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Sample records for lenient drinking laws

  1. China's criminal penalty for medical malpractice: too lenient or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sun; Li, Lei; Li, Yuanchao

    2011-05-01

    Although China had greatly improved its health and medical system, the contradiction between arduous medical tasks and insufficient health resources has not been fundamentally resolved. This contradiction raised a large number of legal issues in medical industry. Literatures about these issues are usually published in legal journal, and are not easy accessible to clinicians. We thus provide clinicians a brief introduction to the legal liability of medical malpractice, and describe the debate about the punishment setting of China's medical malpractice crime in detail. Considering the complexity and humanitarian nature of medical practice, legislators set a relative lenient punishment system for medical malpractice crime. But the "aggravating" supporter argued that, judging from criminal jurisprudence, only serious irresponsible medical personnel might face criminal penalty, so severe penalty was not conflict with the humanitarian nature of medical work. They also deemed that, too lenient penalties of this crime had broken the internal harmony of Criminal Law, and violated the basic principles of law. The opponents believed that: although the statutory penalty for medical malpractice crime seemed lenient, the declared sentence was more severe than surrounding areas. And, too severe penalties would not only aggravate the shortage of Chinese medical personnel, but also deteriorate the unbalanced physician-patient relationship. So, they did not agree enhancing the penalty of medical malpractice crime. We propose to add disqualification to the punishment setting of medical malpractice crime, reform the health system more thoroughly. We also hope Chinese governments could encourage medicolegal research. And, from the viewpoint of risk management in health care, we emphasize the role of Medical Professional Liability Insurance system as a powerful tool to prevent medical malpractice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Underage drinking: does the minimum age drinking law offer enough protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rivka; Jason, Hannah; Ganz, Debora

    2015-05-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem in the US. It is responsible for several thousand mortalities and fatalities each year, both among minors and other members of society. Additionally, underage alcohol consumption produces a severe economic burden in the US. Introduction to alcohol in youth poses serious long-term risks for adolescents, including occupational, educational, and psychosocial impairments, and increases the risk for developing alcohol abuse disorders in adulthood. In order to address and mitigate this problem, the US has set a minimum age drinking law of 21 in all 50 states, and has implemented several supplementary laws limiting the possession and consumption of alcohol. Though these laws have successfully reduced underage drinking, several additional strategies are noteworthy, including preventative and intervention efforts incorporating environmental, individual, communal, and parental factors. The following literature review describes these concepts as they relate to underage drinking laws in the US. Directions for future research, interventions, and ongoing challenges related to the minimum drinking age in the US are also discussed.

  3. Differential impact of a Dutch alcohol prevention program targeting adolescents and parents separately and simultaneously: low self-control and lenient parenting at baseline predict effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Engels, Rutger C M E; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-06-01

    To test whether baseline levels of the factors accountable for the impact of the Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS) intervention (self-control, perceived rules about alcohol and parental attitudes about alcohol), moderate the effect of the intervention. A cluster randomized trial including 3,490 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.66, SD=.49) and their parents randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention, 2) student intervention, 3) combined intervention and 4) control group. Moderators at baseline were used to examine the differential effects of the interventions on onset of (heavy) weekly drinking at 34-month follow-up. The combined intervention was only effective in preventing weekly drinking among those adolescents who reported to have lower self-control and more lenient parents at baseline. No differential effect was found for the onset of heavy weekly drinking. No moderating roles of self-control and lenient parenting were found for the separate student and parent interventions regarding the onset of drinking. The combined intervention is more effective among adolescents with low-self control and lenient parents at baseline, both factors that were a specific target of the intervention. The relevance of targeting self-control in adolescents and restrictive parenting is underlined.

  4. Laws for Access to and Management of Drinking Water in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia K. Nkonya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human population, economic development and climatic changes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have fuelled water scarcity, hence there is an urgent need for effective water management laws and institutions. Unfortunately, national and local governments rarely possess enough personnel or money to enforce their laws adequately. In SSA countries formal water management laws and institutions tend to ignore the customary laws and institutions. Additionally, local communities both filter and ignore formal laws and institutions and use their customary laws and institutions to manage their water resources. Despite their importance, there are only few empirical studies on customary laws and institutions for water management in SSA. This study attempts to fill this gap by analysing the impact of customary (informal laws on water management in Tanzania and show how they might be used to complement the statutory (formal laws for management of drinking water in rural Tanzania. The study will use both qualitative and quantitative methods to achieve this objective. This study found that customary laws and institutions are the most influential in water access, prevention of pollution and abuse of water. The awareness of the customary and water user group laws was also generally high, perhaps due to the participatory nature of those institutions. The study also found that statutory laws were important for water development issues but community awareness of these laws was low. These results suggest the need of using both customary and statutory laws since the two instruments complement each other.

  5. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  6. Associations between Responsible Beverage Service Laws and Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ann C.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wolfson, Julian; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored potential associations between the strength of state Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) laws and self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the U.S. A multi-level logistic mixed-effects model was used, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were conducted on the overall BRFSS sample and drinkers only. Seven…

  7. Protein denaturation and functional properties of Lenient Steam Injection heat treated whey protein concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan Ahrens; Kaufmann, Niels; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was heat treated by use of the novel heat treatment method of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) to elucidate new functional properties in relation to heat-induced gelation of heat treated WPC. Denaturation was measured by both DSC and FPLC, and the results of the two...... methods were highly correlated. Temperatures of up to 90 °C were applicable using LSI, whereas only 68 °C could be reached by plate heat exchange before coagulation/fouling. Denaturation of whey proteins increased with increasing heat treatment temperature up to a degree of 30–35% denaturation at 90 °C...

  8. Lenient vs. strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure: a post-hoc analysis of the RACE II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bart A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Rienstra, Michiel; Groenveld, Hessel F.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether lenient rate control is an acceptable strategy in patients with AF and heart failure. We evaluated differences in outcome in patients with AF and heart failure treated with lenient or strict rate control. This post-hoc analysis of the RACE II trial included patients with an

  9. Go out or stay in? The effects of zero tolerance laws on alcohol use and drinking and driving patterns among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lan; Huang, Jidong

    2008-11-01

    Zero tolerance laws make it illegal per se for anyone under age 21 to drive with any measurable amount of blood alcohol. Although a link has been established between zero tolerance laws and lower motor vehicle fatalities, research has not produced strong evidence on how zero tolerance laws influence individual alcohol use and drinking and driving behaviors. Using a unique data set and a difference-in-difference-in-difference-type research design, we are able to analyze a number of pathways through which zero tolerance laws can work among an important underage population, college students. We find that zero tolerance laws reduce drinking and driving among college students. Further analysis of our detailed alcohol use measures suggests that zero tolerance laws are particularly effective at reducing the probability of driving after drinking for those who reported drinking away from home.

  10. The legacy of minimum legal drinking age law changes: Long-term effects on suicide and homicide deaths among women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R.; Norberg, Karen E.; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Methods Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990–2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed which incorporated state and birth year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. Results In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.18, p=0.0003) and homicide (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.04, 1.25; p=0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Conclusions Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. PMID:22085045

  11. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution Laws of Drinking Groundwater in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peiyue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to identify the chemical characteristics of drinking groundwater and its distribution patterns in Pengyang County and to discover the hydrochemical evolution laws of groundwater. The temporal and spatial variation of groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and evolution laws were comprehensively and systematically studied based on the understanding of the geological, hydrogeological, meteorological and hydrological conditions. Many analytical methods such as descriptive statistics, geostatistical analysis, ionic ratio coefficient method and correlation analysis were adopted based on the underground water quality analysis data. Study results showed that variation coefficients of chemical parameters of pore water in unconsolidated rocks were relatively high which indicated that water chemical compositions are vulnerable to topography, meteorology, hydrology and human activities. TDS variation was in accordance with the changes in Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- concentration. Hydrochemical type varied from HCO3•SO4-Na•Ca•Mg type and HCO3•SO4-Ca•Mg type at the upper reaches towards gradually to HCO3-Na type at the lower reaches. Ionic ratio coefficient analysis showed that the hydrodynamic conditions of the pore water in loose rocks were better than that of pore-fissure water in clastic rocks and groundwater was non-marine deposited water. Its formation effects include the weathering leaching effects of the formation containing rock salt, water-rock interaction and cation exchange reaction. Hydrochemical characteristics were mainly controlled by geological and hydrogeological conditions. Correlation analysis showed that the dissolution of rock salt and sodium sulfate salt as well as calcite precipitation occurred in pore water and in pore-crack water in clastic rocks the dissolution of albite, K-feldspar and the precipitation of dolomite were also important effects.

  12. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms.

  13. The legacy of minimum legal drinking age law changes: long-term effects on suicide and homicide deaths among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R; Norberg, Karen E; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J

    2012-02-01

    Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990 to 2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed, which incorporated state and birth-year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.18, p = 0.0003) and homicide (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.25, p = 0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Laws for Access to and Management of Drinking Water in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia K. Nkonya

    2006-01-01

    Increasing human population, economic development and climatic changes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have fuelled water scarcity, hence there is an urgent need for effective water management laws and institutions. Unfortunately, national and local governments rarely possess enough personnel or money to enforce their laws adequately. In SSA countries formal water management laws and institutions tend to ignore the customary laws and institutions. Additionally, local communities both filter and i...

