source- and lens-redshifts $z_{s}=0.777 \\pm 0.001$ and $z_l = 0.230 \\pm 0.002$ respectively. Its deflector has effective radius $R_{\\rm eff} \\approx 3.4^{\\prime\\prime}$, stellar mass $\\log(M_{\\star}/M_{\\odot}) = 11.64^{+0.20}_{-0.43}$, and shows extended isophotal shape variation. Simple lens models yield Einstein radii $R_{\\rm E}=(1.30\\pm0.04)^{\\prime\\prime},$ axis ratio $q=0.75\\pm0.1$ (compatible with that of the starlight) and considerable shear-ellipticity degeneracies. The two-image lensWGD2021-4115 (r.a.=20:21:39.45, dec.=--41:15:57.11) has $z_{s}=1.390\\pm0.001$ and $z_l = 0.335 \\pm 0.002$, and Einstein radius $R_{\\rm E} = (1.1\\pm0.1)^{\\prime\\prime},$ but higher-resolution imaging is needed to accurately separate the deflector and faint quasar image. We also show high-rank candidate doubles selected this way, some of which have been independently identified with different techniques, and discuss a DES+WISE quasar multiplet selection.

  9. Reflection from the strong gravity regime in a lensed quasar at redshift z = 0.658.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R C; Reynolds, M T; Miller, J M; Walton, D J

    2014-03-13

    The co-evolution of a supermassive black hole with its host galaxy through cosmic time is encoded in its spin. At z > 2, supermassive black holes are thought to grow mostly by merger-driven accretion leading to high spin. It is not known, however, whether below z ≈ 1 these black holes continue to grow by coherent accretion or in a chaotic manner, though clear differences are predicted in their spin evolution. An established method of measuring the spin of black holes is through the study of relativistic reflection features from the inner accretion disk. Owing to their greater distances from Earth, there has hitherto been no significant detection of relativistic reflection features in a moderate-redshift quasar. Here we report an analysis of archival X-ray data together with a deep observation of a gravitationally lensed quasar at z = 0.658. The emission originates within three or fewer gravitational radii from the black hole, implying a spin parameter (a measure of how fast the black hole is rotating) of a = 0.87(+0.08)(-0.15) at the 3σ confidence level and a > 0.66 at the 5σ level. The high spin found here is indicative of growth by coherent accretion for this black hole, and suggests that black-hole growth at 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1 occurs principally by coherent rather than chaotic accretion episodes.

  10. Cosmological Studies with Galaxy Clusters, Active Galactic Nuclei, and Strongly Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Nicholas Andrew

    transitional `green valley' on a color-magnitude diagram. Spectral analysis of the AGN hosts showed that the average host galaxy had either on-going or recent star formation, and was younger than the average galaxy, across all LSS in our sample. We further subdivided our sample in two based on the average evolutionary state of the LSS. The AGN in the more evolved structures had lower X-ray luminosities and longer times since last starburst. These results provide some evidence for merger-based AGN triggering, although other mechanisms, and possibly more than one, could be responsible. In the third study, we probed LambdaCDM cosmology from a different angle. An important part of the model is the cosmological parameters that define our universe. As such, probes that can more accurately and precisely measure these parameters, such as H0 and the dark energy equation of state, w, can allow us to more closely inspect the model. Strongly-lensed quasars provide one such probe, and we sought to perform the first step in using them for cosmological inference, which is to measure the time delays between strongly lensed images. We performed radio monitoring campaigns on six strongly lensed quasars using the Very Large Array. Lightcurves were extracted for each lensed image and analyzed for intrinsic variability. Two lensed quasars showed strong time variations, but the variations were linear in time, preventing precise time delay measurements due to a degeneracy with the magnifications. These results suggest most of the systems should be targeted for followup monitoring, and we estimate that time delays can be measured for the most variable systems with precision of 0.5 to 3.5 days with two more seasons of monitoring. In a joint fit with previously studied systems, these measurements could tighten constraints on H 0 by up to ~1.4.

  11. A Search for Nontoroidal Topological Lensing in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hirokazu; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2013-08-01

    Flat space models with multiply connected topology, which have compact dimensions, are tested against the distribution of high-redshift (z >= 4) quasars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). When the compact dimensions are smaller in size than the observed universe, topological lensing occurs, in which multiple images of single objects (ghost images) are observed. We improve on the recently introduced method to identify ghost images by means of four-point statistics. Our method is valid for any of the 17 multiply connected flat models, including nontoroidal ones that are compacted by screw motions or glide reflection. Applying the method to the data revealed one possible case of topological lensing caused by sixth-turn screw motion, however, it is consistent with the simply connected model by this test alone. Moreover, simulations suggest that we cannot exclude the other space models despite the absence of their signatures. This uncertainty mainly originates from the patchy coverage of SDSS in the south Galactic cap, and this situation will be improved by future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  12. A SEARCH FOR NONTOROIDAL TOPOLOGICAL LENSING IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirokazu; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2013-01-01

    Flat space models with multiply connected topology, which have compact dimensions, are tested against the distribution of high-redshift (z ≥ 4) quasars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). When the compact dimensions are smaller in size than the observed universe, topological lensing occurs, in which multiple images of single objects (ghost images) are observed. We improve on the recently introduced method to identify ghost images by means of four-point statistics. Our method is valid for any of the 17 multiply connected flat models, including nontoroidal ones that are compacted by screw motions or glide reflection. Applying the method to the data revealed one possible case of topological lensing caused by sixth-turn screw motion, however, it is consistent with the simply connected model by this test alone. Moreover, simulations suggest that we cannot exclude the other space models despite the absence of their signatures. This uncertainty mainly originates from the patchy coverage of SDSS in the south Galactic cap, and this situation will be improved by future wide-field spectroscopic surveys

  13. Models of the Strongly Lensed Quasar DES J0408-5354

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnello, A.; et al.

    2017-02-01

    We present gravitational lens models of the multiply imaged quasar DES J0408-5354, recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) footprint, with the aim of interpreting its remarkable quad-like configuration. We first model the DES single-epoch $grizY$ images as a superposition of a lens galaxy and four point-like objects, obtaining spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and relative positions for the objects. Three of the point sources (A,B,D) have SEDs compatible with the discovery quasar spectra, while the faintest point-like image (G2/C) shows significant reddening and a `grey' dimming of $\\approx0.8$mag. In order to understand the lens configuration, we fit different models to the relative positions of A,B,D. Models with just a single deflector predict a fourth image at the location of G2/C but considerably brighter and bluer. The addition of a small satellite galaxy ($R_{\\rm E}\\approx0.2$") in the lens plane near the position of G2/C suppresses the flux of the fourth image and can explain both the reddening and grey dimming. All models predict a main deflector with Einstein radius between $1.7"$ and $2.0",$ velocity dispersion $267-280$km/s and enclosed mass $\\approx 6\\times10^{11}M_{\\odot},$ even though higher resolution imaging data are needed to break residual degeneracies in model parameters. The longest time-delay (B-A) is estimated as $\\approx 85$ (resp. $\\approx125$) days by models with (resp. without) a perturber near G2/C. The configuration and predicted time-delays of J0408-5354 make it an excellent target for follow-up aimed at understanding the source quasar host galaxy and substructure in the lens, and measuring cosmological parameters. We also discuss some lessons learnt from J0408-5354 on lensed quasar finding strategies, due to its chromaticity and morphology.

  14. SDSS J2222+2745: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED SEXTUPLE QUASAR WITH A MAXIMUM IMAGE SEPARATION OF 15.''1 DISCOVERED IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, H.; Groeneboom, N.; Gladders, M. D.; Abramson, L. E.; Sharon, K.; Bayliss, M. B.; Wuyts, E.; Koester, B. P.; Brinckmann, T. E.; Kristensen, M. T.; Lindholmer, M. O.; Nielsen, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a unique gravitational lens system, SDSS J2222+2745, producing five spectroscopically confirmed images of a z s = 2.82 quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster at z l = 0.49. We also present photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a sixth lensed image of the same quasar. The maximum separation between the quasar images is 15.''1. Both the large image separations and the high image multiplicity are in themselves rare among known lensed quasars, and observing the combination of these two factors is an exceptionally unlikely occurrence in present data sets. This is only the third known case of a quasar lensed by a cluster, and the only one with six images. The lens system was discovered in the course of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey, in which we identify candidate lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and target these for follow-up and verification with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope. Multi-band photometry obtained over multiple epochs from 2011 September to 2012 September reveals significant variability at the ∼10%-30% level in some of the quasar images, indicating that measurements of the relative time delay between quasar images will be feasible. In this lens system, we also identify a bright (g = 21.5) giant arc corresponding to a strongly lensed background galaxy at z s = 2.30. We fit parametric models of the lens system, constrained by the redshift and positions of the quasar images and the redshift and position of the giant arc. The predicted time delays between different pairs of quasar images range from ∼100 days to ∼6 yr

  15. Quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H J

    1966-11-01

    A short historical outline of the discovery and a description of observed properties of quasars introduces questions as to their nature. Some of the principal arguments concerning their reality, distance, intrinsic properties and age lead to the conclusion that, while there is room for other points of view; a strong case can be made for the interpretation, on which quasars are the most distant observable objects in the known universe. To produce such luminosities over times of thousands to millions of years requires the presence of millions of solar masses. For each quasar this enormous mass may be concentrated into a single object, in which case novel physics comes into play. Whatever the final interpretation, quasars seem certain to illuminate such questions as the origin and evolution of galaxies, perhaps also the structure and origin of the universe.

  16. Discovery of two gravitationally lensed quasars with image separations of 3 arcseconds from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Richards, Gordon T.; Johnston, David E.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Pindor, Bartosz; Strauss, Michael A.; Brunner, Robert; Becker, Robert H.; Castander, Francisco J.; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; York, Donald G.

    2004-11-01

    We report the discovery of two doubly-imaged quasars, SDSS J100128.61+502756.9 and SDSS J120629.65+433217.6, at redshifts of 1.838 and 1.789 and with image separations of 2.86'' and 2.90'', respectively. The objects were selected as lens candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Based on the identical nature of the spectra of the two quasars in each pair and the identification of the lens galaxies, we conclude that the objects are gravitational lenses. The lenses are complicated; in both systems there are several galaxies in the fields very close to the quasars, in addition to the lens galaxies themselves. The lens modeling implies that these nearby galaxies contribute significantly to the lens potentials. On larger scales, we have detected an enhancement in the galaxy density near SDSS J100128.61+502756.9. The number of lenses with image separation of {approx} 3'' in the SDSS already exceeds the prediction of simple theoretical models based on the standard Lambda-dominated cosmology and observed velocity function of galaxies.

  17. A calibration of the stellar mass fundamental plane at z ∼ 0.5 using the micro-lensing-induced flux ratio anomalies of macro-lensed quasars , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechter, Paul L.; Pooley, David; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We measure the stellar mass surface densities of early-type galaxies by observing the micro-lensing of macro-lensed quasars caused by individual stars, including stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, and red dwarfs too faint to produce photometric or spectroscopic signatures. Instead of observing multiple micro-lensing events in a single system, we combine single-epoch X-ray snapshots of 10 quadruple systems, and compare the measured relative magnifications for the images with those computed from macro-models. We use these to normalize a stellar mass fundamental plane constructed using a Salpeter initial mass function with a low-mass cutoff of 0.1 M ☉ and treat the zeropoint of the surface mass density as a free parameter. Our method measures the graininess of the gravitational potential produced by individual stars, in contrast to methods that decompose a smooth total gravitational potential into two smooth components, one stellar and one dark. We find the median likelihood value for the normalization factor F by which the Salpeter stellar masses must be multiplied is 1.23, with a one sigma confidence range, dominated by small number statistics, of 0.77

  18. MiNDSTEp differential photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasars WFI2033-4723 and HE0047-1756: Microlensing and a new time delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannini, E.; Schmidt, R. W.; Wambsganss, J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. We present V and R photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasars WFI 2033-4723 and HE 0047-1756. The data were taken by the MiNDSTEp collaboration with the 1.54 m Danish telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory from 2008 to 2012.Methods. Differential photometry has been carried out using...

  19. H0LiCOW VIII. A weak lensing measurement of the external convergence in the field of the lensed quasar HE 0435-1223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihhonova, O.; Courbin, F.; Harvey, D.; Hilbert, S.; Rusu, C. E.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Bonvin, V.; Marshall, P. J.; Meylan, G.; Sluse, D.; Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Wong, K. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present a weak gravitational lensing measurement of the external convergence along the line of sight to the quadruply lensed quasar HE 0435-1223. Using deep r-band images from Subaru-Suprime-Cam we observe galaxies down to a 3σ limiting magnitude of ˜26 mags resulting in a source galaxy density of 14 galaxies / arcmin2 after redshift-based cuts. Using an inpainting technique and Multi-Scale Entropy filtering algorithm, we find that the region in close proximity to the lens has an estimated external convergence of κ =-0.012^{+0.020}_{-0.013} and is hence marginally under-dense. We also rule out the presence of any halo with a mass greater than Mvir = 1.6 × 1014h-1M⊙ (68% confidence limit). Our results, consistent with previous studies of this lens, confirm that the intervening mass along the line of sight to HE 0435-1223 does not affect significantly the cosmological results inferred from the time delay measurements of that specific object.

  20. Spatially Resolved Patchy Ly α Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sharon, Keren; Runnoe, Jessie; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Acharyya, Ayan; Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gladders, Michael D. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dahle, Hakon [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Florian, Michael, E-mail: mbayliss@mit.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We report the detection of extended Ly α emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Ly α in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ∼200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Ly α emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ∼0.5–2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Ly α and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Ly α , host galaxy Ly α , and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  1. Spatially Resolved Patchy Ly α Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Sharon, Keren; Runnoe, Jessie; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Acharyya, Ayan; Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Dahle, Hakon; Florian, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of extended Ly α emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Ly α in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ∼200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Ly α emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ∼0.5–2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Ly α and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Ly α , host galaxy Ly α , and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  2. The mass function of primordial rogue planet MACHOs in quasar nano-lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schild, R.E; Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Gibson, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    The recent Sumi et al (2010 Astrophys. J. 710 1641; 2011 Nature 473 349) detection of free roaming planet mass MACHOs in cosmologically significant numbers recalls their original detection in quasar microlening studies (Colley and Schild 2003 Astrophys. J. 594 97; Schild R E 1996 Astrophys. J. 464

  3. Exploring a Potential Bias in Dark Matter Investigations Using Strongly Lensed Quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsueh, Jen-Wei; Fassnacht, Christopher; Vegetti, Simona; Springola, Cristiana; Oldham, Lindsay; Despali, Giulia; Auger, Matthew; Xu, Dandan; Metcalf, Benton; McKean, John; Koopmans, Leon; Lagattuta, David

    2018-01-01

    Simulations based on ΛCDM cosmology predict thousands of substructures under galactic scale have not been detected in the local universe. One hypothesis proposes that most of these substructures are dark for various astrophysical reasons. Gravitational lensing provides a powerful alternative way to

  4. Quasars and superclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmer, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for quasar superclusters is discussed, together with implications and survey techniques. The data base of clusters of pairs of quasars with similar redshifts, which is supportive of theories of gravitational lenses, indicates that quasar superclusters do exist. Surveys of large redshift quasars have shown that the quasars do not necessarily cluster. It is cautioned that randomness in an observational scheme, followed by assumptions of uniformity in analyses, will produce results that support a uniformity that may not exist. It is suggested that clusters observed in one survey should be sought in other direction using the same techniques. Continuing expanded surveys of large redshift quasars are recommended in order to form an all-sky distribution of the objects. 18 references

  5. Imaging of SDSS z > 6 Quasar Fields: Gravitational Lensing, Companion Galaxies, and the Host Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Percival, Will J.; McLure, Ross J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Sawicki, Marcin; Simard, Luc

    2005-06-01

    We have undertaken deep optical imaging observations of three 6.2dropouts is consistent with that found in random fields. We consider the expected dark matter halo masses that host these quasars under the assumption that a correlation between black hole mass and dark matter halo mass exists. We show that the steepness of the high-mass tail of the halo mass function at this redshift, combined with realistic amounts of scatter in this correlation, leads to expected halo masses substantially lower than previously believed. This analysis can explain the lack of companion galaxies found here and the low dynamical mass recently published for one of the quasars. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  6. Gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how gravitational lens studies is becoming a major focus of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. This review is organized into five parts: an overview of the observational situation, a look at the state of theoretical work on lenses, a detailed look at three recently discovered types of lensing phenomena (luminous arcs, radio rings, quasar-galaxy associations), a review of progress on two old problems in lens studies (deriving unique lens mass distribution models, measurements of differential time delays), and an attempt to look into the future of lens studies

  7. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the Z = 2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line emission in the strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z = 2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z = 0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of Scont = 7.4 ± 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line intensity of ICO(3-2) = (12.6 ± 2.0) Jy km s-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of {L}{{CO(1-0)}}\\prime = (3.4 ± 0.7) × 1010 (10.1/μL) K km s-1 pc2 for the SMG, where μL is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of Mgas = (2.7 ± 0.6) × 1010 (10.1/μL) M⊙. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1{}-1.3+1.1 K, a dust mass of Mdust = (5.2 ± 2.1) × 108 (10.1/μL) M⊙, and a total infrared luminosity of LIR = (9.1 ± 1.2) ×1012 (10.1/μL) L⊙. We find that the properties of the interstellar medium of SMM J0939+8315 overlap with both SMGs and type-2 quasars. Hence, SMM J0939+8315 may be transitioning from a starbursting phase to an unobscured quasar phase as described by the “evolutionary link” model, according to which this system may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of present-day galaxies at an earlier epoch.

  8. ALMA view of RX J1131-1231: Sub-kpc CO (2-1) mapping of a molecular disk in a lensed star-forming quasar host galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraficz, D.; Rybak, M.; McKean, J. P.; Vegetti, S.; Sluse, D.; Courbin, F.; Stacey, H. R.; Suyu, S. H.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2018-05-01

    We present ALMA 2-mm continuum and CO (2-1) spectral line imaging of the gravitationally lensed z = 0.654 star-forming/quasar composite RX J1131-1231 at 240-400 mas angular resolution. The continuum emission is found to be compact and coincident with the optical emission, whereas the molecular gas forms a complete Einstein ring, which shows strong differential magnification. The de-lensed source structure is determined on 400-parsec-scales resolution using a Bayesian pixelated visibility-fitting lens modelling technique. The reconstructed molecular gas velocity-field is consistent with a large rotating disk with a major-axis FWHM 9.4 kpc at an inclination angle of i = 54° and with a maximum rotational velocity of 280 km s-1. From dynamical model fitting we find an enclosed mass within 5 kpc of M(r conversion factor of α = 5.5 ± 2.0 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. This suggests that the star-formation efficiency is dependent on the host galaxy morphology as opposed to the nature of the AGN. The far-infrared continuum spectral energy distribution shows evidence for heated dust, equivalent to an obscured star-formation rate of SFR = 69-25+41 × (7.3/μIR) M⊙ yr-1, which demonstrates the composite star-forming and AGN nature of this system.

  9. Gaia Space Mission and Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwitter, Tomaž, E-mail: tomaz.zwitter@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-11-15

    Quasars are often considered to be point-like objects. This is largely true and allows for an excellent alignment of the optical positional reference frame of the ongoing ESA mission Gaia with the International Celestial Reference Frame. But presence of optical jets in quasars can cause shifts of the optical photo-centers at levels detectable by Gaia. Similarly, motion of emitting blobs in the jet can be detected as proper motion shifts. Gaia's measurements of spectral energy distribution for around a million distant quasars is useful to determine their redshifts and to assess their variability on timescales from hours to years. Spatial resolution of Gaia allows to build a complete magnitude limited sample of strongly lensed quasars. The mission had its first public data release in September 2016 and is scheduled to have the next and much more comprehensive one in April 2018. Here we briefly review the capabilities and current results of the mission. Gaia's unique contributions to the studies of quasars are already being published, a highlight being a discovery of a number of quasars with optical jets.

  10. Weak lensing of the Lyman α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2018-06-01

    The angular positions of quasars are deflected by the gravitational lensing effect of foreground matter. The Lyman α (Lyα) forest seen in the spectra of these quasars is therefore also lensed. We propose that the signature of weak gravitational lensing of the Lyα forest could be measured using similar techniques that have been applied to the lensed cosmic microwave background (CMB), and which have also been proposed for application to spectral data from 21-cm radio telescopes. As with 21-cm data, the forest has the advantage of spectral information, potentially yielding many lensed `slices' at different redshifts. We perform an illustrative idealized test, generating a high-resolution angular grid of quasars (of order arcminute separation), and lensing the Lyα forest spectra at redshifts z = 2-3 using a foreground density field. We find that standard quadratic estimators can be used to reconstruct images of the foreground mass distribution at z ˜ 1. There currently exists a wealth of Lyα forest data from quasar and galaxy spectral surveys, with smaller sightline separations expected in the future. Lyα forest lensing is sensitive to the foreground mass distribution at redshifts intermediate between CMB lensing and galaxy shear, and avoids the difficulties of shape measurement associated with the latter. With further refinement and application of mass reconstruction techniques, weak gravitational lensing of the high-redshift Lyα forest may become a useful new cosmological probe.

  11. Astrophysical Applications of Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Muñoz, Jose A.; Garzón, Francisco; Mahoney, Terence J.

    2016-10-01

    Contributors; Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Lensing basics Sherry H. Suyu; 2. Exoplanet microlensing Andrew Gould; 3. Case studies of microlensing Veronica Motta and Emilio Falco; 4. Microlensing of quasars and AGN Joachim Wambsganss; 5. DM in clusters and large-scale structure Peter Schneider; 6. The future of strong lensing Chris Fassnacht; 7. Methods for strong lens modelling Charles Keeton; 8. Tutorial on inverse ray shooting Jorge Jimenez-Vicente.

  12. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Strauss, Michael A. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Haiman, Zoltàn [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: imcgreer@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i {sub AB} = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW{sub 0} ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y {sub AB} = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i {sub 775} – Y {sub 105} color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  13. Intrinsic variations of the double quasar 0957 + 56 AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the two components of the quasar 0957 + 56A and B are reported which show a variation of approximately 1 mag in both components and behaviour typical of intrinsically variable quasars with similar radio structure. It is argued that the near constancy of the magnitude difference between the components at several epochs, despite overall variations, favours all the variations being intrinsic to the quasar and also supports the hypothesis that the two images are produced by the gravitational lensing of a single distant quasar. (U.K.)

  14. Gravitational lenses and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational lensing on the apparent cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources is investigated. Models for a lens population consisting of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are constructed and used to calculate the distribution of amplification factors caused by lensing. Although many objects at high redshifts are predicted to have flux densities altered by 10 to 20 per cent relative to a homogeneous universe, flux conservation implies that de-amplification is as common as amplification. The effects on cosmological evolution as inferred from source counts and redshift data are thus relatively small; the slope of the counts is not large enough for intrinsically rare lensing events of high amplitude to corrupt observed samples. Lensing effects may be of greater importance for optically selected quasars, where lenses of mass as low as approximately 10 -4 solar mass can cause large amplifications. (author)

  15. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH. V. FINAL CATALOG FROM THE SEVENTH DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Kayo, Issha; Fukugita, Masataka; Shin, Min-Su; Strauss, Michael A.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Rusu, Cristian E.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Hall, Patrick B.; White, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the final statistical sample of lensed quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Lens Search (SQLS). The well-defined statistical lens sample consists of 26 lensed quasars brighter than i = 19.1 and in the redshift range of 0.6 < z < 2.2 selected from 50,826 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), where we restrict the image separation range to 1'' < θ < 20'' and the i-band magnitude differences in two images to be smaller than 1.25 mag. The SDSS DR7 quasar catalog also contains 36 additional lenses identified with various techniques. In addition to these lensed quasars, we have identified 81 pairs of quasars from follow-up spectroscopy, 26 of which are physically associated binary quasars. The statistical lens sample covers a wide range of image separations, redshifts, and magnitudes, and therefore is suitable for systematic studies of cosmological parameters and surveys of the structure and evolution of galaxies and quasars.

  16. A CONSTRAINT ON QUASAR CLUSTERING AT z = 5 FROM A BINARY QUASAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a quasar pair at z = 5 separated by 21″. Both objects were identified as quasar candidates using simple color selection techniques applied to photometric catalogs from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Spectra obtained with the MMT present no discernible offset in redshift between the two objects; on the other hand, there are clear differences in the emission line profiles and in the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions that strongly disfavor the hypothesis that they are gravitationally lensed images of a single quasar. Both quasars are surprisingly bright given their proximity (a projected separation of ∼135 kpc), with i = 19.4 and i = 21.4. Previous measurements of the luminosity function demonstrate that luminous quasars are extremely rare at z = 5; the existence of this pair suggests that quasars have strong small-scale clustering at high redshift. Assuming a real-space correlation function of the form ξ(r) ∝ (r/r 0 ) −2 , this discovery implies a correlation length of r 0 ≳ 20h −1 Mpc, consistent with a rapid strengthening of quasar clustering at high redshift as seen in previous observations and predicted by theoretical models where feedback effects are inefficient at shutting down black hole growth at high redshift

  17. A CONSTRAINT ON QUASAR CLUSTERING AT z = 5 FROM A BINARY QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D., E-mail: imcgreer@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We report the discovery of a quasar pair at z = 5 separated by 21″. Both objects were identified as quasar candidates using simple color selection techniques applied to photometric catalogs from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Spectra obtained with the MMT present no discernible offset in redshift between the two objects; on the other hand, there are clear differences in the emission line profiles and in the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions that strongly disfavor the hypothesis that they are gravitationally lensed images of a single quasar. Both quasars are surprisingly bright given their proximity (a projected separation of ∼135 kpc), with i = 19.4 and i = 21.4. Previous measurements of the luminosity function demonstrate that luminous quasars are extremely rare at z = 5; the existence of this pair suggests that quasars have strong small-scale clustering at high redshift. Assuming a real-space correlation function of the form ξ(r) ∝ (r/r{sub 0}){sup −2}, this discovery implies a correlation length of r{sub 0} ≳ 20h{sup −1} Mpc, consistent with a rapid strengthening of quasar clustering at high redshift as seen in previous observations and predicted by theoretical models where feedback effects are inefficient at shutting down black hole growth at high redshift.

  18. Quasars Probing Quasars: the Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding z ~ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie; Quasars Probing Quasars survey

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the circumgalactic medium--the gaseous halo surrounding a galaxy, is an integral part to understanding galaxy evolution. The z ~ 2-3 universe is interesting as this is when the star formation rate and AGN activity peak. My thesis concludes the decade-long Quasars Probing Quasars survey designed for studying massive galaxy formation and quasar feedback. I use background quasar sightlines that pass close to foreground quasars to study the circumgalactic medium of quasar-host galaxies in absorption. My sample of 149 quasar pairs involve spectra taken with 17 different optical and near IR instruments. I present results on the statistical and physical properties of the circumgalactic medium. The circumgalactic medium is enriched even beyond the virial radius. The alpha/Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting enrichment from core-collapse supernovae. The cool gas mass within the virial radius is enough to fuel star formation for another Gyr, and may account for 1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state increases with projected distance from the quasar, which implies the quasar does not dominate the ionizing radiation flux. However, detection of fluorescent Lyman-alpha emission and NV absorption imply these transverse absorbers are partially illuminated by the quasar. In one peculiar case, the absorbing clump has density >100 cm^-3 and sub-parsec size. The average absorption in the circumgalactic medium exhibits large velocity widths, and is asymmetric about the systemic redshift of the galaxies. The widths are consistent with gravitational motions and Hubble flow, and outflows are not required to explain them. The asymmetry can be explained if the ionizing radiation from the quasar is anisotropic or intermittent and the gas is not in inflow. My results pose challenges for cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to produce a substantial cool gas reservoir surrounding quasars, that is also enriched and shows extreme kinematics.

  19. Serendipitous discovery of quadruply imaged quasars: two diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, John R.; Schechter, Paul L.; Smith, Russell J.; Anguita, T.

    2018-05-01

    Gravitationally lensed quasars are powerful and versatile astrophysical tools, but they are challengingly rare. In particular, only ˜25 well-characterized quadruple systems are known to date. To refine the target catalogue for the forthcoming Taipan Galaxy Survey, the images of a large number of sources are being visually inspected in order to identify objects that are confused by a foreground star or galaxies that have a distinct multicomponent structure. An unexpected by-product of this work has been the serendipitous discovery of about a dozen galaxies that appear to be lensing quasars, i.e. pairs or quartets of foreground stellar objects in close proximity to the target source. Here, we report two diamond-shaped systems. Follow-up spectroscopy with the IMACS instrument on the 6.5m Magellan Baade telescope confirms one of these as a z = 1.975 quasar quadruply lensed by a double galaxy at z = 0.293. Photometry from publicly available survey images supports the conclusion that the other system is a highly sheared quadruply imaged quasar. In starting with objects thought to be galaxies, our lens finding technique complements the conventional approach of first identifying sources with quasar-like colours and subsequently finding evidence of lensing.

  20. Probing Extragalactic Planets Using Quasar Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinyu; Guerras, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    Previously, planets have been detected only in the Milky Way galaxy. Here, we show that quasar microlensing provides a means to probe extragalactic planets in the lens galaxy, by studying the microlensing properties of emission close to the event horizon of the supermassive black hole of the background quasar, using the current generation telescopes. We show that a population of unbound planets between stars with masses ranging from Moon to Jupiter masses is needed to explain the frequent Fe Kα line energy shifts observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar RXJ 1131–1231 at a lens redshift of z = 0.295 or 3.8 billion lt-yr away. We constrain the planet mass-fraction to be larger than 0.0001 of the halo mass, which is equivalent to 2000 objects ranging from Moon to Jupiter mass per main-sequence star.

  1. Quasars Probing Quasars. X. The Quasar Pair Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fumagalli, Michele; Myers, Adam D.; Bartle, Stephanie; Chehade, Ben; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Shanks, Tom; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Rubin, Kate H. R.

    2018-06-01

    The rare close projection of two quasars on the sky provides the opportunity to study the host galaxy environment of a foreground quasar in absorption against the continuum emission of a background quasar. For over a decade the “Quasars probing quasars” series has utilized this technique to further the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution in the presence of a quasar at z > 2, resolving scales as small as a galactic disk and from bound gas in the circumgalactic medium to the diffuse environs of intergalactic space. Presented here is the public release of the quasar pair spectral database utilized in these studies. In addition to projected pairs at z > 2, the database also includes quasar pair members at z useful for small-scale clustering studies. In total, the database catalogs 5627 distinct objects, with 4083 lying within 5‧ of at least one other source. A spectral library contains 3582 optical and near-infrared spectra for 3028 of the cataloged sources. As well as reporting on 54 newly discovered quasar pairs, we outline the key contributions made by this series over the last 10 years, summarize the imaging and spectroscopic data used for target selection, discuss the target selection methodologies, describe the database content, and explore some avenues for future work. Full documentation for the spectral database, including download instructions, is supplied at http://specdb.readthedocs.io/en/latest/.

  2. Quasars and galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Woltjer, L

    1978-01-01

    The evolution of quasars is discussed. It is noted that substantial clustering may be present at faint magnitudes. The relationship between quasar evolution and galactic evolution is considered. (4 refs).

  3. Close Companions to Two High-redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltàn; Richards, Gordon T.; Jiang, Linhua; Bian, Fuyan; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i AB = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW0 ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ~ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ~4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y AB = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i 775 - Y 105 color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #12184 and #12493. Observations were also made with the LBT and MMT.

  4. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...

  5. What are quasars. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautcourt, G.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: gigantic explosions in galaxies, the puzzle of far radio sources, all records are broken, the quasar light - a messenger from the far past, the radio mantle of quasars, where do spectral lines originate, mysterious absorption, restless quasars, quasars as infrared sources, what is the gist of the matter, was Einstein wrong, when is a quasar no quasar, quasars and cosmology, youthful escapades of a galaxy, and once again the red shift

  6. Quasars Probing Quasars: The Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding Z 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie Wingyee

    Models of galaxy formation make the most direct predictions on gas related processes. Specifically, a picture on how gas flows through dark matter halos and onto galaxies to fuel star formation. A major prediction is that massive halos, including those hosting the progenitors of massive elliptical galaxies, exhibit a higher fraction of hot gas with T 107 K. Another prediction is that some mechanism must be invoked to quench the supply of cool gas in massive systems. Under the current galaxy formation paradigm, every massive galaxy has undergone a quasar phase, making high-redshift quasars the progenitors of inactive supermassive black holes found in the center of nearly all galaxies. Moreover, quasars clustering implies Mhalo = 1012.5 Msun , making quasar-host galaxies the progenitors of present day, massive, red and dead galaxies. The Quasars Probing Quasars survey is well-suited to examine gas related processes in the context of massive galaxy formation, as well as quasar feedback. To date the survey has selected 700 closely projected quasar pairs. To study the circumgalactic medium, a sub-sample of pairs with projected separation within 300 kpc at the foreground quasar's redshift are selected. From the first to seventh paper in the Quasars Probing Quasars series, the statistical results had been limited to covering fractions, equivalent widths, and without precise redshift measurements of the foreground quasars. Signatures of quasar feedback in the cool circumgalactic medium had not been identified. Hence, a sub-sample of 14 pairs with echellette spectra are selected for more detailed analysis. It is found that the low and high ions roughly trace each other in velocity structure. The HI and low ion surface densities decline with projected distance. HI absorption is strong even beyond the virial radius. Unresolved Lyalpha emission in one case and NV detection in another case together imply that a fraction of transverse sightlines are illuminated. The ionization

  7. Microlensing of quasar ultraviolet iron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, La Laguna 38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Muñoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V.; Rojas, K. [Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2013-12-01

    We measure the differential microlensing of the UV Fe II and Fe III emission line blends between 14 quasar image pairs in 13 gravitational lenses. We find that the UV iron emission is strongly microlensed in four cases with amplitudes comparable to that of the continuum. Statistically modeling the magnifications, we infer a typical size of r{sub s}∼4√(M/M{sub ⊙}) light-days for the Fe line-emitting regions, which is comparable to the size of the region generating the UV continuum (∼3-7 light-days). This may indicate that a significant part of the UV Fe II and Fe III emission originates in the quasar accretion disk.

  8. Radio structure in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, observational attention is given to the extended extragalactic radio sources associated with quasars. The isolated compact radio sources, often identified with quasars, are only included in the discussions. Three aspects of the radio structure in quasars and their cosmic evolution are considered: a study of the parsec scale morphology in quasar cores, in relation to the extended morphologies; an investigation of possible epoch dependent hotspot properties as well as a more detailed investigation of this fine scale structure; a VLA project was carried out to obtain morphological information on scales of 0.5 arcsec on high redshift quasars and to investigate possible epoch dependent morphological properties. MERLIN observations at 0.1 arcsec resolution to supplement the VLA data were initiated. (Auth.)

  9. Quasars in galaxy cluster environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of radio loud quasars is found to be strongly dependent upon their galaxy cluster environment. Previous studies have shown that bright quasars are found in rich clusters, while high luminosity quasars are found only in poorer environments. The analysis of low luminosity radio quiet quasars indicate that they are never found in rich environments, suggesting that they are a physically different class of objects. Properties of the quasar environment are investigated to determine constraints on the physical mechanisms of quasar formation and evolution. The optical cluster morphology indicates that the cluster cores have smaller radii and higher galaxy densities than are typical for low redshift clusters of similar richness. Radio morphologies may indicate that the formation of a dense intra-cluster medium is associated with the quasars' fading at these epochs. Galaxy colors appear to be normal, but there may be a tendency for clusters associated with high luminosity quasars to contain a higher fraction of gas-rich galaxies than those associated with low luminosity quasars. Multislit spectroscopic observations of galaxies associated with high luminosity quasars indicate that quasars are preferentially located in regions of low relative velocity dispersion, either in rich clusters of abnormally low dispersion, or in poor groups which are dynamically normal. This suggests that galaxy-galaxy interactions may play a role in quasar formation and sustenanace. Virialization of rich clusters and the subsequent increase in galaxy velocities may therefore be responsible for the fading of quasars in rich environments

  10. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Dodelson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.

  11. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens Sample from the Fifth Data Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN /Tokyo U., ICEPP; Oguri, Masamune; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Shin, Min-Su; /Michigan U. /Princeton U. Observ.; Kayo, Issha; /Tokyo U., ICRR; Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; /UC, Berkeley /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.; Morokuma, Tomoki; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan; Becker, Robert H.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis; White, Richard L.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; /Ohio State U.; Gregg, Michael D.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Exeter U.

    2010-05-01

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i < 19.1 in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.2, where we require the lenses to have image separations of 1 < {theta} < 20 and i-band magnitude differences between the two images smaller than 1.25 mag. Among the 19 lensed quasars, 3 have quadruple-image configurations, while the remaining 16 show double images. This lens sample constrains the cosmological constant to be {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.84{sub -0.08}{sup +0.06}(stat.){sub -0.07}{sup + 0.09}(syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of 7 binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.1 to 16.6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  12. Are quasars really far away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Most astrophysicists think that quasars are distant objects. But new data, based on red-shift anomalies, and new theories embracing non-cosmological doppler effect and gravitational effects could account for the peculiarities of quasars. (U.K.)

  13. Gabor lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.M.; Gamml, G.; Maschke, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Stable operation of Gabor lenses has been reported by at least three experimental groups. At Brookhaven, several lens designs have been tried since February, 1978 with very good results. The lens concept is simple, operation is less complicated than anticipated, and the focussing strengths attainable make them very attractive alternatives to magnetic focussing for heavy ion beams at low energies. Results obtained with five different configurations are presented. The lenses work well, concern is now with fine details of their beam-optical performance

  14. QUASAR PG1115+080 AND GRAVITATIONAL LENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Left: The light from the single quasar PG 1115+080 is split and distorted in this infrared image. PG 1115+080 is at a distance of about 8 billion light years in the constellation Leo, and it is viewed through an elliptical galaxy lens at a distance of 3 billion light years. The NICMOS frame is taken at a wavelength of 1.6 microns and it shows the four images of the quasar (the two on the left are nearly merging) surrounding the galaxy that causes the light to be lensed. The quasar is a variable light source and the light in each image travels a different path to reach the Earth. The time delay of the variations allows the distance scale to be measured directly. The linear streaks on the image are diffraction artifacts in the NICMOS instrument (NASA/Space Telescope Science Institute). Right: In this NICMOS image, the four quasar images and the lens galaxy have been subtracted, revealing a nearly complete ring of infrared light. This ring is the stretched and amplified starlight of the galaxy that contains the quasar, some 8 billion light years away. (NASA/Space Telescope Science Institute). Credit: Christopher D. Impey (University of Arizona)

  15. Quasar Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  16. Acoustic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  17. Are quasars local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.

    1974-01-01

    The problems of interpreting quasars as galaxies, at distances of billions of light-years, seem to be increasing with time and with observational knowledge. The incredibly large energy and brightness requirements, the very small size and thus high surface brightness required by their rapid fluctuations in luminosity, the recently-discovered radio-source separation speeds apparently much greater than the speed of light, their general lack of association with distant galaxies, and many other properties are all very difficult to explain on the basis of cosmological distance. The very local quasar model, involving much less massive and bright objects--perhaps similar to Type O stars--emitted at relativistic speeds by the center of our own galaxy, greatly eases these difficulties. Since such ejected objects also seem necessary to explain the similarly strange properties of radio galaxies, the emission of local quasars from some galaxies might be deduced on this basis alone. (6 figures) (U.S.)

  18. SIZES AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES OF QUASAR ACCRETION DISKS FROM CHROMATIC MICROLENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Pooley, David; Rappaport, Saul; Schechter, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Microlensing perturbations to the flux ratios of gravitationally lensed quasar images can vary with wavelength because of the chromatic dependence of the accretion disk's apparent size. Multiwavelength observations of microlensed quasars can thus constrain the temperature profiles of their accretion disks, a fundamental test of an important astrophysical process which is not currently possible using any other method. We present single-epoch broadband flux ratios for 12 quadruply lensed quasars in 8 bands ranging from 0.36 to 2.2 μm, as well as Chandra 0.5-8 keV flux ratios for five of them. We combine the optical/IR and X-ray ratios, together with X-ray ratios from the literature, using a Bayesian approach to constrain the half-light radii of the quasars in each filter. Comparing the overall disk sizes and wavelength slopes to those predicted by the standard thin accretion disk model, we find that on average the disks are larger than predicted by nearly an order of magnitude, with sizes that grow with wavelength with an average slope of ∼0.2 rather than the slope of 4/3 predicted by the standard thin disk theory. Though the error bars on the slope are large for individual quasars, the large sample size lends weight to the overall result. Our results present severe difficulties for a standard thin accretion disk as the main source of UV/optical radiation from quasars.

  19. Flux and color variations of the quadruply imaged quasar HE 0435-1223

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, D.; Poels, J.; Elyiv, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: We present VRi photometric observations of the quadruply imaged quasarHE0435-1223, carried out with the Danish 1.54 m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Our aim was to monitor and study the magnitudes and colors of each lensed component as a function of time. Methods. We monitored...

  20. Flux and color variations of the doubly imaged quasar UM673

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, D.; Elyiv, A.; Finet, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. With the aim of characterizing the flux and color variations of the multiple components of the gravitationally lensed quasar UM673 as a function of time, we have performed multiepoch and multiband photometric observations with the Danish telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Methods...

  1. Microlensing as a Possible Probe of Event-Horizon Structure in Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomozeiu, Mihai [Zurich U.; Mohammed, Irshad [Fermilab; Rabold, Manuel [Zurich U.; Saha, Prasenjit [Zurich U.; Wambsganss, Joachim [Heidelberg U.

    2016-04-06

    In quasars which are lensed by galaxies, the point-like images sometimes show sharp and uncorrelated brightness variations (microlensing). These brightness changes are associated with the innermost region of the quasar passing through a complicated pattern of caustics produced by the stars in the lensing galaxy. In this paper, we study whether the universal properties of optical caustics could enable extraction of shape information about the central engine of quasars. We present a toy model with a crescent-shaped source crossing a fold caustic. The silhouette of a black hole over an accretion disk tends to produce roughly crescent sources. When a crescent-shaped source crosses a fold caustic, the resulting light curve is noticeably different from the case of a circular luminosity profile or Gaussian source. With good enough monitoring data, the crescent parameters, apart from one degeneracy, can be recovered.

  2. Microlensing as a possible probe of event-horizon structure in quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomozeiu, Mihai; Mohammed, Irshad; Rabold, Manuel; Saha, Prasenjit; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    In quasars which are lensed by galaxies, the point-like images sometimes show sharp and uncorrelated brightness variations (microlensing). These brightness changes are associated with the innermost region of the quasar passing through a complicated pattern of caustics produced by the stars in the lensing galaxy. In this paper, we study whether the universal properties of optical caustics could enable extraction of shape information about the central engine of quasars. We present a toy model with a crescent-shaped source crossing a fold caustic. The silhouette of a black hole over an accretion disc tends to produce roughly crescent sources. When a crescent-shaped source crosses a fold caustic, the resulting light curve is noticeably different from the case of a circular luminosity profile or Gaussian source. With good enough monitoring data, the crescent parameters, apart from one degeneracy, can be recovered.

  3. Evidence for secondary gravitationally lensed images in radio quasistellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousey, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Evidence is sought for the observability of the gravitational lens effect by studying the internal radio structures of quasistellar objects. Since the majority of the radio emitting quasars were observed to be multiply structured at radio wavelengths, and since the gravitational deflection of light is essentially frequency independent, these sources are very suitable objects for the investigation of gravitational imaging. From the theoretical framework of gravitational imaging, particularly in the treatment of the gravitational lenses as ''point-mass'' deflectors, several selection criteria were imposed on a sample of 208 radio emitting quasars in order to filter out only those sources which may be exhibiting radio imaging. The employment of further selection criteria, obtained from the consideration of the observed optical fields around the quasars, resulted in a small filtered sample of 10 quasars which are good candidates for exhibiting the gravitational lens effect. In particular, two quasars, 3C 268.4 and 3C 286, are observed to have good evidence for the presence of suitable gravitational lenses. Image models were computed for the image candidates which predict the masses and distances of the gravitational deflectors as well as estimations of the ''time delays'' of the images. It is also suggested that measurements of these image time delays may enable one to place stringent limits on the value of the Hubble constant

  4. Manifestations of a cosmological density of compact objects in quasar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The gravitational lens effects of a cosmological density of compact objects with masses in the range 0.01 0 and quasar redshift. Comparison of the expected manifestations with a variety of quasar data suggests that the density of compact objects in the 0.01--10 5 M/sub sun/ range is not sufficient to close the universe if quasar continuum emission comes from a region -3 pc. This would exclude nuclear burning stars and their remnants. This conclusion is based on several scant and heterogeneous data sets, but it can be refined and strengthened with further data. As gravitational lensing predicts a minimum scatter in various observed quantities, upper limits to the cosmological density of compact objects are not invalidated by the unknown evolution of intrinsic quasar properties

  5. The intrinsic far-UV spectrum of the high-redshift quasar B1422+231

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, M.; Bate, N. F.; Webster, R. L.; Labrie, K.; King, A. L.; Yong, S.-. Y.

    2018-02-01

    We present new spectroscopy of the z = 3.62 gravitationally lensed quasar B1422+117 from the Gemini North GMOS integral field spectrograph. We observe significant differential magnifications between the broad emission lines and the continuum, as well as across the velocity structure of the Lyman-α line. We take advantage of this differential microlensing to algebraically decompose the quasar spectrum into the absorbed broad emission line and absorbed continuum components. We use the latter to derive the intrinsic Ly α forest absorption spectrum. The proximity effect is clearly detected, with a proximity zone edge of 8.6-17.3 Mpc from the quasar, implying (perhaps intermittent) activity over at least 28 Myr. The Ly α line profile exhibits a blue excess that is inconsistent with a symmetric fit to the unabsorbed red side. This has important implications for the use of this fitting technique in estimating the absorbed blue Ly α wings of Gunn-Peterson trough quasars.

  6. The luminosity function of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yichuan C.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new evolutionary model for the optical luminosity function of quasars. Our analytical model is derived from fits to the empirical luminosity function estimated by Hartwick and Schade and Warren, Hewett, and Osmer on the basis of more than 1200 quasars over the range of redshifts 0 approximately less than z approximately less than 4.5. We find that the evolution of quasars over this entire redshift range can be well fitted by a Gaussian distribution, while the shape of the luminosity function can be well fitted by either a double power law or an exponential L(exp 1/4) law. The predicted number counts of quasars, as a function of either apparent magnitude or redshift, are fully consistent with the observed ones. Our model indicates that the evolution of quasars reaches its maximum at z approximately = 2.8 and declines at higher redshifts. An extrapolation of the evolution to z approximately greater than 4.5 implies that quasars may have started their cosmic fireworks at z(sub f) approximately = 5.2-5.5. Forthcoming surveys of quasars at these redshifts will be critical to constrain the epoch of quasar formation. All the results we derived are based on observed quasars and are therefore subject to the bias of obscuration by dust in damped Ly alpha systems. Future surveys of these absorption systems at z approximately greater than 3 will also be important if the formation epoch of quasars is to be known unambiguously.

  7. THE MAGELLANIC QUASARS SURVEY. III. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF 758 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI BEHIND THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozłowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Meixner, M.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The Magellanic Quasars Survey (MQS) has now increased the number of quasars known behind the Magellanic Clouds by almost an order of magnitude. All survey fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 70% of those in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have been observed. The targets were selected from the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) based on their optical variability, mid-IR, and/or X-ray properties. We spectroscopically confirmed 758 quasars (565 in the LMC and 193 in the SMC) behind the clouds, of which 94% (527 in the LMC and 186 in the SMC) are newly identified. The MQS quasars have long-term (12 yr and growing for OGLE), high-cadence light curves, enabling unprecedented variability studies of quasars. The MQS quasars also provide a dense reference grid for measuring both the internal and bulk proper motions of the clouds, and 50 quasars are bright enough (I ∼< 18 mag) for absorption studies of the interstellar/intergalactic medium of the clouds

  8. Distribution in depth of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Green, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the distribution in depth of different kinds of quasars: quasi-stellar radio sources with steep radio spectrum, those with flat radio spectrum, and optically selected quasars. All exhibit an increase of space density with distance to a different degree. The optically selected quasars, in particular, show a steep increase of surface density with magnitude. The steepness of the increase is inconsistent with a uniform distribution of quasars in the local hypothesis. In the cosmological hypothesis the co-moving space density of optically selected quasars increases by a factor of 100,000 to a redshift of 2, and by factors of 1000 and 10 for steep-spectrum and flat-spectrum radio quasars, respectively. (Auth.)

  9. Paired quasars near NGC 2639: Evidence for quasars in superclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H.; Ciardullo, R.; Harms, R.

    1983-01-01

    Arp found 10 quasars near a low-redshift galaxy 27' SSE of NGC 2639. Six of the quasars can be grouped into three redshift pairs which align across the anonymous galaxy. The large number of quasars and pairings could show an association with the low-redshift galaxy, or alternatively, might be due to superclusters seen along the line of sight. We tested the latter hypothesis by using deep, red-sensitive Lick 3 m prime focus plates to search for a supercluster associated with the z = 0.3 quasar pair. The plates show extended nebulosity associated with the quasar U10 (thetaapprox.7'', or 20 kpc at z = 0.3) and a richness class 1, Bautz-Morgan type III cluster 4' NW of U10. A spectrum of one the cluster's brightest galaxies gives z = 0.34, suggesting that the cluster and quasar are unassociated. We obtained spectra of eight of the quasars and find that (i) two of the quasars have very strong absorption shortward of Lyα, and (ii) two of Arp's redshifts (including one which Arp considered uncertain) are incorrect. Our redshifts break two of the redshift pairs, including the pair at z = 0.3. We use the redshift distribution of optically selected quasars to argue that the third pair has no statistical significance, and conclude that there is no basis for associating the quasars with the low-redshift anonymous galaxy. The disappearance of the redshift pairs vitiates the possibility of testing the paired-quasars-in-superclusters hypothesis in the NGC 2639 field

  10. The QUASAR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, David

    2013-10-01

    The QUAsi-Axisymmetric Research (QUASAR) stellarator is a new facility which can solve two critical problems for fusion, disruptions and steady-state, and which provides new insights into the role of magnetic symmetry in plasma confinement. If constructed it will be the only quasi-axisymmetric stellarator in the world. The innovative principle of quasi-axisymmetry (QA) will be used in QUASAR to study how ``tokamak-like'' systems can be made: 1) Disruption-free, 2) Steady-state with low recirculating power, while preserving or improving upon features of axisymmetric tokamaks, such as 1) Stable at high pressure simultaneous with 2) High confinement (similar to tokamaks), and 3) Scalable to a compact reactor Stellarator research is critical to fusion research in order to establish the physics basis for a magnetic confinement device that can operate efficiently in steady-state, without disruptions at reactor-relevant parameters. The two large stellarator experiments - LHD in Japan and W7-X under construction in Germany are pioneering facilities capable of developing 3D physics understanding at large scale and for very long pulses. The QUASAR design is unique in being QA and optimized for confinement, stability, and moderate aspect ratio (4.5). It projects to a reactor with a major radius of ~8 m similar to advanced tokamak concepts. It is striking that (a) the EU DEMO is a pulsed (~2.5 hour) tokamak with major R ~ 9 m and (b) the ITER physics scenarios do not presume steady-state behavior. Accordingly, QUASAR fills a critical gap in the world stellarator program. This work supported by DoE Contract No. DEAC02-76CH03073.

  11. Quasars and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliche, H.-H.; Souriau, J.-M.

    1978-03-01

    On the basis of colorimetric data a composite spectrum of quasars is established from the visible to the Lyman's limit. Its agreement with the spectrum of the quasar 3C273, obtained directly, confirms the homogeneity of these objects. The compatibility of the following hypotheses: negligible evolution of quasars, Friedmann type model of the universe with cosmological constant, is studied by means of two tests: a non-correlation test adopted to the observation conditions and the construction of diagrams (absolute magnitude, volume) using the K-correction deduced from the composite spectrum. This procedure happens to give relatively well-defined values of the parameters; the central values of the density parameter, the reduced curvature and the reduced cosmological constant are: Ω 0 =0.053, k 0 =0.245, lambda-zero=1.19, which correspond to a big bang model, eternally expanding, spatially finite, in which Hubble's parameter H is presently increasing. This model responds well to different cosmological tests: density of matter, diameter of radio sources, age of the universe. Its characteristics suggest various cosmogonic mechanisms, espacially mass formation by growth of empty spherical bubbles [fr

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  13. The Cluster Lens SDSS 1004+4112: Constraining World Models With its Multiply-Imaged Quasar and Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C.

    2005-07-01

    We will use deep ACS imaging of the giant {15 arcsec} four-image z_s=1.734 lensed quasar SDSS 1004+4112, and its z_l=0.68 lensing galaxy cluster, to identify many additional multiply-imaged background galaxies. Combining the existing single orbit ACS I-band image with ground based data, we have definitely identified two multiply imaged galaxies with estimated redshifts of 2.6 and 4.3, about 15 probable images of background galaxies, and a point source in the core of the central cD galaxy, which is likely to be the faint, fifth image of the quasar. The new data will provide accurate photometric redshifts, confirm that the candidate fifth image has the same spectral energy distribution as the other quasar images, allow secure identification of additional multiply-lensed galaxies for improving the mass model, and permit identification of faint cluster members. Due to the high lens redshift and the broad redshift distribution of the lensed background sources, we should be able to use the source-redshift scaling of the Einstein radius that depends on {d_ls/d_os}, to derive a direct, geometric estimate of Omega_Lambda. The deeper images will also allow a weak lensing analysis to extend the mass distribution to larger radii. Unlike any other cluster lenses, the time delay between the lensed quasar images {already measured for the A-B images, and measurable for the others over the next few years}, breaks the so-called kappa-degeneracies that complicate weak-lensing analyses.

  14. Outshining the quasars at reionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, D.; Reeves, J.N.; Hjorth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma Rays: Bursts, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, Galaxies: Quasars: Absorption Lines, X-Rays: Galaxies, X-Rays: General Udgivelsesdato: 19 January......Gamma Rays: Bursts, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, Galaxies: Quasars: Absorption Lines, X-Rays: Galaxies, X-Rays: General Udgivelsesdato: 19 January...

  15. A main sequence for quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziani, Paola; Dultzin, Deborah; Sulentic, Jack W.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Negrete, C. A.; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Bon, Edi; Bon, Natasa; Stirpe, Giovanna M.

    2018-03-01

    The last 25 years saw a major step forward in the analysis of optical and UV spectroscopic data of large quasar samples. Multivariate statistical approaches have led to the definition of systematic trends in observational properties that are the basis of physical and dynamical modeling of quasar structure. We discuss the empirical correlates of the so-called “main sequence” associated with the quasar Eigenvector 1, its governing physical parameters and several implications on our view of the quasar structure, as well as some luminosity effects associated with the virialized component of the line emitting regions. We also briefly discuss quasars in a segment of the main sequence that includes the strongest FeII emitters. These sources show a small dispersion around a well-defined Eddington ratio value, a property which makes them potential Eddington standard candles.

  16. A Main Sequence for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The last 25 years saw a major step forward in the analysis of optical and UV spectroscopic data of large quasar samples. Multivariate statistical approaches have led to the definition of systematic trends in observational properties that are the basis of physical and dynamical modeling of quasar structure. We discuss the empirical correlates of the so-called “main sequence” associated with the quasar Eigenvector 1, its governing physical parameters and several implications on our view of the quasar structure, as well as some luminosity effects associated with the virialized component of the line emitting regions. We also briefly discuss quasars in a segment of the main sequence that includes the strongest FeII emitters. These sources show a small dispersion around a well-defined Eddington ratio value, a property which makes them potential Eddington standard candles.

  17. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  18. Characterizing the evolution of WISE-selected obscured and unobscured quasars using HOD models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Adam D.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Mitra, Kaustav; Hickox, Ryan C.; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Whalen, Kelly

    2018-06-01

    Large-area imaging surveys in the infrared are now beginning to unlock the links between the activity of supermassive black holes and the cosmic evolution of dark matter halos during the significant times when black hole growth is enshrouded in dust. With data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and complementary optical photometry, we construct samples of nearly half-a-million obscured and unobscured quasars around redshift 1. We study the dark matter halos of these populations using both angular autocorrelation functions and CMB lensing cross-correlations, carefully characterizing the redshift distribution of the obscured quasar sample using cross-correlations. Independent of our measurement technique, we find that obscured quasars occupy dark matter halos a few times more massive than their unobscured counterparts, despite being matched in luminosity at 12 and 22 microns. Modeling the two-point correlation function using a four-parameter Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) formalism, we determine that purely optically selected quasars reside in dark matter halos that are about half the mass of WISE-selected obscured quasars, and that satellite fractions are somewhat larger for obscured quasars. We investigate scenarios such as merger-driven fueling and Eddington-dependent obscuration to explore what combinations of physical effects can reproduce our observed halo mass measurements. This work was, in part, supported by NASA ADAP award NNX16AN48G.

  19. Intergalactic dust and quasar distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan, A.

    1979-01-01

    Non-homogeneous intergalactic extinction may considerably affect the quasar distribution. Especially samples of quasars isolated on the basis of B-V colours are subject to this phenomenon. Apparent grouping and close pairs of quasars reported in the literature may be a result of intergalactic dust. Using surface distribution of faint blue objects selected by Hawkins and Reddish it is estimated that intergalactic extinction in B should reach approximately 1 mag out to the redshift of approximately 1. This is slightly larger than predicted by theory and comparable to the mean dust density derived from observations. (Author)

  20. A ROBUST DETERMINATION OF THE SIZE OF QUASAR ACCRETION DISKS USING GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Mediavilla, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Using microlensing measurements for a sample of 27 image pairs of 19 lensed quasars we determine a maximum likelihood estimate for the accretion disk size of an average quasar of r s = 4.0 +2.4 –3.1 lt-day at rest frame (λ) = 1736 Å for microlenses with a mean mass of (M) = 0.3 M ☉ . This value, in good agreement with previous results from smaller samples, is roughly a factor of five greater than the predictions of the standard thin disk model. The individual size estimates for the 19 quasars in our sample are also in excellent agreement with the results of the joint maximum likelihood analysis.

  1. Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Esparza-Arredondo, Donají; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.

  2. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bisogni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cosmological model is at present not tested between the redshift of the farthest observed supernovae (z ~ 1.4 and that of the Cosmic Microwave Background (z ~ 1,100. Here we introduce a new method to measure the cosmological parameters: we show that quasars can be used as “standard candles” by employing the non-linear relation between their intrinsic UV and X-ray emission as an absolute distance indicator. We built a sample of ~1,900 quasars with available UV and X-ray observations, and produced a Hubble Diagram up to z ~ 5. The analysis of the quasar Hubble Diagram, when used in combination with supernovae, provides robust constraints on the matter and energy content in the cosmos. The application of this method to forthcoming, larger quasar samples, will also provide tight constraints on the dark energy equation of state and its possible evolution with time.

  3. Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [CONACYT Research Fellow - Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padua (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain); Esparza-Arredondo, Donají [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Morelia (Mexico); Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión, E-mail: alenka@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.

  4. Relativistic beaming and quasar statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, M.J.L.; Browne, I.W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The statistical predictions of a unified scheme for the radio emission from quasars are explored. This scheme attributes the observed differences between flat- and steep-spectrum quasars to projection and the effects of relativistic beaming of the emission from the nuclear components. We use a simple quasar model consisting of a compact relativistically beamed core with spectral index zero and unbeamed lobes, spectral index - 1, to predict the proportion of flat-spectrum sources in flux-limited samples selected at different frequencies. In our model this fraction depends on the core Lorentz factor, γ and we find that a value of approximately 5 gives satisfactory agreement with observation. In a similar way the model is used to construct the expected number/flux density counts for flat-spectrum quasars from the observed steep-spectrum counts. Again, good agreement with the observations is obtained if the average core Lorentz factor is about 5. Independent estimates of γ from observations of superluminal motion in quasars are of the same order of magnitude. We conclude that the statistical properties of quasars are entirely consistent with the predictions of simple relativistic-beam models. (author)

  5. Fine Structure in Quasar Flows Revealed by Lens-Aided Multi-Angle Spectroscopy (LAMAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul J.

    2006-09-01

    Spectral differences between lensed quasar image components are common. Since lensing is intrinsically achromatic, these differences are typically explained as the effect of either microlensing, or as light path time delays sampling intrinsic quasar spectral variability. In some cases, neither explanation seems sufficient. Here we advance a novel third hypothesis: some spectral differences are due to small line-of- sight differences through quasar disk wind outflows, taking the widest separation lens SDSSJ1004+4112 as a key example. We show that small changes in sightline may traverse streams with significantly differing columns. The implications are many. Fine structure in these outflows may change the observed spectra on arcsec scales. Though difficult to detect observationally, high ionization, high velocity-width streams may sculpt the optical and X-ray spectra of most quasars. We discuss existing multi-epoch optical/UV spectroscopy and results from X-ray observations both by Chandra and XMM in this context, and sketch further possible tests. The author gratefully acknowledges support through NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  6. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Biesiada, Marek; Godlowski, Wlodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D ds /D s from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future

  7. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Biesiada, Marek [Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Godlowski, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: baodingcaoshuo@163.com, E-mail: panyu@cqupt.edu.cn, E-mail: biesiada@us.edu.pl, E-mail: godlowski@uni.opole.pl, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D{sub ds}/D{sub s} from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future.

  8. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH. IV. STATISTICAL LENS SAMPLE FROM THE FIFTH DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Fukugita, Masataka; Strauss, Michael A.; Gott, J. Richard; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; White, Richard L.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Chiu, Kuenley; Johnston, David E.; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i Λ = 0.84 +0.06 -0.08 (stat.) +0.09 -0.07 (syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of seven binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.''1 to 16.''6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  9. Far infrared peculiar behavior of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulin; Liu Jiying

    1988-09-01

    Many quasars possibly have nebulous envelopes with far infrared radiation. These nebulosities may be similar to fuzz in the optical region in morphology. These quasars have many properties in common. (author). Refs, 3 figs

  10. The statistics of radio emission from quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Miller, L.; Longair, M.S.; Edinburgh Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The radio properties of quasars have traditionally been discussed in terms of the radio-to-optical flux-density ratio R, implying a correlation between emission in these wavebands. It is here shown that, for bright quasars, this apparent correlation is largely due to an abrupt change in the radio properties of the quasar population near absolute magnitude Msub(B)=-24. It is suggested that this change in due to the existence of two classes of quasar with differing host galaxies: a proportion of quasars brighter than Msub(B)approx.=-24 lie in elliptical galaxies and thus generate powerful radio sources, while elliptical galaxies with weaker nuclear quasar components are classified as N-galaxies rather than quasars; quasars fainter than Msub(B)approx.=-24 lie in spiral galaxies and thus are high-luminosity analogues of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. (author)

  11. Star Formation in Dusty Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Stuart; Croom, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Quasar mode feedback is thought to be a crucial ingredient in galaxy formation for luminous merging and star-bursting systems at high redshift. The energy from the active nucleus should cause significant gas outflows, reducing the available free gas reservoir for future star formation. It is currently unknown which observational state best corresponds to the stage at which this "blowout" should occur. We intend to test one possible source population for this transition phase, by studying the molecular gas content in a small, statistically complete sample of 3 K-band selected reddened quasars from the AUS survey. All lie in the redshift range 2quasar activity in typical galaxies, where we also expect the bulk of the stars for form as well.

  12. A DISTANT QUASAR'S BRILLIANT LIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The arrow in this image, taken by a ground-based telescope, points to a distant quasar, the brilliant core of an active galaxy residing billions of light-years from Earth. As light from this faraway object travels across space, it picks up information on galaxies and the vast clouds of material between galaxies as it moves through them. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope decoded the quasar's light to find the spectral 'fingerprints' of highly ionized (energized) oxygen, which had mixed with invisible clouds of hydrogen in intergalactic space. The quasar's brilliant beam pierced at least four separate filaments of the invisible hydrogen laced with the telltale oxygen. The presence of oxygen between the galaxies implies there are huge quantities of hydrogen in the universe. Credits: WIYN Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. The telescope is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  13. The statistics of quasar-galaxy separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.

    1983-01-01

    One of the arguments put forward in favor of physical associations between low redshift galaxies and high redshift quasars is shown to be void. The argument is based on the form of the relationship for 'close' pairs of quasars and galaxies and on the size of their separations. Simple statistical reasoning based on selection effects shows that the relationship for quasar-galaxy pairs is expected if the objects are not physically associated. Further, the actual separations of the closest pairs are in close agreement with those expected given the observed numbers of nearby galaxies and the total number of known quasars. This argument avoids the controversial number density of quasars

  14. Superconducting cosmic string evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulin.

    1988-09-01

    The quasars may have been undergoing two evolutionary processes after they formed. As a result of the string loops shrinking at the first stage, the luminosities of the quasars increased gradually up to their maximum value at the redshift z ∼ 2, after then the second evolutionary stage began and the luminosity reduced. This result can be fitted by luminosity counting of quasars. Observable limit of quasars can be obtained naturally. Many phenomena, such as radiomorphology, density distribution between fuzz structure and broad line region and rotational curve may also originate from the first evolutionary stage of quasars as cosmic string. (author). 10 refs

  15. Lens-Aided Multi-Angle Spectroscopy (LAMAS) Reveals Small-Scale Outflow Structure in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul J.

    2006-06-01

    Spectral differences between lensed quasar image components are common. Since lensing is intrinsically achromatic, these differences are typically explained as the effect of either microlensing, or as light path time delays sampling intrinsic quasar spectral variability. Here we advance a novel third hypothesis: some spectral differences are due to small line-of-sight differences through quasar disk wind outflows. In particular, we propose that variable spectral differences seen only in component A of the widest separation lens SDSS J1004+4112 are due to differential absorption along the sight lines. The absorber properties required by this hypothesis are akin to known broad absorption line (BAL) outflows but must have a broader, smoother velocity profile. We interpret the observed C IV emission-line variability as further evidence for spatial fine structure transverse to the line of sight. Since outflows are likely to be rotating, such absorber fine structure can consistently explain some of the UV and X-ray variability seen in AGNs. The implications are many: (1) Spectroscopic differences in other lensed objects may be due to this ``lens-aided multi-angle spectroscopy'' (LAMAS). (2) Outflows have fine structure on size scales of arcseconds, as seen from the nucleus. (3) Assuming either broad absorption line region sizes proposed in recent wind models, or typically assumed continuum emission region sizes, LAMAS and/or variability provide broadly consistent absorber size scale estimates of ~1015 cm. (4) Very broad smooth absorption may be ubiquitous in quasar spectra, even when no obvious troughs are seen.

  16. Proper motions and distances of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshni, Y.P.

    1982-01-01

    The author's theory that quasars are stars raises the question of their proper motions. From the evidence presented in a previous paper, it is hypothesised that planetary nuclei and quasars are related objects and that their distributions in the galaxy are not very different. Proper motions of 30 quasars, calculated from existing measurements, are discussed. It is shown that three of these, namely PHL 1033, LB 8956 and LB 8991, have proper motions comparable to the largest proper motion known amongst the planetary nuclei. From this it is estimated that these three quasars lie within a few hundred parsecs from the sun. The evidence presented in a previous paper and the present one clearly supports the theory that quasars are stars. The possibility of using the interstellar K and H lines as distance indicators of quasars is discussed and the available evidence summarised. The desirability of determining more accurate values of the proper motions of quasars is emphasised. (Auth.)

  17. Axions and polarisation of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payez, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Hutsemekers, D.

    2008-01-01

    We present results showing that, thanks to axion-photon mixing in external magnetic fields, it is actually possible to produce an effect similar to the one needed to explain the large-scale coherent orientations of quasar polarisation vectors in visible light that have been observed in some regions of the sky

  18. IRAS 10479 - 2808: a quasar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.; Leggett, S.K.; Savage, A.

    1991-01-01

    The IRAS point source 10479-2808 is a quasar with B J ∼ 16 and z = 0.190. It is not in the Parkes and Molonglo radio catalogues. At the resolution of the UK and ESO Schmidt telescopes it appears to be star-like, with no sign of surrounding fuzz or interactions; it is probably optically variable. (author)

  19. One Episode, Two Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijvers, Paul; Godino, Juan D.; Font, Vicenc; Trouche, Luc

    2013-01-01

    A deep understanding of students' learning processes is one of the core challenges of research in mathematics education. To achieve this, different theoretical lenses are available. The question is how these different lenses compare and contrast, and how they can be coordinated and combined to provide a more comprehensive view on the topic of…

  20. On The Dark Side of Quasar Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Menou, Kristen; Haiman, Zoltan

    2004-01-01

    Recent improved determinations of the mass density rho_BH of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the local universe have allowed accurate comparisons of rho_BH with the amount of light received from past quasar activity. These comparisons support the notion that local SMBHs are ``dead quasars'' and yield a value epsilon >~ 0.1 for the average radiative efficiency of cosmic SMBH accretion. BH coalescences may represent an important component of the quasar mass assembly and yet not produce any ...

  1. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  2. The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.

    2014-01-01

    Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.

  3. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  4. Gravitational lensing limits on the cosmological constant in a flat universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    Inflationary cosmological theories predict, and some more general aesthetic criteria suggest, that the large-scale spatial curvature of the universe k should be accurately zero (i.e., flat), a condition which is satisfied when the universe's present mean density and the value of the cosmological constant Lambda have certain pairs of values. Available data on the frequency of multiple image-lensing of high-redshift quasars by galaxies suggest that the cosmological constant cannot make a dominant contribution to producing a flat universe. In particular, if the mean density of the universe is as small as the baryon density inferred from standard cosmic nucleosynthesis calculations or as determined from typical dynamical studies of galaxies and galaxy clusters, then a value of Lambda large enough to produce a k = 0 universe would result in a substantially higher frequency of multiple-image lensing of quasars than has been observed so far. Shortcomings of the available lens data and uncertainties concerning galaxy properties allow some possibility of escaping this conclusion, but systematic searches for a gravitational lenses and continuing investigations of galaxy mass distributions should soon provide decisive information. It is also noted that nonzero-curvature cosmological models can account for the observed frequency of galaxy-quasar lens systems and for a variety of other constraints. 61 refs

  5. Noise estimates for measurements of weak lensing from the Ly α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, R. Benton; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro

    2018-06-01

    Lensing changes the apparent separation between pixels in the Ly α forest of separate quasars or high-redshift objects by changing their observed positions on the sky. This changes the implied correlations in the absorption and in particular makes the Ly α forest correlation function, or power spectrum, locally anisotropic in the plane of the sky. We have proposed a method for measuring weak lensing using this effect. Here, we estimate the noise expected in weak lensing maps and power spectra for different sets of observational parameters. We find that surveys of the size and quality of the ones being done today and ones planned for the future will be able to measure the lensing power spectrum at a source redshift of z ≃ 2.5 with high precision and even be able to image the distribution of foreground matter with high fidelity on degree scales. For example, we predict that Ly α forest lensing measurements from the DESI and WEAVE surveys should yield the mass fluctuation amplitude with a statistical error of ˜3 per cent, eBOSS ˜6 per cent. and the proposed MSE survey less than 1 per cent. By dividing the redshift range into multiple bins, some tomographic lensing information should be accessible as well. This would allow for cosmological lensing measurements at higher redshift than are accessible with galaxy shear surveys and correspondingly better constraints on the evolution of dark energy at relatively early times.

  6. Quasars: Active nuclei of young galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    The hypothetical properties of 'young' galaxies and possible methods of observing them are discussed. It is proposed that star formation first takes place in the central regions of protogalaxies which may appear as quasar-like objects. An evolutionary scheme is outlined in which the radio quasars are transformed in time into the nuclei of radio galaxies.

  7. Statistics of gravitational lenses: apparent changes in the luminosity function of distant sources due to passage of light through a single galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietri, M.; Ostriker, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    We ask how the apparent distribution of fluxes (N-F relation) of point sources seen behind an intervening galaxy will change due to gravitational lensing of the galaxy as a whole or due to mini-lenses within it. The analysis is exact in the limit that the optical depth to lensing is small. We find that there should be a significant increase in the apparent density of quasars seen near galaxies but that a sample of more than 10/sup 4,5/ galaxies will have to be studied before a statistically significant result is found. The resulting amplification of the N-F relation depends sensitively on the slope and curvature of the initial N-F relation. Because of this and requirements of flux conservation, there is expected to be a decrement of very faint quasars (m>26.5) seen near galaxies. This, coupled with the scarcity of bright quasars, implies that searches should optimally be made in the vicinity of m = 23. The apparent amplification found by Canizares with a smaller sample (Nroughly-equal10/sup 3,3/) of galaxies using relatively bright quasars (m<16) is, if real and not a statistical anomaly, due to physical effects other than gravitational lensing

  8. Phylogenetic Analyses of Quasars and Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Marziani, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Phylogenetic approaches have proven to be useful in astrophysics. We have recently published a Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z phylogeny of quasars may be represented by the ontogeny of their central black hole, i.e. the increase of the black hole mass. However these exciting results are based on a small sample of low-z quasars, so that the work must be extended. We are here faced with two difficulties. The first one is the current lack of a larger sample with similar observables. The second one is the prohibitive computation time to perform a cladistic analysis on more that about one thousand objects. We show in this paper an experimental strategy on about 1500 galaxies to get around this difficulty. Even if it not related to the quasar study, it is interesting by itself and opens new pathways to generalize the quasar findings.

  9. THE SUBARU HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: DISCOVERY OF FAINT z ∼ 6 QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Niino, Yuu; Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Onoue, Masafusa; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Shogo; Willott, Chris J.; Im, Myungshin; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Hibon, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z ∼ 6 quasars in 6.5 deg 2 utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-z B ) and (z B -z R ) colors, where z B and z R are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842 Å and 9841 Å, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z ∼ 6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to z R < 24.0, which is 3.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z = 6.156 with M 1450 = –23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z = 6.041 with a faint continuum of M 1450 = –22.58 and a narrow Lyα emission with HWHM =427 km s –1 , which cannot be distinguished from Lyman α emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z ∼ 6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number density in the faintest bin of the quasar luminosity function than the previous estimate employed. This suggests a steeper faint-end slope than lower z, though it is yet uncertain based on a small number of spectroscopically identified faint quasars, and several quasar candidates still remain to be diagnosed. The steepening of the quasar luminosity function at the faint end does increase the expected emission rate of the ionizing photon; however, it only changes by a factor of approximately two to six. This was found to still be insufficient for the required photon budget of reionization at z ∼ 6

  10. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nagai, Daisuke; Zheng Zheng; Shen Yue

    2012-01-01

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h –1 Mpc p –1 Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing ∼48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 ∼ sat = (7.4 ± 1.4) × 10 –4 , be satellites in dark matter halos. At z ∼ 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be M cen = 4.1 +0.3 –0.4 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ and M sat = 3.6 +0.8 –1.0 × 10 14 h –1 M ☉ , respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos—the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z ∼ 3.2 is M cen = 14.1 +5.8 –6.9 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ . The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be f q = 7.3 +0.6 –1.5 × 10 –4 at z ∼ 1.4 and f q = 8.6 +20.4 –7.2 × 10 –2 at z ∼ 3.2. We discuss the implications of our results for quasar evolution and quasar-galaxy co-evolution.

  11. QUASAR CLUSTERING FROM SDSS DR5: DEPENDENCES ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Bahcall, Neta A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Weinberg, David H.; Shankar, Francesco; Connolly, Andrew J.; Fan Xiaohui; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Brunner, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a homogenous sample of 38,208 quasars with a sky coverage of ∼4000 deg. 2 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Five quasar catalog, we study the dependence of quasar clustering on luminosity, virial black hole (BH) mass, quasar color, and radio loudness. At z 13 h -1 M sun , compared to ∼2 x 10 12 h -1 M sun for radio-quiet quasar hosts at z ∼ 1.5.

  12. Imprints of the quasar structure in time-delay light curves: Microlensing-aided reverberation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluse, D.; Tewes, M.

    2014-11-01

    The advent of large area photometric surveys has raised a great deal of interest in the possibility of using broadband photometric data, instead of spectra, to measure the size of the broad line region of active galactic nuclei. We describe here a new method that uses time-delay lensed quasars where one or several images are affected by microlensing due to stars in the lensing galaxy. Because microlensing decreases (or increases) the flux of the continuum compared to the broad line region, it changes the contrast between these two emission components. We show that this effect can be used to effectively disentangle the intrinsic variability of those two regions, offering the opportunity to perform reverberation mapping based on single-band photometric data. Based on simulated light curves generated using a damped random walk model of quasar variability, we show that measurement of the size of the broad line region can be achieved using this method, provided one spectrum has been obtained independently during the monitoring. This method is complementary to photometric reverberation mapping and could also be extended to multi-band data. Because the effect described above produces a variability pattern in difference light curves between pairs of lensed images that is correlated with the time-lagged continuum variability, it can potentially produce systematic errors in measurement of time delays between pairs of lensed images. Simple simulations indicate that time-delay measurement techniques that use a sufficiently flexible model for the extrinsic variability are not affected by this effect and produce accurate time delays.

  13. Magnification bias corrections to galaxy-lensing cross-correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziour, Riad; Hui, Lam

    2008-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy or galaxy-quasar lensing can provide important information on the mass distribution in the Universe. It consists of correlating the lensing signal (either shear or magnification) of a background galaxy/quasar sample with the number density of a foreground galaxy sample. However, the foreground galaxy density is inevitably altered by the magnification bias due to the mass between the foreground and the observer, leading to a correction to the observed galaxy-lensing signal. The aim of this paper is to quantify this correction. The single most important determining factor is the foreground redshift z f : the correction is small if the foreground galaxies are at low redshifts but can become non-negligible for sufficiently high redshifts. For instance, we find that for the multipole l=1000, the correction is above 1%x(5s f -2)/b f for z f > or approx. 0.37, and above 5%x(5s f -2)/b f for z f > or approx. 0.67, where s f is the number count slope of the foreground sample and b f its galaxy bias. These considerations are particularly important for geometrical measures, such as the Jain and Taylor ratio or its generalization by Zhang et al. Assuming (5s f -2)/b f =1, we find that the foreground redshift should be limited to z f < or approx. 0.45 in order to avoid biasing the inferred dark energy equation of state w by more than 5%, and that even for a low foreground redshift (<0.45), the background samples must be well separated from the foreground to avoid incurring a bias of similar magnitude. Lastly, we briefly comment on the possibility of obtaining these geometrical measures without using galaxy shapes, using instead magnification bias itself.

  14. Phylogenetic Analyses of Quasars and Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier [University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble (France); D' Onofrio, Mauro [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (INAF), Padua (Italy); Marziani, Paola, E-mail: didier.fraix-burnet@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2017-10-10

    Phylogenetic approaches have proven to be useful in astrophysics. We have recently published a Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z < 0.7) which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. Cladistics is not only able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars and properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, but it suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission as already proposed elsewhere. An interesting interpretation from this work is that the phylogeny of quasars may be represented by the ontogeny of their central black hole, i.e. the increase of the black hole mass. However these exciting results are based on a small sample of low-z quasars, so that the work must be extended. We are here faced with two difficulties. The first one is the current lack of a larger sample with similar observables. The second one is the prohibitive computation time to perform a cladistic analysis on more that about one thousand objects. We show in this paper an experimental strategy on about 1,500 galaxies to get around this difficulty. Even if it not related to the quasar study, it is interesting by itself and opens new pathways to generalize the quasar findings.

  15. HUBBLE CAPTURES MERGER BETWEEN QUASAR AND GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows evidence fo r a merger between a quasar and a companion galaxy. This surprising result might require theorists to rethink their explanations for the nature of quasars, the most energetic objects in the universe. The bright central object is the quasar itself, located several billion light-years away. The two wisps on the (left) of the bright central object are remnants of a bright galaxy that have been disrupted by the mutual gravitational attraction between the quasar and the companion galaxy. This provides clear evidence for a merger between the two objects. Since their discovery in 1963, quasars (quasi-stellar objects) have been enigmatic because they emit prodigious amounts of energy from a very compact source. The most widely accepted model is that a quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy. These new observations proved a challenge for theorists as no current models predict the complex quasar interactions unveiled by Hubble. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Credit: John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA.

  16. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-01-01

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a ∼ 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that ∼> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K (le) 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%

  17. Phylogenetic Analyses of Quasars and Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Marziani, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches have proven to be useful in astrophysics. We have recently published a Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z < 0.7) which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. Cladistics is not only able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars and properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, but it suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission as already proposed elsewhere. An interesting interpretation from this work is that the phylogeny of quasars may be represented by the ontogeny of their central black hole, i.e. the increase of the black hole mass. However these exciting results are based on a small sample of low-z quasars, so that the work must be extended. We are here faced with two difficulties. The first one is the current lack of a larger sample with similar observables. The second one is the prohibitive computation time to perform a cladistic analysis on more that about one thousand objects. We show in this paper an experimental strategy on about 1,500 galaxies to get around this difficulty. Even if it not related to the quasar study, it is interesting by itself and opens new pathways to generalize the quasar findings.

  18. What BOSS has taught us about Quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicholas; SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Science Working Group

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents science highlights from the SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Survey, which has obtained spectra for over 300,000 quasars, 200,000 of which are at redshift z>2. Using this dataset, new measurements of the luminosity function have been made, with the faint end of the luminosity function now measured to z~5. New clustering results from DR12 are presented, and the weak luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z~0.5 is also discussed.New studies of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar population have also been performed, with a sample of BAL quasars from the original SDSS being re-observed. These new data have shown the disappearance of CIV BAL troughs and indeed the transformation of BAL QSOs to non-BAL QSOs. BAL disappearance, and emergence, events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, and have shed light on accretion-disk wind models.We highlight the discovery of new classes of quasars including: a population of broad-line Mg II emitters found in a passive galaxy sample; objects with extremely red optical-to-mid infrared colors; objects with very curious UV line (LyA:NV) ratios and potentially the long-sought after high-redshift Type 2 Quasar population.Finally, we describe two new dedicated programs, one focusing on reverberation mapping, the other on X-ray selected quasars.A full list of papers connected to the BOSS Quasar Survey is given at: http://www.sdss3.org/science/publications.php

  19. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  20. THE PROPERTIES OF QUASAR HOSTS AT THE PEAK OF THE QUASAR ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Falomo, Renato; Decarli, Roberto; Treves, Aldo; Uslenghi, Michela; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared imaging obtained with ESO VLT/ISAAC of a sample of 16 low luminosity radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) at the epoch around the peak of the quasar activity (2 2. The luminosity trend with a cosmic epoch resembles that observed for massive inactive galaxies, suggesting a similar star formation history. In particular, both quasar host galaxies and massive inactive galaxies appear mostly assembled already at the peak age of the quasar activity. This result is of key importance for testing the models of joint formation and evolution of galaxies and their active nuclei.

  1. Fresnel's Lighthouse Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    One of the rewards of walking up the scores of steps winding around the inside of the shaft of a lighthouse is turning inward and examining the glass optical system. This arrangement of prisms, lenses, and reflectors is used to project the light from a relatively small source in a beam that can be seen far at sea.

  2. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  3. Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Calderón-Infante, J. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Muñoz, J. A.; Vives-Arias, H. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-02-20

    The idea that dark matter can be made of intermediate-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) in the 10 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 200 M {sub ⊙} range has recently been reconsidered, particularly in the light of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO experiment. The existence of even a small fraction of dark matter in black holes should nevertheless result in noticeable quasar gravitational microlensing. Quasar microlensing is sensitive to any type of compact objects in the lens galaxy, to their abundance, and to their mass. We have analyzed optical and X-ray microlensing data from 24 gravitationally lensed quasars to estimate the abundance of compact objects in a very wide range of masses. We conclude that the fraction of mass in black holes or any type of compact objects is negligible outside of the 0.05 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 0.45 M {sub ⊙} mass range and that it amounts to 20% ± 5% of the total matter, in agreement with the expected masses and abundances of the stellar component. Consequently, the existence of a significant population of intermediate-mass PBHs appears to be inconsistent with current microlensing observations. Therefore, primordial massive black holes are a very unlikely source of the gravitational radiation detected by LIGO.

  4. Optical spectra and radio properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Using high quality spectrophotometric scans obtained at the McDonald Observatory, and data from the literature the author shows that, for quasars, the relative strength of optical Fe II emission (the broad blended feature lambda4570) may be roughly inversely proportional to line widths (full width at half maximum, FWHM). A similar relation between the relative intensity of the UV Fe II blend between 2300 and 2600 A (the lambda2500 feature) and the widths of Mg II and Hβ is shown. She distinguishes between compact and extended radio sources and includes radio quiet quasars, Seyfert 1 galaxies and BLRG's. The quasars associated with extended radio sources have the broadest emission lines and the weakest Fe II, falling close to the region occupied by BLRG's which also have extended radio structure. Those quasars with strong Fe II and compact radio structure are most similar to the Seyfert 1 galaxies. (Auth.)