  15. Science, politics, and the play of chance in recent Australian drinking law changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros

    2016-11-01

    Regulating late-night alcohol sales to prevent violence continues to be hotly debated in Australia. From July this year, Queensland required premises to stop serving alcohol (last drinks) by 3 am in entertainment precincts and by 2 am in the rest of the state. The Government made legislative provision for 1 am lockouts in entertainment precincts but at the time of writing has not committed to introducing them. Lockouts, also known as one-way-doors, permit patrons to remain drinking in premises until last drinks but deny entry to new patrons. In Newcastle, New South Wales, lockouts and earlier closing of licensed premises were introduced in 2008. Evidence that these produced large reductions in assault informed the 2014 Sydney restrictions that are currently under review. The global research evidence for last drinks regulations is compelling: trading extensions of as little as one h increase harm, and similarly modest restrictions reduce harm. In contrast, the effectiveness of lockouts, a phenomenon unique to Australasia, is uncertain. The Newcastle, Sydney and Queensland reforms are a stepwise progression in alcohol harm countermeasures, a welcome example of evidence-based public policy. However, the aetiologies of these policy changes were complex. I present accounts of each and offer commentary on the interplay between scientific evidence, public health advocacy, politics, and chance occurrences that preceded these significant changes. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws and associated factors – Exploratory empirical analysis using a bivariate ordered probit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behram Wali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary traffic safety research comprises little information on quantifying the simultaneous association between drink driving and speeding among fatally injured drivers. Potential correlation between driver's drink driving and speeding behavior poses a substantial methodological concern which needs investigation. This study therefore focused on investigating the simultaneous impact of socioeconomic factors, fatalities, vehicle ownership, health services and highway agency road safety policies on enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws. The effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws has been investigated through development of bivariate ordered probit model using data extricated from WHO's global status report on road safety in 2013. The consistent and intuitive parameter estimates along with statistically significant correlation between response outcomes validates the statistical supremacy of bivariate ordered probit model. The results revealed that fatalities per thousand registered vehicles, hospital beds per hundred thousand population and road safety policies are associated with a likely medium or high effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws, respectively. Also, the model encapsulates the effect of several other agency related variables and socio-economic status on the response outcomes. Marginal effects are reported for analyzing the impact of such factors on intermediate categories of response outcomes. The results of this study are expected to provide necessary insights to elemental enforcement programs. Also, marginal effects of explanatory variables may provide useful directions for formulating effective policy countermeasures for overcoming driver's speeding and drink driving behavior.

  17. Effect of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) heat treatment of bovine milk on the activities of some enzymes, the milk fat globule and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan A.; Nielsen, Martin Thorup; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) treatment at temperatures 70–150 C on the enzymatic activities of the indigenous milk enzymes alkaline phosphatase, lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasmin in comparison with two...... reference heat treatments of 63 C for 30 s and of 72 C for 15 s by indirect heating. Milk fat globule (MFG) size distributions and pH were also monitored. Alkaline phosphatase, LPO, XO and LPL activities decreased with increasing LSI temperature. Plasmin activity was increased at temperatures

  18. The effect of gun control laws on hospital admissions for children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Lane, Rebecca S; Blass, Lawrence W; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-10-01

    Gun control laws vary greatly between states within the United States. We hypothesized that states with strict gun laws have lower mortality and resource utilization rates from pediatric firearms-related injury admissions. Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for accidental (E922), self-inflicted (E955), assault (E965), legal intervention-related (E970), or undetermined circumstance (E985) firearm injuries. Patients were younger than 20 years and admitted for their injuries. Case incidence trends were examined for the study period. Propensity score-matched analyses were performed using 38 covariates to compare outcomes between states with strict or lenient gun control laws. Overall, 38,424 cases were identified, with an overall mortality of 7%. Firearm injuries were most commonly assault (64%), followed by accidental (25%), undetermined circumstance (7%), or self-inflicted (3%). A small minority involved military-grade weapons (0.2%). Most cases occurred in lenient gun control states (48%), followed by strict (47%) and neutral (6%).On 1:1 propensity score-matched analysis, in-hospital mortality by case was higher in lenient (7.5%) versus strict (6.5%) states, p = 0.013. Lenient states had a proportionally higher rate of accidental (31%) and self-inflicted injury (4%) versus strict states (17% and 1.6%, respectively), p gun control contributes not only to worse outcomes per case, but also to a more significant and detrimental impact on public health. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  19. Observance of the laws of family purity in modern-orthodox Judaism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    This research is a follow-up to a previous study measuring the observance of the ritually unclean period (Niddah) among Modern-Orthodox Jews. A total of 267 participants completed an online questionnaire comprised of a list of 16 "strict" and "lenient" forbidden behaviors. Participants reported whether they had engaged in these behaviors during Week 1 (the actual menstrual period) and during Week 2 (the "clean days" following the cessation of bleeding). Results showed that laws were being violated, with more transgressions during the second week than the first week. Additionally, more "lenient" laws were being broken than "strict" ones. Level of religious observance was significantly negatively correlated to the number of transgressions. However, there was no significant correlation between the number of transgressions and the age at marriage, sex, or how long one had been married.

  20. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  1. Optimal Rules of Negligent Misrepresentation in Insurance Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Rules of misrepresentation in insurance contract law differ widely between jurisdictions. When the insured has negligently misrepresented a fact prior to contracting, common law allows the insurer to rescind the contract if the misrepresentation was material, while civil law countries apply more...... lenient rules. The article compares the efficiency of the common and the civil law rules in an adverse selection model in which the insurer separates types of risk not only through a deductible but also by requiring the insured to represent their type. A strict rule of misrepresentation increases...... the incentive for policy-holders to represent truthfully but also exposes them to risk when they may misrepresent by mistake. While the economic literature has tended to defend the strict common law rule, because it makes it easier for the insurer to separate types, the present article demonstrates...

  2. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  3. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional. This di...

  4. Binge Drinking

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  5. Binge Drinking

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  7. Binge Drinking

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  8. Binge Drinking

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  9. Binge Drinking

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  10. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came ...

  11. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  12. Tissue banking, patient rights, and confidentiality: tensions in law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T

    2004-01-01

    The collection, storage and analysis of tissue samples, including genetic data, has become an increasingly common part of biomedical research. Though there are many scientific justifications for the creation of tissue and DNA databanks, the storage and use of human tissue continues to create legal dilemmas. In this paper, the impact and relevance of existing common law principles are reviewed. It is noted that the Canadian common law rules covering consent and confidentiality may create challenges for the research community. Emerging health information legislation does, however, create a somewhat more lenient research environment, largely because these laws allow, in some circumstances, research on identifiable health information without consent. Nevertheless, conflicts between existing common law, research ethics policy and new health information legislation illustrate profound policy dilemmas created by research involving storage and use of tissue and genetic material.

  13. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe ... & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  14. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to drop out. Drinking disrupts sleep patterns, which can make it harder to stay awake and concentrate during the day. This can lead to struggles with studying and poor academic performance. People who binge-drink may find that their ...

  15. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law...

  16. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in many states, it violates the law. Drunk driving isn't the only danger associated with teen ... more often than their American counterparts and get drunk more frequently. The ... in teen drinking and driving accidents since 1983 is entirely due to the ...

  17. Binge Drinking

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  18. Binge Drinking

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  19. Binge Drinking

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  20. Binge Drinking

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  1. Binge Drinking

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  2. Binge Drinking

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  3. Binge Drinking

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  4. Binge Drinking

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  5. Binge Drinking

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  6. Binge Drinking

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  7. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and ...

  8. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harder to get—for example, by raising the price of alcohol and keeping the minimum drinking age ... These are programs that provide students with the knowledge, skills, motivation, and opportunities they need to remain ...

  9. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention ... Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

  10. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of ... Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos is very important ...

  11. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Source of Health (:30) Systems Thinking The Value of Systems Thinking (10:09) Systems Mapping: The ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  13. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  14. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home ... the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: ...

  15. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research ... In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital ...

  16. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...

  17. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge ...

  18. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round ... Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your ...

  19. Radiological investigation of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of the report ''Radiological investigation of drinking water'' submitted by a working group of WHO to the Brussels meeting held between Nov 7 and 10, 1978. Annex II is emphasized of the WHO publication bearing the title ''The revision of WHO standards for drinking water''. It is shown that the draft of the revision does not basically differ from the revision introduced in Czechoslovakia and published in a revised standard CSN 83 0611 Drinking Water from 1978, including its harmonization with the Decree 59/72 Collect. of Laws on the protection of health from ionizing radiation, and from the standard CSN 83 0523 Radiometric analysis of drinking water. It is also shown that the text of the working group report contains some incorrect or unclear statements and views, which is explained by the misunderstanding of some ICRP recommendations. (H.S.)

  20. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  1. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  2. Evaluation of use and lose laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    The term 'Use and Lose' describes laws that authorize driver licensing actions against persons found to be using or in possession of illicit drugs, and against young persons found to be drinking, purchasing or in possession of alcoholic beverages.

  3. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  4. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  5. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  6. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drinking" width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/I9hdkDTaQWU?rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>

  8. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ...