  5. SELECTING QUASARS BY THEIR INTRINSIC VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Jester, Sebastian; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Marshall, Philip J.; Dobler, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We present a new and simple technique for selecting extensive, complete, and pure quasar samples, based on their intrinsic variability. We parameterize the single-band variability by a power-law model for the light-curve structure function, with amplitude A and power-law index γ. We show that quasars can be efficiently separated from other non-variable and variable sources by the location of the individual sources in the A-γ plane. We use ∼60 epochs of imaging data, taken over ∼5 years, from the SDSS stripe 82 (S82) survey, where extensive spectroscopy provides a reference sample of quasars, to demonstrate the power of variability as a quasar classifier in multi-epoch surveys. For UV-excess selected objects, variability performs just as well as the standard SDSS color selection, identifying quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 95%. In the redshift range 2.5 < z < 3, where color selection is known to be problematic, variability can select quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 96%. This is a factor of 5-10 times more pure than existing color selection of quasars in this redshift range. Selecting objects from a broad griz color box without u-band information, variability selection in S82 can afford completeness and purity of 92%, despite a factor of 30 more contaminants than quasars in the color-selected feeder sample. This confirms that the fraction of quasars hidden in the 'stellar locus' of color space is small. To test variability selection in the context of Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) we created mock PS1 data by down-sampling the S82 data to just six epochs over 3 years. Even with this much sparser time sampling, variability is an encouragingly efficient classifier. For instance, a 92% pure and 44% complete quasar candidate sample is attainable from the above griz-selected catalog. Finally, we show that the presented A-γ technique, besides selecting clean and pure samples of quasars (which are stochastically varying objects), is also

  6. Dust in the Quasar Wind (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dusty grains -- including tiny specks of the minerals found in the gemstones peridot, sapphires and rubies -- can be seen blowing in the winds of a quasar, or active black hole, in this artist's concept. The quasar is at the center of a distant galaxy. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that such quasar winds might have forged these dusty particles in the very early universe. The findings are another clue in an ongoing cosmic mystery: where did all the dust in our young universe come from? Dust is crucial for efficient star formation as it allows the giant clouds where stars are born to cool quickly and collapse into new stars. Once a star has formed, dust is also needed to make planets and living creatures. Dust has been seen as far back as when the universe was less than a tenth of its current age, but how did it get there? Most dust in our current epoch forms in the winds of evolved stars that did not exist when the universe was young. Theorists had predicted that winds from quasars growing in the centers of distant galaxies might be a source of this dust. While the environment close to a quasar is too hot for large molecules like dust grains to survive, dust has been found in the cooler, outer regions. Astronomers now have evidence that dust is created in these outer winds. Using Spitzer's infrared spectrograph instrument, scientists found a wealth of dust grains in a quasar called PG2112+059 located at the center of a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. The grains - including corundum (sapphires and rubies); forsterite (peridot); and periclase (naturally occurring in marble) - are not typically found in galaxies without quasars, suggesting they might have been freshly formed in the quasar's winds.

  7. The CTIO surveys for large redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmer, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    Lyman α emission in large redshift quasars is readily detectable on slitless spectrograms taken with an objective combination on the 4m telescope. This provides a new survey method, independent of color for finding radio-quiet quasars in large numbers. Surveys by Smith with the Curtis Schmidt and Hoag and Smith with the 4 m telescope, have produced more than 200 candidates with 1.5< z<3.5 and 16< m<21. Spectroscopic observations with the CTIO SIT vidicon system have been carried out for more than 50 of the candidates, with the result that the basic properties of the surveys are known. To date three 16th magnitude quasars with zapproximately2.2 and six quasars with 3.0< z<3.25 have been found. One of the most important uses of the surveys will be the determination of the surface and surface densities of large redshift quasars. A preliminary analysis of the data indicates that the space density of quasars is at least constant, if not increasing, over the interval 1.0< z<3.25. However, the Hoag-Smith sample has only one candidate with z<3.2.(Auth.)

  8. Using the Properties of Broad Absorption Line Quasars to Illuminate Quasar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Suk Yee; King, Anthea L.; Webster, Rachel L.; Bate, Nicholas F.; O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Labrie, Kathleen

    2018-06-01

    A key to understanding quasar unification paradigms is the emission properties of broad absorption line quasars (BALQs). The fact that only a small fraction of quasar spectra exhibit deep absorption troughs blueward of the broad permitted emission lines provides a crucial clue to the structure of quasar emitting regions. To learn whether it is possible to discriminate between the BALQ and non-BALQ populations given the observed spectral properties of a quasar, we employ two approaches: one based on statistical methods and the other supervised machine learning classification, applied to quasar samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The features explored include continuum and emission line properties, in particular the absolute magnitude, redshift, spectral index, line width, asymmetry, strength, and relative velocity offsets of high-ionisation C IV λ1549 and low-ionisation Mg II λ2798 lines. We consider a complete population of quasars, and assume that the statistical distributions of properties represent all angles where the quasar is viewed without obscuration. The distributions of the BALQ and non-BALQ sample properties show few significant differences. None of the observed continuum and emission line features are capable of differentiating between the two samples. Most published narrow disk-wind models are inconsistent with these observations, and an alternative disk-wind model is proposed. The key feature of the proposed model is a disk-wind filling a wide opening angle with multiple radial streams of dense clumps.

  9. Observations of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the last tow years a burst of results has come from radio and optical surveys of ''galaxy lenses'' (where the main deflector is a galaxy). These are reviewed. On the other hand, in September 1985 we pointed out a very strange blue ring-like structure on a Charge-Coupled Device image of the cluster of galaxies Abell 370. This turned out to be Einstein arcs discovery. Following this discovery, new observational results have shown that many rich clusters of galaxies can produce numerous arclets: tangentially distorted images of an extremely faint galaxy population probably located at redshift larger than 1. This new class of gravitational lenses proves to be an important observational topic and this will be discussed in the second part of the paper. (author)

  10. Quasar energy distributions. I. Soft X-ray spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, B.J.; Elvis, M.

    1987-01-01

    As the initial stage of a study of quasar energy distributions (QEDs), Einstein IPC spectra of 24 quasars are presented. These are combined with previously reported IPC spectra to form a sample of 33 quasars with well-determined soft X-ray slopes. A correlation analysis shows that radio loudness, rather than redshift or luminosity, is fundamentally related to the X-ray slope. This correlation is not followed by higher energy spectra of active galaxies. Two components are required to explain both sets of results. The best-fit column densities are systematically smaller than the Galactic values. The same effect is not present in a sample of BL Lac objects, implying that the effect is intrinsic to the quasars and is caused by a low-energy turnup in the quasar spectra. 74 references

  11. Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magain, Pierre; Letawe, Géraldine; Courbin, Frédéric; Jablonka, Pascale; Jahnke, Knud; Meylan, Georges; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2005-09-15

    A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy. Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy, disentangling the two components can be difficult. This led in the 1990s to the controversial claim of the discovery of 'naked' quasars. Since then, the connection between quasars and galaxies has been well established. Here we report the discovery of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas in the cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy, whose gas might be feeding the black hole.

  12. First observation of a quasar with a redshift of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Irwin, M.J.; McMahon, R.G.; Bridgeland, M.T.; Bunclark, P.S.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the discovery of a quasar (0046-293) with a redshift z = 4.01 and another (0044-276) with a redshift z 3.42. The redshift of the former quasar is the highest yet detected and compares with the z = 3.80 of the previous most distant known quasar. The new quasars lie in the same field as three other known high-redshift quasars and were identified in a preliminary analysis of new multi-colour data derived from measurements of direct photographic plates taken with the United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope. The two new quasars are significantly fainter (msub(R) > 19) than previously known high-redshift quasars discovered by optical techniques, and demonstrate that the luminosity function of optically selected high-redshift quasars extends over at least two magnitudes. (author)

  13. RADIO-SELECTED QUASARS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a pilot survey for z > 3.5 quasars by combining the FIRST radio survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). While SDSS already targets FIRST sources for spectroscopy as quasar candidates, our survey includes fainter quasars and greatly improves the discovery rate by using strict astrometric criteria for matching the radio and optical positions. Our method allows for selection of high-redshift quasars with less color bias than with optical selection, as using radio selection essentially eliminates stellar contamination. We report the results of spectroscopy for 45 candidates, including 29 quasars in the range 0.37 3.5. We compare quasars selected using radio and optical criteria, and find that radio-selected quasars have a much higher fraction of moderately reddened objects. We derive a radio-loud quasar luminosity function at 3.5 < z < 4.0, and find that it is in good agreement with expectations from prior SDSS results.

  14. Spatial distribution, luminosity function and cosmological evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathez, G.

    1981-01-01

    The different ways of studying quasars statistics and evolution are reviewed. Attempt is given to deduce, from the observed evolution, some constraints on physical models of energy sources in quasars [fr

  15. High-redshift quasars in the Cold Dark Matter cosmogony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Rees, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between high-redshift quasars and the epoch of galaxy formation in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmogony is investigated. Luminous quasars could only form after galactic sized systems had collapsed. A constant comoving density of luminous quasars between z = 2 and z = 4 is compatible with the CDM model if quasars are short-lived and radiate at about the Eddington limit. However, according to the CDM model the abundance of high-luminosity quasars must decline exponentially at higher redshifts. Even if all protogalaxies form quasars, and about 1 per cent of the baryons within a protogalaxy collapse into a compact object, a steep fall in the density of quasars with L > 10 47 erg s -1 at redshifts z ≥ 5. The existence of a 'cut-off' in the quasar numbers at high redshift could therefore supply an important test of the CDM theory. (author)

  16. The WISSH quasars project. II. Giant star nurseries in hyper-luminous quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duras, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Piconcelli, E.; Bianchi, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Valiante, R.; Bischetti, M.; Feruglio, C.; Martocchia, S.; Schneider, R.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.; La Franca, F.; Fiore, F.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Studying the coupling between the energy output produced by the central quasar and the host galaxy is fundamental to fully understand galaxy evolution. Quasar feedback is indeed supposed to dramatically affect the galaxy properties by depositing large amounts of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM). Aims: In order to gain further insights on this process, we study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of sources at the brightest end of the quasar luminosity function, for which the feedback mechanism is assumed to be at its maximum, given their high efficiency in driving powerful outflows. Methods: We modelled the rest-frame UV-to-far-IR SEDs of 16 WISE-SDSS Selected Hyper-luminous (WISSH) quasars at 1.8 code to account for the contribution of the quasar-related emission to the far-IR fluxes. Results: Most SEDs are well described by a standard combination of accretion disc plus torus and cold dust emission. However, about 30% of SEDs require an additional emission component in the near-IR, with temperatures peaking at 750 K, which indicates that a hotter dust component is present in these powerful quasars. We measure extreme values of both AGN bolometric luminosity (LBOL > 1047 erg/s) and star formation rate (up to 2000 M⊙/yr) based on the quasar-corrected, IR luminosity of the host galaxy. A new relation between quasar and star formation luminosity is derived (LSF ∝ L0.73QSO) by combining several Herschel-detected quasar samples from z 0 to 4. WISSH quasars have masses ( 108M⊙) and temperatures ( 50 K) of cold dust in agreement with those found for other high-z IR luminous quasars. Conclusions: Thanks to their extreme nuclear and star formation luminosities, the WISSH quasars are ideal targets to shed light on the feedback mechanism and its effect on the evolution of their host galaxies, as well as on the merger-induced scenario that is commonly assumed to explain these exceptional luminosities. Future observations will be

  17. IMPROVED CONSTRAINTS ON THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS Q0957+561. I. WEAK LENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Fadely, R.; Keeton, C. R.; Schrabback, T.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to constrain the Hubble constant using the strong gravitational lens system Q0957+561 are limited by systematic uncertainties in the mass model, since the time delay is known very precisely. One important systematic effect is the mass-sheet degeneracy, which arises because strong lens modeling cannot constrain the presence or absence of a uniform mass sheet κ, which rescales H 0 by the factor (1 - κ). In this paper, we present new constraints on the mass sheet derived from a weak-lensing analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a 6 arcmin square region surrounding the lensed quasar. The average mass sheet within a circular aperture (the strong lens model region) is constrained by integrating the tangential weak gravitational shear over the surrounding area. We find the average convergence within a 30'' radius around the lens galaxy to be κ(<30'') = 0.166 ± 0.056 (1σ confidence level), normalized to the quasar redshift. This includes contributions from both the lens galaxy and the surrounding cluster. We also constrain a few other low-order terms in the lens potential by applying a multipole aperture mass formalism to the gravitational shear in an annulus around the strong-lensing region. Implications for strong lens models and the Hubble constant are discussed in an accompanying paper.

  18. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  19. Objective-prism spectrophotometry of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is derived for obtaining low-resolution spectrophotometry of quasars directly from the objective-prism plates on which they were discovered. Measurements with a PDS microdensitometer of approximately 130 quasar candidates in approximately the central 19 square degrees of the UK Schmidt prism plate UJ3682P were used in the application of the procedure. The success of the objective-prism spectrophotometry is demonstrated in a comparison with 12 slit spectra. Redshifts and equivalent widths can be determined with typical discrepancies of 1% and 40% respectively. This work on objective-prism spectrophotometry leads to a quantification of the selection effects that operate in the searches for emission-line objects on objective-prism plates. The quantification successfully explains an apparent discrepancy in the detection efficiencies of the CTIO-4m and Curtis Schmidt surveys for quasars. Spectra of quasars that were observed with the Image Photon Counting System on the Anglo-Australian Telescope are presented. The observations of quasars with broad absorption troughs indicate the ejection of matter with velocities up to approximately 22000kms -1 and with velocity dispersions up to approximately 11000kms -1 . Data on the wavelength dependences of the contrast γ and the grain response function g of the Kodak emulsion IIIaJ are presented. (author)

  20. The kinetically dominated quasar 3C 418

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punsly, Brian; Kharb, Preeti

    2017-06-01

    The existence of quasars that are kinetically dominated, where the jet kinetic luminosity, Q, is larger than the total (infrared to X-ray) thermal luminosity of the accretion flow, Lbol, provides a strong constraint on the fundamental physics of relativistic jet formation. Since quasars have high values of Lbol by definition, only ˜10 kinetically dominated quasars (with \\overline{Q}/L_{bol}>1) have been found, where \\overline{Q} is the long-term time-averaged jet power. We use low-frequency (151 MHz-1.66 GHz) observations of the quasar 3C 418 to determine \\overline{Q}≈ 5.5 ± 1.3 × 10^{46} {erg s^{-1}}. Analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet spectrum indicates that this equates to 0.57 ± 0.28 times the Eddington luminosity of the central supermassive black hole and \\overline{Q}/L_{bol} ≈ 4.8 ± 3.1, making 3C 418 one of the most kinetically dominated quasars found to date. It is shown that this maximal \\overline{Q}/L_{bol} is consistent with models of magnetically arrested accretion of jet production in which the jet production reproduces the observed trend of a decrement in the extreme ultraviolet continuum as the jet power increases. This maximal condition corresponds to an almost complete saturation of the inner accretion flow with vertical large-scale magnetic flux (maximum saturation).

  1. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Martínez-Aldama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (L/LEdd ~ 1.0 at high redshift, z ~2–3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as Aliiiλ1860, Siiii]λ1892 and Ciii]λ1909. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  2. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Perea, Jaime; D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (LLedd>0.2) at high redshift, z 2-3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as AlIII, SiIII and CIII. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  3. Spectroscopy of the fuzz associated with four quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.; Heckman, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the ''fuzz'' near four quasars are consistent with starlight in a galactic environment at essentially the same redshift as the quasar. Apparently, then, the same processes that determine the redshifts of galaxies also determine the redshifts of quasars

  4. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  5. Black-hole masses of distant quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....

  6. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  7. Quasars, companion galaxies and Poisson statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    Arp has presented a sample of quasars lying close to the companion galaxies of bright spirals, from which he estimates a value of 10 -17 for the probability that the galaxies and quasars are sited independently on the celestial sphere; Browne, however, has found a simple fallacy in the statistics which accounts for about 10 of the 17 orders of magnitude. Here we draw attention to an obscure part of Arp's calculation which we have been unable to repeat; if it is carried out in what seems to be the most straightforward way, about five more orders may be accounted for. In consequence, it is not clear that the sample contains any evidence damaging to the popular notion that the redshifts of quasars indicate distance through the Hubble Law. (author)

  8. A Hungry Quasar Caught in the Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The VLT Secures Spectacular Image of Distant Gravitational Interaction Summary A new image of a distant quasar (the luminous core of an "active" galaxy) shows that it is engaged in a gravitational battle with its neighbouring galaxies . It also provides information on how supermassive black holes present in the center of quasars are fed. Using the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the ESO 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope on Paranal (Chile), a team of German astronomers [1] obtained a spectacular image of the close and complex environment of the distant quasar "HE 1013-2136", located some 10 billion light-years away [2]. The remarkable structures revealed in this photo lend support to the hypothesis that quasar activity is connected to gravitational interaction between galaxies, already at this early epoch of the Universe (about 5 billion years after the Big Bang). PR Photo 20a/01 : A VLT image of the Quasar HE 1013-2136 . PR Photo 20b/01 : A sharpened version of the same image. Feeding the Black Hole "Quasars" (Quasi-Stellar Objects) were first discovered by Dutch-American astronomer Maarten Schmidt in 1963 as distant, energetic objects of star-like appearance. Since then, more than 15,000 quasars have been found and we now know that they are the luminous cores at the heart of distant galaxies. Such "Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)" are thought to host Supermassive Black Holes of up to one billion solar masses at their centres. Black Holes represent the densest possible state of matter; if the Earth were to become one, it would measure no more than a few millimetres across. The Black Hole in a galaxy gobbles up the gas and dust of its host, a process that efficiently powers the luminous core that we observe as a point-like "quasar". A Black Hole must be continuously fed to remain active. During an active phase of typically 100 million years, the Black Hole in a quasar swallows material with a total weight of up to 10 solar masses every year. This may be predominantly in the

  9. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Spoon, Henrik; Glikman, Eilat; Petric, Andreea; Schulz, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 Å emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  10. Galaxy correlations at high redshift and the environment of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, Steven

    1986-01-01

    In close line-of-sight pairs of quasars absorption lines may be seen in the spectrum of the further quasar at a redshift corresponding to that of the nearer quasar. This is indicative of the presence of an intervening galaxy belonging to the same cluster as the (galaxy containing the) nearer quasar. The likelihood of this occurring is calculated in terms of the galaxy correlation function and it is found that present results already suggest that quasars at redshifts above one must be associated with rich clusters. (author)

  11. A complete quasar sample at intermediate redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, S.; La Franca, F.; Barbieri, C.; Iovino, A.

    1991-01-01

    A search for intermediate-redshift quasars has been carried out with slitless spectroscopy in the central 21.07 deg 2 of the SA 94, where the existence of a large database of objects for which slit spectroscopy was already available provided a valuable opportunity of testing the properties of our selection technique. Fifty candidates have been observed with slit spectroscopy, confirming 34 quasars and two H II galaxies. The completeness of this survey as a function of magnitude and redshift has been analysed, and an effective area of 16.9 deg 2 has been evaluated. (author)

  12. Magnetic electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    No single volume has been entirely devoted to the properties of magnetic lenses, so far as I am aware, although of course all the numerous textbooks on electron optics devote space to them. The absence of such a volume, bringing together in­ formation about the theory and practical design of these lenses, is surprising, for their introduction some fifty years ago has created an entirely new family of commercial instruments, ranging from the now traditional transmission electron microscope, through the reflection and transmission scanning microscopes, to co­ lumns for micromachining and microlithography, not to mention the host of experi­ mental devices not available commercially. It therefore seemed useful to prepare an account of the various aspects of mag­ netic lens studies. These divide naturally into the five chapters of this book: the theoretical background, in which the optical behaviour is described and formu­ lae given for the various aberration coefficients; numerical methods for calculat­ ing...

  13. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875 (China); Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Marshall, Philip J., E-mail: xlmeng919@gmail.com, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: aagnello@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: liaokai@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: dr.phil.marshall@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation

  14. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  15. Quasars: Cosmological evolution and x-ray background contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Green, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The luminosity function of quasars varies with redshift or cosmic epoch. The authors discuss how the luminosity function and its evolution can be determined from complete samples of quasars. They first concentrate on optical survey of quasars. For quasars of medium luminosity, the co-moving space density rises very steeply with redshift. Quasars of lower luminosity exhibit a slower increase of density with redshift, resulting in luminosity-dependent evolution of the space density. They also discuss evidence for a cutoff of quasar redshift and for a possible dependence of the cutoff on luminosity. They evaluate X-ray counts of quasars and show the need for negative X-ray luminosity evolution in order to explain the counts and the low average redshifts of X-ray quasars. As a consequence, the quasar contribution to the X-ray background is lower than originally suspected. They discuss other extragalactic contributors to the X-ray background and conclude that they, together with the quasars, contribute about 60 percent of the observed background. About half of this is contributed by active galactic nuclei with optical luminosities below those of quasars

  16. Using quasars as standard clocks for measuring cosmological redshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn D; Stojkovic, Branislav; Stojkovic, Dejan; Weltman, Amanda

    2012-06-08

    We report hitherto unnoticed patterns in quasar light curves. We characterize segments of the quasar's light curves with the slopes of the straight lines fit through them. These slopes appear to be directly related to the quasars' redshifts. Alternatively, using only global shifts in time and flux, we are able to find significant overlaps between the light curves of different pairs of quasars by fitting the ratio of their redshifts. We are then able to reliably determine the redshift of one quasar from another. This implies that one can use quasars as standard clocks, as we explicitly demonstrate by constructing two independent methods of finding the redshift of a quasar from its light curve.

  17. Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are Lensing Clusters Over-Concentrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

    2009-01-29

    We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

  18. Quasar Parallax: a Method for Determining Direct Geometrical Distances to Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    We describe a novel method to determine direct geometrical distances to quasars that can measure the cosmological constant, Lambda, with minimal assumptions. This method is equivalent to geometric parallax, with the `standard length' being the size of the quasar broad emission line region (BELR) as determined from the light travel time measurements of reverberation mapping. The effect of non-zero Lambda on angular diameter is large, 40% at z=2, so mapping angular diameter distances vs. redshi...

  19. Sunyaev–Zel’Dovich Signal from Quasar Hosts: Implications for Detection of Quasar Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Dhruba Dutta; Chatterjee, Suchetana

    2017-01-01

    Several analytic and numerical studies have indicated that the interstellar medium of a quasar host galaxy heated by feedback can contribute to a substantial secondary signal in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) through the thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. Recently, many groups have tried to detect this signal by cross-correlating CMB maps with quasar catalogs. Using a self-similar model for the gas in the intra-cluster medium and a realistic halo occupation distribution (HOD) prescription for quasars, we estimate the level of SZ signal from gravitational heating of quasar hosts. The bias in the host halo signal estimation due to an unconstrained high mass HOD tail and yet unknown redshift dependence of the quasar HOD restricts us from drawing any robust conclusions at low redshift ( z < 1.5) from our analysis. However, at higher redshifts ( z > 2.5), we find an excess signal in recent observations than what is predicted from our model. The excess signal could be potentially generated from additional heating due to quasar feedback.

  20. Sunyaev–Zel’Dovich Signal from Quasar Hosts: Implications for Detection of Quasar Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Dhruba Dutta; Chatterjee, Suchetana, E-mail: dhruba.duttachowdhury@yale.edu [Department of Physics, Presidency University, Kolkata, 700073 (India)

    2017-04-10

    Several analytic and numerical studies have indicated that the interstellar medium of a quasar host galaxy heated by feedback can contribute to a substantial secondary signal in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) through the thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. Recently, many groups have tried to detect this signal by cross-correlating CMB maps with quasar catalogs. Using a self-similar model for the gas in the intra-cluster medium and a realistic halo occupation distribution (HOD) prescription for quasars, we estimate the level of SZ signal from gravitational heating of quasar hosts. The bias in the host halo signal estimation due to an unconstrained high mass HOD tail and yet unknown redshift dependence of the quasar HOD restricts us from drawing any robust conclusions at low redshift ( z < 1.5) from our analysis. However, at higher redshifts ( z > 2.5), we find an excess signal in recent observations than what is predicted from our model. The excess signal could be potentially generated from additional heating due to quasar feedback.

  1. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  2. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Shields, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    the framework of the most recent photoionization models to estimate the metallicity of the gas associated with the high-z quasars. Standard photoionization parameters and the assumption of secondary nitrogen enrichment indicate an average abundance of Z/Z_sol = 4 to 5 in the line emitting gas. Assuming a time...

  3. Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

  4. Low resolution infrared spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J.B.; Matthews, K.

    1980-01-01

    Low resolution spectra of a significant sample of quasars show that the Paschen α and Balmer line ratios do not agree with the radiative recombination case B result and vary widely within the quasars sampled. The range in Pα:Hβ ratios is a factor of approximately 6, while the range in Lyα:Hα ratios is a factor of approximately 5. For the Pα:Balmer series, the deviations from case B recombination are not consistent with reddening, but appear, within large dispersions, to be consistent with optical depth effects in the Balmer lines affecting the line ratios. The Lyα:Hα ratio is, however, correlated with the continuum spectral index, and can be explained as due to reddening affecting both the lines and continuum. Recent observational results based on a joint infrared/optical survey of the hydrogen line spectra of a significant number of the brightest low and high redshift quasars are summarised. This survey includes 12 quasars in the redshift range 0.07 1.5, where Hα and/or Hβ is redshifted into the 1.65μm or 2.2μm atmospheric windows. (Auth.)

  5. Quasar Mass Functions Across Cosmic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    I present mass functions of actively accreting black holes detected in different quasar surveys which in concert cover a wide range of cosmic history. I briefly address what we learn from these mass functions. I summarize the motivation for such a study and the methods by which we determine black...

  6. Quasars, Seyfert galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the spectroscopic methods for analyzing the observed plasma in the nuclei of quasars, Seyfert galazies, and active galactic nuclei. Both the narrow-line region and the broad-line region are discussed. Physical models are presented

  7. Cross-Correlations in Quasar Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey

    The main factors forming the complex evolution of the accretive astrophysical systems are nonlinearity, intermittency, nonstationarity and also collective phenomena. To discover the dynamic processes in these objects and to detain understanding their properties we need to use all the applicable analyzing methods. Here we use the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) as a phenomenological approach to analyzing and parameterizing the auto- and cross-correlations in time series of astrophysical objects dynamics. As an example we consider the quasar flux radio spectral density at frequencies 2.7 GHz and 8.1 GHz. Data have been observed by Dr. N. Tanizuka (Laboratory for Complex Systems Analysis, Osaka Prefecture University) in a period of 1979 to 1988 (3 309 days). According to mental habits quasar is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole by size 10-10,000 times the Schwarzschild radius. The quasar is powered by an accretion disc around the black hole. The accretion disc material layers, moving around the black hole, are under the influence of gravitational and frictional forces. It results in raising the high temperature and arising the resonant and collective phenomena reflected in quasar emission dynamics. Radio emission dynamics of the quasar 0215p015 is characterized by three quasi-periodic processes, which are prevalent in considering dynamics. By contrast the 1641p399's emission dynamics have not any distinguish processes. It means the presence of high intermittency in accretive modes. The second difference moment allows comparing the degree of manifesting of resonant and chaotic components in initial time series of the quasar radio emission. The comparative analysis shows the dominating of chaotic part of 1641p399's dynamics whereas the radio emission of 0215p015 has the predominance of resonant component. Analyzing the collective features of the quasar radio emission intensity demonstrates the significant

  8. A direct gravitational lensing test for 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in halos of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambsganss, Joachim; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a method that will be able to detect or exclude the existence of 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in the halos of galaxies. VLBA radio maps of two milliarcsecond jets of a gravitationally lensed quasar will show the signature of these black holes - if they exist. If there are no compact objects in this mass range along the line of sight, the two jets should be linear mappings of each other. If they are not, there must be compact objects of about 10 exp 6 solar masses in the halo of the galaxy that deform the images by gravitational deflection. We present numerical simulations for the two jets A and B of the double quasar 0957 + 561, but the method is valid for any gravitationally lensed quasar with structure on milliarcsecond scales. As a by-product from high-quality VLBA maps of jets A and B, one will be able to tell which features in the maps are intrinsic in the original jet and which are only an optical illusion, i.e., gravitational distortions by black holes along the line of sight.

  9. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. VI. Constraints on Dark Energy and the Evolution of Massive Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); et al.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the final lens sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search (SQLS). The number distribution of a complete subsample of 19 lensed quasars selected from 50,836 source quasars is compared with theoretical expectations, with particular attention to the selection function. Assuming that the velocity function of galaxies does not evolve with redshift, the SQLS sample constrains the cosmological constant to \\Omega_\\Lambda=0.79^{+0.06}_{-0.07}(stat.)^{+0.06}_{-0.06}(syst.) for a flat universe. The dark energy equation of state is found to be consistent with w=-1 when the SQLS is combined with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements or results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). We also obtain simultaneous constraints on cosmological parameters and redshift evolution of the galaxy velocity function, finding no evidence for redshift evolution at z<1 in any combinations of constraints. For instance, number density evolution quantified as \

  10. CMB lensing and giant rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  11. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  12. Quasar Accretion Disk Sizes With Continuum Reverberation Mapping From the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudd, D.; et al.

    2017-11-30

    We present accretion disk size measurements for 15 luminous quasars at $0.7 \\leq z \\leq 1.9$ derived from $griz$ light curves from the Dark Energy Survey. We measure the disk sizes with continuum reverberation mapping using two methods, both of which are derived from the expectation that accretion disks have a radial temperature gradient and the continuum emission at a given radius is well-described by a single blackbody. In the first method we measure the relative lags between the multiband light curves, which provides the relative time lag between shorter and longer wavelength variations. The second method fits the model parameters for the canonical Shakura-Sunyaev thin disk directly rather than solving for the individual time lags between the light curves. Our measurements demonstrate good agreement with the sizes predicted by this model for accretion rates between 0.3-1 times the Eddington rate. These results are also in reasonable agreement with disk size measurements from gravitational microlensing studies of strongly lensed quasars, as well as other photometric reverberation mapping results.

  13. Simulations of the Fe K α Energy Spectra from Gravitationally Microlensed Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczynski, H. [Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, CB 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Chartas, G., E-mail: krawcz@wustl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    The analysis of the Chandra X-ray observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar RX J1131−1231 revealed the detection of multiple and energy-variable spectral peaks. The spectral variability is thought to result from the microlensing of the Fe K α emission, selectively amplifying the emission from certain regions of the accretion disk with certain effective frequency shifts of the Fe K α line emission. In this paper, we combine detailed simulations of the emission of Fe K α photons from the accretion disk of a Kerr black hole with calculations of the effect of gravitational microlensing on the observed energy spectra. The simulations show that microlensing can indeed produce multiply peaked energy spectra. We explore the dependence of the spectral characteristics on black hole spin, accretion disk inclination, corona height, and microlensing amplification factor and show that the measurements can be used to constrain these parameters. We find that the range of observed spectral peak energies of QSO RX J1131−1231 can only be reproduced for black hole inclinations exceeding 70° and for lamppost corona heights of less than 30 gravitational radii above the black hole. We conclude by emphasizing the scientific potential of studies of the microlensed Fe K α quasar emission and the need for more detailed modeling that explores how the results change for more realistic accretion disk and corona geometries and microlensing magnification patterns. A full analysis should furthermore model the signal-to-noise ratio of the observations and the resulting detection biases.

  14. Diversity of soft X-ray spectra in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B.J.; Tananbaum, H.

    1985-01-01

    Soft X-ray spectra for three quasars obtained with the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter covering the 0.1-4.0 keV band are reported. Power-law fits to these spectra have best-fit energy indices of 1.2 +0.6 or -0.2, for the quasar NAB 0205 + 024, 0.6 +0.3 or -0.2 for the quasar B2 1028 + 313, and 2.2 + or -0.4 for the quasar PG 1211 + 143. None of the quasars shows any evidence for a column density of cold matter in excess of the galactic values. The derived spectra demonstrate that there is no single universal power law slope for quasar X-ray spectra. The implications of these results for the X-ray background, X-ray continuum emission mechanisms, and the production of the optical/UV emission lines are briefly discussed. 46 references

  15. On the periodicity in the distribution of quasar redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaergaard, P.

    1978-01-01

    The periodicity in the distribution of quasar redshifts is explained in terms of selection effects. Special attention is drawn to a selection effect caused by the redshift dependent influence of the strong emission lines on the limiting magnitude for detecting quasars. This is especially important since the number of quasars increases with a large factor per magnitude. The limiting magnitude effect applies both to spectroscopic and to UV-excess surveys. It is shown that the redshift distribution of quasars selected by a combination of UV-excess information and agreement between radio and optical position is intermediate between the redshift distribution of the two groups of quasars selected by one of the two criteria. It is also shown that the distribution of redshifts for UV-excess selected quasars is very similar to the variation of the ultrsviolet excess as a function of redshift. This evidence indicates that strong selection effects are in play. (Auth.)

  16. Radio-continuum emission from quasar host galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J. J.; Gower, A. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Victoria Univ., Canada; Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria)

    1987-01-01

    Seven low-redshift quasars that are likely to be in spiral galaxies have been observed in a search for radio-continuum emission from the host galaxies of quasars. The properties of the individual quasars are listed, and 1.49 GHz contour maps of the seven quasar fields are presented. Map parameters and radio source parameters are given along with optical images of three of the objects. The results indicate that these quasars probably do reside in spiral galaxies. The radio luminosities, sizes, orientations, and u values all indicate that relativistic beaming alone cannot be used to explain the differences between the present sources and the far stronger radio sources seen in blazars or larger optically selected quasar samples. However, an apparent correlation between the radio luminosity and the ratio of the optical nuclear to host-galaxy luminosity is consistent with some beaming of nuclear radiation. 26 references

  17. Summary of the workshop on active galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weistrop, D.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports highlights of discussions carried out at the Tenth Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics concerning BL Lacertae objects and quasars and their relationship to active galactic nuclei. The discussions considered X-ray, optical and radio observations of active galaxies and quasars showing features which may be interpreted as jets or beams, and X-ray and VLBI observations of core-jet structures exhibiting apparent supraluminal expansion. Attention was also given to the properties of the energy source in the center of the active galaxies and quasars, the nature of quasar emission line regions, the production of the continuum in quasars and active galactic nuclei, and evidence for the association of quasars and BL Lac objects with galaxies

  18. Overdensity of galaxies in the environment of quasar pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Scarpa, R.; Uslenghi, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report on a study of the galaxy environments of low redshift physical quasars pairs. We selected 20 pairs having projected separation Survey images, we evaluated the galaxy overdensity around these quasars in pairs and then compare it with that of a sample of isolated quasars with same redshift and luminosity. It is found that on average there is a systematic larger overdensity of galaxies around quasars in pairs with respect to that of isolated quasars. This may represent a significant link between nuclear activity and galaxy environment. However, at odds with that, the closest quasar pairs seem to inhabit poorer environments. Implications of present results and perspectives for future work are briefly discussed.

  19. BINARY QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT. I. 24 NEW QUASAR PAIRS AT z ∼ 3-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Myers, Adam D.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish; Fan Xiaohui; Martin, Crystal L.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shankar, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The clustering of quasars on small scales yields fundamental constraints on models of quasar evolution and the buildup of supermassive black holes. This paper describes the first systematic survey to discover high-redshift binary quasars. Using color-selection and photometric redshift techniques, we searched 8142 deg 2 of Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data for binary quasar candidates, and confirmed them with follow-up spectroscopy. Our sample of 27 high-redshift binaries (24 of them new discoveries) at redshifts 2.9 perpendicular perpendicular 3.5. The completeness and efficiency of our well-defined selection algorithm are quantified using simulated photometry and we find that our sample is ∼50% complete. Our companion paper uses this knowledge to make the first measurement of the small-scale clustering (R -1 Mpc comoving) of high-redshift quasars. High-redshift binaries constitute exponentially rare coincidences of two extreme (M ∼> 10 9 M sun ) supermassive black holes. At z ∼ 4, there is about one close binary per 10 Gpc 3 , thus these could be the highest sigma peaks, the analogs of superclusters, in the early universe.

  20. Bias of damped Lyman-α systems from their cross-correlation with CMB lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, D.; Colosimo, J.; Font-Ribera, A.; Slosar, A.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-correlate the positions of damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs) and their parent quasar catalog with a convergence map derived from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature data. We make consistent measurements of the lensing signal of both samples in both Fourier and configuration space. By interpreting the excess signal present in the DLA catalog with respect to the parent quasar catalog as caused by the large scale structure traced by DLAs, we are able to infer the bias of these objects: bDLA=2.6±0.9. These results are consistent with previous measurements made in cross-correlation with the Lyman-α forest, although the current noise in the lensing data and the low number density of DLAs limits the constraining power of this measurement. We discuss the robustness of the analysis with respect to a number different systematic effects and forecast prospects of carrying out this measurement with data from future experiments.

  1. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; O' Connell, Ross [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong; Schlegel, David; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94702 (United States); Ross, Ashley [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Hirata, Christopher; Huff, Eric; Weinberg, David [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Strauss, Michael; Bahcall, Neta [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brinkmann, J. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie, E-mail: shirleyh@andrew.cmu.edu [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2015-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0∼ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h{sup −3} Gpc{sup 3}. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼ 25% over a bin width of δ{sub l} ∼ 10−15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0ℓ ∼ 2−3). Observational systematics can strongly bias clustering measurements on large scales, which can mimic cosmologically relevant signals such as deviations from Gaussianity in the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We account for systematics by employing a new method recently proposed by Agarwal et al. (2014) to the clustering of photometrically classified quasars. We carefully apply our methodology to mitigate known observational systematics and further remove angular bins that are contaminated by unknown systematics. Combining quasar data with the photometric luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of Ross et al. (2011) and Ho et al. (2012), and marginalizing over all bias and shot noise-like parameters, we obtain a constraint on local primordial non-Gaussianity of f{sub NL} = −113{sup +154}{sub −154} (1σ error). We next assume that the bias of quasar and galaxy distributions can be obtained independently from quasar/galaxy-CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements (such as those in Sherwin et al. (2013)). This can be facilitated by spectroscopic observations of the sources, enabling the redshift distribution to be

  2. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  3. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  4. Companions of low-redshift radio-quiet quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Using imaging data from a relatively complete subset of low-redshift radio-quiet quasars, the frequency of finding associated companion galaxies of the quasars is determined statistically. With an average completeness limit of M/sub r/ of about -19, it is found that about 40 percent of the quasars have at least one close physical companion within a projected distance of 100 kpc. The percentage of quasars with detected companions is consistent with all quasars in the sample having a companion of luminosity brighter than about -16.5 mag. It is estimated that the frequency of finding close companions to quasars is about six times higher than that expected for field galaxies. This frequency is similar to that found for lower-luminosity Seyfert galaxies. The properties of the companions appear to be uncorrelated with the level of activity in the quasars. This suggests that, for radio-quiet quasars, the companions act mainly as triggers of the activity and are probably not a strong determining factor of the detailed properties of the quasars. 28 references

  5. Far-infrared properties of optically selected quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The far-infrared properties of 10, optically selected quasars were studied on the basis of pointed IRAS observations and ground-based near-infrared and radio measurements. Nine of these quasars were detected in at least three IRAS bands. The flat spectral energy distributions characterizing these optically selected quasars together with large 60-100-micron luminosities suggest that the infrared emission is dominated by nonthermal radiation. Seven of the nine quasars with far-infrared detections were found to have low-frequency turnovers. 12 references

  6. An explanation of the mysterious quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borissov, O.

    1977-01-01

    The article presents details of a convincing new theory submitted by Russian scientists, concerning the physical nature of quasars. These were discovered in 1963 and for over ten years no satisfactory theory has been forthcoming to explain their seemingly incompatible properties or the associated phenomena. These very distant objects are believed to be sources of the most powerful electromagnetic emission. From the new theory expounded it is concluded that for the first time since their discovery a satisfactory explanation of their nature has been reached. From this it is hoped that the mechanism of energy generation by quasars may ultimately be understood and, though on a much reduced scale, contribute to the solution of energy problems on earth. (R.J.J.)

  7. Automated analysis of slitless spectra. II. Quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.; Beauchemin, M.; Borra, F.

    1988-01-01

    Automated software have been developed to process slitless spectra. The software, described in a previous paper, automatically separates stars from extended objects and quasars from stars. This paper describes the quasar search techniques and discusses the results. The performance of the software is compared and calibrated with a plate taken in a region of SA 57 that has been extensively surveyed by others using a variety of techniques: the proposed automated software performs very well. It is found that an eye search of the same plate is less complete than the automated search: surveys that rely on eye searches suffer from incompleteness at least from a magnitude brighter than the plate limit. It is shown how the complete automated analysis of a plate and computer simulations are used to calibrate and understand the characteristics of the present data. 20 references

  8. Black hole accretion: the quasar powerhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A program is described which calculates the effects of material falling into the curved space-time surrounding a rotation black hole. The authors have developed a two-dimensional, general-relativistic hydrodynamics code to simulate fluid flow in the gravitational field of a rotating black hole. Such calculations represent models that have been proposed for the energy sources of both quasars and jets from radiogalaxies. In each case, the black hole that powers the quasar or jet would have a mass of about 100 million times the mass of the sun. The black hole would be located in the center of a galaxy whose total mass is 1000 time greater than the black hole mass. (SC)

  9. Do quasar ley lines really exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of the quasars on the celestial sphere contains an unexpectedly large number of well-aligned triples is tested by applying, to the Cerro Tololo objective-prism sample, a shape-statistic which was originally developed to investigate whether neolithic standing stones were deliberately sited on ley lines. It is found that alignment in triples is not a conspicuous feature of the quasars in this sample. The sample does contain one well aligned triple whose properties resemble those of two triples found earlier in a different field by earlier authors, but the probability of this being a chance alignment is not low. The same authors have noted a total of four well-collimated triples which they consider remarkable, but an approximate probability calculation based on the shape-statistic indicates that they need not have a low probability of occurring by chance. (author)

  10. Infrared observations of Seyfert galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    1978-01-01

    The infrared energy distributions of the Seyfert galaxies apparently contain three components: a galactic stellar component, a thermal component from heated dust, plus a nonthermal component. The appearance of the infrared energy distribution depends on which component dominates. There is also a correlation observed between the infrared energy distribution and the Khachikian Weedman class. Preliminary data on bright quasars are given. The infrared energy distributions generally increase into the infrared with a power law slope of approximately 1. In detail they differ from power laws with a significant fraction emitting most of their energy near 3μm. No differences in radio loud and radio quiet are obvious from the infrared energy distributions. The variability of the quasars in the infrared is generally correlated with the variability in the visible, although significant exceptions have been observed. (Auth.)

  11. Quasars in the Life of Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Collin, Suzy; Setti, Giancarlo; Gaskell, Martin; Wampler, Joe; Elvis, Martin; Pronik, Iraida; Pronik, Vladimir; Sergeev, Sergey; Volvach, Aleksander; Krolik, Julian; Netzer, Hagai; Cavaliere, Alfonso; Padovani, Paolo; Arp, Halton; Narlikar, Jayant

    We are approaching the 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars. Those old enough to have been cognizant of astronomy in 1962-1963 can remember the sense of excitement connected with this finding. There was talk of a major new constituent of the universe. The excitement of the discovery was palpable even to one of us (the most senior of the editors) who was then a high school teenager.

  12. Star formation in active galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the observational evidence for a causal or statistical link between star formation and active galactic nuclei. The chief difficulty is in quantitatively ascertaining the star formation rate in active galaxies: most of the readily observable manifestations of star formation superficially resemble those of an active nucleus. Careful multi-wavelength spatially-resolved observations demonstrate that many Seyfert galaxies are undergoing star formation. Our survey of CO emission from Seyferts (interpreted in conjunction IRAS data) suggests that type 2 Seyferts have unusually high rates of star formation, but type 1 Seyferts do not. Recent work also suggests that many powerful radio galaxies may be actively forming stars: radio galaxies with strong emission-lines often have blue colors and strong far-infrared emission. Determining the star formation rate in the host galaxies of quasars is especially difficult. Multi-color imaging and long-slit spectroscopy suggests that many of the host galaxies of radio-loud quasars are blue and a cold interstellar medium has been detected in some quasar hosts

  13. Luminosity function of high redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Data from ten different emission-line surveys are included in a study of the luminosity function of high redshift quasars. Five of the surveys are analyzed through microdensitometric techniques and the data for new quasars are given. The uncertainties in magnitudes, redshifts, and line equivalent widths are assessed and found to be +-0.3 mag. +-0.04 in z and approx. 30%, respectively. Criteria for selecting the redshift range 1.8 less than or equal to z - 1 Mpc - 1 for each of two cosmologies (q 0 = 1 and q 0 = 0). For either cosmology, the function exhibits a steep increase with magnitude at high luminosities and a gentler increase at intermediate luminosities. Data from the new surveys indicate a possible turnover at the faint end of the distribution. Total volume densities of quasars are computed for each of three extrapolations of the trend of the data to low luminosities. These densities are compared to those of active galaxies and field galaxies

  14. Reverberation Mapping of High-Luminosity Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, Shai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Maoz, Dan; Netzer, Hagai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Shemmer, Ohad, E-mail: shai@wise.tau.ac.il [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Over the past three decades reverberation mapping (RM) has been applied to about 100 AGNs. Their broad line region (BLR) sizes were measured and yielded mass estimates of the black holes in their center. However, very few attempts were carried out for high-luminosity quasars, at luminosities higher than 10{sup 46} erg/sec in the optical. Most of these attempts failed since RM of such quasars is difficult due to a number of reasons, mostly due to the long time needed to monitor these objects. During the past two decades we carried out a RM campaign on six high-luminosity quasars. This contribution presents some of the final light curves of that RM campaign in which we measured the BLR size in C iv of three of the objects (S5 0836+71, SBS 1116+603, and SBS 1425+606). We present the C iv BLR size and luminosity relation over eight orders of magnitude in luminosity, pushing the luminosity limit to its highest point so far.

  15. Seeking the epoch of maximum luminosity for dusty quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, Valeri; Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    Infrared luminosities νL ν (7.8 μm) arising from dust reradiation are determined for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.4 quasar Gpc –3 having νL ν (7.8 μm) > 10 46.6 erg s –1 for all 2 quasars first reached their maximum luminosity has not yet been identified at any redshift below 5. The most ultraviolet luminous quasars, defined by rest frame νL ν (0.25 μm), have the largest values of the ratio νL ν (0.25 μm)/νL ν (7.8 μm) with a maximum ratio at z = 2.9. From these results, we conclude that the quasars most luminous in the ultraviolet have the smallest dust content and appear luminous primarily because of lessened extinction. Observed ultraviolet/infrared luminosity ratios are used to define 'obscured' quasars as those having >5 mag of ultraviolet extinction. We present a new summary of obscured quasars discovered with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and determine the infrared luminosity function of these obscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1. This is compared with infrared luminosity functions of optically discovered, unobscured quasars in the SDSS and in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. The comparison indicates comparable numbers of obscured and unobscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1 with a possible excess of obscured quasars at fainter luminosities.

  16. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dio, Enea Di, E-mail: enea.didio@oats.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z ∼2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z ∼2 and 0.2 % for z ∼4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ∼ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.

  18. Quasar evolution: not a deficit at low redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.; Schiller, N.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the recent suggestion of Hawkins and Stewart that complete quasar samples can be interpreted in terms of a (real or apparent) deficit of quasars at low redshifts. By using a larger sample and a more efficient method of analysis, we rule out this interpretation

  19. Space Density of Optically Selected Type 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Green, Joshua; Krolik, Julian H.; Shen, Yue; Richards, Gordon T.; Anderson, Scott F.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2008-12-01

    Type 2 quasars are luminous active galactic nuclei whose central regions are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust. In this paper, we present a catalog of type 2 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, selected based on their optical emission lines. The catalog contains 887 objects with redshifts z < 0.83; this is 6 times larger than the previous version and is by far the largest sample of type 2 quasars in the literature. We derive the [O III]5007 luminosity function (LF) for 108.3 L sun < L [O III] < 1010 L sun (corresponding to intrinsic luminosities up to M[2500 Å] ~= -28 mag or bolometric luminosities up to 4 × 1047 erg s-1). This LF provides robust lower limits to the actual space density of obscured quasars due to our selection criteria, the details of the spectroscopic target selection, and other effects. We derive the equivalent LF for the complete sample of type 1 (unobscured) quasars and determine the ratio of type 2 to type 1 quasar number densities. Our data constrain this ratio to be at least ~1.5:1 for 108.3 L sun < L [O III] < 109.5 L sun at z < 0.3, and at least ~1.2:1 for L [O III] ~ 1010 L sun at 0.3 < z < 0.83. Type 2 quasars are at least as abundant as type 1 quasars in the relatively nearby universe (z <~ 0.8) for the highest luminosities.

  20. X-ray, optical, and radio properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, G.R.; Keel, W.C.; Miller, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined a sample of 26 low-redshift quasars for the relationships between X-ray luminosity and optical spectroscopic features. All quasars were observed with the Einstein Observatory and with the IDS on the Lick 3 meter telescope. We find evidence for correlations between quasar X-ray luminosity and both optical continuum luminosity and Hβ luminosity. In the latter case, there is a smooth relationship connecting quasars, Seyfert 1, and Seyfert 2 galaxies. For the quasars in this sample, there is also a strong correlation between optical continuum luminosity and both the Hβ luminosity and equivalent width. Unlike the case for Seyfert 1 nuclei, there is no evidence for a correlation between X-ray luminosity and either the Hβ/[O III] ratio or the width at zero intensity of the Hβ line. However, we do find some evidence for a weak correlation between α'/sub o/x, the mean continuum spectral index between 5000 A and 2 keV, and Fe II equivalent width, Hβ equivalent width, Hβ line width at zero intensity, and the ratio of Hβ equivalent width to its line width at zero intensity. Overall, we found few strong correlations between optical spectroscopic quanitites and X-ray properties of quasars. Some of the implications of these results for models of quasars and quasar emission line regions are discussed

  1. Clues to quasar broad-line region geometry and kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vestergaard, M; Wilkes, BJ; Barthel, PD

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence that the high-velocity C IV lambda 1549 emission-line gas of radio-loud quasars may originate in a disklike configuration, in close proximity to the accretion disk often assumed to emit the low-ionization lines. For a sample of 36 radio-loud z approximate to 2 quasars, we find

  2. Statistical studies on quasars and active nuclei of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasinska, G.

    1987-01-01

    A catalogue of optical, radio and X-ray properties of quasars and other active galactic nuclei, now in elaboration, is presented. This catalogue may serve as a data base for statistical studies. As an example, we give some preliminary results concerning the determination of the quasar masses [fr

  3. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a promine...

  4. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i P1 dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z P1 magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 × 10 47 erg s –1 , and a black hole mass of 6.9 × 10 9 M ☉ . It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Lyβ peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i P1 dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z P1 dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  5. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad [Research Computing Center, Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie, E-mail: bchen3@fsu.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  6. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python

  7. Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yat Hei; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2008-09-29

    We present novel designs for aspheric lenses used in terahertz (THz) imaging. As different surfaces result in different beam shaping properties and in different losses from reflection and absorption, the resultant imaging resolution (i.e. the focal spot size) depends critically on the design approach. We evaluate the different lens designs using Kirchhoff's scalar diffraction theory, and test the predictions experimentally. We also show that our lenses can achieve sub-wavelength resolution. While our lens designs are tested with THz radiation, the design considerations are applicable also to other regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum.

  8. Gravitational lensing by spinning and radially moving lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of currents of mass on bending of light rays is considered in the weak field regime. Following Fermat's principle and the standard theory of gravitational lensing, we derive the gravito-magnetic correction to time delay function and deflection angle caused by a geometrically-thin lens. The cases of both rotating and shifting deflectors are discussed

  9. The hyperluminous infrared quasar 3C 318 and its implications for interpreting sub-mm detections of high-redshift radio galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Jarvis, Matt J.

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the compact steep- spectrum radio source 3C 318 which shows it to be a quasar at redshift z=1.574 (the z=0.752 value previously reported is incorrect). 3C 318 is an IRAS, ISO and SCUBA source so its new redshift makes it the most intrinsically luminous far-infrared (FIR) source in the 3C catalogue (there is no evidence of strong gravitational lensing effects). Its bolometric luminosity greatly exceeds the 10^13 solar luminosity level above ...

  10. The clustering of quasars from an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    The positions and redshifts of 108 quasars from the Cerro Tololo objective-prism survey are subjected to Fourier Power Spectrum Analysis in a search for clustering in their spatial distribution. It is found that, on the whole, these quasars are not clustered but are scattered in space independently at random. The sole exception is a group of four quasars at z = 0.37 which has a low probability of being a chance event and which, with a size of about 100 Mpc, may therefore be the largest known structure in the Universe. The conclusions disagree with Arp's analysis of this catalogue: his 'clouds of quasars' ejected by certain low-redshift galaxies, for example, are attributable to sensitivity variations among the different plates of the survey. It is shown that analysis of deeper surveys is likely to show up quasar clusters even at high redshift, and could therefore provide a useful new cosmological probe. (author)

  11. In quest of axionic hairs in quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mandal, Bhaswati; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2018-03-01

    The presence of axionic field can provide plausible explanation to several long standing problems in physics such as dark matter and dark energy. The pseudo-scalar axion whose derivative corresponds to the Hodge dual of the Kalb-Ramond field strength in four dimensions plays crucial roles in explaining several astrophysical and cosmological observations. Therefore, the detection of axionic hairs/Kalb-Ramond field which appears as closed string excitations in the heterotic string spectrum may provide a profound insight to our understanding of the current universe. The current level of precision achieved in solar-system based tests employed to test general relativity, is not sufficient to detect the presence of axion. However, the near horizon regime of quasars where the curvature effects are maximum seems to be a natural laboratory to probe such additions to the matter sector. The continuum spectrum emitted from the accretion disk around quasars encapsulates the imprints of the background spacetime and hence acts as a storehouse of information regarding the nature of gravitational interaction in extreme situations. The surfeit of data available in the electromagnetic domain provides a further motivation to explore such systems. Using the optical data for eighty Palomar Green quasars we demonstrate that the theoretical estimates of optical luminosity explain the observations best when the axionic field is assumed to be absent. However, axion which violates the energy condition seems to be favored by observations which has several interesting consequences. Error estimators, including reduced χ2, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, index of agreement and modified versions of the last two are used to solidify our conclusion and the implications of our result are discussed.

  12. High redshift quasars and high metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    1997-01-01

    A large-scale code called Cloudy was designed to simulate non-equilibrium plasmas and predict their spectra. The goal was to apply it to studies of galactic and extragalactic emission line objects in order to reliably deduce abundances and luminosities. Quasars are of particular interest because they are the most luminous objects in the universe and the highest redshift objects that can be observed spectroscopically, and their emission lines can reveal the composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the universe when it was well under a billion years old. The lines are produced by warm (approximately 10(sup 4)K) gas with moderate to low density (n less than or equal to 10(sup 12) cm(sup -3)). Cloudy has been extended to include approximately 10(sup 4) resonance lines from the 495 possible stages of ionization of the lightest 30 elements, an extension that required several steps. The charge transfer database was expanded to complete the needed reactions between hydrogen and the first four ions and fit all reactions with a common approximation. Radiative recombination rate coefficients were derived for recombination from all closed shells, where this process should dominate. Analytical fits to Opacity Project (OP) and other recent photoionization cross sections were produced. Finally, rescaled OP oscillator strengths were used to compile a complete set of data for 5971 resonance lines. The major discovery has been that high redshift quasars have very high metallicities and there is strong evidence that the quasar phenomenon is associated with the birth of massive elliptical galaxies.

  13. SDSS QUASARS IN THE WISE PRELIMINARY DATA RELEASE AND QUASAR CANDIDATE SELECTION WITH OPTICAL/INFRARED COLORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuebing; Hao Guoqiang; Jia Zhendong; Zhang Yanxia; Peng Nanbo

    2012-01-01

    We present a catalog of 37,842 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, which have counterparts within 6'' in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Preliminary Data Release. The overall WISE detection rate of the SDSS quasars is 86.7%, and it decreases to less than 50.0% when the quasar magnitude is fainter than i = 20.5. We derive the median color-redshift relations based on this SDSS-WISE quasar sample and apply them to estimate the photometric redshifts of the SDSS-WISE quasars. We find that by adding the WISE W1- and W2-band data to the SDSS photometry we can increase the photometric redshift reliability, defined as the percentage of sources with photometric and spectroscopic redshift difference less than 0.2, from 70.3% to 77.2%. We also obtain the samples of WISE-detected normal and late-type stars with SDSS spectroscopy, and present a criterion in the z – W1 versus g – z color-color diagram, z – W1 > 0.66(g – z) + 2.01, to separate quasars from stars. With this criterion we can recover 98.6% of 3089 radio-detected SDSS-WISE quasars with redshifts less than four and overcome the difficulty in selecting quasars with redshifts between 2.2 and 3 from SDSS photometric data alone. We also suggest another criterion involving the WISE color only, W1 – W2 > 0.57, to efficiently separate quasars with redshifts less than 3.2 from stars. In addition, we compile a catalog of 5614 SDSS quasars detected by both WISE and UKIDSS surveys and present their color-redshift relations in the optical and infrared bands. By using the SDSS ugriz, UKIDSS, YJHK, and WISE W1- and W2-band photometric data, we can efficiently select quasar candidates and increase the photometric redshift reliability up to 87.0%. We discuss the implications of our results on the future quasar surveys. An updated SDSS-WISE quasar catalog consisting of 101,853 quasars with the recently released WISE all-sky data is also provided.

  14. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS) in SDSS and the high-z bright-end Quasar Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early Universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. Unfortunately, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) nd the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) have so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z>3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of $z~3$ quasars at the brightest end.We have identified the purely optical color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore we have designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using WISE AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright (i < 18.0) quasars in the redshift range of 2.8<= z<=5.0. It effectively uses Random Forest machine-learning algorithms on SDSS and WISE photometry for quasar-star classification and photometric redshift estimation.The ELQS is spectroscopically following up ~230 new quasar candidates in an area of ~12000 deg2 in the SDSS footprint, to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 2.8<= z<=5.0. So far the ELQS has identified 75 bright new quasars in this redshift range and observations of the fall sky will continue until the end of the year. At the AAS winter meeting we will present the full spectroscopic results of the survey, including a re-estimation and extension of the high-z QLF toward higher luminosities.

  15. Probing supervoids with weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yuichi; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2018-05-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has non-Gaussian features in the temperature fluctuations. An anomalous cold spot surrounded with a hot ring, called the Cold Spot, is one of such features. If a large underdense region (supervoid) resides towards the Cold Spot, we would be able to detect a systematic shape distortion in the images of background source galaxies via weak lensing effect. In order to estimate the detectability of such signals, we used the data of N-body simulations to simulate full-sky ray-tracing of source galaxies. We searched for a most prominent underdense region using the simulated convergence maps smoothed at a scale of 20° and obtained tangential shears around it. The lensing signal expected in a concordant Λ cold dark matter model can be detected at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N ˜ 3. If a supervoid with a radius of ˜200 h-1 Mpc and a density contrast δ0 ˜ -0.3 at the centre resides at a redshift z ˜ 0.2, on-going and near-future weak gravitational lensing surveys would detect a lensing signal with S/N ≳ 4 without resorting to stacking. From the tangential shear profile, we can obtain a constraint on the projected mass distribution of the supervoid.

  16. Weak lensing and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy

  17. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  18. Scientific visualization of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallon, M.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts related to gravitational lenses are discussed and applied to develop an interactive visualization tool that allow us to investigate them. Optimization strategies were performed to elaborate the tool. Some results obtained from the application of the tool are shown [es

  19. Optical images of quasars and radio galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, J.B.; Johnson, I.; Pyke, R.

    1988-04-01

    Matched contour plots and gray-scale diagrams are presented for 54 radio quasars or radio galaxies of redshift 0.1-0.6, observed with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. All except four were recorded on the RCA1 CCD chip; four were summed from several photographic exposures behind an image tube. All except nine of the objects form the principal data base used by Hutchings (1987). Detailed comments are given on all objects, and some further measures of the objects and their companions. 12 references.

  20. Optical images of quasars and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, J.B.; Johnson, I.; Pyke, R.

    1988-01-01

    Matched contour plots and gray-scale diagrams are presented for 54 radio quasars or radio galaxies of redshift 0.1-0.6, observed with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. All except four were recorded on the RCA1 CCD chip; four were summed from several photographic exposures behind an image tube. All except nine of the objects form the principal data base used by Hutchings (1987). Detailed comments are given on all objects, and some further measures of the objects and their companions. 12 references

  1. Optical images of quasars and radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Johnson, I.; Pyke, R.

    1988-04-01

    Matched contour plots and gray-scale diagrams are presented for 54 radio quasars or radio galaxies of redshift 0.1-0.6, observed with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. All except four were recorded on the RCA1 CCD chip; four were summed from several photographic exposures behind an image tube. All except nine of the objects form the principal data base used by Hutchings (1987). Detailed comments are given on all objects, and some further measures of the objects and their companions.

  2. Achromatic X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Marion

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents first results on the development of achromatic refractive X-ray lenses which can be used for scientific experiments at synchrotron sources. First of all the different requirements for achromatic X-ray lenses have been worked out. There are different types of lenses, one type can be used for monochromatized sources when the energy is scanned while the spot size should be constant. The other type can be used at beamlines providing a broad energy band. By a combination of focusing and defocusing elements we have developed a lens system that strongly reduces the chromatic aberration of a refractive lens in a given energy range. The great challenge in the X-ray case - in contrast to the visible range - the complex refractive index, which is very similar for the possible materials in the X-ray spectrum. For precise studies a numerical code has been developed, which calculates the different rays on their way through the lenses to the detector plane via raytracing. In this numerical code the intensity distribution in the detector plane has been analyzed for a chromatic and the corresponding achromatic system. By optimization routines for the two different fields of applications specific parameter combinations were found. For the experimental verification an achromatic system has been developed, consisting of biconcave SU-8 lenses and biconvex Nickel Fresnel lenses. Their fabrication was based on the LIGA-process, including a further innovative development, namely the fabrication of two different materials on one wafer. In the experiment at the synchrotron source ANKA the energy was varied in a specific energy range in steps of 0.1 keV. The intensity distribution for the different energies was detected at a certain focal length. For the achromatic system a reduction of the chromatic aberration could be clearly shown. Achromatic refractive X-ray lenses, especially for the use at synchrotron sources, have not been developed so far. As a consequence of the

  3. The Gaseous Environments of Quasars: Outflows, Feedback & Cold Mode Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Hamann, Fred

    2018-06-01

    The early stages of massive galaxy evolution can involve galaxy-scale outflows driven by a starburst or a central quasar and cold-mode accretion (infall) that adds to the mass buildup in the galaxies. I will describe three related studies that use quasar absorption lines to measure outflows, infall, and the general gaseous environments of quasars across a range of spatial scales. The three studies are: 1) High-resolution spectroscopy with Keck-HIRES and VLT-UVES to study associated absorption lines (AALs) that have redshifts greater than the emission redshifts indicating infall and/or rich multi-component AAL complexes that might be interstellar clouds in the host galaxies that have been shredded and dispersed by a fast unseen quasar-driven wind. The data provide strong constraints on the gas kinematics, spatial structure, column densities, metallicities, and energetics. 2) A complete inventory of high-velocity CIV 1548,1550 mini-BAL outflows in quasars using high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra in the public VLT-UVES and Keck-HIRES archives. This sensitive mini-BAL survey fills an important niche between previous work on narrow absorption lines (NALs) and the much-studied broad absorption lines (BALs) to build a more complete picture of quasar outflows. I will report of the mini-BAL statistics, the diversity of lines detected, and some tests for correlations with the quasar properties. We find, for example, that mini-BALs at v > 4000 km/s in at least 10% of 511 quasars studied, including 1% at v > 0.1 c. Finally, 3) Use the much larger database of NALs measured in 262,449 BOSS quasars by York et al. (in prep.) to study their potential relationships to the quasars and, specifically, their origins in quasar outflows. This involves primarily comparisons of the incidence and properties of NALs at different velocity shifts to other measured properties of the quasars such as BAL outflows, emission line characteristics, radio-loudness, and red colors. We find

  4. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M 1450 2 , then extend to lower luminosities (M 1450 2 of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 1450 * ∼-27). The bright-end slope is steep (β ∼ 1450 < –26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate ∼30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  5. Space density of optically-selected type 2 quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Green, Joshua; Krolik, Julian H.; Shen, Yue; Richards, Gordon; Anderson, Scott; Schneider, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 quasars are luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) whose central regions are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust. In this paper, we present a catalog of type 2 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), selected based on their optical emission lines. The catalog contains 887 objects with redshifts z < 0.83; this is six times larger than the previous version and is by far the largest sample of type 2 quasars in the literature. We derive the [OIII]5008 luminosity function for...

  6. THE EXTENDED HIGH A ( V ) QUASAR SURVEY: SEARCHING FOR DUSTY ABSORBERS TOWARD MID-INFRARED-SELECTED QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogager, J.-K.; Noterdaeme, P. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Fynbo, J. P. U.; Heintz, K. E.; Vestergaard, M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Geier, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ledoux, C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Møller, P. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Venemans, B. P. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-20

    We present the results of a new spectroscopic survey for dusty intervening absorption systems, particularly damped Ly α absorbers (DLAs), toward reddened quasars. The candidate quasars are selected from mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer combined with optical and near-infrared photometry. Out of 1073 candidates, we secure low-resolution spectra for 108 using the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain. Based on the spectra, we are able to classify 100 of the 108 targets as quasars. A large fraction (50%) is observed to have broad absorption lines (BALs). Moreover, we find six quasars with strange breaks in their spectra, which are not consistent with regular dust reddening. Using template fitting, we infer the amount of reddening along each line of sight ranging from A ( V ) ≈ 0.1 to 1.2 mag (assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve). In four cases, the reddening is consistent with dust exhibiting the 2175 Å feature caused by an intervening absorber, and for two of these, an Mg ii absorption system is observed at the best-fit absorption redshift. In the rest of the cases, the reddening is most likely intrinsic to the quasar. We observe no evidence for dusty DLAs in this survey. However, the large fraction of BAL quasars hampers the detection of absorption systems. Out of the 50 non-BAL quasars, only 28 have sufficiently high redshift to detect Ly α in absorption.

  7. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING WEAK Mg II QUASAR ABSORBERS AND A CURIOUS DEPENDENCE ON QUASAR LUMINOSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jessica L.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Klimek, Elizabeth S. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Melbourne, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    We have identified 469 Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 doublet systems having W{sub r} {>=} 0.02 A in 252 Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and UVES/Very Large Telescope quasar spectra over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 2.6. Using the largest sample yet of 188 weak Mg II systems (0.02 A {<=}W{sub r} < 0.3 A), we calculate their absorber redshift path density, dN/dz. We find clear evidence of evolution, with dN/dz peaking at z {approx} 1.2, and that the product of the absorber number density and cross section decreases linearly with increasing redshift; weak Mg II absorbers seem to vanish above z {approx_equal} 2.7. If the absorbers are ionized by the UV background, we estimate number densities of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} Mpc{sup -3} for spherical geometries and 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} Mpc{sup -3} for more sheetlike geometries. We also find that dN/dz toward intrinsically faint versus bright quasars differs significantly for weak and strong (W{sub r} {>=} 1.0 A) absorbers. For weak absorption, dN/dz toward bright quasars is {approx}25% higher than toward faint quasars (10{sigma} at low redshift, 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, and 4{sigma} at high redshift, 1.4 < z {<=} 2.34). For strong absorption the trend reverses, with dN/dz toward faint quasars being {approx}20% higher than toward bright quasars (also 10{sigma} at low redshift and 4{sigma} at high redshift). We explore scenarios in which beam size is proportional to quasar luminosity and varies with absorber and quasar redshifts. These do not explain dN/dz's dependence on quasar luminosity.

  8. 3C 220.3: A radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Martin; Westhues, Christian; Chini, Rolf [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian; Klaas, Ulrich; Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Barthel, Peter; Koopmans, Léon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vegetti, Simona [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Clements, David L. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fassnacht, Christopher D. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Horesh, Assaf [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lagattuta, David J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn (Australia); Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika, E-mail: haas@astro.rub.de [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ∼1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/L{sub i}∼8±4 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1}, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ∼ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a

  9. New case of gravitational lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Magain, P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-10-22

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10/sup 11/ M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to ..delta..t approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO.

  10. A system of catoptric lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, P.J.; Rambauske, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a system of catoptric lenses for combining energies provided by a certain number of sources, e.g. optical energies provided by a certain number of lasers. This system comprises sets of mirrors the reflecting surfaces of which have their focuses spaced from a common axis. The mirrors of all these sets are arranged on a common frame, which makes aperture-locking impossible. This can be applied to thermonuclear fusion [fr

  11. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru; Tsupko, O. Yu., E-mail: tsupko@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  12. OBSERVATIONAL UPPER BOUND ON THE COSMIC ABUNDANCES OF NEGATIVE-MASS COMPACT OBJECTS AND ELLIS WORMHOLES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryuichi; Asada, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    The latest result in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search (SQLS) has set the first cosmological constraints on negative-mass compact objects and Ellis wormholes. There are no multiple images lensed by the above two exotic objects for {approx}50, 000 distant quasars in the SQLS data. Therefore, an upper bound is put on the cosmic abundances of these lenses. The number density of negative-mass compact objects is n < 10{sup -8}(10{sup -4}) h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} at the mass scale |M| > 10{sup 15}(10{sup 12}) M{sub Sun }, which corresponds to the cosmological density parameter |{Omega}| < 10{sup -4} at the galaxy and cluster mass range |M| = 10{sup 12-15} M{sub Sun }. The number density of the Ellis wormhole is n < 10{sup -4} h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} for a range of the throat radius a = 10-10{sup 4} pc, which is much smaller than the Einstein ring radius.

  13. How Quasar Feedback May Shape the Co-evolutionary Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Wako, E-mail: wako.ishibashi@physik.uzh.ch [Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-17

    Observations point toward some form of “co-evolutionary sequence,” from dust-enshrouded starbursts to luminous unobscured quasars. Active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback is generally invoked to expel the obscuring dusty gas in a blow-out event, eventually revealing the hidden central quasar. However, the physical mechanism driving AGN feedback, either due to winds or radiation, remains uncertain and is still a source of much debate. We consider quasar feedback, based on radiation pressure on dust, which directly acts on the obscuring dusty gas. We show that AGN radiative feedback is capable of efficiently removing the obscuring cocoon, and driving powerful outflows on galactic scales, consistent with recent observations. I will discuss how such quasar feedback may provide a natural physical interpretation of the observed evolutionary path, and the physical implications in the broader context of black hole-host galaxy co-evolution.

  14. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    retical arguments together with some numerical evidence. The evolution of the orbits is studied, as mass is transported from the disk to the nucleus. ... galaxies and non-axially symmetric quasar models (see Papadopoulos & Caranicolas.

  15. The Doppler Effect: A Consideration of Quasar Redshifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kurtiss J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the calculation of the redshift to blueshift ratio introduced by the transverse Doppler effect at relativistic speeds. Indicates that this shift should be mentioned in discussions of whether quasars are "local" rather than "cosmological" objects. (GS)

  16. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed in...

  17. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the best-fitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of ...

  18. Probing the dark energy with quasar clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvão, M O; de Mello Neto, J R T; Waga, I

    2002-03-04

    We show through Monte Carlo simulations that the Alcock-Paczyński test, as applied to quasar clustering, is a powerful tool to probe the cosmological density and equation of state parameters Omega(m0), Omega(x0), and w. By taking into account the effect of peculiar velocities upon the correlation function we obtain for the Two-Degree Field QSO Redshift Survey the predicted confidence contours for the cosmological constant (w = -1) and spatially flat (Omega(m0)+Omega(x0) = 1) cases. For w = -1, the test is especially sensitive to the difference Omega(m0)-Omega(Lambda0), thus being ideal to combine with cosmic microwave background results. For the flat case, it is competitive with future supernova and galaxy number count tests, besides being complementary to them.

  19. Discovery and spectrophotometry of high-redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAlpine, G.M.; Feldman, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    We report on the discovery and spectrophotometry of 30 new high-redshift quasars, which were detected using the Curtis Schmidt technique. We also discuss new follow-up spectrophotometry for 23 quasar candidates from University of Michigan Lists I--IV. Our program sample contains eight quasars with z>3, at least five objects exhibiting broad absorption troughs, and a pair of quasars which are 1' apart on the sky and nearly identical in redshift, at z near 2.13. The redshift distribution for the majority of quasars in UM List IV suggests that most of the single-line quasar candidates in the UM List have low to moderate redshifts, with the reported line often being Mg II lambda2798 or C III] lambda1909. For 17 high-redshift quasars where lambda912 at the emission-line redshift could be examined, we did not find any definite Lyman limit cutoffs. Although three objects show a decline of the continuum within 100 A of lambda912, we do not believe them to be unambiguous examples for emission-line clouds situated in the line of sight. When our O I lambda1304 measurements are combined with the data of others to yield a composite spectrum, we obtain O I lambda1304/lambda8446 = 1.35. This suggests reddening with E/sub B/-Vroughly-equal0.23. Finally, our data exhibit a correlation between Lyα emission line velocity widths and redshift. The higher z quasars in the sample tend to have narrower lines, due, at least in part, to bias in the detection technique

  20. Optical constancy of the quasar 1928+738

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corso, G.J.; Harris, R.W.; Fox, R.; Schultz, J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that the low-red shift quasar 1928 + 738 be utilized in the establishment of an extragalactic reference frame. We have observed the quasar in blue light during an interval of 137 days and found it essentially constant, varying by no more than about I 0.15 magnitude from its average value. Slowly varying long-term changes are not ruled out and others are encouraged to monitor this source in the future. (author)

  1. Effective collision strengths of quasar ultraviolet emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.; Wallace, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The best available published collision strengths for excitation of permitted and semiforbidden emission lines of abundant ions observed or expected in quasars have been collected and averaged over Maxwellian velocity distributions. For a few ions for which calculations are not available, extrapolation along isoelectronic sequences or in principal quantum number n was used to estimate values. These collision strengths were used to correct differentially published photoionization models of quasars, and the corrected models compared with published observational data

  2. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Greiner, Jochen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Price, Paul, E-mail: morganson@mpia.de [Princeton University Observatory, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  3. Quasar Winds as Dust Factories at High Redshift

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Marengo, Massimo; Karovska, Margarita

    2003-01-01

    Winds from AGN and quasars will form large amounts of dust, as the cool gas in these winds passes through the (pressure, temperature) region where dust is formed in AGB stars. Conditions in the gas are benign to dust at these radii. As a result quasar winds may be a major source of dust at high redshifts, obviating a difficulty with current observations, and requiring far less dust to exist at early epochs.

  4. A search for changing look quasars in second epoch imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph; Myers, Adam; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has compiled a catalog of over half a million confirmed quasars. During that period approximately ten percent of these objects have been spectroscopically observed in two or more epochs over baselines of ten or more years. This led recently to the discovery of the largest change in luminosity ever before observed in a quasar. The dimming emission was a reflection of very significant changes in continuum and broad line properties, the source had effectively transitioned from a Type I quasar to a Type II AGN. Since then several more "changing look" quasars have been discovered in multi-epoch SDSS spectroscopy. Among them are objects with rising and falling luminosities, appearing and disappearing broad lines. The origin of this behavior is still very uncertain, currently favored is the scenario in which an accreting black hole is simply starved of fuel. Other plausible scenarios include flaring due to stellar tidal disruption close to the black hole or large changes in accretion flow, which can occur during transitions between radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion regimes. Monitoring of larger numbers of changing look quasars will help to elucidate these ideas.In this poster, we report on the progress of a pilot study in which we hope to learn how to select changing look quasars in multi-epoch imaging. This will allow us to take advantage of the entire SDSS quasar catalog rather than just the ten percent of objects with multi-epoch spectroscopy. Comparing archival SDSS and more recent Legacy Survey imaging over ten-year baselines we select objects whose photometry is consistent with the large changes in luminosity expected in changing look quasars. We aim to build up a catalog of both transitioned and transitioning objects for future monitoring.

  5. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian; Cottis, Christopher E.; Goad, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  6. Star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniani, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionised and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ˜2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [OIII]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e. star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50 - 100 M⊙/yr, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  7. Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements

  8. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

  9. One millimeter continuum observations of high redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, D.J.; Soifer, B.T.

    1981-01-01

    Upper limits to the one-millimeter continuum flux densities of the high redshift quasars B2 1225 + 31, Ton 490, and PHL 957 are presented. The upper limit to the power observed from these quasars at 1 mm is, on the average, one half of the observed power in the continuum at L-alpha. These observations are used to constrain the temperature of a hypothetical dust shell which reddens the quasar line and continuum emission by an extinction optical depth sufficient to account for the anomalously low L-alpha/H-alpha emission line ratio observed in each of these quasars. For the quasars studied, dust shell temperatures between 25 K and 50 to 95 K are prohibited by the present data. A dust shell at a temperature within this span reradiating all the power absorbed from the quasar ultraviolet continuum would produce a one-millimeter flux density greater than the measured upper limit. The average radius of the model dust shell cannot be between 70 kpc and 1 Mpc

  10. DISSECTING THE QUASAR MAIN SEQUENCE: INSIGHT FROM HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jiayi; Shen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The diverse properties of broad-line quasars appear to follow a well-defined main sequence along which the optical Fe ii strength increases. It has been suggested that this sequence is mainly driven by the Eddington ratio (L/L Edd ) of the black hole (BH) accretion. Shen and Ho demonstrated with quasar clustering analysis that the average BH mass decreases with increasing Fe ii strength when quasar luminosity is fixed, consistent with this suggestion. Here we perform an independent test by measuring the stellar velocity dispersion σ * (hence, the BH mass via the M–σ * relation) from decomposed host spectra in low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. We found that at fixed quasar luminosity, σ * systematically decreases with increasing Fe ii strength, confirming that the Eddington ratio increases with Fe ii strength. We also found that at fixed luminosity and Fe ii strength, there is little dependence of σ * on the broad Hβ FWHM. These new results reinforce the framework that the Eddington ratio and orientation govern most of the diversity seen in broad-line quasar properties

  11. Circum-Galactic Medium in the Halo of Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Ottolina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of circum-galactic gas in the halo of quasar host galaxies are investigated analyzing Mg II 2800 and C IV 1540 absorption-line systems along the line of sight close to quasars. We used optical spectroscopy of closely aligned pairs of quasars (projected distance ≤ 200 kpc, but at very different redshift obtained at the VLT and Gran Telescopio Canarias to investigate the distribution of the absorbing gas for a sample of quasars at z ~1. Absorption systems of EW ≥0.3 associated with the foreground quasars are revealed up to 200 kpc from the centre of the host galaxy, showing that the structure of the absorbing gas is patchy with a covering fraction quickly decreasing beyond 100 kpc. In this contribution we use optical and near-IR images obtained at VLT to investigate the relations between the properties of the circum-galactic medium of the host galaxies and of the large scale galaxy environments of the foreground quasars.

  12. An astrophysics data program investigation of a synoptic study of quasar continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the program is presented. The major product of the program, an atlas of quasar energy distributions, is presented in the appendices along with papers written as a result of this research. The topics covered in the papers include: (1) accurate galactic N(sub h) values toward quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGN); (2) weak bump quasars; (3) millimeter measurements of hard x ray selected active galaxies- implications for the nature of the continuous spectrum; (3) persistence and change in the soft x ray spectrum of the quasar PG1211+143; (4) the soft x ray excess in einstein quasar spectra; and (5) EXOSAT x ray spectra of quasars.

  13. X-ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars, II: Optical and Radio Properties of Quasars with Low Energy X-ray Cut-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Two other cut-off quasars show reddening associated with the quasar. We conclude that absorption is highly likely to be the cause of the X-ray cut-offs, and that the abso...

  14. The Curious Molecular Gas Conditions in a z=2.6 Radio-loud Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Chelsea; Riechers, Dominik A.; Kuk Leung, Tsz; Weiss, Axel; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Chris; Kraiburg Knudsen, Kirsten; Hodge, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that AGN play an important role in quenching star formation in massive galaxies. In addition to molecular outflows observed in the local universe, emission from very high-J CO rotational transitions has been one of the key pieces of evidence for AGN directly affecting the molecular gas reservoirs that fuel star formation. However, very few observations of Jupper>9 transitions exist for galaxies in the early universe. Here we will present the peculiar molecular gas conditions in MG 0414+0534 (MG 0414 hereafter), one of the few high-z galaxies with very high-J CO detections. MG 0414 is a strongly lensed IR-bright radio-loud quasar with broad Hα emission at z=2.6390. We recently confirmed the CO(3–2) detection from Barvainis et al. (1998), but were unable to detect the CO(1–0) line. The 3σ lower limit on the 3–2/1–0 line ratio (in units of brightness temperature) is r3,1>5.72, which is significantly higher than the r3,1≤1 typical for thermalized optically thick emission in other z˜2–3 AGN host galaxies. In addition, the CO(11–10) line was detected to high significance using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, and the CO(11–10) line FWHM is nearly double that of the CO(3–2) line. We will discuss possible explanations for the peculiar line ratios in MG 0414 (such as optically thin emission, molecular outflows, and differential lensing) and what the origin of these ratios imply for molecular gas observations of other high-z AGN host galaxies.

  15. The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Quasar Survey: Quasar Properties from Data Release Two and Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. Y.; Wu, Xue-Bing; Ai, Y. L.; Yang, J. Y.; Yang, Q.; Wang, F.; Zhang, Y. X.; Luo, A. L.; Xu, H.; Yuan, H. L.; Zhang, J. N.; Wang, M. X.; Wang, L. L.; Li, Y. B.; Zuo, F.; Hou, W.; Guo, Y. X.; Kong, X.; Chen, X. Y.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H. F.; Yang, M.

    2018-05-01

    This is the second installment for the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Quasar Survey, which includes quasars observed from 2013 September to 2015 June. There are 9024 confirmed quasars in DR2 and 10911 in DR3. After cross-match with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar catalogs and NED, 12126 quasars are discovered independently. Among them, 2225 quasars were released by SDSS DR12 QSO catalog in 2014 after we finalized the survey candidates. 1801 sources were identified by SDSS DR14 as QSOs. The remaining 8100 quasars are considered as newly founded, and among them, 6887 quasars can be given reliable emission line measurements and the estimated black hole masses. Quasars found in LAMOST are mostly located at low-to-moderate redshifts, with a mean value of 1.5. The highest redshift observed in DR2 and DR3 is 5. We applied emission line measurements to Hα, Hβ, Mg II, and C IV. We deduced the monochromatic continuum luminosities using photometry data, and estimated the virial black hole masses for the newly discovered quasars. Results are compiled into a quasar catalog, which will be available online.

  16. The Scales of Gravitational Lensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Paolis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After exactly a century since the formulation of the general theory of relativity, the phenomenon of gravitational lensing is still an extremely powerful method for investigating in astrophysics and cosmology. Indeed, it is adopted to study the distribution of the stellar component in the Milky Way, to study dark matter and dark energy on very large scales and even to discover exoplanets. Moreover, thanks to technological developments, it will allow the measure of the physical parameters (mass, angular momentum and electric charge of supermassive black holes in the center of ours and nearby galaxies.

  17. The Hyperluminous Infrared Quasar 3C 318 and Its Implications for Interpreting Sub-MM Detections of High-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Jarvis, Matt J.

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the compact steep-spectrum radio source 3C 318 which shows it to be a quasar at redshift z = 1.574 (the z = 0.752 value previously reported is incorrect). 3C 318 is an IRAS, ISO and SCUBA source so its new redshift makes it the most intrinsically luminous far-infrared (FIR) source in the 3C catalogue (there is no evidence of strong gravitational lensing effects). Its bolometric luminosity greatly exceeds the 10(exp 13) solar luminosity level above which an object is said to be hyperluminous. Its spectral energy distribution (SED) requires that the quasar heats the dust responsible for the FIR flux, as is believed to be the case in other hyperluminous galaxies, and contributes (at the greater than 10% level) to the heating of the CIA dust responsible for the sub-mm emission. We cannot determine whether a starburst makes an important contribution to the heating of the coolest dust, so evidence for a high star-formation rate is circumstantial being based on the high dust, and hence gas, C-1 mass required by its sub-mm detection. We show that the current sub-mm and FIR data available for the highest-redshift radio galaxies are consistent with SEDs similar to that of 3C 318. This indicates that at least some of this population may be detected in the sub-mm because of dust heated by the quasar nucleus, and that interpreting sub-mm detection as evidence for very high (approx. less than 1000 solar mass/yr) star-formation rates may not always be valid. We show that the 3C318 quasar is slightly reddened (A(sub v) approx. = 0.5), the most likely cause of which is SMC-type dust in the host galaxy. If very distant radio galaxies are reddened in a similar way then we show that only slightly greater amounts of dust could obscure the quasars in these sources. We speculate that the low fraction of quasars amongst the very high redshift (z approx. greater than 3) objects in low-frequency radio-selected samples is the result of

  18. CORRELATIONS OF QUASAR OPTICAL SPECTRA WITH RADIO MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimball, Amy E.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Wiita, Paul J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Using the largest homogeneous quasar sample with high-quality optical spectra and robust radio morphology classifications assembled to date, we investigate relationships between radio and optical properties with unprecedented statistical power. The sample consists of 4714 radio quasars from FIRST with S 20 ≥ 2 mJy and with spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Radio morphology classes include core-only (core), core-lobe (lobe), core-jet (jet), lobe-core-lobe (triple), and double-lobe. Electronic tables of the quasar samples, along with spectral composites for individual morphology classes, are made available. We examine the optical colors of these subsamples and find that radio quasars with core emission unresolved by FIRST (on ∼5'' scale) have a redder color distribution than radio-quiet quasars (S 20 ∼ I ) are correlated, which supports the hypothesis that both parameters are indicative of line-of-sight orientation. We investigate spectral line equivalent widths (EWs) as a function of R and R I , including the O [III] narrow line doublet and the C IV λ1549 and Mg II λ2799 broad lines. We find that the rest EWs of the broad lines correlate positively with R I at the 4σ-8σ level. However, we find no strong dependence of EW on R, in contrast to previously published results. A possible interpretation of these results is that EWs of quasar emission lines increase as the line-of-sight angle to the radio-jet axis decreases. These results are in stark contrast to commonly accepted orientation-based theories, which suggest that continuum emission should increase as the angle to the radio-jet axis decreases, resulting in smaller EWs of emission lines (assumed isotropic). Finally, we observe the Baldwin effect in our sample and find that it does not depend strongly on quasar radio morphology.