  9. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  10. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About HIV Influenza Cover Your Coughs and Sneezes – Kids (:18) Cover Your Coughs and Sneezes – Penguin (:18) ... Drinking" width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/I9hdkDTaQWU?rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>

  11. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A ... Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics (11:00) Visual Tools to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  13. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the ... Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » College Drinking In ...

  14. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...

  15. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Basics (11:00) Visual Tools to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  16. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  17. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  18. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  19. Drinking cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh andexplore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility oflinking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water...... beconducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant’s drinking water sourceswere all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explainedthat they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Conclusion: Theoretically, V....... cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however,water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinkingwater sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system anddrinking water sources among the study population...

  20. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vital Signs Vital Signs – Presión Arterial Alta Other Languages Arabic احصل على التطعيم لتجنب الحصبة French Faites- ... of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ...

  1. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Harold J. Berman; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  2. Chemical contamination of California drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H H; Jackson, R J; Spath, D P; Book, S A

    1987-11-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs.

  3. Darwin's laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Chris

    2012-03-01

    There is widespread agreement among contemporary philosophers of biology and philosophically-minded biologists that Darwin's insights about the intrusion of chance processes into biological regularities undermines the possibility of there being biological laws. Darwin made references to "designed laws." He also freely described some laws as having exceptions. This paper provides a philosophical analysis of the notion of scientific laws that was dominant in Darwin's time, and in all probability the one which he inherited. The analysis of laws is then used to show how it could have been natural for Darwin to believe in designed laws that had exceptions, and to highlight the continuity between the metaphysics of pre-Darwinian, Darwinian, and contemporary biological science. One important result is the removal of one motivation for the anti-laws sentiment in philosophy and biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social influences on the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences in communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14-20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs.

  5. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Parents Kids Teens Caffeine Calcium Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? What Should Preschoolers ... Caffeine Confusion What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide ...

  6. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  7. The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and Its Role in Providing Access to Safe Drinking Water in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmeyer, Richard; Norling, Annalise; Kawarski, Margaret; Higgins, Estelle

    2017-10-01

    In 1974, President Gerald Ford signed into law the Safe Drinking Water Act, the first piece of legislation of its kind to provide a comprehensive regulatory framework for overseeing the nation's drinking water supply. The law has proven instrumental in setting standards for ensuring that the US population can access drinking water that is safe. However, the law delegates much of its monitoring requirements to states, creating, at times, a confusing and complicated system of standards that must be adhered to and enforced. Although it has proven valuable in the safety standards it specifies, the law's administration and enforcement poses tremendous challenges. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  9. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)

  10. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  11. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  12. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  13. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  14. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwam, H.J. van

    1985-01-01

    A description is given of international and Dutch-national atomic energy law. Attention is paid to regulations relevant to industry, as well as to relationships between national and international regulations. First, international law is considered, namely the Euratom Treaty, Euratom institutes and tasks of Euratom. Next, the Dutch-national legislation is discussed with respect to nuclear fuels, ores and security of State (Defence interests). Regulations concerning radioactive materials in working rooms and instruments, personnel dosimetry and safety measures are discussed. Finally, authority control on rule observance and penal uphold of nuclear law is considered. (G.J.P.)

  15. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  16. Alcohol consumption among high-risk Thai youth after raising the legal drinking age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Patel, Shivani A; Galai, Noya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Limaye, Rupali J; Manowanna, Sutassa; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, A

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine and alcohol are the leading substances abused by Thai youth. In 2008 the government passed laws that limited alcohol availability and increased the legal drinking age from 18 to 20. We assessed whether the law reduced drinking among methamphetamine-using 18-19 year olds in Chiang Mai. The study compares drinking patterns among methamphetamine smokers aged 18-19 years (n=136) collected prior to the legal changes, to a comparable post-law sample (n=142). Statistical tests for differences between the pre- and post-law samples on problem drinking and recent drinking frequency and drunkenness were conducted. Logistic regression modeled the relative odds of frequent drunkenness, controlling for demographic characteristics. A high prevalence of problematic drinking was present in both samples, with no difference detected. The post-law sample reported a significantly higher median days drunk/month (9 vs. 4, p≤0.01); in adjusted analysis, frequent drunkenness (>5.5 days/month) was more common in the post-law compared to pre-law period in the presence of other variables (AOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3, 3.9). Post-law participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge about the law's components. The study suggests that the new laws did not reduce drinking among high-risk, methamphetamine-smoking 18-19 year olds; rather, the post-law period was associated with increased drinking levels. The data indicate that the law is not reaching high-risk under-aged youth who are at risk of a number of deleterious outcomes as a result of their substance use. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? ... ingredients they contain and how they measure up: Sports Drinks Sports drinks may be beneficial for kids ...

  18. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work......When the International Association of IT Lawyers (IAITL) held its first international conference in 2006 in Hamburg, it could never have been envisaged just how successful the programme would become as a firm 'not to be missed' date of the calendar of increasing numbers of academics and others...

  19. Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K

    2014-07-01

    Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in

  20. Drinking or Not Drinking in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...

  1. Truth About Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be tested and controlled. AAFP also is against marketing and selling energy products to kids under 18 ... drinks. It has become “cool” and common to mix them with alcohol. Energy drinks can offset the ...

  2. Drinking Water Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  3. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  4. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  5. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 32794 times font size decrease ... held April 8-11 near the... Read more Alcohol Wine for your health: truth and myth Alcohol ...

  6. Snacks and sweetened drinks - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosing healthy snacks and drinks for your children can be hard. There are many options. ... Encourage children to drink a lot of water. Avoid sodas, sport drinks, and flavored waters. Stay away from drinks made with sugar or ...

  7. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  9. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  10. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  12. Toddler drinks, formulas, and milks: Labeling practices and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Romo Palafox, Maria J; Harris, Jennifer L

    2018-04-01

    Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations. In January 2017, we conducted legal research on U.S. food label laws and regulations; collected and evaluated toddler drink packages, including nutrition labels and claims; and compared toddler drink labels with the same brand's infant formula labels. We found that the U.S. has a regulatory structure for food labels and distinct policies for infant formula, but no laws specific to toddler drinks. Toddler drink labels utilized various terms and images to identify products and intended users; made multiple health and nutrition claims; and some stated there was scientific or expert support for the product. Compared to the same manufacturer's infant formula labels, most toddler drink labels utilized similar colors, branding, logos, and graphics. Toddler drink labels may confuse consumers about their nutrition and health benefits and the appropriateness of these products for young children. To support healthy toddler diets and well-informed decision-making by caregivers, the FDA can provide guidance or propose regulations clarifying permissible toddler drink labels and manufacturers should end inappropriate labeling practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  14. BELIEFS ABOUT DRINKING BEHAVIOR PREDICT DRINKING CONSEQUENCES†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Arthur W.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Schmaling, Karen B.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitions about drinking, such as positive expectancies and self-efficacy, have been found to profoundly influence drinking behavior. Although the relationship of self-efficacy and positive expectancies with drinking consumption has been established, the relationship of self-efficacy and alcohol expectancies with the number of reported drinking related consequences has not been examined. One hundred thirteen participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were administered the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, the Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent, and the Losses of Significance Self-report Questionnaire-Revised. As predicted, lower self-efficacy and greater positive alcohol expectancies predicted greater recent drinking consequences beyond those accounted for by alcohol consumption alone. Greater numbers of positive alcohol expectancies also predicted greater numbers of recent important alcohol related losses. Correcting errant assumptions about alcohol expectancies and strategies designed to increase self-efficacy may reduce harmful drinking consequences even if a client is unwilling to reduce consumption. PMID:14621140

  15. Beliefs about drinking behavior predict drinking consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Arthur W; Lostutter, Ty W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan

    2003-01-01

    Cognitions about drinking, such as positive expectancies and self-efficacy, have been found to profoundly influence drinking behavior. Although the relationship of self-efficacy and positive expectancies with drinking consumption has been established, the relationship of self-efficacy and alcohol expectancies with the number of reported drinking related consequences has not been examined. One hundred thirteen participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were administered the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, the Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent, and the Losses of Significance Self-report Questionnaire-Revised. As predicted, lower self-efficacy and greater positive alcohol expectancies predicted greater recent drinking consequences beyond those accounted for by alcohol consumption alone. Greater numbers of positive alcohol expectancies also predicted greater numbers of recent important alcohol related losses. Correcting errant assumptions about alcohol expectancies and strategies designed to increase self-efficacy may reduce harmful drinking consequences even if a client is unwilling to reduce consumption.

  16. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    resources/resources-by-sector-and-topic/tourism- services (accessed 27 March 2017). LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT ... LAW, DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT/ VOL 21 (2017) .... 29 Morupisi P & Mokgalo L “Domestic tourism challenges in Botswana: a stakeholders' perspective”.

  17. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  18. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  19. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas

  20. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  1. Heavy Alcohol Use and Youth Suicide: Evidence from Tougher Drunk Driving Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the widespread variation across states in the timing of adoption of tougher drunk driving laws that set very low legal blood alcohol limits for drivers under age 21--"zero tolerance" (ZT) laws--to provide new evidence on the causal effect of alcohol use on youth suicide. ZT laws reduced heavy episodic drinking by underage men, with…

  2. Economic impact of a noncomprehensive smoke-free air law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Keith, Jennifer D; Brown, Deborah P; Meyer, Joy Blankley

    2014-07-01

    Many stakeholders were interested in the potential economic impact of Pennsylvania's 2008 Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA). This study focused on the examination of economic change subsequent to CIAA and, because CIAA allows certain venue exemptions among eating and drinking establishments, if the allowance of exemptions influenced that impact. Policy analysis. Prais-Winsten regressions were employed to assess effects of CIAA and law exemptions on county-level quarterly taxable sales in restaurants and drinking establishments. Regressions controlled for general economic activity, trends in eating/drinking establishment sales, seasonality, and county characteristics. Across models, CIAA had no significant negative effects on taxable sales in full-/limited-service restaurants or drinking establishments and some positive effects. CIAA exemptions for drinking establishments do not offer a clear economic benefit. Restaurant and drinking establishment taxable sales were strongly related to overall economic conditions and seasonality. After controlling for confounding factors, and consistent with the weight of the evidence from literature on the economic impact of smoke-free policies, our study concludes that the Pennsylvania CIAA had no negative effects on per capita restaurant and drinking establishment taxable sales. High rates of drinking establishment exemptions were not economically beneficial. This study can inform efforts to make smoke-free laws more comprehensive. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

  4. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws (United States): 1 - Virginia Uranium, Inc. v. Warren, 848 F.3d 590 (4. Cir. 2017): In the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia, the plaintiffs, a collection of uranium mining companies and owners of land containing uranium deposits, challenged a Commonwealth of Virginia moratorium on conventional uranium mining. The plaintiffs alleged that the state moratorium was preempted by federal law under the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution.; 2 - United States v. Energy Solutions, Inc.; Rockwell Holdco, Inc.; Andrews County; Holdings, Inc.; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC. (D. Del. June 21, 2017): In 2016, the United States, acting through the US Department of Justice, commenced an action in United States District Court in Delaware seeking to enjoin the acquisition of Waste Control Specialists, LLC (WCS) and its parent company by Energy Solutions, Inc., and its parent. WCS and Energy Solutions are competitors in the market for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) produced by commercial generators of such material. The United States alleged that the proposed acquisition was unlawful. 3 - Cooper v. Tokyo Electric Power Company, No. 15-56426 (9. Cir. 2017): The plaintiffs are US Navy service members who were deployed off the Japanese coast as part of the US effort to provide earthquake relief after the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011. Plaintiffs sued alleging 'that TEPCO was negligent in operating the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and in reporting the extent of the radiation leak

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... youth should not drink alcohol. Support effective community strategies to prevent binge drinking, such as those recommended by the Community Guide.* Support local control of the marketing and sale of alcohol. Support the minimum legal drinking age ...

  6. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  7. Risks of underage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their behaviors may get them into trouble. Health Problems Related to Alcohol The effects of long-term alcohol use on the brain may be life-long. Drinking also creates a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ...

  8. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  9. The Drinking Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  10. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  11. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  12. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  13. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  14. Drinking water microbial myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.

  15. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gathers three case laws, one concerning France and the two others concerning the United States. France - Decision of the Administrative Court in Strasbourg on the permanent shutdown of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant: On 9 March 2011, the administrative court in Strasbourg confirmed the government's rejection to immediately close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, the first unit of which started operation on 1 January 1978. The court rejected the motion of the 'Association trinationale de protection nucleaire' (ATPN) filed against the decision of the Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment to refuse the final shutdown of the plant. The group, which brings together associations as well as French, German and Swiss municipalities, had taken legal action in December 2008. United States - Case law 1 - Judgment of a US Court of Appeals on public access to sensitive security information and consideration of the environmental impacts of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities: This case concerns 1) the public's right to access classified and sensitive security information relied upon by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its environmental review; and 2) the sufficiency of the NRC's environmental review of the impacts of terrorist attacks for a proposed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In 2003, the NRC ruled that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) did not require the NRC to consider the impacts of terrorist attacks in its environmental review for the proposed ISFSI at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ' NEPA mandates that all federal agencies must prepare a detailed statement on the environment impacts before undertaking a major federal action that significantly affects the human environment. In 2004, the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, a group of individuals who live near the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, filed a petition in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit challenging the NRC's 2003 decision. The

  16. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  17. The Development of the Concept of Contributory Negligence in English Common Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel G.D. van Dongen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The injured party’s own conduct which has contributed to the damage that he has suffered has been a bar to the recovery of damages for centuries in the common law tradition. This article describes and analyses the historical development, from the early modern period until the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence Act of 1945, of the way in which English common law dealt with cases in which the behaviour of the injured party contributed to the occurrence of his damage – nowadays called ‘contributory negligence’. Historically, contributory conduct was linked to the (broader question of causation. The way in which cases involving contributory negligence were dealt with slowly developed from a very strict rule, depriving the injured party of his action even in the presence of the slightest degree of negligence on his part  (leading to a so-called all-or-nothing approach, into a more lenient approach, in which attempts aimed at doing justice to the degree to which both parties contributed to the accident were made during the 19th century. Furthermore, juries regularly mitigated the damages they awarded, rather than applying the all-or-nothing rule. The idea of a partition of damages seems to have emerged in English common law around the end of the 19th century. In 1945, the possibility of a reduction, based on the respective degrees of the responsibility of the parties, was officially introduced with the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence Act, which is still in force today.

  18. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  19. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

  20. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  1. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  3. Toxicity of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-04-01

    'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.

  4. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The European Yearbook of International Economic Law (EYIEL) is an annual publication in International Economic Law, a field increasingly emancipating itself from Public International Law scholarship and evolving into a fully-fledged academic discipline in its own right. With the yearbook, the edi......The European Yearbook of International Economic Law (EYIEL) is an annual publication in International Economic Law, a field increasingly emancipating itself from Public International Law scholarship and evolving into a fully-fledged academic discipline in its own right. With the yearbook...

  5. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  6. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  7. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  8. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  9. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  10. Drinking to the Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2014-01-01

    : economic, cultural, inherited and organisational. A range of variables measuring alcohol norms, drinking practices and alcohol-related problems are then inserted into the space. This article identifies status differences in the employees’ drinking patterns indicating that respondents with large amounts...... of economic, cultural and inherited capital are more responsive to alcohol-related health messages than respondents (and especially males) occupying positions low in the social space. This, however, does not mean that respondents from dominant groups have ‘safe’ drinking habits, as these are defined...... by the Danish National Health Board. Rather, this article identifies a relatively large group of high-positioned respondents balancing at the limits of risky drinking – or transgressing them, if measured by international standards....

  11. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  12. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  13. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    2004-06-07

    Jun 7, 2004 ... customary law and decisions of the Supreme Court and of the previous Black Appeals. Court. The informal or unofficial customary law consists of unwritten rules and norms rooted in the social and cultural practices of indigenous communities. Rules of customary law create gender inequality and women are ...

  14. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  15. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  16. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  17. Czech Atomic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Valuš, Josef

    2006-01-01

    The Czech Nuclear law The Nuclear law is an importnat part of the Environmental law. The Nuclear law regulates the peaceful use of nuclear energy and of inonizing radiation, which are the activities potentially dangerous for the environment. This area is a component of a special part of the Environmental law. The ionizing radiation is classified as a particular source of hazard to the environment. This diploma thesis deals with the Czech Nuclear law, and that by means of characterization of a...

  18. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  19. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  20. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  1. Does our legal minimum drinking age modulate risk of first heavy drinking episode soon after drinking onset? Epidemiological evidence for the United States, 2006–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui G. Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US, and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’. We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014. Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset. Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]. An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21] and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]. Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED

  2. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  3. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  4. Implicit alcohol associations, especially drinking identity, predict drinking over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Baldwin, S.A.; Norris, J.; Kaysen, D.; Gasser, M.L.; Wiers, R.W.

    OBJECTIVE: There is considerable excitement about implicit alcohol associations (IAAs) as predictors of college-student hazardous drinking; however, few studies have investigated IAAs prospectively, included multiple assessments, or controlled for previous drinking. Doing so is essential for showing

  5. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  6. Property law in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Rebecca Frances

    2012-01-01

    Jersey law, and within it Jersey property law, has received little academic attention. This thesis seeks to examine, and provide a systematic account of, the Jersey law of property. Specific aspects of substantive law are explored. From these, general observations about the nature and structure of property law are made. Unsurprisingly, given the small size of the island, Jersey has a relatively limited amount of indigenous legal material to offer, much of it in French. Inevitab...

  7. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts,......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  8. Drinking Water in your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  9. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  10. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  11. Drink driving - Why risk the consequences?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the second of the series of articles about alcohol, CERN is highlighting the dangers of drinking and driving. Have you ever driven after drinking alcohol? If you did, then you were more likely to be involved in an accident that could kill or injure yourself or other people. Why risk it? Any alcohol can impair driving ability. The risk of being in an accident rises significantly after alcohol is consumed: at the French legal limit of 0.5 grams of alcohol per litre of blood, a driver is twice as likely to have an accident as someone who has had no alcohol. At the Swiss legal limit of 0.8 g/l, a driver is five times more likely to be involved in an accident. Many EU countries share the French limit. Penalties for breaking the law vary depending on the severity of the offence, but they include disqualification, fines and imprisonment. Drink Drive Limits and Penalties in the European Union Country Limit g/l Prison Sentence (maximum) Austria 0,5 up to 3 months / 3 years (if fatal) Belgiu...