  19. Probing black hole accretion in quasar pairs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, C.; Piconcelli, E.; Perna, M.; Hennawi, J.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Dotti, M.; Mathur, S.

    2018-06-01

    Models and observations suggest that luminous quasar activity is triggered by mergers, so it should preferentially occur in the most massive primordial dark matter haloes, where the frequency of mergers is expected to be the highest. Since the importance of galaxy mergers increases with redshift, we identify the high-redshift Universe as the ideal laboratory for studying dual AGN. Here, we present the X-ray properties of two systems of dual quasars at z = 3.0-3.3 selected from the SDSS DR6 at separations of 6-8 arcsec (43-65 kpc) and observed by Chandra for ≈65 ks each. Both members of each pair are detected with good photon statistics to allow us to constrain the column density, spectral slope and intrinsic X-ray luminosity. We also include a recently discovered dual quasar at z = 5 (separation of 21 arcsec, 136 kpc) for which XMM-Newton archival data allow us to detect the two components separately. Using optical spectra we derived bolometric luminosities, BH masses and Eddington ratios that were compared to those of luminous SDSS quasars in the same redshift ranges. We find that the brighter component of both quasar pairs at z ≈ 3.0-3.3 has high luminosities compared to the distribution of SDSS quasars at similar redshift, with J1622A having an order magnitude higher luminosity than the median. This source lies at the luminous end of the z ≈ 3.3 quasar luminosity function. While we cannot conclusively state that the unusually high luminosities of our sources are related to their having a close companion, for J1622A there is only a 3 per cent probability that it is by chance.

  20. Probing black hole accretion in quasar pairs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, C.; Piconcelli, E.; Perna, M.; Hennawi, J.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Dotti, M.; Mathur, S.

    2018-03-01

    Models and observations suggest that luminous quasar activity is triggered by mergers, so it should preferentially occur in the most massive primordial dark matter haloes, where the frequency of mergers is expected to be the highest. Since the importance of galaxy mergers increases with redshift, we identify the high-redshift Universe as the ideal laboratory for studying dual AGN. Here we present the X-ray properties of two systems of dual quasars at z=3.0-3.3 selected from the SDSS DR6 at separations of 6-8 arcsec (43-65 kpc) and observed by Chandra for ≈65 ks each. Both members of each pair are detected with good photon statistics to allow us to constrain the column density, spectral slope and intrinsic X-ray luminosity. We also include a recently discovered dual quasar at z=5 (separation of 21″, 136 kpc) for which XMM-Newton archival data allow us to detect the two components separately. Using optical spectra we derived bolometric luminosities, BH masses and Eddington ratios that were compared to those of luminous SDSS quasars in the same redshift ranges. We find that the brighter component of both quasar pairs at z ≈ 3.0-3.3 has high luminosities compared to the distribution of SDSS quasars at similar redshift, with J1622A having an order magnitude higher luminosity than the median. This source lies at the luminous end of the z ≈ 3.3 quasar luminosity function. While we cannot conclusively state that the unusually high luminosities of our sources are related to their having a close companion, for J1622A there is only a 3% probability that it is by chance.

  1. A Wealth of Dust Grains in Quasar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This plot of data captured by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope reveals dust entrained in the winds rushing away from a quasar, or growing black hole. The quasar, called PG2112+059, is located deep inside a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. Astronomers believe the dust might have been forged in the winds, which would help explain where dust in the very early universe came from. The data were captured by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that splits apart light from the quasar into a spectrum that reveals telltale signs of different minerals. Each type of mineral, or dust grain, has a unique signature, as can be seen in the graph, or spectrum, above. The strongest features are from the mineral amorphous olivine, or glass (purple); the mineral forsterite found in sand (blue); and the mineral corundum found in rubies (light blue). The detection of forsterite and corundum is highly unusual in galaxies without quasars. Therefore, their presence is a key clue that these grains might have been created in the quasar winds and not by dying stars as they are in our Milky Way galaxy. Forsterite is destroyed quickly in normal galaxies by radiation, so it must be continually produced to be detected by Spitzer. Corundum is hard, and provides a seed that softer, more common minerals usually cover up. As a result, corundum is usually not seen in spectra of galaxies. Since Spitzer did detect the mineral, it is probably forming in a clumpy environment, which is expected in quasar winds. All together, the signatures of the unusual minerals in this spectrum point towards dust grains forming in the winds blowing away from quasars.

  2. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog: Fourteenth data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Aubourg, Éric; Myers, Adam D.; Streblyanska, Alina; Lyke, Brad W.; Anderson, Scott F.; Armengaud, Éric; Bautista, Julian; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brandt, William Nielsen; Burtin, Étienne; Dawson, Kyle; de la Torre, Sylvain; Georgakakis, Antonis; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Green, Paul J.; Hall, Patrick B.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; MacLeod, Chelsea; Mariappan, Vivek; McGreer, Ian D.; Merloni, Andrea; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tojeiro, Rita; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Yèche, Christophe; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2018-05-01

    We present the data release 14 Quasar catalog (DR14Q) from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV). This catalog includes all SDSS-IV/eBOSS objects that were spectroscopically targeted as quasar candidates and that are confirmed as quasars via a new automated procedure combined with a partial visual inspection of spectra, have luminosities Mi [z = 2] < -20.5 (in a Λ CDM cosmology with H0 = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω M =0.3, and Ω Λ = 0.7), and either display at least one emission line with a full width at half maximum larger than 500 km s-1 or, if not, have interesting/complex absorption features. The catalog also includes previously spectroscopically-confirmed quasars from SDSS-I, II, and III. The catalog contains 526 356 quasars (144 046 are new discoveries since the beginning of SDSS-IV) detected over 9376 deg2 (2044 deg2 having new spectroscopic data available) with robust identification and redshift measured by a combination of principal component eigenspectra. The catalog is estimated to have about 0.5% contamination. Redshifts are provided for the Mg II emission line. The catalog identifies 21 877 broad absorption line quasars and lists their characteristics. For each object, the catalog presents five-band (u, g, r, i, z) CCD-based photometry with typical accuracy of 0.03 mag. The catalog also contains X-ray, ultraviolet, near-infrared, and radio emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra, covering the wavelength region 3610-10 140 Å at a spectral resolution in the range 1300 < R < 2500, can be retrieved from the SDSS Science Archiver Server. http://www.sdss.org/dr14/algorithms/qso_catalog

  3. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...

  4. Planck 2015 results: XV. Gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We...

  5. Lenses and Perception: Investigations with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    The main goals of these activities are to help students learn how a convex lens can serve as a magnifying lens and how light travels and creates images. These explorations will introduce middle school students to different types of lenses and how they work. Students will observe and describe how lenses bend light that passes through them and how…

  6. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF CMB GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderes, Ethan [Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Lavaux, Guilhem [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 and CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France)

    2015-08-01

    The Planck satellite, along with several ground-based telescopes, has mapped the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise so as to allow a detection of the subtle distortions due to the gravitational influence of the intervening matter distribution. A natural modeling approach is to write a Bayesian hierarchical model for the lensed CMB in terms of the unlensed CMB and the lensing potential. So far there has been no feasible algorithm for inferring the posterior distribution of the lensing potential from the lensed CMB map. We propose a solution that allows efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling from the joint posterior of the lensing potential and the unlensed CMB map using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. The main conceptual step in the solution is a re-parameterization of CMB lensing in terms of the lensed CMB and the “inverse lensing” potential. We demonstrate a fast implementation on simulated data, including noise and a sky cut, that uses a further acceleration based on a very mild approximation of the inverse lensing potential. We find that the resulting Markov Chain has short correlation lengths and excellent convergence properties, making it promising for applications to high-resolution CMB data sets in the future.

  7. Electron beams, lenses, and optics. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kareh, A.B.; El-Kareh, J.C.J.

    1970-01-01

    This book treats the ideal case where all lenses are assumed to be free from errors. It presents a thorough mathematical analysis of the electrostatic immersion lens, both symmetrical and asymetrical, and covers the einzel lens and the symmetrical magnetic lens in detail. The authors have obtained data on these lenses by means of a digital computer and present them in tabular form

  8. Fifty Years of Quasars From Early Observations and Ideas to Future Research

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars in 1963 presents an interesting opportunity to ask questions about the current state of quasar research. Formatted as a series of interviews with noted researchers in the field, each of them asked to address a specific set of questions covering topics selected by the editors, this book deals with the historical development of quasar research and discusses how advances in instrumentation and computational capabilities have benefitted quasar astronomy and have changed our basic understanding of quasars. In the last part of the book the interviews address the current topic of the role of quasars in galaxy evolution. They summarise open issues in understanding active galactic nuclei and quasars and present an outlook regarding what future observational facilities both on the ground and in space might reveal. Its interview format, the fascinating topic of quasars and black holes, and the lively recollections and at times controversial views of the contributors make ...

  9. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carniani, Stefano, E-mail: sc888@mrao.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-16

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  10. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Carniani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN. In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s, which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M⊙ yr−1, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2 ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2 transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  11. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carniani, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M ⊙ yr −1 , has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  12. High-resolution observations of quasars from the Parkes +- 40 sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, R.S.; Spencer, R.E.; Stannard, D.; Baath, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    VLBI observations of 20 compact quasars have been made between Jodrell Bank and Onsala at a frequency of 1666 MHz. Twelve of the quasars have inverted or peaked spectra at centimetre wavelengths and these are all unresolved, having angular diameters of < 0.015 arcsec. Two out of five quasars with overall flat spectra are partially resolved on this scale size, as are three steep-spectrum quasars. (author)

  13. The Evolution in the Faint-End Slope of the Quasar Luminosity Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Hernquist, Lars; Cox, Thomas J.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Robertson, Brant; Springel, Volker

    2005-01-01

    (Abridged) Based on numerical simulations of galaxy mergers that incorporate black hole (BH) growth, we predict the faint end slope of the quasar luminosity function (QLF) and its evolution with redshift. Our simulations have yielded a new model for quasar lifetimes where the lifetime depends on both the instantaneous and peak quasar luminosities. This motivates a new interpretation of the QLF in which the bright end consists of quasars radiating at nearly their peak luminosities, but the fai...

  14. Hints on the Broad Line Region Structure of Quasars at High and Low Luminosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziani Paola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Quasars show a considerable spectroscopic diversity. However, the variety of quasar spectra at low redshifts is non-random: a principal component analysis applied to large samples customarily identifies two main eigenvectors. In this contribution we show that the range of quasar optical spectral properties observed at low-z and associated with the first eigenvector is preserved up to z ≈ 2 in a sample of high luminosity quasars. We also describe two major luminosity effects.

  15. Solutions for care of silicone hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-01-01

    During wear of contact lenses on a daily wear basis, it is necessary to disinfect the lens overnight before reinserting the lens the next day. The ability of the solutions used for this to disinfect lenses and lens cases is important for safe lens wear. The literature on the disinfecting ability of multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) commonly used with silicone hydrogel lenses reported during the period 2000 to 2012 is reviewed, as this is the period of time during which these lenses have been commercially available. Particular emphasis is placed on the ability of disinfecting solutions to control colonization of lens cases by microbes and changes in composition and use of the solutions. In addition, the literature is reviewed on ways of minimizing lens case microbial contamination. Maintaining the hygiene of contact lenses and lens cases is important in minimizing various forms of corneal infiltrative events that occur during lens wear. Although lens case contamination is not associated with different lenses, it is determined by use of different MPDS. MPDS that allow more frequent or heavy contamination of cases by Gram-negative bacteria are associated with a higher incidence of corneal infiltrative events. MPDS are now available that contain dual disinfectants. Wiping lens cases with tissues or using lens cases that incorporate silver are associated with reductions in contamination in clinical trials. Similarly, using MPDS to rub and rinse lenses before disinfection may reduce levels of microbes on lenses. The MPDS also contain surfactants that help reduce deposition and denaturation of proteins on lenses. Improvements in MPDS formulations and hygiene practices may help to reduce the incidence of adverse events that are seen during use with silicone hydrogel lenses.

  16. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  17. Clusters of galaxies associated with quasars. I. 3C 206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, E.; Yee, H.K.C.; Green, R.F.; Kinman, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Multislit spectroscopy and three-color CCD photometry of the galaxies in the cluster associated with the quasar 3C 206 (PKS 0837-12) at z = 0.198 are presented. This cluster is the richest environment of any low-redshift quasar observed in an Abell richness class 1 cluster. The cluster has a very flattened structure and a very concentrated core about the quasar. Most of the galaxies in this field have colors and luminosities consistent with normal galaxies at this redshift. The background-corrected blue fraction of galaxies is consistent with values for other rich clusters. The existence of several blue galaxies in the concentrated cluster core is an anomaly for a region of such high galaxy density, however, suggesting the absence of a substantial intracluster medium. This claim is supported by the Fanaroff-Riley (1974) class II morphology of the radio source. The velocity dispersion calculated from 11 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members is 500 + or - 110 km/s, which is slightly lower than the average for Abell class 1 clusters. A high frequency of interaction between the quasar host galaxy and cluster core members at low relative velocities, and a low intracluster gas pressure, may comprise a favorable environment for quasar activity. The properties of the cluster of galaxies associated with 3C 206 are consistent with this model. 59 refs

  18. HIGH-REDSHIFT SDSS QUASARS WITH WEAK EMISSION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Kim, J. Serena; Schmidt, Gary D.; Smith, Paul S.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Young, Jason E.; Brandt, W. N.; Shemmer, Ohad; Gibson, Robert R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Shen Yue; Anderson, Scott F.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a prominent tail of the Lyα + N v equivalent width distribution, and we compare them to quasars with more typical emission-line properties and to low-redshift active galactic nuclei with weak/absent emission lines, namely BL Lac objects. We find that WLQs exhibit hot (T ∼ 1000 K) thermal dust emission and have rest-frame 0.1-5 μm spectral energy distributions that are quite similar to those of normal quasars. The variability, polarization, and radio properties of WLQs are also different from those of BL Lacs, making continuum boosting by a relativistic jet an unlikely physical interpretation. The most probable scenario for WLQs involves broad-line region properties that are physically distinct from those of normal quasars.

  19. IRAS observations of radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Miley, G.; Habing, H. J.; Young, E.; Low, F. J.; Beichman, C. A.; Clegg, P. E.; Harris, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    Observations from 12 to 100 microns are presented of two radio-quiet and three radio-loud quasars. Over this wavelength range, all five have grossly similar continuum energy distributions. The continua of the radio-loud quasars are consistent with synchrotron radiation. There is an indication, however, of excess 100 micron emission in the two radio-quiet quasars.

  20. Compact features in radio galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, A.

    1981-05-01

    The structure of compact features ('hotspots') in the outer lobes of classical double radio sources over a large flux density interval at 81.5 MHz is investigated in order to understand more fully the structural evolution of radio sources with both luminosity and redshift. The technique of interplanetary scintillations is used. An account is given of the development of a new telescope, the 3.6-hectare Array. A method for eliminating zero level and phase drifts from interferometric records and a method for analysing data scattered according to a skewed probability distribution are described. New observations of hotspots in complete samples of bright 3CR sources and 4C quasars having an intermediate flux density are then presented. The problems of interpreting scintillation data are then considered and three methods are suggested to reduce the difficulties imposed by the observational limitation known as 'blending', whereby the whole outer lobe may scintillate and distort the measured hotspot size. Finally, all the new observational data are assimilated and this leads to models for (a) the dependence of source structure on luminosity and (b) for the dependence of observed hotspot size on both luminosity and redshift. (author)

  1. Constraining cosmic curvature by using age of galaxies and gravitational lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jain, Deepak, E-mail: arana@physics.du.ac.in, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in, E-mail: shobhit.mahajan@gmail.com, E-mail: amimukh@gmail.com [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Sector-3, Dwarka, Delhi 110078 (India)

    2017-03-01

    We use two model-independent methods to constrain the curvature of the universe. In the first method, we study the evolution of the curvature parameter (Ω {sub k} {sup 0}) with redshift by using the observations of the Hubble parameter and transverse comoving distances obtained from the age of galaxies. Secondly, we also use an indirect method based on the mean image separation statistics of gravitationally lensed quasars. The basis of this methodology is that the average image separation of lensed images will show a positive, negative or zero correlation with the source redshift in a closed, open or flat universe respectively. In order to smoothen the datasets used in both the methods, we use a non-parametric method namely, Gaussian Process (GP). Finally from first method we obtain Ω {sub k} {sup 0} = 0.025±0.57 for a presumed flat universe while the cosmic curvature remains constant throughout the redshift region 0 < z < 1.37 which indicates that the universe may be homogeneous. Moreover, the combined result from both the methods suggests that the universe is marginally closed. However, a flat universe can be incorporated at 3σ level.

  2. Constraining cosmic curvature by using age of galaxies and gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha; Jain, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    We use two model-independent methods to constrain the curvature of the universe. In the first method, we study the evolution of the curvature parameter (Ω k 0 ) with redshift by using the observations of the Hubble parameter and transverse comoving distances obtained from the age of galaxies. Secondly, we also use an indirect method based on the mean image separation statistics of gravitationally lensed quasars. The basis of this methodology is that the average image separation of lensed images will show a positive, negative or zero correlation with the source redshift in a closed, open or flat universe respectively. In order to smoothen the datasets used in both the methods, we use a non-parametric method namely, Gaussian Process (GP). Finally from first method we obtain Ω k 0 = 0.025±0.57 for a presumed flat universe while the cosmic curvature remains constant throughout the redshift region 0 < z < 1.37 which indicates that the universe may be homogeneous. Moreover, the combined result from both the methods suggests that the universe is marginally closed. However, a flat universe can be incorporated at 3σ level.

  3. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examined the interactions of P. aeruginosa with hydrogel contact lenses and other substrata, and characterize adherence to lenses under various physiological and physicochemical conditions. Isolates adhered to polystyrene, glass, and hydrogel lenses. With certain lens types, radiolabeled cells showed decreased adherence with increasing water content of the lenses, however, this correlation with not found for all lenses. Adherence to rigid gas permeable lenses was markedly greater than adherence to hydrogels. Best adherence occurred near pH 7 and at a sodium chloride concentration of 50 mM. Passive adhesion of heat-killed cells to hydrogels was lower than the adherence obtained of viable cells. Adherence to hydrogels was enhanced by mucin, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgA, bovine serum albumin, and a mixture of these macromolecules. Adherence to coated and uncoated lenses was greater with a daily-wear hydrogel when compared with an extended-wear hydrogel of similar polymer composition. Greater adherence was attributed to a higher concentration of adsorbed macromolecules on the 45% water-content lens in comparison to the 55% water-content lens

  4. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Matthew P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  5. A high signal-to-noise ratio composite quasar spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Weymann, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N of about 400) composite spectrum of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical region of high luminosity quasars is presented. The spectrum is derived from 718 individual spectra obtained as part of the Large Bright Quasar Survey. The moderate resolution, 4A or less, and high signal-to-noise ratio allow numerous weak emission features to be identified. Of particular note is the large equivalent-width of the Fe II emission in the rest-frame ultraviolet and the blue continuum slope of the composite. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a reference spectrum for use in line identifications, and a series of large-scale representations of the composite spectrum are shown. A measure of the standard deviation of the individual quasar spectra from the composite spectrum is also presented. 12 refs

  6. Luminosity and Redshift dependence of quasar spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel E. Vanden Berk et al.

    2004-03-09

    Using a large sample of quasar spectra from the SDSS, we examine the composite spectral trends of quasars as functions of both redshift and luminosity, independently of one another. Aside from the well known Baldwin effect (BE)--the decrease of line equivalent width with luminosity--the average spectral properties are remarkably similar. Host galaxy contamination and the BE are the primary causes for apparent changes in the average spectral slope of the quasars. The BE is detected for most emission lines, including the Balmer lines, but with several exceptions including NV1240A. Emission line shifts of several lines are associated with the BE. The BE is mainly a function of luminosity, but also partly a function of redshift in that line equivalent widths become stronger with redshift. Some of the complex iron features change with redshift, particularly near the small blue bump region.

  7. Emission Line Correlations as Diagnostics of Quasar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Keziah; Richards, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    We investigate correlations between UV and optical emission line properties for a sample of z~0.5 SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) quasars that have recently been observed by HST. The sample is designed to be comparable in luminosity to the existing reverberation mapping (RM) sample, but less biased in terms of their "eigenvector 1" properties. We seek to understand the conditions under which high-ionization emission lines become dominated by a wind. Our analysis takes advantage of spectral decomposition through Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and archival UV HST spectroscopy of SDSS quasars. With these data we will clarify the needs for RM analysis of quasars with wind-dominated emission features.

  8. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus

  9. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-02-05

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  10. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  11. Measuring Quasar Spin via X-ray Continuum Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Matthew; Pooley, David; Rappaport, Saul; Steiner, Jack

    2018-01-01

    We have identified several quasars whose X-ray spectra appear very soft. When fit with power-law models, the best-fit indices are greater than 3. This is very suggestive of thermal disk emission, indicating that the X-ray spectrum is dominated by the disk component. Galactic black hole binaries in such states have been successfully fit with disk-blackbody models to constrain the inner radius, which also constrains the spin of the black hole. We have fit those models to XMM-Newton spectra of several of our identified soft X-ray quasars to place constraints on the spins of the supermassive black holes.

  12. Quasars as Sources of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The results are presented that were obtained by analyzing arrival directions for cosmic rays that the Yakutsk array for studying extensive air showers recorded between 1974 and 2002 in the energy region E 0 ≥5x10 17 eV for zenith angles in the region θ ≤60 deg. . It is shown that quasars for which the redshift lies in the region z≤2.5 can be sources of these cosmic rays. Ordered structures are observed in the disposition of quasars and in the cosmic-ray arrival directions. These structures can be associated in one way or another with the large-scale structure of the Universe

  13. The nature of the redshift and directly observed quasar statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, I E; Nicoll, J F; Wu, P; Zhou, Z

    1991-07-01

    The nature of the cosmic redshift is one of the most fundamental questions in modern science. Hubble's discovery of the apparent Expansion of the Universe is derived from observations on a small number of galaxies at very low redshifts. Today, quasar redshifts have a range more than 1000 times greater than those in Hubble's sample, and represent more than 100 times as many objects. A recent comprehensive compilation of published measurements provides the basis for a study indicating that quasar observations are not in good agreement with the original predictions of the Expanding Universe theory, but are well fit by the predictions of an alternative theory having fewer adjustable parameters.

  14. Quasar X-Ray Spectra At z=1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2001-01-01

    The predicted counts for ASCA observation was much higher than actually observed counts in the quasar. However, there are three weak hard x-ray sources in the GIS field. We are adding them to the source counts in modeling of hard x-ray background. The work is in progress. We have published a paper in Ap.J. on the luminosity function and the quasar evolution. Based on the theory described in this paper we are predicting a number of sources and their contribution to the x-ray background at different redshifts. These model predictions will be compared to the observed data in the final paper.

  15. Quasar Formation and Energy Emission in Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Formation and energy emission of quasars are investigated in accord with the black hole universe, a new cosmological model recently developed by Zhang. According to this new cosmological model, the universe originated from a star-like black hole and grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe have been fully ex- plained in Paper I and II. This study as Paper III explains how a quasar forms, ignites and releases energy as an amount of that emitted by dozens of galaxies. A main sequence star, after its fuel supply runs out, will, in terms of its mass, form a dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. A normal galaxy, after its most stars have run out of their fuels and formed dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, will eventually shrink its size and collapse towards the center by gravity to form a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses. This collapse leads to that extremely hot stellar black holes merge each other and further into the massive black hole at the center and meantime release a huge amount of radiation energy that can be as great as that of a quasar. Therefore, when the stellar black holes of a galaxy collapse and merge into a supermassive black hole, the galaxy is activated and a quasar is born. In the black hole universe, the observed dis- tant quasars powered by supermassive black holes can be understood as donuts from the mother universe. They were actually formed in the mother universe and then swallowed into our universe. The nearby galaxies are still very young and thus quiet at the present time. They will be activated and further evolve into quasars after billions of years. At that time, they will enter the universe formed by the currently observed distant quasars as similar to the distant quasars entered our universe

  16. The quasar luminosity function from a variability-selected sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. R. S.; Veron, P.

    1993-01-01

    A sample of quasars is selected from a 10-yr sequence of 30 UK Schmidt plates. Luminosity functions are derived in several redshift intervals, which in each case show a featureless power-law rise towards low luminosities. There is no sign of the 'break' found in the recent UVX sample of Boyle et al. It is suggested that reasons for the disagreement are connected with biases in the selection of the UVX sample. The question of the nature of quasar evolution appears to be still unresolved.

  17. Discovery of 16 New z  ∼ 5.5 Quasars: Filling in the Redshift Gap of Quasar Color Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jinyi; Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Yang, Qian; Yue, Minghao; Wang, Shu; Li, Zefeng [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); McGreer, Ian D.; Green, Richard; Ding, Jiani [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yi, Weimin [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Dye, Simon [School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Lawrence, Andy [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    We present initial results from the first systematic survey of luminous z  ∼ 5.5 quasars. Quasars at z ∼ 5.5, the post-reionization epoch, are crucial tools to explore the evolution of intergalactic medium, quasar evolution, and the early super-massive black hole growth. However, it has been very challenging to select quasars at redshifts 5.3 ≤ z ≤ 5.7 using conventional color selections, due to their similar optical colors to late-type stars, especially M dwarfs, resulting in a glaring redshift gap in quasar redshift distributions. We develop a new selection technique for z ∼ 5.5 quasars based on optical, near-IR, and mid-IR photometric data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), UKIRT InfraRed Deep Sky Surveys—Large Area Survey (ULAS), VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS), and Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer . From our pilot observations in the SDSS-ULAS/VHS area, we have discovered 15 new quasars at 5.3 ≤ z ≤ 5.7 and 6 new lower redshift quasars, with SDSS z band magnitude brighter than 20.5. Including other two z ∼ 5.5 quasars already published in our previous work, we now construct a uniform quasar sample at 5.3 ≤ z ≤ 5.7, with 17 quasars in a ∼4800 square degree survey area. For further application in a larger survey area, we apply our selection pipeline to do a test selection by using the new wide field J-band photometric data from a preliminary version of the UKIRT Hemisphere Survey (UHS). We successfully discover the first UHS selected z ∼ 5.5 quasar.

  18. FIRST-2MASS RED QUASARS: TRANSITIONAL OBJECTS EMERGING FROM THE DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, Eilat; Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish; Myers, Adam D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Petitjean, Patrick; Ge, Jian; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a sample of 120 dust-reddened quasars identified by matching radio sources detected at 1.4 GHz in the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters survey with the near-infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and color-selecting red sources. Optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy provide broad wavelength sampling of their spectral energy distributions that we use to determine their reddening, characterized by E(B – V). We demonstrate that the reddening in these quasars is best described by Small-Magellanic-Cloud-like dust. This sample spans a wide range in redshift and reddening (0.1 ∼< z ∼< 3, 0.1 ∼< E(B – V) ∼< 1.5), which we use to investigate the possible correlation of luminosity with reddening. At every redshift, dust-reddened quasars are intrinsically the most luminous quasars. We interpret this result in the context of merger-driven quasar/galaxy co-evolution where these reddened quasars are revealing an emergent phase during which the heavily obscured quasar is shedding its cocoon of dust prior to becoming a 'normal' blue quasar. When correcting for extinction, we find that, depending on how the parent population is defined, these red quasars make up ∼< 15%-20% of the luminous quasar population. We estimate, based on the fraction of objects in this phase, that its duration is 15%-20% as long as the unobscured, blue quasar phase.

  19. Eight new quasars discovered by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST) in one extragalactic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuebing; Jia Zhendong; Chen Zhaoyu; Zuo Wenwen; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Chen Jianjun; Zhang Haotong; Yan Hongliang; Ren Juanjuan; Sun Shiwei; Wu Hong; Zhang Yong; Li Yeping; Lu Qishuai; Wang You; Ni Jijun; Wang Hai; Kong Xu

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of eight new quasars in one extragalactic field (a five-degree field centered at RA = 08 h 58 m 08.2 s , Dec = 01 o 32'29.7') with the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST) commissioning observations made on 2009 December 18. These quasars, with i magnitudes from 16.44 to 19.34 and redshifts from 0.898 to 2.773, were not identified in the SDSS spectroscopic survey, though six of them with redshifts less than 2.5 were selected as quasar targets in SDSS. Except for one source without near-IR Y-band data, seven of these eight new quasars satisfy a newly proposed quasar selection criterion involving both near-IR and optical colors. Two of them were found in the 'redshift desert' for quasars (z from 2.2 to 3), indicating that the new criterion is efficient for uncovering missing quasars with similar optical colors to stars. Although LAMOST encountered some problems during the commissioning observations, we were still able to identify 38 other known SDSS quasars in this field, with i magnitudes from 16.24 to 19.10 and redshifts from 0.297 to 4.512. Our identifications imply that a substantial fraction of quasars may be missing in previous quasar surveys. The implication of our results to the future LAMOST quasar survey is discussed. (research papers)

  20. Luminous quasars do not live in the most overdense regions of galaxies at z ˜ 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hisakazu; Toshikawa, Jun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Overzier, Roderik; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Marinello, Murilo; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niino, Yuu; Ishikawa, Shogo; Onoue, Masafusa; Ichikawa, Kohei; Akiyama, Masayuki; Coupon, Jean; Harikane, Yuichi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    We present the cross-correlation between 151 luminous quasars (MUV 4 σ. The distributions of the distances between quasars and the nearest protoclusters and the significance of the overdensity at the positions of quasars are statistically identical to those found for g-dropout galaxies, suggesting that quasars tend to reside in almost the same environment as star-forming galaxies at this redshift. Using stacking analysis, we find that the average density of g-dropout galaxies around quasars is slightly higher than that around g-dropout galaxies on 1.0-2.5 pMpc scales, while at anti-correlated with overdensity. These findings are consistent with a scenario in which luminous quasars at z ˜ 4 reside in structures that are less massive than those expected for the progenitors of today's rich clusters of galaxies, and possibly that luminous quasars may be suppressing star formation in their close vicinity.

  1. Nanofocusing Parabolic Refractive X-Ray Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Hunger, U.T.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Feste, S.; Lengeler, B.; Drakopoulos, M.; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A. S.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100nm range even at short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 330nm by 110nm at 25keV in a distance of 41.8m from the synchrotron radiation source. First microdiffraction and fluorescence microtomography experiments were carried out with these lenses. Using diamond as lens material, microbeams with lateral size down to 20nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100keV

  2. Revised Unfilling Procedure for Solid Lithium Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveling, A.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for unfilling used lithium lenses to has been described in Pbar Note 664. To date, the procedure has been used to disassemble lenses 20, 21, 17, 18, and 16. As a result of this work, some parts of the original procedure were found to be time consuming and ineffective. Modifications to the original procedure have been made to streamline the process and are discussed in this note. The revised procedure is included in this note.

  3. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comments on the Gravitational lensing Magnification

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, HAMANA; Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University

    1998-01-01

    We rederive a relation between gravitational lensing magnification relative to the standard Friedmann distance and one relative to the Dyer-Roeder distance by investigating the null geodesic deviation equation. We show that the relation comes from a natural consequence of the definition of the lensing magnification matrices and is not based on the averaging of the magnifications, which has conventionally been used to derive it. We therefore conclude that the relation is true for each individu...

  5. Comments on the gravitational lensing magnification

    OpenAIRE

    Hamana, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    We rederive a relation between gravitational lensing magnification relative to the standard Friedmann distance and one relative to the Dyer-Roeder distance by investigating the null geodesic deviation equation. We show that the relation comes from a natural consequence of the definition of the lensing magnification matrices and is not based on the averaging of the magnifications, which has conventionally been used to derive it. We therefore conclude that the relation is true for each individu...

  6. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria.

  7. Predicting gravitational lensing by stellar remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alexander J.; Stefano, R. Di; Lépine, S.; Urama, J.; Pham, D.; Baker, C.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing provides a means to measure mass that does not rely on detecting and analysing light from the lens itself. Compact objects are ideal gravitational lenses, because they have relatively large masses and are dim. In this paper, we describe the prospects for predicting lensing events generated by the local population of compact objects, consisting of 250 neutron stars, five black holes, and ≈35 000 white dwarfs. By focusing on a population of nearby compact objects with measured proper motions and known distances from us, we can measure their masses by studying the characteristics of any lensing event they generate. Here, we concentrate on shifts in the position of a background source due to lensing by a foreground compact object. With Hubble Space Telescope, JWST, and Gaia, measurable centroid shifts caused by lensing are relatively frequent occurrences. We find that 30-50 detectable events per decade are expected for white dwarfs. Because relatively few neutron stars and black holes have measured distances and proper motions, it is more difficult to compute realistic rates for them. However, we show that at least one isolated neutron star has likely produced detectable events during the past several decades. This work is particularly relevant to the upcoming data releases by the Gaia mission and also to data that will be collected by JWST. Monitoring predicted microlensing events will not only help to determine the masses of compact objects, but will also potentially discover dim companions to these stellar remnants, including orbiting exoplanets.

  8. Quasar outflow energetics from broad absorption line variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F. W.; Capellupo, D. M.; Herbst, H.

    2018-03-01

    Quasar outflows have long been recognized as potential contributors to the co-evolution between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. The role of outflows in active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback processes can be better understood by placing observational constraints on wind locations and kinetic energies. We utilize broad absorption line (BAL) variability to investigate the properties of a sample of 71 BAL quasars with P V broad absorption. The presence of P V BALs indicates that other BALs like C IV are saturated, such that variability in those lines favours clouds crossing the line of sight. We use these constraints with measurements of BAL variability to estimate outflow locations and energetics. Our data set consists of multiple-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and MDM Observatory. We detect significant (4σ) BAL variations from 10 quasars in our sample over rest-frame time-scales between ≤0.2-3.8 yr. Our derived distances for the 10 variable outflows are nominally ≲ 1-10 pc from the SMBH using the transverse-motion scenario, and ≲ 100-1000 pc from the central source using ionization-change considerations. These distances, in combination with the estimated high outflow column densities (i.e. NH ≳ 1022 cm-2), yield outflow kinetic luminosities between ˜ 0.001 and 1 times the bolometric luminosity of the quasar, indicating that many absorber energies within our sample are viable for AGN feedback.

  9. Optical variability of the medium-bright quasar sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.; Mitchell, K.J.; Usher, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    A variability study of the 32-member Medium-Bright Quasar Sample is reported. It is found that the star US 1953 has undergone a noticeable variation in the course of 26 hr. Apparent variations in the extragalactic object US 3498 may be illusory, owing to its partially resolved appearance. No other evidence for variability was detected. 34 refs

  10. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Daniel; Jun, Hyunsung D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Steidel, Charles C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arav, Nahum; Chamberlain, Carter [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Glikman, Eilat, E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    CRTS J084133.15+200525.8 is an optically bright quasar at z = 2.345 that has shown extreme spectral variability over the past decade. Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V ∼ 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following five years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V ∼ 16.2. Only ∼1 in 10,000 quasars show such extreme variability, as quantified by the extreme parameters derived for this quasar assuming a damped random walk model. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar with extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. We report the first definitive redshift for this source, based on the detection of broad H α in a Keck/MOSFIRE spectrum. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km s{sup −1} in velocity show coordinated weakening in the depths of their troughs as the continuum flux increases. We interpret the broad absorption line variability to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material along our line of sight. This source highlights one sort of rare transition object that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time-domain surveys.

  11. Optical features associated with the quasar PKS 2135-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The field surrounding the quasar PKS 2135-14 has been investigated from B and R photographs taken with the 3.8-m Anglo-Australian telescope. Isophotal plots of the plates, produced with the COSMOS measuring machine, have revealed a number of faint optical features apparently associated with the radio source. (author)

  12. Starburst-driven Superwinds in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Peter; Podigachoski, Pece [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Haas, Martin, E-mail: pdb@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: podigachoski@astro.rug.nl [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    During the past five decades astronomers have been puzzled by the presence of strong absorption features including metal lines, observed in the optical and ultraviolet spectra of quasars, signaling inflowing and outflowing gas winds with relative velocities up to several thousands of km s{sup −1}. In particular, the location of these winds—close to the quasar, further out in its host galaxy, or in its direct environment—and the possible impact on their surroundings have been issues of intense discussion and uncertainty. Using our Herschel Space Observatory data, we report a tendency for this so-called associated metal absorption to occur along with prodigious star formation in the quasar host galaxy, indicating that the two phenomena are likely to be interrelated, that the gas winds likely occur on the kiloparsec scale and would then have a strong impact on the interstellar medium of the galaxy. This correlation moreover would imply that the unusually high cold dust luminosities in these quasars are connected with ongoing star formation. Given that we find no correlation with the AGN strength, the wind feedback that we establish in these radio-loud objects is most likely associated with their host star formation rather than with their black hole accretion.

  13. The micro-quasars, witness of the extremes physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Hopeful the micro-quasars, the astronomers reveal indirectly the black holes presence, invisible in the galaxies. They are extraordinary laboratories to understand the high energies physics and test the general relativity. For the first time, an international scientific team observes their energy emissions evolution. (A.L.B.)

  14. Rapid interstellar scintillation of quasar PKS 1257-326

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignall, Hayley E.; Jauncey, David L.; Lovell, James E. J.; Tzioumis, Anastasios K.; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Engvold, O

    2005-01-01

    PKS 1257-326 is one of three quasars known to show unusually large and rapid, intra-hour intensity variations, as a result of scintillation in the turbulent Galactic interstellar medium. We have measured time delays in the variability pattern arrival times at the VLA and the ATCA, as well as an

  15. Radio imaging of core-dominated high redshift quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Peter D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    1999-01-01

    VLA imaging at kiloparsec-scale resolution of sixteen core-dominated radio-loud QSOs is presented. Many objects appear to display variable radio emission and their radio morphologies are significantly smaller than those of steep-spectrum quasars, consistent with these objects being observed...

  16. Starburst-driven Superwinds in Quasar Host Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, Peter; Podigachoski, Pece; Wilkes, Belinda; Haas, Martin

    2017-01-01

    During the past five decades astronomers have been puzzled by the presence of strong absorption features including metal lines, observed in the optical and ultraviolet spectra of quasars, signaling inflowing and outflowing gas winds with relative velocities up to several thousands of km s-1. In

  17. ESO & NOT photometric monitoring of the Cloverleaf quasar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostensen, R; Remy, M; Lindblad, PO; Refsdal, S; Stabell, R; Surdej, J; Barthel, PD; Emanuelsen, PI; Festin, L; Gosset, E; Hainaut, O; Hakala, P; Hjelm, M; Hjorth, J; Hutsemekers, D; Jablonski, M; Kaas, AA; Kristen, H; Larsson, S; Magain, P; Pettersson, B; Pospieszalska-Surdej, A; Smette, A; Teuber, J; Thomsen, B; Van Drom, E

    1997-01-01

    The Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, has been photometrically monitored at ESO (La Silla, Chile) and with the NOT (La Palma, Spain) during the period 1987-1994. All good quality CCD frames have been successfully analysed using two independent methods (i.e. an automatic image decomposition technique and

  18. Quasars as probes of gas in extended protogalaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of a galaxy involves infall of gas from radii ∼ 100 kpc, at epochs corresponding to redshifts z 4 K would become largely neutral. Clouds or sheets of such gas, in galaxies along the line-of-sight to a background quasar, could readily give rise to at least as many HI absorption systems of high column density as are observed. (author)

  19. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the ...

  20. The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya, E-mail: sunyh92@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ∼10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.

  1. QUASAR - an interactive program for spectrum analysis in personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, L.T.; Nobrega, J.A.W. da.

    1991-11-01

    The QUASAR software for the interactive analysis and report of energy (pulse-height) and time (multichannel scaling) spectra is described. The operating instructions as well as the mathematical methods and algorithms used by the program are presented in detail. This program is an extension to the PULSAR program. (author)

  2. Determination of astrophysical parameters of quasars within the Gaia mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delchambre, L.

    2018-01-01

    We describe methods designed to determine the astrophysical parameters of quasars based on spectra coming from the red and blue spectrophotometers of the Gaia satellite. These methods principally rely on two already published algorithms that are the weighted principal component analysis and the weighted phase correlation. The presented approach benefits from a fast implementation, an intuitive interpretation as well as strong diagnostic tools on the potential errors that may arise during predictions. The production of a semi-empirical library of spectra as they will be observed by Gaia is also covered and subsequently used for validation purpose. We detail the pre-processing that is necessary in order for these spectra to be fully exploitable by our algorithms along with the procedures that are used to predict the redshifts of the quasars, their continuum slopes, the total equivalent width of their emission lines and whether these are broad absorption line (BAL) quasars or not. Performances of these procedures were assessed in comparison with the extremely randomized trees learning method and were proven to provide better results on the redshift predictions and on the ratio of correctly classified observations though the probability of detection of BAL quasars remains restricted by the low resolution of these spectra as well as by their limited signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, the triggering of some warning flags allows us to obtain an extremely pure subset of redshift predictions where approximately 99 per cent of the observations come along with absolute errors that are below 0.1.

  3. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. VIII. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM SURROUNDING z ∼ 2–3 MASSIVE GALAXIES HOSTING QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Marie Wingyee; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hennawi, Joseph F., E-mail: lwymarie@ucolick.org [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    We characterize the physical properties of the cool T  ∼ 10{sup 4} K circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding z  ∼ 2–3 quasar host galaxies, which are predicted to evolve into present-day massive ellipticals. Using a statistical sample of 14 quasar pairs with projected separation <300 kpc and spectra of high dispersion and high signal-to-noise ratio, we find extreme kinematics with low metal ion lines typically spanning ≈500 km s{sup −1}, exceeding any previously studied galactic population. The CGM is significantly enriched, even beyond the virial radius, with a median metallicity [M/H] ≈ −0.6. The α /Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting that halo gas is primarily enriched by core-collapse supernovae. The projected cool gas mass within the virial radius is estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙} ( R {sub ⊥}/160 kpc){sup 2}, accounting for ≈1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state of CGM gas increases with projected distance from the foreground quasars, contrary to expectation if the quasar dominates the ionizing radiation flux. However, we also found peculiarities not exhibited in the CGM of other galaxy populations. In one absorption system, we may be detecting unresolved fluorescent Ly α emission, and another system shows strong N v lines. Taken together, these anomalies suggest that transverse sightlines are—at least in some cases—possibly illuminated. We also discovered a peculiar case where detection of the C ii fine-structure line implies an electron density >100 cm{sup −3} and sub-parsec-scale gas clumps.

  4. Lack of dust in quasar absorption line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the origin of absorption line systems in quasars is still uncertain. Most such systems apparently have atomic hydrogen column densities of the order of 10 19 /cm 2 , but at least two quasars, 1331 + 170 and PHL957, have such strong Lyman α absorption lines that atomic hydrogen column densities of the order of 10 21 /cm 2 are indicated. It should be possible to observe the dust produced 2,200 A extinction feature as it is red shifted into the visible, and to determine whether absorption line systems are produced in spiral galaxies where the dust content is similar to that in the interstellar medium. It has been argued that the emission line regions of quasars generally lack dust and that towards PHL957 the 2,200 A feature is absent. The present author argues that dust similar to that found in the interstellar medium is not found towards the quasars 1331 + 170 and PHL957. This could explain why H 2 is not found towards PHL957, and it indicates that the absorption line systems in quasars are not produced in spiral galaxies similar to our own. It seems from the analysis presented that the dust-to-gas ratio towards 1331 + 170 is at least a factor of 20 less than in the interstellar medium, and there is no reason to suppose that this lack of dust results from a lack of metals It is concluded that there seems to be a lack of normal dust towards PHL957 by at least a factor of two; and that the absorption region towards 1331 + 170 and probably the region towards PHL957 are lacking dust similar to that in our own galaxy. This can explain the lack of H 2 in these systems. (U.K.)

  5. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China); Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangshaohua@pric.gov.cn, E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  6. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to orthokeratology and alignment lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jennifer D; Holden, Brien A; Papas, Eric B; Willcox, Mark D P

    2009-02-01

    To determine whether contact lenses designed for orthokeratology (OK) are colonized by greater numbers of bacteria compared with standard (alignment fitted) design rigid gas permeable lenses before and after lens wear. Eighteen 1-year-old cats were randomly fitted with an OK lens in one eye and an alignment fitted (AF) lens in the other eye. Both lenses were made in the same diameter and central thickness and of the same material. Two separate wearing periods of 2 weeks and 6 weeks were used. After each wearing period, lenses were soaked in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6294 or 6206) for 10 min. The lenses were then reinserted onto their respective corneas for a wearing period of 16 hours after which lenses were collected and remaining adhered bacteria quantified. Unworn control lenses were also soaked and bacteria enumerated for comparison. There were no significant differences in the number of bacteria adherent to unworn AF and OK lenses. Analysis of lenses after wear showed OK lenses retained significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria than AF lenses in all studies. OK lenses retain more bacteria than AF rigid gas permeable lenses after bacteria-loaded overnight lens wear. This may increase the risk for an infection in OK patients should suitable conditions be present. Specific education on the cleaning of OK lenses is essential.

  7. Dust-deficient Palomar-Green Quasars and the Diversity of AGN Intrinsic IR Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, G. H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-02-01

    To elucidate the intrinsic broadband infrared (IR) emission properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 87 z ≲ 0.5 Palomar-Green (PG) quasars. While the Elvis AGN template with a moderate far-IR correction can reasonably match the SEDs of the AGN components in ∼60% of the sample (and is superior to alternatives such as that by Assef), it fails on two quasar populations: (1) hot-dust-deficient (HDD) quasars that show very weak emission thoroughly from the near-IR to the far-IR, and (2) warm-dust-deficient (WDD) quasars that have similar hot dust emission as normal quasars but are relatively faint in the mid- and far-IR. After building composite AGN templates for these dust-deficient quasars, we successfully fit the 0.3–500 μm SEDs of the PG sample with the appropriate AGN template, an infrared template of a star-forming galaxy, and a host galaxy stellar template. 20 HDD and 12 WDD quasars are identified from the SED decomposition, including seven ambiguous cases. Compared with normal quasars, the HDD quasars have AGNs with relatively low Eddington ratios and the fraction of WDD quasars increases with AGN luminosity. Moreover, both the HDD and WDD quasar populations show relatively stronger mid-IR silicate emission. Virtually identical SED properties are also found in some quasars from z = 0.5 to 6. We propose a conceptual model to demonstrate that the observed dust deficiency of quasars can result from a change of structures of the circumnuclear tori that can occur at any cosmic epoch.

  8. First Discoveries of z > 6 Quasars with the DECam Legacy Survey and UKIRT Hemisphere Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feige; Yang, Jinyi; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Qian; Li, Zefeng; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Ding, Jiani; Green, Richard; Bian, Fuyan; Li, Jiang-Tao; Dey, Arjun; Dye, Simon; Findlay, Joseph R.; Myers, Adam D.; James, David; Jiang, Linhua; Lang, Dustin; Lawrence, Andy; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first discoveries from a survey of z ≳ 6 quasars using imaging data from the DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) in the optical, the UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) and a preliminary version of the UKIRT Hemisphere Survey (UHS) in the near-IR, and ALLWISE in the mid-IR. DECaLS will image 9000 deg 2 of sky down to z AB ∼ 23.0, and UKIDSS and UHS will map the northern sky at 0 < decl. < +60°, reaching J VEGA ∼ 19.6 (5- σ ). The combination of these data sets allows us to discover quasars at redshift z ≳ 7 and to conduct a complete census of the faint quasar population at z ≳ 6. In this paper, we report on the selection method of our search, and on the initial discoveries of two new, faint z ≳ 6 quasars and one new z = 6.63 quasar in our pilot spectroscopic observations. The two new z ∼ 6 quasars are at z = 6.07 and z = 6.17 with absolute magnitudes at rest-frame wavelength 1450 Å being M 1450 = −25.83 and M 1450 = −25.76, respectively. These discoveries suggest that we can find quasars close to or fainter than the break magnitude of the Quasar Luminosity Function (QLF) at z ≳ 6. The new z = 6.63 quasar has an absolute magnitude of M 1450 = −25.95. This demonstrates the potential of using the combined DECaLS and UKIDSS/UHS data sets to find z ≳ 7 quasars. Extrapolating from previous QLF measurements, we predict that these combined data sets will yield ∼200 z ∼ 6 quasars to z AB < 21.5, ∼1000 z ∼ 6 quasars to z AB < 23, and ∼30 quasars at z > 6.5 to J VEGA < 19.5.

  9. Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.

    In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my

  10. Relative radiosensitivity of rat lenses as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, G.R. Jr.; Szechter, A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of age on the development of radiation cataracts in rat lenses has been investigated using the Columbia--Sherman rat as an experiment model. A detailed pattern of age dependence was obtained at several different dose levels. In general at dose levels from 200 to 300 rads the lens changes occurred sooner and progressed faster in the adult lenses than in young lenses. In the dose range from 300 rads to 900 rads opacities developed sooner in the young lenses but progression was faster and severe opacities developed sooner in adult lenses. Above 900 rads opacities developed sooner and progressed faster in the young lenses. (U.S.)

  11. QUASARS ARE NOT LIGHT BULBS: TESTING MODELS OF QUASAR LIFETIMES WITH THE OBSERVED EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Hernquist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of quasar/active galactic nucleus (AGN) lifetimes and light curves. Given the observed (well constrained) AGN luminosity function, a particular model for AGN light curves L(t) or, equivalently, the distribution of AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity t(>L)) translates directly and uniquely (without further assumptions) to a predicted distribution of Eddington ratios at each BH mass. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a self-regulating 'decay' or 'blowout' phase after the AGN reaches some peak luminosity/BH mass and begins to expel gas and shut down accretion, make specific predictions for the light curves/lifetimes, distinct from, e.g., the expected distribution if AGN simply shut down by gas starvation (without feedback) and very different from the prediction of simple phenomenological 'light bulb' scenarios. We show that the present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning nearly 5 orders of magnitude in Eddington ratio, 3 orders of magnitude in BH mass, and redshifts z = 0-1, agree well with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out phenomenological 'light bulb' or pure exponential models, as well as gas starvation models, at high significance (∼5σ). We also compare with observations of the distribution of Eddington ratios at a given AGN luminosity, and find similar good agreement (but show that these observations are much less constraining). We fit the functional form of the quasar lifetime distribution and provide these fits for use, and show how the Eddington ratio distributions place precise, tight limits on the AGN lifetimes at various luminosities, in agreement with model predictions. We compare with independent estimates of episodic lifetimes and use this to constrain the shape of the typical AGN light curve, and provide simple analytic fits to these for use in

  12. DESIGN OF THE MULTIORDER INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kolobrodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular lenses (IOLs are used to replace the natural crystalline lens of the eye. Just few basic designs of IOLs are used clinically. Multiorder diffractive lenses (MODL which operate simultaneously in several diffractive orders were proposed to decrease the chromatic aberration. Properties analysis of MODL showed a possibility to use them to develop new designs of IOLs. The purpose of this paper was to develop a new method of designing of multiorder intraocular lenses with decreased chromatic aberration. The theoretical research of the lens properties was carried out. The diffraction efficiency dependence with the change of wavelength was studied. A computer simulation of MODL in a schematic model of the human eye was carried out. It is found the capability of the multiorder diffractive lenses to focus polychromatic light into a segment on the optical axis with high diffraction efficiency. At each point of the segment is present each component of the spectral range, which will build a color image in combination. The paper describes the new design method of intraocular lenses with reduced chromaticism and with endless adaptation. An optical system of an eye with an intraocular lens that provides sharp vision of objects located at a distance of 700 mm to infinity is modeled.

  13. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n p much greater than electron beam density, n b ) or underdense (n p less than 2 n b ). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated

  14. Weak lensing in generalized gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    We extend the theory of weak gravitational lensing to cosmologies with generalized gravity, described in the Lagrangian by a generic function depending on the Ricci scalar and a nonminimal coupled scalar field. We work out the generalized Poisson equations relating the dynamics of the fluctuating components to the two gauge-invariant scalar gravitational potentials, fixing the contributions from the modified background expansion and fluctuations. We show how the lensing equation gets modified by the cosmic expansion as well as by the presence of anisotropic stress, which is non-null at the linear level both in scalar-tensor gravity and in theories where the gravitational Lagrangian term features a nonminimal dependence on the Ricci scalar. Starting from the geodesic deviation, we derive the generalized expressions for the shear tensor and projected lensing potential, encoding the spacetime variation of the effective gravitational constant and isolating the contribution of the anisotropic stress, which introduces a correction due to the spatial correlation between the gravitational potentials. Finally, we work out the expressions of the lensing convergence power spectrum as well as the correlation between the lensing potential and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect affecting cosmic microwave background total intensity and polarization anisotropies. To illustrate phenomenologically the effects, we work out approximate expressions for the quantities above in extended quintessence scenarios where the scalar field coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark energy

  15. THE STRUCTURE OF THE X-RAY AND OPTICAL EMITTING REGIONS OF THE LENSED QUASAR Q 2237+0305

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, A. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blackburne, J. A.; Chen, B.; Dai, X.; Chartas, G.

    2013-01-01

    We use gravitational microlensing to determine the size of the X-ray and optical emission regions of the quadruple lens system Q 2237+0305. The optical half-light radius, log(R 1/2,V /cm) = 16.41 ± 0.18 (at λ rest = 2018 Å), is significantly larger than the observed soft, log(R 1/2,soft /cm)=15.76 +0.41 -0.34 (1.1-3.5 keV in the rest frame), and hard, log(R 1/2,hard /cm)=15.46 +0.34 -0.29 (3.5-21.5 keV in the rest frame), band X-ray emission. There is weak evidence that the hard component is more compact than the soft, with log(R 1/2,soft /R 1/2,hard )≅0.30 +0.53 -0.45 . This wavelength-dependent structure agrees with recent results found in other lens systems using microlensing techniques, and favors geometries in which the corona is concentrated near the inner edge of the accretion disk. While the available measurements are limited, the size of the X-ray emission region appears to be roughly proportional to the mass of the central black hole.

  16. A Long-Term Space Astrophysics Research Program. The Evolution of the Quasar Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.

    1998-01-01

    The grant "The Evolution of the Quasar Continuum" resulted in over 53 published referred papers and conference proceedings. The more significant of these papers are listed below, and abstracts are attached. The papers address a wide range of issues involving the evolution of quasars, their electromagnetic emissions, and their environment, from nearby low luminosity Seyfert galaxies to quasars at the highest redshifts. Primarily observational in content the work nonetheless included theoretical studies of quasar accretion disks that attempt to explain the observed time variability of quasars, and the overall 'demographics' of the quasar population. The work carried out under this grant has laid a strong foundation for ongoing and future research with AXAF, HST and other new facilities.

  17. X-ray spectra of PG quasars. I. The continuum from X-rays to infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.; Green, R.F.; Bechtold, J.; Schmidt, M.; Neugebauer, G.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Einstein IPC X-ray spectra for a sample of eight optically selected quasars from the Palomar Bright Quasar survey are presented. The quasars have a mean power law energy slope which in five individual cases is inconsistent with the value found in hard X-ray selection criterion rather than luminosity, redshift, or U-B color. New IUE and optical continuum spectra and infrared photometry are presented for these quasars. The data are combined into log vf(v) and log v distributions which support the decomposition of the overall quasar spectrum into a power law plus a superposed optical-UV big bump which may be due to an accretion disk. At least six of the quasars have vf(v)s which are roughly constant between their infrared and X-ray power laws, suggesting a strong link between the two regions. 104 references

  18. Mean Occupation Function of High-redshift Quasars from the Planck Cluster Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Priyanka; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Dutta, Alankar; Myers, Adam D.

    2018-06-01

    We characterize the distribution of quasars within dark matter halos using a direct measurement technique for the first time at redshifts as high as z ∼ 1. Using the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) catalog for galaxy groups and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR12 quasar data set, we assign host clusters/groups to the quasars and make a measurement of the mean number of quasars within dark matter halos as a function of halo mass. We find that a simple power-law fit of {log} =(2.11+/- 0.01) {log}(M)-(32.77+/- 0.11) can be used to model the quasar fraction in dark matter halos. This suggests that the quasar fraction increases monotonically as a function of halo mass even to redshifts as high as z ∼ 1.

  19. Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Chatzi, Eleni; Modi, Vijay

    2010-09-20

    A novel approach for the design of refractive lenses is presented, where the lens is mounted on a stationary aperture and the Sun is tracked by a moving solar cell. The purpose of this work is to design a quasi-stationary concentrator by replacing the two-axis tracking of the Sun with internal motion of the miniaturized solar cell inside the module. Families of lenses are designed with a variation of the simultaneous multiple surface technique in which the sawtooth genetic algorithm is implemented to optimize the geometric variables of the optic in order to produce high fluxes for a range of incidence angles. Finally, we show examples of the technique for lenses with 60° and 30° acceptance half-angles, with low to medium attainable concentrations.

  20. Gravitational Lensing from a Spacetime Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlick Volker

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of gravitational lensing is reviewed from a spacetime perspective, without quasi-Newtonian approximations. More precisely, the review covers all aspects of gravitational lensing where light propagation is described in terms of lightlike geodesics of a metric of Lorentzian signature. It includes the basic equations and the relevant techniques for calculating the position, the shape, and the brightness of images in an arbitrary general-relativistic spacetime. It also includes general theorems on the classification of caustics, on criteria for multiple imaging, and on the possible number of images. The general results are illustrated with examples of spacetimes where the lensing features can be explicitly calculated, including the Schwarzschild spacetime, the Kerr spacetime, the spacetime of a straight string, plane gravitational waves, and others.

  1. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  2. Aberration characteristics of immersion lenses for LVSEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the on-axis aberration characteristics of various immersion objective lenses for low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM). A simple aperture lens model is used to generate smooth axial field distributions. The simulation results show that mixed field electric-magnetic immersion lenses are predicted to have between 1.5 and 2 times smaller aberration limited probe diameters than their pure-field counterparts. At a landing energy of 1 keV, mixed field immersion lenses operating at the vacuum electrical field breakdown limit are predicted to have on-axis aberration coefficients between 50 and 60 μm, yielding an ultimate image resolution of below 1 nm. These aberrations lie in the same range as those for LVSEM systems that employ aberration correctors

  3. Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Hunger, U.T.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Feste, S.; Frehse, F.; Lengeler, B.; Drakopoulos, M.; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A.S.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.; Schug, C.; Schroeder, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100 nm range even at a short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 380 nm by 210 nm at 25 keV in a distance of 42 m from the synchrotron radiation source. Using diamond as the lens material, microbeams with a lateral size down to 20 nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV

  4. The Frequency of Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness among Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hezhen; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Gallagher, S. C.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    We present combined ≈14–37 ks Chandra observations of seven z = 1.6–2.7 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars selected from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). These seven objects are high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) quasars, and they were undetected in the Chandra hard band (2–8 keV) in previous observations. The stacking analyses of previous Chandra observations suggested that these seven objects likely contain some candidates for intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars. With the new Chandra observations, six targets are detected. We calculate their effective power-law photon indices and hard-band flux weakness, and find that two objects, LBQS 1203+1530 and LBQS 1442–0011, show soft/steep spectral shapes ({{{Γ }}}eff}={2.2}-0.9+0.9 and {1.9}-0.8+0.9) and significant X-ray weakness in the hard band (by factors of ≈15 and 12). We conclude that the two HiBAL quasars are good candidates for intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars. The mid-infrared-to-ultraviolet spectral energy distributions of the two candidates are consistent with those of typical quasars. We constrain the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among HiBAL quasars to be ≈7%–10% (2/29–3/29), and we estimate it is ≈6%–23% (2/35–8/35) among the general BAL quasar population. Such a fraction is considerably larger than that among non-BAL quasars, and we suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars are preferentially observed as BAL quasars. Intrinsically X-ray weak AGNs likely comprise a small minority of the luminous type 1 AGN population, and they should not affect significantly the completeness of these AGNs found in deep X-ray surveys.

  5. DOUBLE QUASARS: PROBES OF BLACK HOLE SCALING RELATIONSHIPS AND MERGER SCENARIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, G.; Volonteri, M.; Dotti, M.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the available sample of double quasars, and investigate their physical properties. Our sample comprises 85 pairs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We derive physical parameters for the engine and the host, and model the dynamical evolution of the pair. First, we compare different scaling relationships between massive black holes and their hosts (bulge mass, velocity dispersion, and their possible redshift dependences), and discuss their consistency. We then compute dynamical friction timescales for the double quasar systems to investigate their frequency and their agreement with the m erger drivenscenario for quasar triggering. In optical surveys, such as the SDSS, N double,qso /N qso ∼ 0.1%. Comparing typical merging timescales to expected quasar lifetimes, the fraction of double quasars should be roughly a factor of 10 larger than observed. Additionally, we find that, depending on the correlations between black holes and their hosts, the occurrence of double quasars could be redshift dependent. Comparison of our models to the SDSS quasar catalog suggests that double quasars should be more common at high redshift. We compare the typical separations at which double quasars are observed to the predictions of merger simulations. We find that the distribution of physical separations peaks at ∼30 kpc, with a tail at larger separations (∼100-200 kpc). The peak of the distribution is roughly consistent with the first episode of quasar activity found in equal mass mergers simulations. The tail of the quasar pairs distribution at large separations is instead inconsistent with any quasar activity predicted by published simulations. These large separation pairs are instead consistent with unequal mass mergers where gas is dynamically perturbed during the first pericentric passage, but the gas reaches the black hole only at the next apocenter, where the pair is observed.

  6. Quasars in the field of SA94. III. A colour survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, S.; Barbieri, C.; La Franca, F.; Nota, A.

    1989-01-01

    A new sample of quasars has been selected in the central 10 square degrees of SA 94. The colour-colour U - B, B - V diagram has been used to identify low-redshift quasar candidates down to B = 19.8.99 extragalactic emission-line objects have been spectroscopically confirmed. The quasar surface density for QSOs with z ≤ 2.25 and other properties of this sample are derived and compared with other surveys

  7. Soft-contact-lenses-induced complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvajac Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Soft contact lenses occupy significant place in ophthalmology, both in the correction of refraction anomalies and in the treatment of many eye diseases. The number of patients that wear soft contact lenses for the purpose of correcting ametropia is constantly increasing. Due to the increasing number of wearers, the percentage of complications that can lead to serious eye damage and serious vision loss is also increasing. The aim of this study was to point out the most common complications related to soft contact lens use. Methods. In the period from 1995−2004 this prospective study included 510 patients wearing soft contact lenses for correcting ametropia. None of the patients wore contact lenses before and none suffered from any system or local diseases that could affected the development of eventual complications. The study took seven years with the patients who wore conventional lenses and three years with those who wore replacement contact lenses. All the necessary ophthalmologic examinations were done (visual acuity, refractokeratometry, the quantity of tear film, biomicroscopic examination of anterior eye segment. All the complications were filmed by video camera. Results. Of all the patients, 19 had blepharitis, 73 suffered from “dry eye”, 57 had conjunctival hyperemia, 12 had conjunctivitis, 34 had gigantopapillary conjunctivitis (GPC, 93 had punctiform epitheliopathy, 20 had corneal infiltration, one patient had keratitis, 91 had corneal vascularisation, and 95 patients had corneal deposits. Conclusion. Both the type and frequency of complications related to soft contact lens use in our group of patients, proved to be significant. Some of this complications (keratitis can significantly damage vision and lead to loss of vision and sometimes can require operative treatment.

  8. The Mathematical Theory of Multifocal Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacob RUBINSTEIN

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the fundamental optical concepts of designing multifocal ophthalmic lenses and the mathematical methods associated with them.In particular,it is shown that the design methodology is heavily based on differential geometric ideas such as Willmore surfaces.A key role is played by Hamilton's eikonal functions.It is shown that these functions capture all the information on the local blur and distortion created by the lenses.Along the way,formulas for computing the eikonal functions are derived.Finally,the author lists a few intriguing mathematical problems and novel concepts in optics as future projects.

  9. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  10. Observational Constraints on Quasar Black Hole Mass Distributions, Eddington Ratio Distributions, and Lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.

    2010-01-01

    I will present the black hole mass function (BHMF) of broad line quasars in the SDSS DR3. We employ a powerful Bayesian statistical technique that corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates. We find evidence that the most massive black hole appeared as quasars...... earlier in the universe, and that most quasars are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit. I will also present constraints on the quasar lifetime and maximum black hole mass, derived from the mass functions....

  11. Mean and Extreme Radio Properties of Quasars and the Origin of Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Kratzer, R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the fraction of radio loud quasars and the mean radio properties of quasars. Although any quasar has only a ~10% chance of being radio loud and the average quasar has a radio luminosity of ~4x10^30 ergs/s/Hz, these properties are strong functions of not only luminosity, redshift, black hole mass, and accretion rate, but also the strength of the accretion disk wind (as characterized by CIV emission line properties). Quasars with higher optical luminosity and/or lower redshift have a higher than average probability of being radio loud, but their median radio luminosity (relative to optical) is much lower than average. We find that, while radio properties of quasars generally cannot be predicted from their optical properties, objects where one expects a strong radiation line driven wind (based on emission line features) have virtually no chance of being radio loud. The redder quasars are in the optical, the more radio flux (relative to optical) they have; this trend holds even for quasars that are not expected to be significantly dust reddened/extincted in the optical. Finally, we consider the radio properties of quasars in the framework of models which describe the radio loud extrema as being due to particularly high spin resulting from second generation mergers and in the context of star formation at lower levels of radio flux. This work was supported by NSF AAG grant 1108798.

  12. A Long-Term Space Astrophysics Research Program: The Evolution of the Quasar Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Oliversen, Ronald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Four papers have been written. One reports on the major study funded by this grant: a pan-chromatic study of the quasar continuum at redshift 3. Two others make use of the quasar continuum shapes to find the minimum total accretion luminosity of the Universe, and hence the efficiency and spin of supermassive black holes; the second shows that the reemission of absorbed quasar radiation alleviates a major problem with galaxy formation and the FIR background. The last paper recognizes the role quasars may play in the initial formation of dust in the early Universe.

  13. Quasars, pulsars and black holes (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964--Feb 77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, D.W.

    1977-04-01

    Astronomical surveys of quasars, pulsars, and black holes are cited. Computer simulations, mathematical models and other methods used for the verification of hypotheses about astrophysical processes are included

  14. DISCOVERY OF A FAINT QUASAR AT z ∼ 6 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMIC REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yongjung; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Duho; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Building 45, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minjin; Park, Won-Kee [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Karouzos, Marios [Astronomy Program, FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Pak, Soojong, E-mail: yjkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [School of Space Research and Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies suggest that faint active galactic nuclei may be responsible for the reionization of the universe. Confirmation of this scenario requires spectroscopic identification of faint quasars (M{sub 1450} > −24 mag) at z ≳ 6, but only a very small number of such quasars have been spectroscopically identified so far. Here, we report the discovery of a faint quasar IMS J220417.92+011144.8 at z ∼ 6 in a 12.5 deg{sup 2} region of the SA22 field of the Infrared Medium-deep Survey (IMS). The spectrum of the quasar shows a sharp break at ∼8443 Å, with emission lines redshifted to z = 5.944 ± 0.002 and rest-frame ultraviolet continuum magnitude M{sub 1450} = −23.59 ± 0.10 AB mag. The discovery of IMS J220417.92+011144.8 is consistent with the expected number of quasars at z ∼ 6 estimated from quasar luminosity functions based on previous observations of spectroscopically identified low-luminosity quasars. This suggests that the number of M{sub 1450} ∼ −23 mag quasars at z ∼ 6 may not be high enough to fully account for the reionization of the universe. In addition, our study demonstrates that faint quasars in the early universe can be identified effectively with a moderately wide and deep near-infrared survey such as the IMS.

  15. Masses of galaxies and the greatest redshifts of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, J G [Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA)

    1977-04-01

    The outer parts of a typical galaxy follows an R/sup -2/ density distribution which results in the collapse time of its protogalaxy being proportional to its mass. Since quasars probably occur in the nuclei of galaxies which can only form after the collapse of their parent galaxies, their greatest observed redshift, Zsub(max), is largely determined by the mass, Msub(t), of a typical protogalaxy. The observed Zsub(max) of quasars indicates that Msub(t) = 1 x 10/sup 12/ solar masses. This mass is consistent with the masses of galaxies found in recent dynamical studies. It indicates that most of the mass in a typical galaxy is in the halo lying beyond the familiar optically-bright core, but the mass of a standard galaxy is still only 0.3 of that required for galaxies alone to close the universe.

  16. Counts of low-Redshift SDSS quasar candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeljko Ivezic

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the counts of low-redshift quasar candidates selected using nine-epoch SDSS imaging data. The co-added catalogs are more than 1 mag deeper than single-epoch SDSS data, and allow the selection of low-redshift quasar candidates using UV-excess and also variability techniques. The counts of selected candidates are robustly determined down to g = 21.5. This is about 2 magnitudes deeper than the position of a change in the slope of the counts reported by Boyle (and others) (1990, 2000) for a sample selected by UV-excess, and questioned by Hawkins and Veron (1995), who utilized a variability-selected sample. Using SDSS data, we confirm a change in the slope of the counts for both UV-excess and variability selected samples, providing strong support for the Boyle (and others) results

  17. QUASAR--scoring and ranking of sequence-structure alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzele, Fabian; Gewehr, Jan E; Zimmer, Ralf

    2005-12-15

    Sequence-structure alignments are a common means for protein structure prediction in the fields of fold recognition and homology modeling, and there is a broad variety of programs that provide such alignments based on sequence similarity, secondary structure or contact potentials. Nevertheless, finding the best sequence-structure alignment in a pool of alignments remains a difficult problem. QUASAR (quality of sequence-structure alignments ranking) provides a unifying framework for scoring sequence-structure alignments that aids finding well-performing combinations of well-known and custom-made scoring schemes. Those scoring functions can be benchmarked against widely accepted quality scores like MaxSub, TMScore, Touch and APDB, thus enabling users to test their own alignment scores against 'standard-of-truth' structure-based scores. Furthermore, individual score combinations can be optimized with respect to benchmark sets based on known structural relationships using QUASAR's in-built optimization routines.

  18. Cumulative neutrino background from quasar-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: xiawei.wang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Quasar-driven outflows naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ-ray background through neutral pion production in interactions between protons accelerated by the forward outflow shock and interstellar protons. We study the simultaneous neutrino emission by the same protons. We adopt outflow parameters that best fit the extragalactic γ-ray background data and derive a cumulative neutrino background of ∼ 10{sup −7} GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1} at neutrino energies E {sub ν} ∼> 10 TeV, which naturally explains the most recent IceCube data without tuning any free parameters. The link between the γ-ray and neutrino emission from quasar outflows can be used to constrain the high-energy physics of strong shocks at cosmological distances.

  19. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  20. Dynamics of Fermat potentials in nonperturbative gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Newman, Ezra T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a framework, based on the null-surface formulation of general relativity, for discussing the dynamics of Fermat potentials for gravitational lensing in a generic situation without approximations of any kind. Additionally, we derive two lens equations: one for the case of thick compact lenses and the other one for lensing by gravitational waves. These equations in principle generalize the astrophysical scheme for lensing by removing the thin-lens approximation while retaining the weak fields

  1. An Introduction to 50 Years of Research on Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; D'Onofrio, Mauro

    We are approaching the 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars. Those old enough to have been cognizant of astronomy in 1962-1963 can remember the sense of excitement connected with this finding. There was talk of a major new constituent of the universe. The excitement of the discovery was palpable even to one of us (the most senior of the editors) who was then a high school teenager.

  2. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardini, E.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different...... gas. The outflow’s kinetic power larger than 1046 ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution....

  3. Cosmic Ray and Tev Gamma Ray Generation by Quasar Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Elihu; Loewenstein, Michael; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Results from new broadband (radio to X-ray) high-resolution imaging studies of the dormant quasar remnant cores of nearby giant elliptical galaxies are now shown to permit the harboring of compact dynamos capable of generating the highest energy cosmic ray particles and associated curvature radiation of TeV photons. Confirmation would imply a global inflow of interstellar gas all the way to the accretion powered supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy.

  4. High Redshift Quasars, Emission Lines and ‘Cloudy’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferland Gary J.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I describe some of the outstanding “big picture” questions in quasar research and how the development of the plasma simulation code Cloudy is being guided to answer them. QSO spectra are complex and challenge even the most sophisticated spectral codes. Particular emphasis is given to a central question - how do the properties of the central black hole and the accretion disk are manifested in the observed spectrum.

  5. Tunable filter imaging of high-redshift quasar fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinbank, J.; Baker, J.; Barr, J.; Hook, I.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Taurus Tunable Filter to search for Lyα emitters in the fields of three high-redshift quasars: two at z∼ 2.2 (MRC B1256−243 and MRC B2158−206) and one at z∼ 4.5 (BR B0019−1522). Our observations had a field of view of around 35 arcmin2, and reached AB magnitudes of ∼21 (MRC

  6. Quasar Absorption in the UV: Probing the Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David; Katz, Neal

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to model the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest and exploration of the relation between Lyman-alpha absorbers and galaxies. This paper shows that the simulation models that are so successful at explaining properties of the high-redshift forest also account for the most important results of observational studies of the low-redshift forest, from HST (especially the Quasar Absorption Line Key Project) and ground-based follow-up.

  7. Cosmic reionization after Planck II: contribution from quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sourav; Choudhury, T. Roy; Ferrara, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    In the light of the recent Planck downward revision of the electron scattering optical depth, and of the discovery of a faint active galactic nuclei (AGN) population at z > 4, we reassess the actual contribution of quasars to cosmic reionization. To this aim, we extend our previous Markov Chain Monte Carlo based data-constrained semi-analytic reionization model and study the role of quasars on global reionization history. We find that the quasars can alone reionize the Universe only for models with very high AGN emissivities at high redshift. These models are still allowed by the recent cosmic microwave background data and most of the observations related to H I reionization. However, they predict an extended and early He II reionization ending at z ≳ 4 and a much slower evolution in the mean He II Ly-α forest opacity than what the actual observation suggests. Thus, when we further constrain our model against the He II Ly-α forest data, this AGN-dominated scenario is found to be clearly ruled out at 2σ limits. The data seems to favour a standard two-component picture where quasar contributions become negligible at z ≳ 6 and a non-zero escape fraction of ∼ 10 per cent is needed from early-epoch galaxies. For such models, mean neutral hydrogen fraction decreases to ∼10-4 at z = 6.2 from ∼0.8 at z = 10.0 and helium becomes doubly ionized at much later time, z ∼ 3. We find that these models are as well in good agreement with the observed thermal evolution of IGM as opposed to models with very high AGN emissivities.

  8. Relativistic beaming and orientation effects in core-dominated quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubachukwu, A.A.; Chukwude, A.E.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relativistic beaming effects in a well-defined sample of core- dominated quasars using the correlation between the relative prominence of the core with respect to the extended emission (defined as the ratio of the core- to the lobe- flux density measured in the rest frame of the source) and the projected linear size as an indicator of relativistic beaming and source orientation. Based on the orientation-dependent relativistic beaming and unification paradigm for high luminosity sources in which the Fanaroff-Riley class-ll radio galaxies form the unbeamed parent population of both the lobe- and core-dominated quasars which are expected to lie at successively smaller angles to the line of sight, we find that the flows in the cores of these core-dominated quasars are highly relativistic, with optimum bulk Lorentz factor, γ opt ∼6-16, and also highly anisotropic, with an average viewing angle, ∼ 9 deg. - 16 deg. Furthermore, the largest boosting occurs within a critical cone angle of ∼ 4 deg. - 10 deg. The results suggest that relativistic bulk flow appears to extend to kilo-parsec scales in these sources. (author)

  9. EVIDENCE OF THE DYNAMICS OF RELATIVISTIC JET LAUNCHING IN QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punsly, Brian, E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates CA, USA 90274 and ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10 Pescara I-65100 (Italy)

    2015-06-10

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectra of the EUV, the optically thick emission from the innermost accretion flow onto the central supermassive black hole, indicate that radio loud quasars (RLQs) tend to be EUV weak compared to the radio-quiet quasars; yet the remainder of the optically thick thermal continuum is indistinguishable. The deficit of EUV emission in RLQs has a straightforward interpretation as a missing or a suppressed innermost region of local energy dissipation in the accretion flow. This article is an examination of the evidence for a distribution of magnetic flux tubes in the innermost accretion flow that results in magnetically arrested accretion (MAA) and creates the EUV deficit. These same flux tubes and possibly the interior magnetic flux that they encircle are the sources of the jet power as well. In the MAA scenario, islands of large-scale vertical magnetic flux perforate the innermost accretion flow of RLQs. The first prediction of the theory that is supported by the HST data is that the strength of the (large-scale poloidal magnetic fields) jets in the MAA region is regulated by the ram pressure of the accretion flow in the quasar environment. The second prediction that is supported by the HST data is that the rotating magnetic islands remove energy from the accretion flow as a Poynting flux dominated jet in proportion to the square of the fraction of the EUV emitting gas that is displaced by these islands.

  10. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼10 3 -10 5 cm –3 and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  11. [Galaxy/quasar classification based on nearest neighbor method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Ru; Lu, Yu; Zhou, Jian-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2011-09-01

    With the wide application of high-quality CCD in celestial spectrum imagery and the implementation of many large sky survey programs (e. g., Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two-degree-Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dF), Spectroscopic Survey Telescope (SST), Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) program and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program, etc.), celestial observational data are coming into the world like torrential rain. Therefore, to utilize them effectively and fully, research on automated processing methods for celestial data is imperative. In the present work, we investigated how to recognizing galaxies and quasars from spectra based on nearest neighbor method. Galaxies and quasars are extragalactic objects, they are far away from earth, and their spectra are usually contaminated by various noise. Therefore, it is a typical problem to recognize these two types of spectra in automatic spectra classification. Furthermore, the utilized method, nearest neighbor, is one of the most typical, classic, mature algorithms in pattern recognition and data mining, and often is used as a benchmark in developing novel algorithm. For applicability in practice, it is shown that the recognition ratio of nearest neighbor method (NN) is comparable to the best results reported in the literature based on more complicated methods, and the superiority of NN is that this method does not need to be trained, which is useful in incremental learning and parallel computation in mass spectral data processing. In conclusion, the results in this work are helpful for studying galaxies and quasars spectra classification.

  12. The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Ho, Luis C

    2014-09-11

    Quasars are rapidly accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of massive galaxies. They display a broad range of properties across all wavelengths, reflecting the diversity in the physical conditions of the regions close to the central engine. These properties, however, are not random, but form well-defined trends. The dominant trend is known as 'Eigenvector 1', in which many properties correlate with the strength of optical iron and [O III] emission. The main physical driver of Eigenvector 1 has long been suspected to be the quasar luminosity normalized by the mass of the hole (the 'Eddington ratio'), which is an important parameter of the black hole accretion process. But a definitive proof has been missing. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals that the Eddington ratio indeed drives Eigenvector 1. We also find that orientation plays a significant role in determining the observed kinematics of the gas in the broad-line region, implying a flattened, disk-like geometry for the fast-moving clouds close to the black hole. Our results show that most of the diversity of quasar phenomenology can be unified using two simple quantities: Eddington ratio and orientation.

  13. Gemini Near-infrared Spectroscopy of Luminous z~6 Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    We present Gemini near-infrared spectroscopic observations of six luminous quasars at z=5.8$\\sim$6.3. Five of them were observed using Gemini-South/GNIRS, which provides a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.9--2.5 $\\mu$m in cross dispersion mode. The other source was observed in K band...... with Gemini-North/NIRI. We calculate line strengths for all detected emission lines and use their ratios to estimate gas metallicity in the broad-line regions of the quasars. The metallicity is found to be supersolar with a typical value of $\\sim$4 Z_{\\sun}, and a comparison with low-redshift observations...... shows no strong evolution in metallicity up to z$\\sim$6. The FeII/MgII ratio of the quasars is 4.9+/-1.4, consistent with low-redshift measurements. We estimate central BH masses of 10^9 to 10^{10} M_{\\sun} and Eddington luminosity ratios of order unity. We identify two MgII $\\lambda\\lambda$2796...

  14. Optical spectral properties of active galactic nuclei and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Four separate investigations dealing with the properties of optical continuum and emission-lines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars are presented. Multichannel scans of 3CR radio galaxies are decomposed by using a two-component model-an elliptical galaxy and a power-law nonthermal component. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the luminosity of the power-law component and the strength of the Balmer emission-lines. In most cases, by extrapolating to the Lyman continuum, the power-law models derived provide enough ionizing radiation to account for the Balmer line strengths. Extending the study of radio galaxies to include Seyfert galaxies and quasars, it is found that there is a strong continuity between broad-line AGN's and quasars in terms of similarities in the correlations between line luminosities and nonthermal continuum luminosity. Next, a study of the variability of absolute optical energy distribution and emission-lines of the N-galaxies 3C382 and 3C390.3 is made. Lastly, a preliminary study of surface photometry of Markarian Seyfert galaxies are presented. It is found that the properties of the underlying galaxies such as scale-length and surface brightness of the disk, color, and total brightness, do not depart systematically from those of luminous normal spiral galaxies

  15. Time Series Analysis of the Quasar PKS 1749+096

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael T.; Balonek, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple timescales of variability are observed in quasars at a variety of wavelengths, the nature of which is not fully understood. In 2007 and 2008, the quasar 1749+096 underwent two unprecedented optical outbursts, reaching a brightness never before seen in our twenty years of monitoring. Much lower level activity had been seen prior to these two outbursts. We present an analysis of the timescales of variability over the two regimes using a variety of statistical techniques. An IDL software package developed at Colgate University over the summer of 2010, the Quasar User Interface (QUI), provides effective computation of four time series functions for analyzing underlying trends present in generic, discretely sampled data sets. Using the Autocorrelation Function, Structure Function, and Power Spectrum, we are able to quickly identify possible variability timescales. QUI is also capable of computing the Cross-Correlation Function for comparing variability at different wavelengths. We apply these algorithms to 1749+096 and present our analysis of the timescales for this object. Funding for this project was received from Colgate University, the Justus and Jayne Schlichting Student Research Fund, and the NASA / New York Space Grant.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LAMOST quasar survey: quasar properties from the DR1 (Ai+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Y. L.; Wu, X.-B.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.; Wang, F.; Guo, R.; Zuo, W.; Dong, X.; Zhang, Y.-X.; Yuan, H.-L.; Song, Y.-H.; Wang, J.; Dong, X.; Yang, M.; Wu, H.; Shen, S.-Y.; Shi, J.-R.; He, B.-L.; Lei, Y.-J.; Li, Y.-B.; Luo, A.-L.; Zhao, Y.-H.; Zhang, H.-T.

    2018-03-01

    LAMOST began a pilot survey in 2011 October and a regular survey in 2012 September. The regular survey, carried out over five to six years, has two major components: the LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (LEGUE) and the LAMOST Extragalactic Survey (LEGAS; Zhao et al. 2012RAA....12..723Z). LEGAS only uses a small part of the available observing time due to the limitations of the LAMOST site, especially the bright sky background and poor seeing. The first data release (DR1) contains spectra taken before 2013 June (Luo et al. 2015, Cat. V/146). In this paper we present the results of the quasar survey from LEGAS. LAMOST LEGAS spectroscopic observations are taken in a series of at least three 30 minute exposures. There are 70290 quasar candidates observed, with 82625 spectra in DR1. (2 data files).

  17. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balokovic, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolcic, V. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ivezic, Z. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zamorani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  18. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloković, M.; Smolčić, V.; Ivezić, Ž.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Kelly, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 ± 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  19. Analysis of luminosity distributions of strong lensing galaxies: subtraction of diffuse lensed signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernaux, J.; Magain, P.; Hauret, C.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Strong gravitational lensing gives access to the total mass distribution of galaxies. It can unveil a great deal of information about the lenses' dark matter content when combined with the study of the lenses' light profile. However, gravitational lensing galaxies, by definition, appear surrounded by lensed signal, both point-like and diffuse, that is irrelevant to the lens flux. Therefore, the observer is most often restricted to studying the innermost portions of the galaxy, where classical fitting methods show some instabilities. Aims: We aim at subtracting that lensed signal and at characterising some lenses' light profile by computing their shape parameters (half-light radius, ellipticity, and position angle). Our objective is to evaluate the total integrated flux in an aperture the size of the Einstein ring in order to obtain a robust estimate of the quantity of ordinary (luminous) matter in each system. Methods: We are expanding the work we started in a previous paper that consisted in subtracting point-like lensed images and in independently measuring each shape parameter. We improve it by designing a subtraction of the diffuse lensed signal, based only on one simple hypothesis of symmetry. We apply it to the cases where it proves to be necessary. This extra step improves our study of the shape parameters and we refine it even more by upgrading our half-light radius measurement method. We also calculate the impact of our specific image processing on the error bars. Results: The diffuse lensed signal subtraction makes it possible to study a larger portion of relevant galactic flux, as the radius of the fitting region increases by on average 17%. We retrieve new half-light radii values that are on average 11% smaller than in our previous work, although the uncertainties overlap in most cases. This shows that not taking the diffuse lensed signal into account may lead to a significant overestimate of the half-light radius. We are also able to measure

  20. Electron Lenses for the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN

    2014-07-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. This project is moving towards a technical design in 2014, with the goal to build the devices in 2015-2017, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles.

  1. Weak lensing probes of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of modifications to general relativity on large-scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, and tensor-vector-scalar theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective dark energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of dark energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, measured via the galaxy-cosmic microwave background cross-correlation.