  12. Who drinks where: youth selection of drinking contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina F; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J; Grube, Joel W

    2015-04-01

    Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in 7 contexts were obtained at 3 annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past-year cigarette smoking. Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else's home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past-year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else's home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else's home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. The contexts in which youths consume alcohol change over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Rethink Your Drink!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of drinking a lot of water.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  14. How Giraffes Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  15. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    schools; to amend and repeal certain laws relating to schools; and to provide for matters connected therewith). 3 Murphy J ... Pension Funds Adjudicator” (2004) 12 Juta's Business Law Journal 2; Jeram N “Jurisdiction of the Pension ...... respect of civil proceedings or a summons or a notice of motion against such member.

  16. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    331. 2 World Water Assessment Programme (2009). See also Fitzmaurice (2007) 537. LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 15 (2011) ...... Appellate Division held as follows: “[W]here in proceedings on notice of motion disputes of fact have arisen on the affidavits, a final order ...

  17. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    The institution, status and role of traditional leadership, according to customary law, are subject to the Constitution. (2). A traditional authority that observes a system of customary law may function subject to any applicable legislation and customs, which includes amendments to, or repeal of, that legislation or those customs.

  18. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  19. Does one day of drinking matter? 21st birthday drinking predicts subsequent drinking and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisner, Irene M; Lewis, Melissa A; Rhew, Isaac C; Mittmann, Angela J; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    There has been ample research on college student risks and consequences related to 21st Birthday Drinking. To date, no studies we are aware of have examined how 21st birthday drinking impacts subsequent drinking and related consequences. This study evaluates the effect of a single night of drinking on peak drinking, heavy drinking, and negative consequences over 12months following the event. Furthermore, we examine if typical drinking behavior prior to 21st birthday moderates the relationship between the event drinking and subsequent use. Participants included 599 college students (46% male) who intended to consume at least five/four drinks (men/women respectively) on their 21st birthday. Screening and baseline assessments were completed approximately four weeks before turning 21. A follow-up assessment was completed approximately one week after students' birthdays and every 3months for one year thereafter. Those who drank more on their 21st birthday, also reported higher peak consumption, increased likelihood of consequences, and increased number of consequences throughout the year. Additionally, baseline peak drinking moderated the relationship such that those who drank less at peak occasion prior to turning 21 showed the strongest effects of 21st BD drinking on subsequent consumption. 21st BD drinking could impact subsequent choices and problems related to alcohol. Interventions are warranted and implications discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drinking Plans and Drinking Outcomes: Examining Young Adults' Weekend Drinking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…

  1. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  2. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  3. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  4. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  5. Community Notification Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...

  6. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  7. Russian Law and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    David Fishman

    2016-01-01

    The Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki is committed to diverse and internationally collaborative approaches to studying various legal systems in the context of comparative law, and UHLS and the Law Faculty of the National Research University, Higher School of Economics have developed an ongoing program to undertake this effort. The original annual conference series on the Development of Russian Law was launched in 2008 as an initiative to further knowledge and critical thinking abou...

  8. Liability in Employment Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Roman

    2006-01-01

    97 Liability in labour law Summary This diploma paper analyzes liability in labour law with focus on liability for damage. At first the diploma paper introduces conception of liability in general and idea of liability in labour law considering different position of employee and employer in labour relations. The diploma paper then enumerates the types of labour-law liability. The next chapter concentrates on liability for damage. This chapter describes characteristic features of liability for ...

  9. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    law of areas follows and Kepler's second law is explained. Note that all that the proof requires is that the force be a .... planation of Kepler's third law: if 2a is the major axis of the orbit (an ellipse, by the second law) and T the .... tors, but he describes it in geometrical language. Let po- sition vectors be measured with reference ...

  10. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  11. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  12. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  13. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Lucy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016, fruit squash (p = 0.042 and milk (p = 0.020 than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017 and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003. No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  14. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  15. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  16. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  17. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  18. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  19. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  20. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Monica C; Decou, Christopher R; Gonzalez, Vivian M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups.

  1. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.

  2. The effectiveness of drinking and driving policies for different alcohol-related fatalities: a quantile regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chih; Chang, Koyin

    2013-09-27

    To understand the impact of drinking and driving laws on drinking and driving fatality rates, this study explored the different effects these laws have on areas with varying severity rates for drinking and driving. Unlike previous studies, this study employed quantile regression analysis. Empirical results showed that policies based on local conditions must be used to effectively reduce drinking and driving fatality rates; that is, different measures should be adopted to target the specific conditions in various regions. For areas with low fatality rates (low quantiles), people's habits and attitudes toward alcohol should be emphasized instead of transportation safety laws because "preemptive regulations" are more effective. For areas with high fatality rates (or high quantiles), "ex-post regulations" are more effective, and impact these areas approximately 0.01% to 0.05% more than they do areas with low fatality rates.

  3. The Effectiveness of Drinking and Driving Policies for Different Alcohol-Related Fatalities: A Quantile Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyin Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand the impact of drinking and driving laws on drinking and driving fatality rates, this study explored the different effects these laws have on areas with varying severity rates for drinking and driving. Unlike previous studies, this study employed quantile regression analysis. Empirical results showed that policies based on local conditions must be used to effectively reduce drinking and driving fatality rates; that is, different measures should be adopted to target the specific conditions in various regions. For areas with low fatality rates (low quantiles, people’s habits and attitudes toward alcohol should be emphasized instead of transportation safety laws because “preemptive regulations” are more effective. For areas with high fatality rates (or high quantiles, “ex-post regulations” are more effective, and impact these areas approximately 0.01% to 0.05% more than they do areas with low fatality rates.

  4. Civil Law Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    drinking age for purchasing, drinking or possessing alcoholic beverages , including beer, low alcohol beer, or other low alcohol beverages , shall be...motorized vehicles are unavailable for use by servicemembers, alcoholic beverages may be authorized by CNO/CMC for all servicemembers regardless of age; 2...motion picture exhibitor for violation of a film censorship statute. While refusing to condemn all systems of prior restraints of expression, the

  5. Perceived local enforcement, personal beliefs,and underage drinking: an assessment of moderating and main effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W

    2009-01-01

    Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking are not well understood. This study examined three possible processes by which perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and personal beliefs (perceived alcohol availability, perceived harm, and personal disapproval of alcohol use) may influence alcohol use among adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 20,747 adolescents (48.3% males) in 115 school districts who participated in the 2006 Oregon Healthy Teens survey. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine possible interactive and main effects of perceived enforcement and personal beliefs on past-30-day alcohol use. Analyses were adjusted for clustering of observations within school districts and included student demographics and age of alcohol use initiation as covariates. Statistically significant interaction effects on past-30-day alcohol use were found for perceived police enforcement and the three personal beliefs variables, indicating weaker associations between personal beliefs and past-30-day alcohol use at higher levels of perceived enforcement. Main effects of perceived enforcement and personal beliefs variables were also observed in the presence of interaction effects. Evidence for a moderating effect of perceived local enforcement on the relationships between personal beliefs and drinking behaviors suggests that the combination of individually focused prevention programs and local enforcement of underage drinking laws may have the greatest impact on underage drinking.

  6. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered through the drinking water of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, L; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik; Christensen, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Postoperative pain management in laboratory animals is important for animal welfare and required under law in many countries. Frequent injection of analgesics to rodents after surgery is stressful for the animals and labour-intensive for animal care personnel. An alternative dosing scheme...... such as administration of analgesics in the drinking water would be desirable. However, the efficacy of a chronic oral analgesic treatment via this route has not yet been documented. This study investigated the antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered ad libitum via the drinking water of laboratory rats....... The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine in drinking water was compared with repeated subcutaneous injections. A comparison was also made between buprenorphine in drinking water and the combination of one single subcutaneous injection of buprenorphine followed by buprenorphine in drinking water. Antinociception...

  7. Drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooksoo

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking culture of elderly Korean immigrants in Canada. Using a focus group approach, qualitative data were collected from 19 elderly Korean immigrants (14 men; 5 women) residing in Canada. Data were analyzed using the techniques of grounded theory. The findings indicated that elderly Korean immigrants did not dramatically change their understanding of drinking or their ways of drinking. Instead, they modified their drinking behavior in accordance with the social and legal environment of their new country. In particular, Canadian alcohol policies, including the higher cost of alcohol, lower accessibility, and strict law enforcement, discouraged excessive drinking. Policy implications and recommendations for future research are presented.

  8. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  9. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  10. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  11. Sports drinks and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Warden H; Donovan, Terence E; Geissberger, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Sports drinks were originally developed to improve hydration and performance in athletes taking part in intense or endurance sporting events. These drinks contain relatively high amounts of carbohydrates (sugars), salt, and citric acid. These ingredients create the potential for dental ramifications and overall public health consequences such as obesity and diabetes. High intake of sports drinks during exercise, coupled with xerostomia from dehydration, may lead to the possibility of erosive damage to teeth.