  2. Strong gravitational lensing by Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin-Nun, Amitai Y

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the potential to use the galactic center as a probe of general relativity in the strong field. There is almost certainly a black hole at Sgr A* in the galactic center, and this would allow us to have the opportunity to probe dynamics near the exterior of the black hole. In the last decade, there has been theoretical research into extreme gravitational lensing in the galactic center. Unlike in most applications of gravitational lensing, where the bending angle is of the order of, at most, an arc minute, very large bending angles are possible for light that closely approaches a black hole. Photons may even loop multiple times around a black hole before reaching the observer. There have been many proposals to use light's close approach to the black hole as a probe of the black hole metric. Of particular interest are the properties of images formed from the light of S stars orbiting in the galactic center. This paper will review some of the attempts made to study extreme lensing as well as extend the analysis of S star lensing. In particular, we are interested in the effect of a Reissner-Nordstrom like 1/r 2 term in the metric and how this would affect the properties of relativistic images.

  3. Electron beams, lenses, and optics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kareh, A.B.; El-Kareh, J.C.J.

    1970-01-01

    This volume presents a systematic coverage of aberrations. It analyzes the geometrical aberrations and treats the spherical and chromatic aberrations in great detail. The coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration have been computed for a series of electrostatic and magnetic lenses and are listed in table form. The book also covers space charge and its effect on highly focused electron beams

  4. Quantum Spin Lenses in Atomic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Glaetzle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and discuss quantum spin lenses, where quantum states of delocalized spin excitations in an atomic medium are focused in space in a coherent quantum process down to (essentially single atoms. These can be employed to create controlled interactions in a quantum light-matter interface, where photonic qubits stored in an atomic ensemble are mapped to a quantum register represented by single atoms. We propose Hamiltonians for quantum spin lenses as inhomogeneous spin models on lattices, which can be realized with Rydberg atoms in 1D, 2D, and 3D, and with strings of trapped ions. We discuss both linear and nonlinear quantum spin lenses: in a nonlinear lens, repulsive spin-spin interactions lead to focusing dynamics conditional to the number of spin excitations. This allows the mapping of quantum superpositions of delocalized spin excitations to superpositions of spatial spin patterns, which can be addressed by light fields and manipulated. Finally, we propose multifocal quantum spin lenses as a way to generate and distribute entanglement between distant atoms in an atomic lattice array.

  5. Software for Fermat's Principle and Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a "least time principle". In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses. (Contains 12 figures.)

  6. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  7. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiply imaged Transient Events in Cluster Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Delampady

    2018-04-01

    ARIES had a successful gravitational microlens project during 1998-2002. A similar monitor for Transient Events in galaxies at high redshift lensed by rich galaxy-clusters provides a challenging possibility with important cosmological implications. Rich galaxy-clusters at intermediate redshifts are powerful gravitational lenses which produce multiple images, in the shape of giant arcs of 5-20" extent, of distant background galaxies in their field. Weak lens shear of the background galaxy distribution can reliably trace the lens mass profile. Multiple images of supernovae or GRBs in the background galaxies can be recorded in a systematic monitor of the system. An unlensed high redshift supernova might not be observable, but when lensed by a galaxy-cluster, it will stand out because the point event brightens relative to the host. The color profile of a high redshift lensed point event will be much more reliable than an unlensed one due to much less host contamination. An estimate of the time delay enables observation of the full light curve of the subsequent images of the event. ARIES can have outside collaboration for multiband simultaneous lightcurves of other images. The measured time delay and position of images of the transient event provide better cosmological constraints including distance scale of the Universe. The Devasthal telescope can detect one or more events by monitoring half a dozen cluster fields over three years time.

  9. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  10. Teaching the Theory of Real Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an approach to the study of real lenses that would not contradict Fermat's principle. Shows how the rudiments of the correct theory can be incorporated into courses to provide students a clearer notion of what they can expect in laboratory situations. (DDR)

  11. Extended Emission-Line Regions: Remnants of Quasar Superwinds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Stockton, Alan

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of our recent integral-field-unit spectroscopy of luminous extended emission-line regions (EELRs) around low-redshift quasars, including new observations of five fields. Previous work has shown that the most luminous EELRs are found almost exclusively around steep-spectrum radio-loud quasars, with apparently disordered global velocity fields, and little, if any, morphological correlation with either the host galaxy or the radio structure. Our new observations confirm and expand these results. The EELRs often show some clouds with velocities exceeding 500 km s-1, ranging up to 1100 km s-1, but the velocity dispersions, with few exceptions, are in the 30-100 km s-1 range. Emission-line ratios show that the EELRs are clearly photoionized by the quasars. Masses of the EELRs range up to 1010Msun. Essentially all of the EELRs show relatively low metallicities, and they are associated with quasars that, in contrast to most, show similarly low metallicities in their broad-line regions. The two objects in our sample that do not have classical double-lobed radio morphologies (3C 48, with a compact-steep-spectrum source; Mrk 1014, radio quiet, but with a weak compact-steep-spectrum source) are the only ones that appear to have recent star formation. While some of the less luminous EELRs may have other origins, the most likely explanation for those in our sample is that they are examples of gas swept out of the host galaxy by a large-solid-angle blast wave accompanying the production of the radio jets. The triggering of the quasar activity is almost certainly the result of the merger of a gas-rich galaxy with a massive, gas-poor galaxy hosting the supermassive black hole. Based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the

  12. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  13. Imprints of quasar duty cycle on the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgar, Florian; Eames, Evan; Hottier, Clément; Semelin, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    Quasars contribute to the 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) primarily through their ionizing UV and X-ray emission. However, their radio continuum and Lyman-band emission also regulates the 21-cm signal in their direct environment, potentially leaving the imprint of their duty cycle. We develop a model for the radio and UV luminosity functions of quasars from the EoR, and constrain it using recent observations. Our model is consistent with the recent discovery of the quasar J1342+0928 at redshift ˜7.5, and also predicts only a few quasars suitable for 21-cm forest observations (˜10 mJy) in the sky. We exhibit a new effect on the 21-cm signal observed against the CMB: a radio-loud quasar can leave the imprint of its duty cycle on the 21-cm tomography. We apply this effect in a cosmological simulation and conclude that the effect of typical radio-loud quasars is most likely negligible in an SKA field of view. For a ˜10mJy quasar the effect is stronger though hardly observable at SKA resolution. Then we study the contribution of the lyman band (Ly-α to Ly-β) emission of quasars to the Wouthuisen-Field coupling. The collective effect of quasars on the 21-cm power spectrum is larger than the thermal noise at low k, though featureless. However, a distinctive pattern around the brightest quasars in an SKA field of view may be observable in the tomography, encoding the duration of their duty cycle. This pattern has a high signal-to-noise ratio for the brightest quasar in a typical SKA shallow survey.

  14. X-ray studies of quasars with the Einstein observatory. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamorani, G.; Henry, J.P.; Maccacaro, T.; Tananbaum, H.; Soltan, A.; Avni, Y.; Liebert, J.; Stocke, J.; Strittmatter, P.A.; Weymann, R.J.; Smith, M.G.; Condon, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Einstein Observatory, we have carried out X-ray observations of 107 quasars and have detected 79. From the analysis of this sample of objects we find a correlation between optical emission and X-ray emission. Our data for radio-loud quasars also show a correlation between radio emission and X-ray emission. For a given optical luminosity, the average X-ray emission of radio-loud quasars is approx.3 times higher than that of ratio-quiet quasars. In addition, our data suggest that the radio of X-ray to optical luminosity is decreasing with increasing redshift and/or optical luminosity. Taking into account the differences in X-ray luminosity between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, and between low-redshift and high-redshift quasars, we estimate that approx.30% of the observed X-ray background is contributed by quasars brighter than m/sub B/roughly-equal20, while much of the remainder can be contributed by still fainter quasars. Our data also imply that the optical log N--m/sub B/ relation for quasars cannot be extrapolated much beyond m/sub B/roughly-equal20 with the steep slope used to characterize optical source counts at brighter magnitudes. This situation supports the picture in which luminosity evolution, rather than pure density evolution, describes the quasar behavior as a function of redshift. We briefly discuss the observed correlation of X-ray luminosity with radio luminosity in the context of current quasar models

  15. The quasar luminosity function at redshift 4 with the Hyper Suprime-Cam Wide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masayuki; He, Wanqiu; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Niida, Mana; Nagao, Tohru; Bosch, James; Coupon, Jean; Enoki, Motohiro; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Oguri, Masamune; Ono, Yoshiaki; Onoue, Masafusa; Ouchi, Masami; Schulze, Andreas; Silverman, John D.; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Terashima, Yuichi; Toba, Yoshiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of z ˜ 4 quasars based on the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program Wide layer imaging data in the g, r, i, z, and y bands covering 339.8 deg2. From stellar objects, 1666 z ˜ 4 quasar candidates are selected via the g-dropout selection down to i = 24.0 mag. Their photometric redshifts cover the redshift range between 3.6 and 4.3, with an average of 3.9. In combination with the quasar sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the same redshift range, a quasar luminosity function covering the wide luminosity range of M1450 = -22 to -29 mag is constructed. The quasar luminosity function is well described by a double power-law model with a knee at M1450 = -25.36 ± 0.13 mag and a flat faint-end slope with a power-law index of -1.30 ± 0.05. The knee and faint-end slope show no clear evidence of redshift evolution from those seen at z ˜ 2. The flat slope implies that the UV luminosity density of the quasar population is dominated by the quasars around the knee, and does not support the steeper faint-end slope at higher redshifts reported at z > 5. If we convert the M1450 luminosity function to the hard X-ray 2-10 keV luminosity function using the relation between the UV and X-ray luminosity of quasars and its scatter, the number density of UV-selected quasars matches well with that of the X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) above the knee of the luminosity function. Below the knee, the UV-selected quasars show a deficiency compared to the hard X-ray luminosity function. The deficiency can be explained by the lack of obscured AGNs among the UV-selected quasars.

  16. Are Disposable and Standard Gonioscopy Lenses Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonny; Szirth, Bernard C; Fechtner, Robert D; Khouri, Albert S

    2017-04-01

    Gonioscopy is important in the evaluation and treatment of glaucoma. With increased scrutiny of acceptable sterilization processes for health care instruments, disposable gonioscopy lenses have recently been introduced. Single-time use lenses are theorized to decrease infection risk and eliminate the issue of wear and tear seen on standard, reusable lenses. However, patient care would be compromised if the quality of images produced by the disposable lens were inferior to those produced by the reusable lens. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of images produced by disposable versus standard gonioscopy lenses. A disposable single mirror lens (Sensor Medical Technology) and a standard Volk G-1 gonioscopy lens were used to image 21 volunteers who were prospectively recruited for the study. Images of the inferior and temporal angles of each subject's left eye were acquired using a slit-lamp camera through the disposable and standard gonioscopy lens. In total, 74 images were graded using the Spaeth gonioscopic system and for clarity and quality. Clarity was scored as 1 or 2 and defined as either (1) all structures perceived or (2) all structures not perceived. Quality was scored as 1, 2, or 3, and defined as (1) all angle landmarks clear and well focused, (2) some angle landmarks clear, others blurred, or (3) angle landmarks could not be ascertained. The 74 images were divided into images taken with the disposable single mirror lens and images taken with the standard Volk G-1 gonioscopy lens. The clarity and quality scores for each of these 2 image groups were averaged and P-values were calculated. Average quality of images produced with the standard lens was 1.46±0.56 compared with 1.54±0.61 for those produced with the disposable lens (P=0.55). Average clarity of images produced with the standard lens was 1.47±0.51 compared with 1.49±0.51 (P=0.90) with the disposable lens. We conclude that there is no significant difference in quality of images

  17. X-ray lenses with large aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, most X-ray imaging setups are based on absorption contrast imaging. There is a demand for focused X-rays in many X-ray analysis applications, either to increase the resolution of an imaging system, or, to reduce the time effort of an experiment through higher photon flux. For photon energies higher than 15 keV refractive X-ray optics are more efficient in comparison to non-refractive X-ray optics. The aim of this work was to develop X-ray lenses with large apertures and high transparency. By increasing the number of refracting surfaces while removing unnecessary lens material such lenses have been developed. Utilizing this approach the overall beam deflection angle is large with respect to the lens material it propagates through and so the transparency of the lens is increased. Within this work, X-ray lenses consisting of several thousands of prisms with an edge length in the range of micrometers have been developed and fabricated by deep X-ray lithography. Deep X-ray lithography enables high precision microstrucures with smooth sidewalls and large aspect ratios. The aperture of high-transparency X-ray lenses made this way is greater than 1 mm. They are suitable for photon energies in the range of 8 keV to 24 keV and offer a focal width of smaller than 10 μm at a transparency of around 40%. Furthermore, rolled X-ray lenses have been developed, that are made out of a microstructured polyimide film, which is cut according to the requirements regarding focal length and photon energy. The microstructured film is fabricated by molding, using an anisotropically etched silicon wafer as molding tool. Its mean roughness is in the range of nanometers. The film features prismatic structures, its surface topology is similar to an asparagus field. The measured diameter of the point focus was 18 μm to 31 μm, the calculated opticla efficiency was 37%. Future work will concentrate on increasing the aspect ratio of Prism Lenses and on increasing the rolling accuracy

  18. Cross-correlation of SDSS DR7 quasars and DR10 BOSS galaxies: The weak luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z ∼ 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yue; McBride, Cameron K.; Swanson, Molly E. C.; White, Martin; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schlegel, David J.; Zheng, Zheng; Myers, Adam D.; Guo, Hong; Zehavi, Idit; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K.; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    We present the measurement of the two-point cross-correlation function (CCF) of 8198 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars and 349,608 Data Release 10 CMASS galaxies from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey at 0.3 < z < 0.9. The CCF can be reasonably well fit by a power-law model ξ QG (r) = (r/r 0 ) –γ on projected scales of r p = 2-25 h –1 Mpc with r 0 = 6.61 ± 0.25 h –1 Mpc and γ = 1.69 ± 0.07. We estimate a quasar linear bias of b Q = 1.38 ± 0.10 at (z) = 0.53 from the CCF measurements, which corresponds to a characteristic host halo mass of ∼4 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ , compared with a ∼10 13 h –1 M ☉ characteristic host halo mass for CMASS galaxies. Based on the clustering measurements, most quasars at z-bar ∼0.5 are not the descendants of their higher luminosity counterparts at higher redshift, which would have evolved into more massive and more biased systems at low redshift. We divide the quasar sample in luminosity and constrain the luminosity dependence of quasar bias to be db Q /dlog L = 0.20 ± 0.34 or 0.11 ± 0.32 (depending on different luminosity divisions) for quasar luminosities –23.5 > M i (z = 2) > –25.5, implying a weak luminosity dependence of clustering for luminous quasars at z-bar ∼0.5. We compare our measurements with theoretical predictions, halo occupation distribution (HOD) models, and mock catalogs. These comparisons suggest that quasars reside in a broad range of host halos. The host halo mass distributions significantly overlap with each other for quasars at different luminosities, implying a poor correlation between halo mass and instantaneous quasar luminosity. We also find that the quasar HOD parameterization is largely degenerate such that different HODs can reproduce the CCF equally well, but with different satellite fractions and host halo mass distributions. These results highlight the limitations and ambiguities in modeling the distribution of quasars with the standard HOD approach.

  19. Can Instructional Reform in Urban Middle Schools Help Students Narrow the Mathematics Performance Gap? Some Evidence from the QUASAR Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Compared mathematical performance of middle school students in low-income communities involved in the QUASAR project to those of a demographically similar school and of a nationally representative sample. QUASAR mathematics instruction emphasizes reasoning, problem-solving, and understanding. Quasar students outperformed NAEP's disadvantaged urban…

  20. A Survey of z>5.7 Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2005-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven quasars at z>5.7, selected from ~2000 deg^2 of multicolor imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The new quasars have redshifts z from 5.79 to 6.13. Five are selected as part of a complete flux-limited sample in the SDSS Northern Galactic Cap; two...

  1. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  2. On the Role of the Environments and Star Formation for Quasar Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettoni, Daniela; Falomo, Renato; Kotilainen, Jari K.; Karhunen, Kalle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the host galaxy and environment properties of a sample of 400 low z (<0.5) quasars that were imaged in the SDSS Stripe82. We can detect and study the properties of the host galaxy for more than 75% of the data sample. We discover that quasar are mainly hosted in luminous galaxies of absolute magnitude M * − 3 < M(R) < M *1 and that in the quasar environments the galaxy number density is comparable to that of inactive galaxies of similar luminosities. For these quasars we undertake also a study in u,g,r,i, and z SDSS bands and again we discover that the mean colors of the quasar host galaxy it is not very different with respect to the values of the sample of inactive galaxies. For a subsample of low z sources the imaging study is complemented by spectroscopy of quasar hosts and of close companion galaxies. This study suggests that the supply and cause of the nuclear activity depends only weakly on the local environment of quasars. Contrary to past suggestions, for low redshift quasar there is a very modest connection between recent star formation and the nuclear activity.

  3. On the Role of the Environments and Star Formation for Quasar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bettoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the host galaxy and environment properties of a sample of 400 low z (<0.5 quasars that were imaged in the SDSS Stripe82. We can detect and study the properties of the host galaxy for more than 75% of the data sample. We discover that quasar are mainly hosted in luminous galaxies of absolute magnitude M* − 3 < M(R < M*1 and that in the quasar environments the galaxy number density is comparable to that of inactive galaxies of similar luminosities. For these quasars we undertake also a study in u,g,r,i, and z SDSS bands and again we discover that the mean colors of the quasar host galaxy it is not very different with respect to the values of the sample of inactive galaxies. For a subsample of low z sources the imaging study is complemented by spectroscopy of quasar hosts and of close companion galaxies. This study suggests that the supply and cause of the nuclear activity depends only weakly on the local environment of quasars. Contrary to past suggestions, for low redshift quasar there is a very modest connection between recent star formation and the nuclear activity.

  4. Android application and REST server system for quasar spectrum presentation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Pietralik, K.; Hryniewicz, K.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a system consisting of a mobile application and RESTful architecture server intended for the analysis and presentation of quasars' spectrum. It also depicts the quasar's characteristics and significance to the scientific community, the source for acquiring astronomical objects' spectral data, used software solutions as well as presents the aspect of Cloud Computing and various possible deployment configurations.

  5. NuSTAR Reveals Extreme Absorption in z <0.5 Type 2 Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic column density (N-H) distribution of quasars is poorly known. At the high obscuration end of the quasar population and for redshifts z <1, the X-ray spectra can only be reliably characterized using broad-band measurements that extend to energies above 10 keV. Using the hard X-ray ob...

  6. On the Role of the Environments and Star Formation for Quasar Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoni, Daniela; Falomo, Renato [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padua (Italy); Kotilainen, Jari K. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Karhunen, Kalle, E-mail: daniela.bettoni@oapd.inaf.it [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2017-11-16

    We investigate the host galaxy and environment properties of a sample of 400 low z (<0.5) quasars that were imaged in the SDSS Stripe82. We can detect and study the properties of the host galaxy for more than 75% of the data sample. We discover that quasar are mainly hosted in luminous galaxies of absolute magnitude M{sup *} − 3 < M(R) < M{sup *1} and that in the quasar environments the galaxy number density is comparable to that of inactive galaxies of similar luminosities. For these quasars we undertake also a study in u,g,r,i, and z SDSS bands and again we discover that the mean colors of the quasar host galaxy it is not very different with respect to the values of the sample of inactive galaxies. For a subsample of low z sources the imaging study is complemented by spectroscopy of quasar hosts and of close companion galaxies. This study suggests that the supply and cause of the nuclear activity depends only weakly on the local environment of quasars. Contrary to past suggestions, for low redshift quasar there is a very modest connection between recent star formation and the nuclear activity.

  7. The Growth of Central Black Hole and the Ionization Instability of Quasar Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ye; Cheng, K. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    A possible accretion model associated with the ionization instability of quasar disks is proposed to address the growth of the central black hole harbored in the host galaxy. The evolution of quasars in cosmic time is assumed to change from a highly active state to a quiescent state triggered by the S-shaped ionization instability of the quasar accretion disk. For a given external mass transfer rate supplied by the quasar host galaxy, ionization instability can modify accretion rate in the disk and separates the accretion flows of the disk into three different phases, like a S-shape. We suggest that the bright quasars observed today are those quasars with disks in the upper branch of S-shaped instability, and the faint or 'dormant' quasars are simply the system in the lower branch. The middle branch is the transition state which is unstable. We assume the quasar disk evolves according to the advection-dominated inflow-outflow solutions (ADIOS) configuration in the stable lower branch of S-shaped instability, and Eddington accretion rate is used to constrain the accretion rate in each phase. The mass ratio between black hole and its host galactic bulge is a nature consequence of ADIOS. Our model also demonstrates that a seed black hole (BH) similar to those found in spiral galaxies today is needed to produce a BH with a final mass 2 x 10(exp 8) solar mases.

  8. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible...

  9. Kinematics of the ionized gas around the quasar MR 2251-178

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.S.; Valentijn, E. A.

    O III forbidden line observations of the nearby quasar MR 2251-178 were made with the Taurus II imaging Fabry-Perot instrument. The line emission around the quasar is found to consist of several regions of high surface brightness located in two half-cones with an opening angle of about 37 deg

  10. A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...

  11. GNIRS-DQS: A Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph Distant Quasar Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandon; Shemmer, Ohad; Brotherton, Michael S.; Andruchow, Ileana; Boroson, Todd A.; Brandt, W. Niel; Cellone, Sergio; Ferrero, Gabriel; Gallagher, Sarah; Green, Richard F.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lira, Paulina; Myers, Adam D.; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Runnoe, Jessie; Schneider, Donald P.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Willott, Chris J.; Wills, Beverley J.

    2018-06-01

    We describe an ongoing three-year Gemini survey, launched in 2017, that will obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 416 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars between redshifts of 1.5 and 3.5 in the ~1.0-2.5 μm band. These spectra will cover critical diagnostic emission lines, such as Mg II, Hβ, and [O III], in each source. This project will more than double the existing inventory of near-infrared spectra of luminous quasars at these redshifts, including the era of fast quasar growth. Additional rest frame ultraviolet coverage of at least the C IV emission line is provided by the SDSS spectrum of each source. We will utilize the spectroscopic inventory to determine the most accurate and precise quasar black hole masses, accretion rates, and redshifts, and use the results to derive improved prescriptions for UV-based proxies for these parameters. The improved redshifts will establish velocities of quasar outflows that interact with the host galaxies, and will help constrain how imprecise distance estimates bias quasar clustering measurements. Furthermore, our measurements will facilitate a more complete understanding of how the rest-frame UV-optical spectral properties depend on redshift and luminosity, and test whether the physical properties of the quasar central engine evolve over cosmic time. We will make our data immediately available to the public, provide reduced spectra via a dedicated website, and produce a catalog of measurements and fundamental quasar properties.

  12. Narrow CIV lambda 1549A Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    A large, high-quality spectral data base of well-selected, moderate-redshift radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars is used to characterize the incidence of narrow associated CIV lambda 1549 absorption, and how this may depend on some quasar properties, including radio-type. Preliminary results...

  13. Occurrence and Global Properties of Narrow CIV lambda 1549 Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    A statistical study is presented of (a) the frequency of narrow CIV lambda 1549 absorption lines in 1.5 ~50%) of narrow CIV absorbers is detected for the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars, and a constant ~25% of all the quasars, irrespective of radio type display associated CIV absorbers stronger...

  14. Quasars in the 4D Eigenvector 1 Context: a stroll down memory lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulentic, Jack; Marziani, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Recently some pessimism has been expressed about our lack of progress in understanding quasars over more than fifty year since their discovery. It is worthwhile to look back at some of the progress that has been made - but still lies under the radar - perhaps because few people are working on optical/UV spectroscopy in this field. Great advances in understanding quasar phenomenology have emerged using eigenvector techniques. The 4D eigenvector 1 context provides a surrogate H-R Diagram for quasars with a source main sequence driven by Eddington ratio convolved with line-of-sight orientation. Appreciating the striking differences between quasars at opposite ends of the main sequence (so-called population A and B sources) opens the door towards a unified model of quasar physics, geometry and kinematics. We present a review of some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and point out unsolved issues.

  15. Quasars in the 4D Eigenvector 1 Context: a stroll down memory lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack W. Sulentic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently some pessimism has been expressed about our lack of progress in understanding quasars over more than fifty year since their discovery. It is worthwhile to look back at some of the progress that has been made – but still lies under the radar – perhaps because few people are working on optical/UV spectroscopy in this field. Great advances in understanding quasar phenomenology have emerged using eigenvector techniques. The 4D eigenvector 1 context provides a surrogate H-R Diagram for quasars with a source main sequence driven by Eddington ratio convolved with line-of-sight orientation. Appreciating the striking differences between quasars at opposite ends of the main sequence (so-called population A and B sources opens the door towards a unified model of quasar physics, geometry and kinematics. We present a review of some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and point out unsolved issues.

  16. Environment of the quasar PG 1613 + 65 (Mkn 876) - a close interacting pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.K.C.; Green, R.F.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic and two-color imaging of the environment of the bright, low-redshift quasar PG 1613 + 65 = Mkn 876 is presented. The quasar is situated in a poor cluster of galaxies of Abell richness class 0. The quasar's morphology includes a 25 arcsec long tidal tail emanating from the east side, 180 deg from the position angle of a secondary nucleus 1.9 arcsec from the main nucleus. The nebulous component of the quasar is analyzed and found to be more than twice as bright as a first-rank cluster galaxy. The average colors of the tidal tail and the main body are consistent with those of late-type spiral galaxies. The possibility that the quasar host is interacting with a very close neighbor is assessed, and the star-forming effects of such an interaction on the host galaxy are considered. 43 references

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Fourteen Low-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, Rajib; Brotherton, Michael S.; Arav, Nahum

    2007-01-01

    We present low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of 14 low redshift (z zz 1.4 Large Bright Quasar samples. By design, our objects sample luminosities in between these two surveys, and our four absorbed objects are consistent with the v ~ L^0.62 relation derived by Laor & Brandt (2002). Another quasar......, HE0441-2826, contains extremely weak emission lines and our spectrum is consistent with a simple power-law continuum. The quasar is radio-loud, but has a steep spectral index and a lobe-dominated morphology, which argues against it being a blazar. The unusual spectrum of this quasar resembles...... the spectra of the quasars PG1407+265, SDSSJ1136+0242, and PKS1004+13 for which several possible explanations have been entertained....

  18. Quasars in the 4D eigenvector 1 context: a stroll down memory lane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulentic, Jack W.; Marziani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Recently some pessimism has been expressed about our lack of progress in understanding quasars over the 50+ year since their discovery (Antonucci, 2013). It is worthwhile to look back at some of the progress that has been made—but still lies under the radar—perhaps because few people are working on optical/UV spectroscopy in this field. Great advances in understanding quasar phenomenology have emerged using eigenvector techniques. The 4D eigenvector 1 context provides a surrogate H-R Diagram for quasars with a source main sequence driven by Eddington ratio convolved with line-of-sight orientation. Appreciating the striking differences between quasars at opposite ends of the main sequence (so-called population A and B sources) opens the door toward a unified model of quasar physics, geometry and kinematics. We present a review of some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and point out unsolved issues.

  19. WHT spectroscopy of emission-line gas around two separate quasars at z = 0.87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.C.; Crawford, C.S.; Johnstone, R.M.; Hewett, P.C.; Allington-Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A report is given of observations made with the Faint Object Spectrograph on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT), in which the line emission of the fuzz around two separate quasars, which coincidentally both have redshifts z = 0.87, is detected and measured. These represent the most distant quasars for which the spectrum of the fuzz has been obtained. The oxygen line ratios we observe are similar to those of the lower-z quasar 3C48 (to which the present quasars show a strong similarity) and again imply a high gas density. If confined by surrounding hot gas, the pressure is so high that an intracluster medium is required. This suggests that the quasars lie in clusters or groups of galaxies. (author)

  20. Quasars in the 4D eigenvector 1 context: a stroll down memory lane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulentic, Jack W. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Granada (Spain); Marziani, Paola, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-13

    Recently some pessimism has been expressed about our lack of progress in understanding quasars over the 50+ year since their discovery (Antonucci, 2013). It is worthwhile to look back at some of the progress that has been made—but still lies under the radar—perhaps because few people are working on optical/UV spectroscopy in this field. Great advances in understanding quasar phenomenology have emerged using eigenvector techniques. The 4D eigenvector 1 context provides a surrogate H-R Diagram for quasars with a source main sequence driven by Eddington ratio convolved with line-of-sight orientation. Appreciating the striking differences between quasars at opposite ends of the main sequence (so-called population A and B sources) opens the door toward a unified model of quasar physics, geometry and kinematics. We present a review of some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and point out unsolved issues.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV-bright quasars (Syphers+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphers, D.; Anderson, S. F.; Zheng, W.; Haggard, D.; Meiksin, A.; Schneider, D. P.; York, D. G.

    2010-03-01

    Absorption along quasar sightlines remains among the most sensitive direct measures of HeII reionization in much of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Until recently, fewer than a half-dozen unobscured quasar sightlines suitable for the HeII Gunn-Peterson test were known; although these handful demonstrated great promise, the small sample size limited confidence in cosmological inferences. We have recently added nine more such clean HeII quasars, exploiting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar samples, broadband ultraviolet (UV) imaging from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), and high-yield UV spectroscopic confirmations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we markedly expand this approach by cross-correlating SDSS DR7 and GALEX GR4+5 to catalog 428 SDSS and 165 other quasars with z>2.78 having likely (~70%) GALEX detections, suggesting they are bright into the far-UV. Reconnaissance HST Cycle 16 Supplemental prism data for 29 of these new quasar-GALEX matches spectroscopically confirm 17 as indeed far-UV bright. At least 10 of these confirmations have clean sightlines all the way down to HeII Lyα, substantially expanding the number of known clean HeII quasars, and reaffirming the order of magnitude enhanced efficiency of our selection technique. Combined confirmations from this and our past programs yield more than 20 HeII quasars, quintupling the sample. These provide substantial progress toward a sample of HeII quasar sightlines large enough, and spanning a sufficient redshift range, to enable statistical IGM studies that may avoid individual object peculiarity and sightline variance. Our expanded catalog of hundreds of high-likelihood far-UV-bright QSOs additionally will be useful for understanding the extreme-UV properties of the quasars themselves. (2 data files).

  2. The SDSS view of the Palomar-Green bright quasar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jester, Sebastian; Schneider, Donald P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Green, Richard F.; Schmidt, Maarten; Hall, Patrick B.; Strauss, Michael A.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Stoughton, Chris; Gunn, James E.; Brinkmann, Jon; Kent, Stephen M.; Smith, J.Allyn; Tucker, Douglas, L.; Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Princeton U.

    2005-02-01

    The author investigates the extent to which the Palomar-Green (PG) Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) is complete and representative of the general quasar population by comparing with imaging and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A comparison of SDSS and PG photometry of both stars and quasars reveals the need to apply a color and magnitude recalibration to the PG data. Using the SDSS photometric catalog, they define the PG's parent sample of objects that are not main-sequence stars and simulate the selection of objects from this parent sample using the PG photometric criteria and errors. This simulation shows that the effective U-B cut in the PG survey is U-B < -0.71, implying a color-related incompleteness. As the color distribution of bright quasars peaks near U-B = -0.7 and the 2-{sigma} error in U-B is comparable to the full width of the color distribution of quasars, the color incompleteness of the BQS is approximately 50% and essentially random with respect to U-B color for z < 0.5. There is however, a bias against bright quasars at 0.5 < z < 1, which is induced by the color-redshift relation of quasars (although quasars at z > 0.5 are inherently rare in bright surveys in any case). They find no evidence for any other systematic incompleteness when comparing the distributions in color, redshift, and FIRST radio properties of the BQS and a BQS-like subsample of the SDSS quasar sample. However, the application of a bright magnitude limit biases the BQS toward the inclusion of objects which are blue in g-i, in particular compared to the full range of g-i colors found among the i-band limited SDSS quasars, and even at i-band magnitudes comparable to those of the BQS objects.

  3. HUBBLE'S 100,000TH EXPOSURE CAPTURES IMAGE OF DISTANT QUASAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope achieved its 100,000th exposure June 22 with a snapshot of a quasar that is about 9 billion light-years from Earth. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 clicked this image of the quasar, the bright object in the center of the photo. The fainter object just above it is an elliptical galaxy. Although the two objects appear to be close to each other, they are actually separated by about 2 billion light-years. Located about 7 billion light-years away, the galaxy is almost directly in front of the quasar. Astronomer Charles Steidel of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., indirectly discovered the galaxy when he examined the quasar's light, which contained information about the galaxy's chemical composition. The reason, Steidel found, was that the galaxy was absorbing the light at certain frequencies. The astronomer is examining other background quasars to determine which kinds of galaxies absorb light at the same frequencies. Steidel also was somewhat surprised to discover that the galaxy is an elliptical, rather than a spiral. Elliptical galaxies are generally believed to contain very little gas. However, this elliptical has a gaseous 'halo' and contains no visible stars. Part of the halo is directly in front of the quasar. The bright object to the right of the quasar is a foreground star. The quasar and star are separated by billions of light-years. The quasar looks as bright as the star because it produces a tremendous amount of light from a compact source. The 'disturbed-looking' double spiral galaxy above the quasar also is in the foreground. Credit: Charles Steidel (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) and NASA. Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  4. SDSS J1254+0846: A BINARY QUASAR CAUGHT IN THE ACT OF MERGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Paul J.; Cox, Thomas J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Myers, Adam D.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Bennert, Vardha N.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first luminous, spatially resolved binary quasar that clearly inhabits an ongoing galaxy merger. SDSS J125455.09+084653.9 and SDSS J125454.87+084652.1 (SDSS J1254+0846 hereafter) are two luminous z = 0.44 radio-quiet quasars, with a radial velocity difference of just 215 km s -1 , separated on the sky by 21 kpc in a disturbed host galaxy merger showing obvious tidal tails. The pair was targeted as part of a complete sample of binary quasar candidates with small transverse separations drawn from SDSS DR6 photometry. We present follow-up optical imaging which shows broad, symmetrical tidal arm features spanning some 75 kpc at the quasars' redshift. Previously, the triggering of two quasars during a merger had only been hypothesized but our observations provide strong evidence of such an event. SDSS J1254+0846, as a face-on, pre-coalescence merger hosting two luminous quasars separated by a few dozen kpc, provides a unique opportunity to probe quasar activity in an ongoing gas-rich merger. Numerical modeling suggests that the system consists of two massive disk galaxies prograde to their mutual orbit, caught during the first passage of an active merger. This demonstrates rapid black hole growth during the early stages of a merger between galaxies with pre-existing bulges. Neither of the two luminous nuclei show significant intrinsic absorption by gas or dust in our optical or X-ray observations, illustrating that not all merging quasars will be in an obscured, ultraluminous phase. We find that the Eddington ratio for the fainter component B is rather normal, while for the A component L/L Edd is quite (>3σ) high compared to quasars of similar luminosity and redshift, possibly evidence for strong merger-triggered accretion. More such mergers should be identifiable at higher redshifts using binary quasars as tracers.

  5. Extreme Variability Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumbaugh, N.; Shen, Yue; Morganson, Eric; Liu, Xin; Banerji, M.; McMahon, R. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2018-02-20

    We perform a systematic search for long-term extreme variability quasars (EVQs) in the overlapping Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and 3-Year Dark Energy Survey (DES) imaging, which provide light curves spanning more than 15 years. We identified ~1000 EVQs with a maximum g band magnitude change of more than 1 mag over this period, about 10% of all quasars searched. The EVQs have L_bol~10^45-10^47 erg/s and L/L_Edd~0.01-1. Accounting for selection effects, we estimate an intrinsic EVQ fraction of ~30-50% among all g<~22 quasars over a baseline of ~15 years. These EVQs are good candidates for so-called "changing-look quasars", where a spectral transition between the two types of quasars (broad-line and narrow-line) is observed between the dim and bright states. We performed detailed multi-wavelength, spectral and variability analyses for the EVQs and compared to their parent quasar sample. We found that EVQs are distinct from a control sample of quasars matched in redshift and optical luminosity: (1) their UV broad emission lines have larger equivalent widths; (2) their Eddington ratios are systematically lower; and (3) they are more variable on all timescales. The intrinsic difference in quasar properties for EVQs suggest that internal processes associated with accretion are the main driver for the observed extreme long-term variability. However, despite their different properties, EVQs seem to be in the tail of a continuous distribution of quasar properties, rather than standing out as a distinct population. We speculate that EVQs are normal quasars accreting at relatively low accretion rates, where the accretion flow is more likely to experience instabilities that drive the factor of few changes in flux on multi-year timescales.

  6. A DESCRIPTION OF QUASAR VARIABILITY MEASURED USING REPEATED SDSS AND POSS IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ivezić, Željko; Becker, Andrew C.; Anderson, Scott F.; Sesar, Branimir; De Vries, Wim; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Lupton, Robert H.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description and statistical interpretation of the optical continuum variability of quasars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has obtained repeated imaging in five UV-to-IR photometric bands for 33,881 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. About 10,000 quasars have an average of 60 observations in each band obtained over a decade along Stripe 82 (S82), whereas the remaining ∼25,000 have 2-3 observations due to scan overlaps. The observed time lags span the range from a day to almost 10 years, and constrain quasar variability at rest-frame time lags of up to 4 years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 Å to 6000 Å. We publicly release a user-friendly catalog of quasars from the SDSS Data Release 7 that have been observed at least twice in SDSS or once in both SDSS and the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and we use it to analyze the ensemble properties of quasar variability. Based on a damped random walk (DRW) model defined by a characteristic timescale and an asymptotic variability amplitude that scale with the luminosity, black hole mass, and rest wavelength for individual quasars calibrated in S82, we can fully explain the ensemble variability statistics of the non-S82 quasars such as the exponential distribution of large magnitude changes. All available data are consistent with the DRW model as a viable description of the optical continuum variability of quasars on timescales of ∼5-2000 days in the rest frame. We use these models to predict the incidence of quasar contamination in transient surveys such as those from the Palomar Transient Factory and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  7. The Intrinsic Far-infrared Continua of Type-1 Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, George H., E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The range of currently proposed active galactic nucleus (AGN) far-infrared templates results in uncertainties in retrieving host galaxy information from infrared observations and also undermines constraints on the outer part of the AGN torus. We discuss how to test and reconcile these templates. Physically, the fraction of the intrinsic AGN IR-processed luminosity compared with that from the central engine should be consistent with the dust-covering factor. In addition, besides reproducing the composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of quasars, a correct AGN IR template combined with an accurate library of star-forming galaxy templates should be able to reproduce the IR properties of the host galaxies, such as the luminosity-dependent SED shapes and aromatic feature strengths. We develop tests based on these expected behaviors and find that the shape of the AGN intrinsic far-IR emission drops off rapidly starting at ∼20 μ m and can be matched by an Elvis et al.-like template with a minor modification. Despite the variations in the near- to mid-IR bands, AGNs in quasars and Seyfert galaxies have remarkably similar intrinsic far-IR SEDs at λ ∼ 20–100 μ m, suggesting a similar emission character of the outermost region of the circumnuclear torus. The variations of the intrinsic AGN IR SEDs among the type-1 quasar population can be explained by the changing relative strengths of four major dust components with similar characteristic temperatures, and there is evidence for compact AGN-heated dusty structures at sub-kiloparsec scales in the far-IR.

  8. Plasma surface modification of rigid contact lenses decreases bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingming; Qian, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Wei; Zhong, Lei; Sun, Zhengtai; Xia, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Contact lens safety is an important topic in clinical studies. Corneal infections usually occur because of the use of bacteria-carrying contact lenses. The current study investigated the impact of plasma surface modification on bacterial adherence to rigid contact lenses made of fluorosilicone acrylate materials. Boston XO and XO2 contact lenses were modified using plasma technology (XO-P and XO2-P groups). Untreated lenses were used as controls. Plasma-treated and control lenses were incubated in solutions containing Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MTT colorimetry, colony-forming unit counting method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure bacterial adhesion. MTT colorimetry measurements showed that the optical density (OD) values of XO-P and XO2-P were significantly lower than those of XO and XO2, respectively, after incubation with S. aureus (P lenses and to the XO2-P versus XO2 lenses incubated with S. aureus (P lenses incubated with P. aeruginosa (P lenses. Plasma surface modification can significantly decrease bacterial adhesion to fluorosilicone acrylate contact lenses. This study provides important evidence of a unique benefit of plasma technology in contact lens surface modification.

  9. A new case of gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10 11 M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to Δt approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO. (author)

  10. Nulling tomography with weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan; White, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We explore several strategies of eliminating (or nulling) the small-scale information in weak lensing convergence power spectrum measurements in order to protect against undesirable effects, for example, the effects of baryonic cooling and pressure forces on the distribution of large-scale structures. We selectively throw out the small-scale information in the convergence power spectrum that is most sensitive to the unwanted bias, while trying to retain most of the sensitivity to cosmological parameters. The strategies are effective in the difficult but realistic situations when we are able to guess the form of the contaminating effect only approximately. However, we also find that the simplest scheme of simply not using information from the largest multipoles works about as well as the proposed techniques in most, although not all, realistic cases. We advocate further exploration of nulling techniques and believe that they will find important applications in the weak lensing data mining

  11. Poisson equation for weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Thomas P.; Campbell, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Using the Newman and Penrose [E. T. Newman and R. Penrose, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 3, 566 (1962).] spin-coefficient formalism, we examine the full Bianchi identities of general relativity in the context of gravitational lensing, where the matter and space-time curvature are projected into a lens plane perpendicular to the line of sight. From one component of the Bianchi identity, we provide a rigorous, new derivation of a Poisson equation for the projected matter density where the source term involves second derivatives of the observed weak gravitational lensing shear. We also show that the other components of the Bianchi identity reveal no new results. Numerical integration of the Poisson equation in test cases shows an accurate mass map can be constructed from the combination of a ground-based, wide-field image and a Hubble Space Telescope image of the same system

  12. Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L

    2005-02-11

    Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics.

  13. Calibration of fisheye lenses for hemispherical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaci, J.; Kolar, U.