  12. International Treaties Tax Law in Brazilian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Zampieri Sellmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International agreements are the primary source of obligations internationally, whi- ch generate reflections in national law. They have been extremely used in tax harvest because they avoid double taxation and reduce tax burden in international trade. They are formal sources of tax law, which the legislature is expressly recognized in Article 96 of the National Tax Code to set the “tax legislation” expression. Article 98 of the Code determines the supremacy of international tax agreements over national law. Against the odds, international tax agreements do not revoke or modify the national legislation, just limit the effectiveness of national law incompatible with them, with supra-legal hierarchy and infra-constitution. They are above national law, either after or before it is created, and are below the Federal Constitution, so agreements incompatible with it should not be approved by Congress and, if so, they will be subject to declaration of unconstitutionality by the Supreme Court. It is a reporting case the international agreement’s unconstitutio- nality after it is celebrated.

  13. Is drinking to thirst optimum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1969, athletes were advised to avoid drinking during exercise. At least 4 subsequent events led to the adoption of a radically different approach. By 1996, all exercisers were advised to drink 'as much as tolerable' in order to insure that they did not lose any weight during exercise - the 'zero percent dehydration' doctrine. This advice requires that athletes drink enough to 'stay ahead of thirst'. The act of drinking is a basic survival instinct that has been regulated by complex, unconscious controls ever since the first fish-like creatures moved onto land and should not require conscious adjustment. Literature survey of all studies comparing the effects of drinking to thirst (ad libitum) and drinking to prevent any weight loss during exercise - the 'zero percent dehydration' doctrine. No study found that drinking more than ad libitum during exercise produced any biological advantage, but it could cause exercise-associated hyponatremia. Drinking ad libitum appears to optimize performance and safety during exercise in many situations. The presence of thirst, not of water loss, may be the biological signal that impairs exercise performance in those who drink less than their thirst dictates during exercise. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  15. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    here is that of unilateral state practice and that practice has been relying, at least to some extent, on general public international law. This chapter explains how it is important to revisit international law to better understand the relative relevance of the UNCLOS in oceans governance today. Indeed......, treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding......The UNCLOS has been since its signature in 1982 the fundamental international legal reference for oceans governance. Indeed, this treaty was written “in pursuit of our common dream of writing a constitution for the oceans”. Yet much alike any dream, reality sooner or later catches up. The reality...

  16. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  17. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  18. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  19. Prison Food Law

    OpenAIRE

    Naim, Cyrus

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the history and current framework of prison food law. Whereas food law generally is the result of a complex maze of national, state, and local statutory and regulatory law, prison food is primarily regulated by the courts through adjudication of the Eighth Amendment prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment. This discrepancy is explained by the very different political realities faced by prison reform. At the same time, the result is both ineffective and counterproductiv...

  20. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  1. ETHICS LAW DIALOGUE CULTURALIST

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Sobrinho, Afonso Soares

    2016-01-01

    The law is not the product of a univocal thought, but constructed from ethical relations, legal and political, cultural and institutional structuring-structured in the global society of the twenty-first century. The formation of the culturalist dialogical ethics law aims to encompass the diversity and pluralism of bodies and social actors through deliberative, participatory democracy in the creation, interpretation and application of law. Especially regarding the effectiveness of fundamental ...

  2. Outlines of environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzwedel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this omnibus, ten members of the working group for environmental law attempt to present the respective fields of environmental law in a consistent context, and to show the autonomy of each subject-matter as well as their interdependence and interrelationships. In the long run, the complexity of basic facts of natural science, technology and that of practical execution will require subject-specific penetration and application. Relationships between systems have to be realized to an increasing extent. Structures of law and administration have to be harmonized, and statements on the environmental impact of projects have to be made possible on the whole. Fundamental issues of environmental law are dealt with in the chapters entitled 'Concept and levels of applications of environmental law' and 'Environmental law in general'. The international, supranational and constitutional conditions given in advance of any environmental legislation increasingly gaining in importance are presented in the chapter on 'International environmental law', 'Basics of European Law' and on 'Constitutional Fundamentals'. The necessity of interdisciplinary cooperation becomes evident in those contributions concerning individual fields of environmental law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. CONSTANT ASPECTS OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANGHEL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "Are we watching, in the succession of history, the appearance and disappearance of legal systems or assisting, in a greater or lesser extent, to what might be considered, in a sense, an evolution of those systems?"1 Law, indissolubly linked to the general evolution of society, has recorded a number of differences in time and space, both in terms of content of various types and positive law systems, and also in terms of forms that take the rules of law, authorities who have the ability to edict it or the procedure to be followed.Indeed, there is no law for all times and all places, as law is not an abstract product of our reason, it comes from the human experience, it is a product of history and that is why institutions of each society can only be different from one society to another.2 But, as in reality there are not quantities of history - many, little or very little - but just history3, we can say that in typology there is not socialist law absolutely different from bourgeois, feudal or slave law, so there is just law. By this approach, I wanted to bring back into question the existence of some factors of constancy in law, those "legal permanencies” investigated by Edmond Picard, believing that "there is something in the legal relationship that necessarily subsist anywhere”.4

  4. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  5. Evaluating implicit drinking identity as a mediator of drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Gasser, M.L.; Teachman, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We

  6. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Coliform Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about coliform bacteria. Including sections about what coliform bacteria is, how it enters drinking water, health concerns from exposure, drinking water standards, and how to treat drinking water that contains coliforms.

  8. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drink. Find Out More Is your "lite" beer light in alcohol? How strong is your mixed drink? Try the cocktail content calculator How many "drinks" are in a bottle of wine? Trying to lose weight? Try the ...

  9. Lives saved by laws and regulations that resulted from the Bloomberg road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Swedler, David I

    2018-04-01

    To estimate lives saved during 2008-2023 by traffic safety laws passed in six developing countries while participating in the Bloomberg Road Safety Program (BRSP). BRSP-funded local staff identified relevant laws and described enforcement to the study team. We analyzed road crash death estimates for 2004-2013 from the Global Burden of Disease and projected estimates absent intervention forward to 2023. We amalgamated developing country and US literature to estimate crash death reductions by country resulting from laws governing drink driving, motorcycle helmets, safety belt use, and traffic fines. BRSP helped win approval of traffic safety laws in Brazil, China, Kenya, Mexico, Turkey, and Vietnam. In 2008-2013, those laws saved an estimated 19,000 lives. Many laws only took effect in 2014. The laws will save an estimated 90,000 lives in 2014-2023. Of the 109,000 lives saved, drink driving laws will account for 84%, increased motorcyclist protection for 13%, increased fines and penalty points for 2%, and safety belt usage mandates for 1%. Drink driving reductions in China will account for 56% of the savings and reduced drink driving and motorcycling deaths in Vietnam for 35%. The savings in China will result from a narrow intervention with just 4% estimated effectiveness against drink driving deaths. As a percentage of deaths anticipated without BRSP effort, the largest reductions will be 11% in Vietnam and 5% in Kenya. Viewed as a public health measure, improving traffic safety provided large health gains in developing nations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    25 Fentiman L “Pursuing the perfect mother: Why America's criminalization of maternal substance abuse is not the answer ... criminalisation efforts, working in tandem with other laws, such as the DDTA. The. Minister of .... either being engaged in criminal activity or due to living in poverty, and those living far away from the ...

  11. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    health care services, the interaction of geographic factors with other determinants of access (notably ... 3 Malan (2008) at 63; Malan N "The performance of the right to have access to social security" (2009) 13. Law ..... as by a relative paucity of road links and public transport networks.27 This contributed directly to the ...

  12. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Since 1994 the democratic government has implemented a whole range of laws and policies to ensure that public funding is aimed at redressing this disparity and that, ultimately, learners' right to basic education is realised.7 The financing of public schools is reliant on school fees to a great extent.8 Because the exact ...

  13. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Geography, marginalisation and the performance of the right to have access to health care services in. Johannesburg. MARIUS PIETERSE*. Professor of Law, University of the. Witwatersrand ...... 46 While official Department of Health policy is that lack of documentation should not be a barrier to access to health services in ...

  14. SPORT DRINKS WITH DIFFERENT OSMOLALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the assortment sport drinks’ extending possibility is represented. The juice component compositions for sport drinks with different osmolality were designed. The feasibility of adding into the drink calcium lactate as a source of quick body energy renovation and as calcium deficiency’s reducer were proved.

  15. Biofilm in drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, Pietrangela

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth in drinking waters is today controlled adding small and non toxic quantities of sanitising products. An innovative electrochemical biofilm monitoring system, already successfully applied in industrial waters, could be confirmed as an effective diagnostic tool of water quality also for drinking distributions systems [it

  16. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  17. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  18. Oromia Law Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oromia Law Journal covers articles, book reviews, legislative and case comments related to legal, economic, political and social issues arising in relation to Oromia, Ethiopian, and other related International Laws. As such, the journal has two audiences-primary and secondary. The primary ones are legal professionals ...

  19. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  20. Women Law Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Donna

    1980-01-01

    Women have made considerable progress toward becoming part of tenure-track legal faculties, but women law professors continue to be academically disproportionately inbred and overrepresented in some areas, such as family law and legal research and writing. (Journal availability: American Bar Foundation, 1155 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637.) (MSE)

  1. Women in Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Regina

    1991-01-01

    The lack of roles for African-American female police officers has not stopped black women from gaining momentum in law enforcement. Women still comprise less than 10 percent of all police officers, but growing numbers of black women are finding meaningful work in law enforcement. (SLD)

  2. California Library Laws, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  3. Revising China's Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Liu, Wenling; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    China's Environmental Protection Law (EPL) is the main national environmental legislative framework. Yet the environmental legal system is incomplete, and implementation and enforcement of environmental laws have shown major shortcomings (1–3). A controversial attempt to revise the EPL could have

  4. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  5. Introduction to planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author surveys the planning law in the Federal Republic of Germany. He deals with general regulations of the administrative procedure and land-use planning procedure and the main special rules of planning law, according to the Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Installation Ordinance and the Federal Act on the Protection against Nuisances. (WG) [de

  6. The Corporate Law Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofsky, James S.

    1976-01-01

    On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)

  7. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  8. Law Education Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwin, Alita Zurav

    1983-01-01

    Course outlines and timelines for a junior high school elective, "Youth and the Law," and a senior high school elective, "Criminal and Civil Law," are provided. A sample brochure about a supplementary television series for the junior high course is also included. (SR)

  9. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  10. The Law of Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  11. Essay on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva

    1994-01-01

    This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

  12. International nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.M. de.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiar feature of a developing nuclear law is discussed. Opinions from various writers and jurists are presented. It is concluded that it should be considered as international law, whose main sources are the various treaties, conventions and agreements. (A.L.) [pt

  13. Civil Law and Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of

  14. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation

  15. European food law handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through

  16. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the -th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we ...

  17. Expropriation law in France

    OpenAIRE

    Melot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In this publication, the editors present the first comparative overview of expropriation law in Europe covering 15 different jurisdictions. For many of the countries represented, this publication is the first English-language description of their national expropriation law. This survey provides a lot of information for all practitioners in the field of expropriation of land.

  18. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  19. Caffeinated energy drinks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2013-09-01

    A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks.

  20. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  1. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  2. Laboratory Certification Manual for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Manual describes the Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program implementation procedures, laboratory procedures, and technical criteria for laboratories that analyze drinking water compliance samples.

  3. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  4. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives...

  5. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  6. The First Drinking Simulator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostafa Moazzami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current Thermal cycling units fail to simulate the drinking behaviors, and oral balancing temperature. They cannot also simulate other oral conditions such as drink coloring, and chemicals like tea, coffee, carbonated and noncarbonated, citrus juices as well as alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks and also saliva and milk itself. The main objective of this study is to introduce the designing and manufacturing the first Drinking Simulator Unit (DSU that reproduces the thermal, color and chemicalcycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions uniquely. Methods: The invented system generally has two parts: the hardware and the software parts. The hardware consists of the mechanical and electronic parts. The software part is responsible for controlling the heating and cooling systems, electric valves, the pumps, and automatic filling systems of tanks as well as the sensors of the machine. Results: DSU is the first unit can reproduce the thermal, color and chemical cycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions. Different kinds of colored and acidic drinks and also other chemical materials such as bleaching substances as well as detergents and antiseptics used for dentistry, industrial and medical purposes can be tested by DSU. DSU has also to be considered as an appliance performing in-vitro researches on dental structures. Conclusion: The invented system can greatly improve and validate the results of such researches.  

  7. Sports drinks hazard to teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The pH values of the drinks ranged from 4.46 (Maxim) to 2.38 (Isostar) and therefore were below the critical pH value (5.5) for enamel demineralisation. Both Lucozade varieties had high titratable acidities (16.30 ml 0.1M NaOH to neutrality) with Gatorade, High Five, and Isostar displaying intermediate titratable acidity, although Isostar had 74.5 ppm calcium and 63.6 ppm phosphate. The fluoride concentration of all drinks was low, and none of the drinks was particularly viscous (range 3.1-1.4 mPa.s). CONCLUSIONS: The chemicophysical analyses indicate that all the sports drinks in this study have erosive potential. However, drinks with higher pH, lower titratable acidity, and higher concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride will reduce this erosive potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132205

  8. Islamic law of tort

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Abdul Basir Bin

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to discover cases and principles governing tort in Islamic law. The study is divided into six chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. The Introduction contains the explanation of the general characteristic of crime and tort, the scope, the importance of the study, methodology and the relevant literature of the thesis. Chapter one defines Western and Islamic law of tort, the existence of tort in Islām, some similar concepts between Western and Islām on the law o...

  9. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  10. Law, Literature and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Miranda Bahiense de Lyra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to highlight the importance of literature in critical thinking about the law, coupled with the search for the emergence of an autonomous political subject and as a possibility of materialization of a new right . This shall be used , bibliographic research , seeking at first discuss the historical background of the "Law and Literature Moviment " to later approach the thought of Michel Foucault , their ideas about power, the constitution subjectivity , the ethical dimension of the subject and the care of itself, the Aufklärung and its conception of this new law.

  11. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  12. Changes in environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this study the changing process of environmental law is depicted which is marked by the ecological crisis and the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the reform of the ecological licensing and voidance procedures which is in the centre of the discussion about (environmental) law policy as well as on the jurisprudential enforcement of the basic environmental right on life and physical integrity. The volume ends with a study on 'Nuclear Energy, Law and Judiciary Power' - a subject which is of immediate interest and special significance with its far-reaching political consequences for ecology, energy, and economics. (orig.) [de

  13. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    This book is a must-have for any business advisor that operates on a cross-border level in the European Union, EU. Regardless of whether you already have solid knowledge about doing business in the EU or you are just taking your first steps on this corporate scene, Business Law, Europe should...... be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  14. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  15. Importance of regular testing of private drinking water systems in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Rudo, Kenneth; Shehee, Mina

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina state laws require that water from newly constructed private wells be tested for chemical and microbiologic contamination, but existing wells are not routinely tested. This commentary highlights the importance of regular testing of all private sources of drinking water.

  16. Russian Law and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fishman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki is committed to diverse and internationally collaborative approaches to studying various legal systems in the context of comparative law, and UHLS and the Law Faculty of the National Research University, Higher School of Economics have developed an ongoing program to undertake this effort. The original annual conference series on the Development of Russian Law was launched in 2008 as an initiative to further knowledge and critical thinking about Russian law during its period of transition and modernization. The conference is held annually and brings together legal practitioners and scholars from Russia, Finland and elsewhere to discuss important matters of Russian law, legal reform, and legal practice. Prior years’ Conference themes have included discussions of legal reforms, the justice system, the Russian legal profession, human rights, civil and business law, legal policy, rule-of-law and market economy.This year’s program was designed to attract law faculty, scholars from different disciplines, and also practicing lawyers, to address a wide range of topics grouped around the general theme of how the phenomenon and challenges of globalization affect Russian legal system development. The call for papers included: (i Relationships between Russian domestic and international law, (ii The impacts of international legal institutions on the development of Russian law(s, (iii Globalization in the field of business law, (iv Global law & Russian legal theory, (v Regional models of legal cooperation and Russia’s participation, (vi Transnational legal problems in areas such as constitutionalism and rule-of-law, (vii Theoretical and applied implications of the concept of global transplants, and (viii A global human rights agenda, including Russia’s place in this agenda.This was a very ambitious and multi-faceted undertaking. Through a process of careful evaluation, the Conference organizers produced

  17. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Drinking Water Treatment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about drinking water treatment systems. This fact sheet discusses different types of water treatment systems available to homeowners. It includes a table with water contaminants or problems, possible causes of the problem, and solutions.

  18. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  19. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  20. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety : Administration encourages each : State to have and enforce a law : requiring all motorcycle operators : and passengers to wear a helmet : meeting FMVSS 218. Motorcycle : helmets provide the best protection : from...

  1. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law, Democracy & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. The Biogenetic Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Ramesh

    1975-01-01

    A criterion for development of syllabi for mathematics courses is discussed. This criterion is based on the biogenetic law that individuals develop through all the stages of the development of the species. (SD)

  3. Radiology and the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Law of Medical Malpractice: An Overview; The Radiologist as Defendant; The Radiologist as an Expert Witness; The Missed Diagnosis; Legalities of the Radiograph; and Angiography and Interventional Radiology

  4. Operational Law Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    prevention. It requires Secretaries of Military Departments and Heads of Defense Agenres to develop and revise Hazardous Material Pollution Prevention Plans...or Federal law-i. Us.C. A33m Whenever the President considers that unlawful obstructions, combinations, or assemblages, or rebellion against the...enforce those laws or to suppress the rebellion . S-1 pmoxdo of dvun rghts-ir u. A333. The President, by using the militia or the armed forces, or both, or

  5. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  6. From Crime to Disease: Laws on Infanticide in the Modern Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This is the third of three papers investigating the legislative history concerning infanticide. After Antiquity and the Middle Ages, this paper focuses on legislative reforms during the last 400 years. Despite dreadful punishment, the practice remained frequent until safe abortion became available. In the 17th century, the rate of executions of women for this crime was 1 per 100,000 inhabitants. The actual incidence greatly exceeded this figure. The death penalty failed to deter, and punishing fornication promoted rather than prevented infanticide. Well into the 18th century, severely malformed infants were killed. The lung flotation test, albeit unreliable, was used to save the mother from the death penalty. When the motives for infanticide - poverty, shame, despair, and preserving honour - became understood in the late 18th century, the image of the 'child murderess' changed, and infanticide shifted from constituting a capital crime to a privileged delict. Illegitimate pregnancy was no longer punished, and lying-in hospitals for pregnant unmarried women and foundling hospitals for their children were established. Specific infanticide laws were issued in Prussia in 1756, Britain in 1803, and France in 1811. Once psychosis and denial of pregnancy became understood, severe penalties were no longer issued. The justifications for lenient legislation included social circumstances, difficult proof, and curtailed protection of the newborn due to its illegitimacy, helplessness, and diminished awareness. Thoughts on the limited right to live of newborn infants are still hampering ethical decisions when the beginning and end of life are near each other. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  8. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  9. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  10. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  11. TENORM: Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has specific regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) that limit the amount of radioactivity allowed in community water systems. Learn about methods used to treat these water supplies to remove radioactivity and manage wastes.