    2000-01-01

    Hemispherical photography represents one of the most appropriate methods of estimating averages of solar radiation over extended periods of time. This method is based upon the use of extremely wide-angle fisheye lenses, which produce large projection distortion. To correctly interpret hemispherical photography we have to know the projection characteristics of the fisheye lens in combination with a camera body. This can be achieved through lens calibration. The first part of the article explains in detail the calibration method for fisheye lenses which are used to assess the solar radiation in forest ecology research. In the second part the results of calibration for fisheye lens Sigma 8 mm, f/4 (MF, N) are presented. The lens was used on a Nikon F50 camera body

  14. Antifouling leaching technique for optical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Perez, C. L.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of optical lenses deployed in water less than 100 m deep is significantly reduced by biofouling caused by the settlement of macrofauna, such as barnacles, hydroids, and tunicates. However, machineable porous plastic rings can be used to dispense antifoulant into the water in front of the lens to retard macrofaunal growth without obstructing the light path. Unlike coatings which can degrade the optical performance, antifouling rings do not interfere with the instrument optics. The authors have designed plastic, reusable cup-like antifouling rings to slip over the optical lenses of a transmissometer. These rings have been used for several deployments on shallow moorings in Massachusetts Bay, MA and have increased the time before fouling degrades optical characteristics

  15. Microbial adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to contact lenses is believed to be one of the initiating events in the formation of many corneal infiltrative events, including microbial keratitis, that occur during contact lens wear. The advent of silicone hydrogel lenses has not reduced the incidence of these events. This may partly be related to the ability of microbes to adhere to these lenses. The aim of this study was to review the published literature on microbial adhesion to contact lenses, focusing on adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses. The literature on microbial adhesion to contact lenses was searched, along with associated literature on adverse events that occur during contact lens wear. Particular reference was paid to the years 1995 through 2012 because this encompasses the time when the first clinical trials of silicone hydrogel lenses were reported, and their commercial availability and the publication of epidemiology studies on adverse events were studied. In vitro studies of bacterial adhesion to unworn silicone hydrogel lens have shown that generally, bacteria adhere to these lenses in greater numbers than to the hydroxyethyl methacrylate-based soft lenses. Lens wear has different effects on microbial adhesion, and this is dependent on the type of lens and microbial species/genera that is studied. Biofilms that can be formed on any lens type tend to protect the bacteria and fungi from the effects on disinfectants. Fungal hyphae can penetrate the surface of most types of lenses. Acanthamoeba adhere in greater numbers to first-generation silicone hydrogel lenses compared with the second-generation or hydroxyethyl methacrylate-based soft lenses. Microbial adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses occurs and is associated with the production of corneal infiltrative events during lens wear.

  16. Using Quasars as Standard Candles for Studying Dark Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Watson, D.

    2012-01-01

    , which relies on the technique of reverberation mapping to measure time delays between the quasar continuum and emission line variability signatures. Measuring this time delay effectively measures the radius between the central source and the emission-line gas. The emission line gas is photo-ionized...... by the continuum photons, and the radius to this emission-line region scales tightly with the nuclear luminosity - a consequence of the photoionization physics responsible for regulating the production of line-emitting photons. Hence, measuring the radius of the emission-line gas provides a measure...

  17. Narrow Quasar Absorption Lines and the History of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebscher, Dierck-Ekkehard

    In order to get an estimation of the parameters of the cosmological model the statistics of narrow absorption lines in quasar spectra is evaluated. To this end a phenomenological model of the evolution of the corresponding absorbers in density, size, number and dimension is presented and compared with the observed evolution in the spectral density of the lines and their column density seen in the equivalent width. In spite of the wide range of possible models, the Einstein-deSitter model is shown to be unlikely because of the implied fast evolution in mass.

  18. A homogeneous catalogue of quasar candidates found with slitless spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchemin, M.; Borra, E.F.; Edwards, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives a list of all quasar candidates obtained from an automated computer search performed on 11 grens plates. The description of the main characteristics of the survey is given along with the latest improvements in the selection techniques. Particular attention has been paid to understanding and quantifying selection effects. This allows the construction of homogeneous samples having well-understood characteristics. The noteworthy aspect of our homogenization process is the correction that we apply to our probability classes in order to take into account the signal-to-noise differences; at a given magnitude, among plates of different limiting magnitudes. (author)

  19. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badia, Javier [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  20. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia, Javier; Eiroa, Ernesto F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  1. Automatic centring and bonding of lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Stefan; Heinisch, J.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2007-05-01

    We present an automatic bonding station which is able to center and bond individual lenses or doublets to a barrel with sub micron centring accuracy. The complete manufacturing cycle includes the glue dispensing and UV curing. During the process the state of centring is continuously controlled by the vision software, and the final result is recorded to a file for process statistics. Simple pass or fail results are displayed to the operator at the end of the process.

  2. Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian contributions and a gravitomagnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hypotheses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravitomagnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories from each other

  3. Automation Enhancement of Multilayer Laue Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer K. R.; Conley R.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray optics fabrication at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been facilitated by a new, state of the art magnetron sputtering physical deposition system. With its nine magnetron sputtering cathodes and substrate carrier that moves on a linear rail via a UHV brushless linear servo motor, the system is capable of accurately depositing the many thousands of layers necessary for multilayer Laue lenses. I have engineered a versatile and automated control program from scratch for the base system and many subsystems. Its main features include a custom scripting language, a fully customizable graphical user interface, wireless and remote control, and a terminal-based interface. This control system has already been successfully used in the creation of many types of x-ray optics, including several thousand layer multilayer Laue lenses.Before reaching the point at which a deposition can be run, stencil-like masks for the sputtering cathodes must be created to ensure the proper distribution of sputtered atoms. Quality of multilayer Laue lenses can also be difficult to measure, given the size of the thin film layers. I employ my knowledge of software and algorithms to further ease these previously painstaking processes with custom programs. Additionally, I will give an overview of an x-ray optic simulator package I helped develop during the summer of 2010. In the interest of keeping my software free and open, I have worked mostly with the multiplatform Python and the PyQt application framework, utilizing C and C++ where necessary.

  4. Gravitational lensing of the SNLS supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, T.

    2011-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae have become an essential tool of modern observational cosmology. By studying the distance-redshift relation of a large number of supernovae, the nature of dark energy can be unveiled. Distances to Type Ia SNe are however affected by gravitational lensing which can induce systematic effects in the measurement of cosmology. The majority of the supernovae is slightly de-magnified whereas a small fraction is significantly magnified due to the mass distribution along the line of sight. This causes naturally an additional dispersion in the observed magnitudes. There are two different ways to estimate the magnification of a supernova. A first method consists in comparing the supernova luminosity, which is measured to about 15% precision, to the mean SN luminosity at the same redshift. Another estimate can be obtained from predicting the magnification induced by the foreground matter density modeled from the measurements of the luminosity of the galaxies with an initial prior on the mass-luminosity relation of the galaxies. A correlation between these 2 estimates will make it possible to tune the initially used mass-luminosity relation resulting in an independent measurement of the dark matter clustering based on the luminosity of SNe Ia. Evidently, this measurement depends crucially on the detection of this correlation also referred to as the lensing signal. This thesis is dedicated to the measurement of the lensing signal in the SNLS 3-year sample. (author)

  5. Primordial black holes survive SN lensing constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    It has been claimed in [arxiv:1712.02240] that massive primordial black holes (PBH) cannot constitute all of the dark matter (DM), because their gravitational-lensing imprint on the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae (SN) would be incompatible with present observations. In this note, we critically review those constraints and find several caveats on the analysis. First of all, the constraints on the fraction α of PBH in matter seem to be driven by a very restrictive choice of priors on the cosmological parameters. In particular, the degeneracy between Ωm and α was ignored and thus, by fixing Ωm, transferred the constraining power of SN magnitudes to α. Furthermore, by considering more realistic physical sizes for the type-Ia supernovae, we find an effect on the SN lensing magnification distribution that leads to significantly looser constraints. Moreover, considering a wide mass spectrum of PBH, such as a lognormal distribution, further softens the constraints from SN lensing. Finally, we find that the fraction of PBH that could constitute DM today is bounded by fPBH < 1 . 09(1 . 38) , for JLA (Union 2.1) catalogs, and thus it is perfectly compatible with an all-PBH dark matter scenario in the LIGO band.

  6. Electron lenses for the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari†, G; Bruce, R; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua Ferrando, B

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beamswhose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-bybunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beamcompensation, and for the demonstration of halo scrapingwith hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. A conceptual design was recently completed, and the project is moving towards a technical design in 2014–2015 for construction in 2015–2017, if needed, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing collimation needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of the...

  7. Beryllium parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, B.; Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Benner, B.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Somogyi, A.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They focus in both directions. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be used like glass lenses are used for visible light, the main difference being that the numerical aperture N.A. is much smaller than 1 (of order 10-4 to 10-3). Their main applications are in micro- and nanofocusing, in imaging by absorption and phase contrast and in fluorescence mode. In combination with tomography they allow for 3-dimensional imaging of opaque media with submicrometer resolution. Finally, they can be used in speckle spectroscopy by means of coherent x-ray scattering. Beryllium as lens material strongly enhances the transmission and the field of view as compared to aluminium. With increased N.A. the lateral resolution is also considerably improved with Be lenses. References to a number of applications are given

  8. First Discoveries of z > 6 Quasars with the DECam Legacy Survey and UKIRT Hemisphere Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feige; Yang, Jinyi; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Qian; Li, Zefeng [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Ding, Jiani; Green, Richard [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Li, Jiang-Tao [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Dye, Simon [School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Findlay, Joseph R.; Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lang, Dustin [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Lawrence, Andy; Ross, Nicholas P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-04-10

    We present the first discoveries from a survey of z ≳ 6 quasars using imaging data from the DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) in the optical, the UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) and a preliminary version of the UKIRT Hemisphere Survey (UHS) in the near-IR, and ALLWISE in the mid-IR. DECaLS will image 9000 deg{sup 2} of sky down to z {sub AB} ∼ 23.0, and UKIDSS and UHS will map the northern sky at 0 < decl. < +60°, reaching J {sub VEGA} ∼ 19.6 (5- σ ). The combination of these data sets allows us to discover quasars at redshift z ≳ 7 and to conduct a complete census of the faint quasar population at z ≳ 6. In this paper, we report on the selection method of our search, and on the initial discoveries of two new, faint z ≳ 6 quasars and one new z = 6.63 quasar in our pilot spectroscopic observations. The two new z ∼ 6 quasars are at z = 6.07 and z = 6.17 with absolute magnitudes at rest-frame wavelength 1450 Å being M {sub 1450} = −25.83 and M {sub 1450} = −25.76, respectively. These discoveries suggest that we can find quasars close to or fainter than the break magnitude of the Quasar Luminosity Function (QLF) at z ≳ 6. The new z = 6.63 quasar has an absolute magnitude of M {sub 1450} = −25.95. This demonstrates the potential of using the combined DECaLS and UKIDSS/UHS data sets to find z ≳ 7 quasars. Extrapolating from previous QLF measurements, we predict that these combined data sets will yield ∼200 z ∼ 6 quasars to z {sub AB} < 21.5, ∼1000 z ∼ 6 quasars to z {sub AB} < 23, and ∼30 quasars at z > 6.5 to J {sub VEGA} < 19.5.

  9. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Fan Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/V a correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 10 8 M sun . Our analysis implies that at a given M BH , z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  10. Galaxy–Galaxy Weak-lensing Measurements from SDSS. I. Image Processing and Lensing Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wentao [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Jun; Tweed, Dylan [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Fu, Liping; Shu, Chenggang [Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, 200234, Shanghai (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Bosch, Frank C. van den [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Li, Ran [Key Laboratory for Computational Astrophysics, Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Li, Nan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Yiran [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Radovich, Mario, E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Napoli, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2017-02-10

    We present our image processing pipeline that corrects the systematics introduced by the point-spread function (PSF). Using this pipeline, we processed Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 imaging data in r band and generated a galaxy catalog containing the shape information. Based on our shape measurements of the galaxy images from SDSS DR7, we extract the galaxy–galaxy (GG) lensing signals around foreground spectroscopic galaxies binned in different luminosities and stellar masses. We estimated the systematics, e.g., selection bias, PSF reconstruction bias, PSF dilution bias, shear responsivity bias, and noise rectification bias, which in total is between −9.1% and 20.8% at 2 σ levels. The overall GG lensing signals we measured are in good agreement with Mandelbaum et al. The reduced χ {sup 2} between the two measurements in different luminosity bins are from 0.43 to 0.83. Larger reduced χ {sup 2} from 0.60 to 1.87 are seen for different stellar mass bins, which is mainly caused by the different stellar mass estimator. The results in this paper with higher signal-to-noise ratio are due to the larger survey area than SDSS DR4, confirming that more luminous/massive galaxies bear stronger GG lensing signals. We divide the foreground galaxies into red/blue and star-forming/quenched subsamples and measure their GG lensing signals. We find that, at a specific stellar mass/luminosity, the red/quenched galaxies have stronger GG lensing signals than their counterparts, especially at large radii. These GG lensing signals can be used to probe the galaxy–halo mass relations and their environmental dependences in the halo occupation or conditional luminosity function framework.

  11. DISCOVERING THE MISSING 2.2 < z < 3 QUASARS BY COMBINING OPTICAL VARIABILITY AND OPTICAL/NEAR-INFRARED COLORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuebing; Wang Ran; Bian Fuyan; Jiang Linhua; Fan Xiaohui; Schmidt, Kasper B.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of quasars in the redshift range 2.2 < z < 3 is known to be very inefficient because the optical colors of such quasars are indistinguishable from those of stars. Recent studies have proposed using optical variability or near-infrared (near-IR) colors to improve the identification of the missing quasars in this redshift range. Here we present a case study combining both methods. We select a sample of 70 quasar candidates from variables in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, which are non-ultraviolet excess sources and have UKIDSS near-IR public data. They are clearly separated into two parts on the Y - K/g - z color-color diagram, and 59 of them meet or lie close to a newly proposed Y - K/g - z selection criterion for z < 4 quasars. Of these 59 sources, 44 were previously identified as quasars in SDSS DR7, and 35 of them are quasars at 2.2 < z < 3. We present spectroscopic observations of 14 of 15 remaining quasar candidates using the Bok 2.3 m telescope and the MMT 6.5 m telescope, and successfully identify all of them as new quasars at z = 2.36-2.88. We also apply this method to a sample of 643 variable quasar candidates with SDSS-UKIDSS nine-band photometric data selected from 1875 new quasar candidates in SDSS Stripe 82 given by Butler and Bloom based on the time-series selections, and find that 188 of them are probably new quasars with photometric redshifts at 2.2 < z < 3. Our results indicate that the combination of optical variability and optical/near-IR colors is probably the most efficient way to find 2.2 < z < 3 quasars and is very helpful for constructing a complete quasar sample. We discuss its implications for ongoing and upcoming large optical and near-IR sky surveys.

  12. Cosmological implications of a large complete quasar sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, I E; Nicoll, J F

    1998-04-28

    Objective and reproducible determinations of the probabilistic significance levels of the deviations between theoretical cosmological prediction and direct model-independent observation are made for the Large Bright Quasar Sample [Foltz, C., Chaffee, F. H., Hewett, P. C., MacAlpine, G. M., Turnshek, D. A., et al. (1987) Astron. J. 94, 1423-1460]. The Expanding Universe model as represented by the Friedman-Lemaitre cosmology with parameters qo = 0, Lambda = 0 denoted as C1 and chronometric cosmology (no relevant adjustable parameters) denoted as C2 are the cosmologies considered. The mean and the dispersion of the apparent magnitudes and the slope of the apparent magnitude-redshift relation are the directly observed statistics predicted. The C1 predictions of these cosmology-independent quantities are deviant by as much as 11sigma from direct observation; none of the C2 predictions deviate by >2sigma. The C1 deviations may be reconciled with theory by the hypothesis of quasar "evolution," which, however, appears incapable of being substantiated through direct observation. The excellent quantitative agreement of the C1 deviations with those predicted by C2 without adjustable parameters for the results of analysis predicated on C1 indicates that the evolution hypothesis may well be a theoretical artifact.

  13. The Physical Relation between Disc and Coronal Emission in Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Lusso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modified version of the observed non-linear relation between the X-ray (2 keV and the ultraviolet (2,500 Å emission in quasars (i.e., LX∝LUVγ which involves the full width at half-maximum, FWHM, of the broad emission line, i.e., LX∝LUVγ^ FWHMβ^. By analyzing a sample of 550 optically selected non-jetted quasars in the redshift range of 0.36–2.23 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey cross matched with the XMM-Newton catalog 3XMM-DR6, we found that the additional dependence of the observed LX − LUV correlation on the FWHM of the Mgii broad emission line is statistically significant. Our statistical analysis leads to a much tighter relation with respect to the one neglecting FWHM, and it does not evolve with redshift. We interpret this new relation within an accretion disc corona scenario where reconnection and magnetic loops above the accretion disc can account for the production of the primary X-ray radiation. For a broad line region size depending on the disc luminosity as Rblr∝Ldisc0.5, we find that LX∝LUV4/7 FWHM4/7, which is in very good agreement with the observed correlation.

  14. Evolution of Extragalactic Radio Sources and Quasar/Galaxy Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, C. I.; Ubachukwu, A. A.; Odo, F. C.; Onuchukwu, C. C.

    2018-04-01

    We use a large sample of radio sources to investigate the effects of evolution, luminosity selection and radio source orientation in explaining the apparent deviation of observed angular size - redshift (θ - z) relation of extragalactic radio sources (EGRSs) from the standard model. We have fitted the observed θ - z data with standard cosmological models based on a flat universe (Ω0 = 1). The size evolution of EGRSs has been described as luminosity, temporal and orientation-dependent in the form DP,z,Φ ≍ P±q(1 + z)-m sinΦ, with q=0.3, Φ=59°, m=-0.26 for radio galaxies and q=-0.5, Φ=33°, m=3.1 for radio quasars respectively. Critical points of luminosity, logPcrit=26.33 WHz-1 and logDc=2.51 kpc (316.23 kpc) of the present sample of radio sources were also observed. All the results were found to be consistent with the popular quasar/galaxy unification scheme.

  15. He I lambda 584 in quasars and gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferland, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The He I Lα lambda 584 transfer problem for gaseous nebulae is investigated. Realistic photo-ionization models of quasar clouds and planetary nebulae are combined with the Monte Carlo line transfer technique to determine both the efficiency of destruction of lambda 584 by photo-ionization of hydrogen and the mean number of scatterings undergone before destruction. It is found that large fractions (approximately > 90 per cent) of the lambda 584 photons are destroyed before escaping in all cases considered. Nonetheless, the He I lambda lambda 584, 626 doublet should be present in high redshift quasars with an observed equivalent width of approximately 1 A. Detection of this doublet would provide the only clear indication of the presence or absence of a low density narrow line region for objects in which optical forbidden lines have been redshifted beyond the optical window. The strength of the He I 2 1 S-2 1 P 2.0 μm line is predicted to be approximately 4 times stronger than is actually observed in the planetary nebulae NGC 7027. This suggests that dust is embedded in the ionized gas and causes additional destruction of lambda 584. Finally, the calculations show that photo-ionization model calculations can safely assume nearly complete on-the-spot destruction of lambda 584. The common assumption that the He I singlets are formed in case B conditions is examined in an appendix. (author)

  16. Seeing the Unseen: MIR Spectroscopic Constraints on Quasar Big Blue Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Hines, Dean; Leighly, Karen; Ogle, Patrick; Richards, Gordon

    2008-03-01

    The IRS on Spitzer offers an exciting opportunity for detailed, mid-infrared spectroscopy of z~2 quasars for the first time. This epoch, sampling the peak of the quasar luminosity evolution, is particularly important for understanding the nature of quasar activity in the most massive galaxies. We aim to use this powerful tool to constrain the shape and power of the far-ultraviolet through soft-X-ray ionizing continuum of luminous quasars. Though these so-called `big blue bumps' dominate the power of quasar spectral energy distributions, they are largely unobservable as a result of hydrogen opacity in the Universe. However, we can determine the properties of the big blue bump by studying emission lines from ions in the coronal line region that emit in the mid-infrared and are created by those same energetic and elusive photons. We propose deep, high quality IRS observations of 5 luminous quasars with a range of HeII emission properties to investigate the mid-infrared spectral region in depth and constrain the shape of the ionizing continuum in each quasar. In addition, these high S/N spectra will provide templates for interpreting lower resolution, lower S/N IRS spectra.

  17. Discovery of a very Lyman-α-luminous quasar at z = 6.62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptelova, Ekaterina; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Yu, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Guo, Jhen-Kuei

    2017-02-02

    Distant luminous quasars provide important information on the growth of the first supermassive black holes, their host galaxies and the epoch of reionization. The identification of quasars is usually performed through detection of their Lyman-α line redshifted to 0.9 microns at z > 6.5. Here, we report the discovery of a very Lyman-α luminous quasar, PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 at redshift z = 6.618, selected based on its red colour and multi-epoch detection of the Lyman-α emission in a single near-infrared band. The Lyman-α line luminosity of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 is unusually high and estimated to be 0.8 × 10 12 Solar luminosities (about 3% of the total quasar luminosity). The Lyman-α emission of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 shows fast variability on timescales of days in the quasar rest frame, which has never been detected in any of the known high-redshift quasars. The high luminosity of the Lyman-α line, its narrow width and fast variability resemble properties of local Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies which suggests that the quasar is likely at the active phase of the black hole growth accreting close or even beyond the Eddington limit.

  18. THINK OUTSIDE THE COLOR BOX: PROBABILISTIC TARGET SELECTION AND THE SDSS-XDQSO QUASAR TARGETING CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo; Hogg, David W.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Myers, Adam D.; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Schlegel, David J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Sheldon, Erin S.; McGreer, Ian D.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the SDSS-XDQSO quasar targeting catalog for efficient flux-based quasar target selection down to the faint limit of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) catalog, even at medium redshifts (2.5 ∼ 3.5) quasar probabilities for all 160,904,060 point sources with dereddened i-band magnitude between 17.75 and 22.45 mag in the 14,555 deg 2 of imaging from SDSS Data Release 8. The catalog can be used to define a uniformly selected and efficient low- or medium-redshift quasar survey, such as that needed for the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey project. We show that the XDQSO technique performs as well as the current best photometric quasar-selection technique at low redshift, and outperforms all other flux-based methods for selecting the medium-redshift quasars of our primary interest. We make code to reproduce the XDQSO quasar target selection publicly available.

  19. Evidence for large temperature fluctuations in quasar accretion disks from spectral variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dexter, Jason, E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    The well-known bluer-when-brighter trend observed in quasar variability is a signature of the complex processes in the accretion disk and can be a probe of the quasar variability mechanism. Using a sample of 604 variable quasars with repeat spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS), we construct difference spectra to investigate the physical causes of this bluer-when-brighter trend. The continuum of our composite difference spectrum is well fit by a power law, with a spectral index in excellent agreement with previous results. We measure the spectral variability relative to the underlying spectra of the quasars, which is independent of any extinction, and compare to model predictions. We show that our SDSS spectral variability results cannot be produced by global accretion rate fluctuations in a thin disk alone. However, we find that a simple model of an inhomogeneous disk with localized temperature fluctuations will produce power-law spectral variability over optical wavelengths. We show that the inhomogeneous disk will provide good fits to our observed spectral variability if the disk has large temperature fluctuations in many independently varying zones, in excellent agreement with independent constraints from quasar microlensing disk sizes, their strong UV spectral continuum, and single-band variability amplitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on quasar variability models and add to the mounting evidence that quasar accretion disks have large localized temperature fluctuations.

  20. Think Outside The Color Box: Probabilistic Target Selection And The SDSS-XDQSO Quasar Targeting Catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, J.; Sheldon, E.; Hennawi, J.F.; Hogg, D.W.; Myers, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We present the SDSS-XDQSO quasar targeting catalog for efficient flux-based quasar target selection down to the faint limit of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) catalog, even at medium redshifts (2.5 ∼ 3.5) quasar probabilities for all 160,904,060 point sources with dereddened i-band magnitude between 17.75 and 22.45 mag in the 14,555 deg 2 of imaging from SDSS Data Release 8. The catalog can be used to define a uniformly selected and efficient low- or medium-redshift quasar survey, such as that needed for the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey project. We show that the XDQSO technique performs as well as the current best photometric quasar-selection technique at low redshift, and outperforms all other flux-based methods for selecting the medium-redshift quasars of our primary interest. We make code to reproduce the XDQSO quasar target selection publicly available.

  1. Rest-frame optical photometry of a z-7.54 quasar and its environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarli, Roberto; Banados, Eduardo; Fan, Xiaohui; Walter, Fabian; Venemans, Bram; Paolo, Emanuele; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Wang, Feige; Stern, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Bright quasars are unique tools to study the dawn of galaxy and black hole formation, and to investigate the properties of the universe at the earliest cosmic epochs. We recently discovered the luminous quasar ULAS J1342+0928 at a record-breaking redshift of z=7.54 (whereas the previous quasar redshift record holder was at z=7.08). The presence of a damping wing in the quasar's spectrum, associated with a highly neutral intergalactic medium, and the high bolometric luminosity, powered by accretion on a supermassive, 8e8 Msun black hole, set unparalleled constraints on the history of reionization and on the formation and evolution of first massive black holes, only 690 Myr after the Big Bang. Here we propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer observations to sample the rest-frame optical emission of this quasar and of potential bright companion galaxies. By complementing our already secured observations with HST, IRAM/NOEMA, ALMA, and many other facilities, the proposed dataset will allow us (1) to constrain the Spectral Energy Distribution of the quasar, thus disentangling the contribution of its various components at optical wavelengths; (2) to investigate the quasar environment; and (3) to lay the foundation for high-resolution imaging and sensitive spectroscopy at MIR wavelengths with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  2. [IOP measurement through frequent-replacement soft contact lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, J

    2008-07-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) can be measured through soft contact lenses with an air-puff tonometer. These measurements seemed accurate for low-power negative lenses. For positive soft contact lenses, IOP is overestimated. The measurement of IOP through a soft contact lens is acceptable in clinical practice only for glaucoma screening. In glaucomatous patients or patients with ocular hypertension, IOP measurements should be performed without a contact lens. The main technique for IOP measurement remains Goldmann applanation tonometry.

  3. Do swimming goggles limit microbial contamination of contact lenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne T; Tran, Jess; Truong, Michelle; Harmis, Najat; Zhu, Hua; Stapleton, Fiona

    2011-04-01

    Wearing goggles over contact lenses while swimming is often recommended by eye care professionals. Limited data are available to assess this recommendation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing goggles while swimming limits bacterial colonization on contact lenses and whether the type of lens worn affects contamination rates. Twenty-three subjects underwent two swimming sessions at an ocean (salt water) pool (Maroubra beach Rock Pool, Sydney, Australia). Silicone hydrogel (Ciba Focus Night and Day) or hydrogel lenses (Ciba Focus Daily) were inserted into subjects' eyes before 30 min of swimming sessions, and subjects used modified goggles to mimic goggled and non-goggled conditions. At the end of each session, lenses were collected for microbial investigation. Viable bacterial colonies were classified as gram positive and gram negative and enumerated. The level of bacterial colonization on contact lenses between goggled and non-goggled conditions and between the two lens materials were compared. The range of colony forming units recovered from goggled lenses were 0 to 930 compared with 0 to 1210 on non-goggled lenses. The majority of subjects (16/23) had more microorganisms in the non-goggled condition than when wearing goggles (p = 0.03). Gram negative organisms were found in three non-goggled lenses. No significant difference was shown in the number of bacteria isolated from silicone hydrogel and hydrogel lenses (p > 0.6) irrespective of wearing goggles. Water samples had consistently higher numbers of bacterial counts than those adhered to the lenses; however, no association was found between the number of bacteria in the water sample and those found on the contact lenses. Consistently, fewer bacterial colonies were found on the goggled contact lens, thus suggesting goggles offer some protection against bacterial colonization of contact lenses while swimming. These data would support the recommendation encouraging lens wearers to use goggles

  4. Plasma lenses for SLAC Final Focus Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, D.; Cline, D.; Joshi, C.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Su, J.J.; Williams, R.; Chen, P.; Gundersen, M.; Katsouleas, T.; Norem, J.

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative group of accelerator and plasma physicists and engineers has formed with an interest in exploring the use of plasma lenses to meet the needs of future colliders. Analytic and computational models of plasma lenses are briefly reviewed and several design examples for the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam are presented. The examples include discrete, thick, and adiabatic lenses. A potential plasma source with desirable lens characteristics is presented

  5. Corrections for gravitational lensing of supernovae: better than average?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Christofer; Dahlen, Tomas; Goobar, Ariel; Jonsson, Jakob; Mortsell, Edvard

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of correcting for the magnification due to gravitational lensing of standard candle sources, such as Type Ia supernovae. Our method uses the observed properties of the foreground galaxies along the lines-of-sight to each source and the accuracy of the lensing correction depends on the quality and depth of these observations as well as the uncertainties in translating the observed luminosities to the matter distribution in the lensing galaxies. The current work i...

  6. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS AND QUASAR PROBABILITIES FROM A SINGLE, DATA-DRIVEN GENERATIVE MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo; Hogg, David W.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Myers, Adam D.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; McMahon, Richard G.; Schiminovich, David; Sheldon, Erin S.; Brinkmann, Jon; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for simultaneously classifying and estimating the redshift of quasars. It can separate quasars from stars in arbitrary redshift ranges, estimate full posterior distribution functions for the redshift, and naturally incorporate flux uncertainties, missing data, and multi-wavelength photometry. We build models of quasars in flux-redshift space by applying the extreme deconvolution technique to estimate the underlying density. By integrating this density over redshift, one can obtain quasar flux densities in different redshift ranges. This approach allows for efficient, consistent, and fast classification and photometric redshift estimation. This is achieved by combining the speed obtained by choosing simple analytical forms as the basis of our density model with the flexibility of non-parametric models through the use of many simple components with many parameters. We show that this technique is competitive with the best photometric quasar classification techniques—which are limited to fixed, broad redshift ranges and high signal-to-noise ratio data—and with the best photometric redshift techniques when applied to broadband optical data. We demonstrate that the inclusion of UV and NIR data significantly improves photometric quasar-star separation and essentially resolves all of the redshift degeneracies for quasars inherent to the ugriz filter system, even when included data have a low signal-to-noise ratio. For quasars spectroscopically confirmed by the SDSS 84% and 97% of the objects with Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV and UKIDSS NIR data have photometric redshifts within 0.1 and 0.3, respectively, of the spectroscopic redshift; this amounts to about a factor of three improvement over ugriz-only photometric redshifts. Our code to calculate quasar probabilities and redshift probability distributions is publicly available.

  7. Investigations of Short-Timescale Outflow Variability in Quasars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemler, Zachary; Grier, Catherine; Brandt, William; Hall, Patrick; Schneider, Donald; Shen, Yue; Fernandez-Trincado, Jose; SDSS-RM Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Quasar outflows are hypothesized to regulate the growth of a quasar's host galaxy and the supermassive black hole (SMBH) itself. Thus, understanding the physics of these outflows is imperative to understanding galactic evolution. The physical properties of these outflows, such as density, radial distance from the SMBH, and kinetic energy can be investigated by measuring both the strength and shape variability of broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra. However, the accuracy of physical properties calculated using BAL variability methods is limited by the time resolution of the observations. Recent spectral data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping program (SDSS-RM) provides a novel opportunity to investigate the short-term BAL variability of many quasars at many epochs. The SDSS-RM program took many epochs of spectra for a large sample of quasars over a period of several years, many of which exhibit BALs. The median rest-frame time resolution of these observations is roughly 2 days, in contrast to previous large-sample studies, which typically have time spacing on the order of hundred of days. We are using the SDSS-RM dataset to conduct a BAL variability study that will further constrain outflow properties and provide significant insights into the variability mechanisms of quasar outflows. We are searching for variability in BALs on timescales of less than 2 days among our sample of 22 quasars and determining whether this behavior is common among quasars. We are also investigating the general short-term (less than 10 days) variability characteristics of the entire sample. We will present preliminary results from this study and the possible implications to our understanding of quasar outflows.

  8. Dust reddened quasars in first and UKIDSS: Beyond the tip of the iceberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Urrutia, Tanya [Leibniz Institut fr Astrophysik, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Lacy, Mark [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, Ashish; Graham, Matthew [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Urry, Meg [Department of Physics and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States); Croom, Scott [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ge, Jian, E-mail: eglikman@middlebury.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of a pilot survey to find dust-reddened quasars by matching the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) radio catalog to the UKIDSS near-infrared survey and using optical data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select objects with very red colors. The deep K-band limit provided by UKIDSS allows for finding more heavily reddened quasars at higher redshifts as compared with previous work using FIRST and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). We selected 87 candidates with K ≤ 17.0 from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) First Data Release (DR1), which covers 190 deg{sup 2}. These candidates reach up to ∼1.5 mag below the 2MASS limit and obey the color criteria developed to identify dust-reddened quasars. We have obtained 61 spectroscopic observations in the optical and/or near-infrared, as well as classifications in the literature, and have identified 14 reddened quasars with E(B – V) > 0.1, including 3 at z > 2. We study the infrared properties of the sample using photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer and find that infrared colors improve the efficiency of red quasar selection, removing many contaminants in an infrared-to-optical color-selected sample alone. The highest-redshift quasars (z ≳ 2) are only moderately reddened, with E(B – V) ∼ 0.2-0.3. We find that the surface density of red quasars rises sharply with faintness, comprising up to 17% of blue quasars at the same apparent K-band flux limit. We estimate that to reach more heavily reddened quasars (i.e., E(B – V) ≳ 0.5) at z > 2 and a depth of K = 17, we would need to survey at least ∼2.5 times more area.

  9. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged

  10. Contact lenses fitting after intracorneal ring segments implantation in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bugmann Moreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate contact lenses fitting after intracorneal ring implantation for keratoconus, its visual acuity and comfort. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients undergoing contact lenses fitting, after intracorneal ring for keratoconus. The criterion for contact lens fitting was unsatisfactory visual acuity with spectacle correction as referred by the patients. All patients were intolerants to contact lenses prior to intracorneal implantation. Visual acuity analysis was done by conversion of Snellen to logMAR scales. The comfort was evaluated according subjective questioning of good, medium or poor comfort. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were included in the study. Two patients (10.5% did not achieved good comfort with contact lenses and underwent penetrating keratoplasties. All the others 17 patients showed good or medium comfort. Four rigid gas-permeable contact lenses were fitted, one piggyback approach, 3 toric soft contact lenses, 2 soft lenses specially design for keratoconus and 7 disposable soft lenses. The average visual acuity improved from 0.77 ± 0.37 to 0.19 ± 0.13 logMAR units after contact lenses fitting. CONCLUSION: Contact lens fitting after intracorneal ring is possible, provides good comfort, improves visual acuity, and therefore, may postpone the need for penetrating keratoplasty.

  11. Bacterial adhesion to unworn and worn silicone hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ajay Kumar; Zhu, Hua; Ozkan, Jerome; Wu, Duojia; Masoudi, Simin; Bandara, Rani; Borazjani, Roya N; Willcox, Mark D P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial adhesion to various silicone hydrogel lens materials and to determine whether lens wear modulated adhesion. Bacterial adhesion (total and viable cells) of Staphylococcus aureus (31, 38, and ATCC 6538) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6294, 6206, and GSU-3) to 10 commercially available different unworn and worn silicone hydrogel lenses was measured. Results of adhesion were correlated to polymer and surface properties of contact lenses. S. aureus adhesion to unworn lenses ranged from 2.8 × 10 to 4.4 × 10 colony forming units per lens. The highest adhesion was to lotrafilcon A lenses, and the lowest adhesion was to asmofilcon A lenses. P. aeruginosa adhesion to unworn lenses ranged from 8.9 × 10 to 3.2 × 10 colony forming units per lens. The highest adhesion was to comfilcon A lenses, and the lowest adhesion was to asmofilcon A and balafilcon A lenses. Lens wear altered bacterial adhesion, but the effect was specific to lens and strain type. Adhesion of bacteria, regardless of genera/species or lens wear, was generally correlated with the hydrophobicity of the lens; the less hydrophobic the lens surface, the greater the adhesion. P. aeruginosa adhered in higher numbers to lenses in comparison with S. aureus strains, regardless of the lens type or lens wear. The effect of lens wear was specific to strain and lens. Hydrophobicity of the silicone hydrogel lens surface influenced the adhesion of bacterial cells.

  12. Using Strong Gravitational Lensing to Identify Fossil Group Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas E.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; White, Raymond E., III; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, W. Peter; Dupke, Renato A.; Miller, Eric D.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2018-04-01

    Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group/cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil criteria within the look forward time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong-lensing events with the goal of determining whether lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We find that ∼13% of lensing groups are identified as traditional fossils while only ∼3% of nonlensing control groups are. We also find that ∼23% of lensing systems are traditional fossil progenitors compared to ∼17% for the control sample. Our findings show that strong-lensing systems are more likely to be fossil/pre-fossil systems than comparable nonlensing systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and nonlensing groups also indicate a possible, fundamental difference between strong-lensing and nonlensing systems’ galaxy populations, with lensing systems housing a greater number of bright galaxies even in the outskirts of groups.

  13. V/V/sub m/ test for quasars: A new interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.; Stewart, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    The V/V/sub m/ test is discussed, and it is suggested that if certain problem of misidentification are not taken into account, the expected value for without evolution is not 1/2 , but depends on the quasar luminosity function and is compatible with currently observed values of about 0.68. A complete sample of quasars is examined, and it appears that beyond a redshift of about 0.5, the evidence for evolution is not strong. Differences in the value of for steep and flat spectrum quasars can be simply explained as differences in luminosity function

  14. The double quasar 0957+561: a radio study at 6-centimeters wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Greenfield, P E; Burke, B F

    1979-08-31

    The optical double quasar 0957+561 has been interpreted as the gravitational double image of a single object. A radio map made with the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory shows unresolved sources coincident With the optical images as well as a complex of related extended emission. Although the results cannot rule out the gravitational lens hypothesis, the complex radio structure is more easily interpreted as two separate quasars. The optical and radio properties of the two quasars are so similar that the two must have been formed at the same time with similar initial conditions.

  15. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

  16. Clustering of quasars in SDSS-IV eBOSS: study of potential systematics and bias determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Pierre; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Burtin, Etienne; Bourboux, Hélion du Mas des; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); White, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, 10003 (United States); Tojeiro, Rita [School of Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bautista, Julian; Dawson, Kyle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Comparat, Johan [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721–0065 (United States); Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama building, PO1 3FX, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Prada, Francisco, E-mail: jmlegoff@cea.fr [Instituto de Fìsica Teórica (IFT) UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2017-07-01

    We study the first year of the eBOSS quasar sample in the redshift range 0.9< z <2.2 which includes 68,772 homogeneously selected quasars. We show that the main source of systematics in the evaluation of the correlation function arises from inhomogeneities in the quasar target selection, particularly related to the extinction and depth of the imaging data used for targeting. We propose a weighting scheme that mitigates these systematics. We measure the quasar correlation function and provide the most accurate measurement to date of the quasar bias in this redshift range, b {sub Q} = 2.45 ± 0.05 at z-bar =1.55, together with its evolution with redshift. We use this information to determine the minimum mass of the halo hosting the quasars and the characteristic halo mass, which we find to be both independent of redshift within statistical error. Using a recently-measured quasar-luminosity-function we also determine the quasar duty cycle. The size of this first year sample is insufficient to detect any luminosity dependence to quasar clustering and this issue should be further studied with the final ∼500,000 eBOSS quasar sample.

  17. Effect of cholesterol deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Omali, Negar; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Ozkan, Jerome; Xu, Banglao; Borazjani, Roya; Willcox, Mark D P

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effect of cholesterol on the adhesion of bacteria to silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Contact lenses, collected from subjects wearing Acuvue Oasys or PureVision lenses, were extracted in chloroform:methanol (1:1, v/v) and amount of cholesterol was estimated by thin-layer chromatography. Unworn lenses were soaked in cholesterol, and the numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains or Staphylococcus aureus strains that adhered to the lenses were measured. Cholesterol was tested for effects on bacterial growth by incubating bacteria in medium containing cholesterol. From ex vivo PureVision lenses, 3.4 ± 0.3 μg/lens cholesterol was recovered, and from Acuvue Oasys lenses, 2.4 ± 0.2 to 1.0 ± 0.1 μg/lens cholesterol was extracted. Cholesterol did not alter the total or viable adhesion of any strain of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus (p > 0.05). However, worn PureVision lenses reduced the numbers of viable cells of P. aeruginosa (5.8 ± 0.4 log units) compared with unworn lenses (6.4 ± 0.2 log units, p = 0.001). Similarly, there were fewer numbers of S. aureus 031 adherent to worn PureVision (3.05 ± 0.8 log units) compared with unworn PureVision (4.6 ± 0.3 log units, p = 0.0001). Worn Acuvue Oasys lenses did not affect bacterial adhesion. Cholesterol showed no effect on the growth of any test strain. Although cholesterol has been shown to adsorb to contact lenses during wear, this lipid does not appear to modulate bacterial adhesion to a lens surface.

  18. A very bright (i = 16.44) quasar in the 'redshift desert' discovered by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuebing; Chen Zhaoyu; Jia Zhendong; Zuo Wenwen; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Chen Jianjun; Zhang Haotong; Yan Hongliang; Ren Juanjuan; Sun Shiwei; Wu Hong; Zhang Yong; Li Yeping; Lu Qishuai; Wang You; Ni Jijun; Wang Hai; Kong Xu

    2010-01-01

    The redshift range from 2.2 to 3 is known as the 'redshift desert' of quasars because quasars with redshifts in this range have similar optical colors as normal stars and are thus difficult to find in optical sky surveys. A quasar candidate, SDSS J085543.40-001517.7, which was selected by a recently proposed criterion involving near-IR Y - K and optical g - z colors, was identified spectroscopically as a new quasar with a redshift of 2.427 by the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST) commissioning observation in 2009 December and confirmed by the observation made with the NAOC/Xinglong 2.16 m telescope in 2010 March. This quasar was not identified in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. Comparing with other SDSS quasars, we found that this new quasar, with an i magnitude of 16.44, is apparently the brightest one in the redshift range from 2.3 to 2.7. From its spectral properties, we derived its central black hole mass to be (1.4 ∼ 3.9) x 10 10 M o-dot and its bolometric luminosity to be 3.7 x 10 48 erg s -1 , which indicates that this new quasar is intrinsically very bright and belongs to the class of the most luminous quasars in the universe. Our identification supports the notion that quasars in the redshift desert can be found by the quasar selection criterion involving the near-IR colors. More missing quasars are expected to be uncovered by future LAMOST spectroscopic surveys, which is important to the study of the cosmological evolution of quasars at redshifts higher than 2.2. (research papers)

  19. The lensing properties of the Einasto profile

    OpenAIRE

    Retana-Montenegro, E.; Frutos-Alfaro, F.

    2011-01-01

    In recent high resolution N-body CDM simulations, it has been had found that nonsingular three-parameter models, e.g. the Einasto profile has a better performance better than the singular two-parameter models, e.g. the Navarro, Frenk and White in the fitting of a wide range of dark matter halos. A problem with this profile is that the surface mass density is non-analytical for general values of the Einasto index. Therefore, its other lensing properties have the same problem. We obtain an exac...

  20. Optimizing outcomes with multifocal intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitansha Shreyas Sachdev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern day cataract surgery is evolving from a visual restorative to a refractive procedure. The advent of multifocal intraocular lenses (MFIOLs allows greater spectacle independence and increased quality of life postoperatively. Since the inception in 1980s, MFIOLs have undergone various technical advancements including trifocal and extended depth of vision implants more recently. A thorough preoperative workup including the patients' visual needs and inherent ocular anatomy allows us to achieve superior outcomes. This review offers a comprehensive overview of the various types of MFIOLs and principles of optimizing outcomes through a comprehensive preoperative screening and management of postoperative complications.