  12. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  13. Drinking Motives and Drinking Behavior Over Time: A Full Cross-Lagged Panel Study Among Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crutzen, R.M.M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.

    2013-01-01

    Drinking motives are among the most proximal factors for drinking behavior and serve as a mechanism through which more distal factors are mediated. However, it is less clear whether drinking motives are precursors of drinking or, in contrast, shaped by previous drinking experiences (reciprocal

  14. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.

  15. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  16. Are youth-only motorcycle helmet laws better than none at all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Erin; Naud, Shelly; Shapiro, Steven

    2010-06-01

    The trend in state motorcycle helmet laws has been a reduction from universal coverage requiring all riders to wear helmets, to partial coverage requiring only younger riders to wear helmets. In the current study we evaluate whether partial helmet laws reduce motorcycle fatalities and increase helmet compliance among young riders. We compared a decade of motorcycle fatalities from the only 3 states with no helmet laws (New Hampshire, Iowa, Illinois) to 3 states with helmet laws (Connecticut, Indiana, Wisconsin). We excluded highway speeds, blood alcohol laws, and minimum legal drinking age as being significant variables. Overall, there was no significant difference in the average fatality rate per 10,000 motorcycle registrations for helmet law states versus no helmet law states (P = 0.45). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the helmet wearing rate of helmet law versus no helmet law states (P = 0.79). Partial helmet laws neither significantly reduce fatality rates nor increase helmet compliance rates among young riders. A partial helmet law is roughly equivalent to none at all; only universal helmet laws have been shown to effectively protect young motorcyclists.

  17. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does

  18. CATEGORY OF CIRCUMVENTION OF THE LAW IN RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "circumvention of the law" with respect to Treaty law. The author finds that the direct loan category "circumvention of the law" in Treaty law can be estimated ambiguously. The specified category which is fragmentary reflected in the active Civil codex indicates a regulatory gap

  19. Learning the Law: Law Education for Young North Carolinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Wanda Rushing; Carr, Edward G., Jr.

    Arranged in five chapters, this supplementary resource for junior high students contains information on the history, practical applications, and social consequences of the law. In chapter 1, students are introduced to the origin of laws through examination of a fable, the relationship between government and laws, types of laws, and law…

  20. Ogba Philosophy of Human Positive Law UA Dike Introduction Laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    This research work is centered on the concept of human positive law in Ogba. Land of Rivers State, Nigeria. The law as promulgated in ... laws of the and which says that female dogs should not be allowed to live in Ogba Land. This law was ..... modern means of communication. Thus in addition to dispatching a town crier to ...

  1. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  2. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

  3. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  4. Natural Law And Civil Law in John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between natural law and civil law in John Locke’s philosophy. Although renowned scholars have claimed that such a relationship is deductive, this paper will try to show a different interpretation and argue that the relationship between civil law and natural law is one of determination. Far from being a mere deduction of an immutable natural law, civil law plays a determinative role in natural law. As we shall see, this interpretation highlights something that Locke held in high regard: the deliberative character of natural law. Citizens’ deliberation in the legislature to some extent creates natural law. Citizens are thus free to determine the law, and participating in such a determination is crucial to their political liberty. In this sense, as we shall explain, Locke’s political liberty is akin to republicanism.

  5. Social anxiety and drinking game participation among university students: the moderating role of drinking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ellen J; George, Amanda M; Brown, Patricia M

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of social anxiety with drinking game participation. Drinking games represent a popular form of drinking in university settings. Due to their structure, games may appeal to socially anxious drinkers, particularly among those seeking to fit in or cope with the social setting. To examine the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation among a university undergraduate sample and to investigate if drinking motives moderate this association. A total of 227 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years (73% female) who had consumed alcohol in the prior year were included in the current investigation. Hierarchical regression examined the influences of social anxiety and drinking motives on frequency of drinking game participation, as well the interactions of social anxiety with drinking for coping motives and conformity motives. Social anxiety failed to emerge as a significant predictor of frequency of drinking game participation. However, drinking to cope moderated the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Socially anxious students who drank to cope were more likely to participate in drinking games on occasions when they consumed alcohol than those who did not endorse this drinking motive. Results demonstrated the influence of drinking to cope in the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Future work should examine the relationship with other indicators of drinking game activity. Intervention efforts addressing social anxiety and drinking should consider motives for drinking, as well as drinking patterns.

  6. The importance of drinking frequency in evaluating individuals' drinking patterns: implications for the development of national drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Catherine; Demers, Andrée; Picard, Elyse; Graham, Kathryn

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between frequency of drinking, usual daily consumption and frequency of binge drinking, taking into consideration possible age and gender differences. Subjects were 10 466 current drinkers (5743 women and 4723 men) aged between 18 and 76 years, who participated in the GENACIS Canada (GENder Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) study. Canada. The independent variable was the annual drinking frequency. The dependent variables were the usual daily quantity consumed, annual, monthly and weekly frequency of binge drinking (five drinks or more on one occasion). Logistic regressions show (i) that those who drink less than once a week are less likely than weekly drinkers to take more than two drinks when they do drink; (ii) that the usual daily quantity consumed by weekly drinkers is not related to their frequency of drinking; but that (iii) the risk and frequency of binge drinking increase with the frequency of drinking. Given that risk and frequency of binge drinking among Canadians increases with their frequency of drinking, any public recommendation to drink moderately should be made with great caution.

  7. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  8. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  9. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study......Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... to a detailed examination of the grounds for criminal liability, the justification of criminal offences, the defences that diminish or excuse criminal liability, the classification of criminal offences, and the sanctions system. Coverage of criminal procedure focuses on the organization of investigations, pre...

  10. Online Law Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English...... in English as a foreign language. The function theory of lexicography offers an appropriate basis as it focuses on three key concepts: user needs, user competences, and user situations. It is proposed that online dictionaries should be designed to satisfy the lexicographically relevant user needs...... by containing the types of data that can best satisfy the needs of students at the three stages of legal text production: draft writing, revising and editing. The theoretical aspects discussed are supported by examples from the online CISG Dictionary, which is a lexicographic tool developed to help Danish law...

  11. Atomic energy law Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains the valid national legal regulations of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the field of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy as per October 1st, 1975. These regulations are arranged according to the following subjects: 1) general atomic energy law and organization; 2) liability; 3) nuclear facilities, reactor ships, fissionable material and ores; 4) radiation protection; 5) carriage; 6) import and export; 7) international agreements. Within these subject groups the regulations are presented chronologically. They have consecutive numbers, printed at the top of the margins for easier location. As a rule, the full text of the laws, royal ordonances and ministerial orders is given. However, in the case of regulations only containing in parts stipulations concerning nuclear law, only the pertinent texts have been considered. (orig./HP) [de

  12. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  13. Scaling law systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Duechs, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of statistical implications of empirical scaling laws in form of power products obtained by linear regression are analysed. The sensitivity of the error against a change of exponents is described by a sensitivity factor and the uncertainty of predictions by a ''range of predictions factor''. Inner relations in the statistical material is discussed, as well as the consequences of discarding variables.A recipe is given for the computations to be done. The whole is exemplified by considering scaling laws for the electron energy confinement time of ohmically heated tokamak plasmas. (author)

  14. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  15. Law of procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The real protection of fundamental rights of the population does not only depend on the substantive concretization in the atomic energy law but also on its procedural shaping. The more the citizens are burdened by governmental decisions the more decidedly it is requested not only by the principle of democracy, but also by the principle of law, that the parties concerned participate intensively in the procedure. In this second contribution De Witt describes the atomic energy licensing procedure and compares it with this claim. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. The law of elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cesare Masin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight-a cognitive law analogous to Hooke¿s law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined either in series or in parallel. This total elongation was longer for serial than for parallel springs, and increased proportionally to the number of serial springs and inversely proportionally to the number of parallel springs. The results suggest that participants integrated load weight with imagined elasticity rather than with spring length.

  17. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph; Werlauff, Erik

    , and the United Kingdom are taken into account; Italy is now included in this new edition. As in earlier editions, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organizations, wherever located...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  18. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus...... on the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law.......The 1997 Kyoto Protocol deferred negotiations on emissions from aviation to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Also within this specialised body, agreement on how to deal with emissions from aviation has been difficult to reach.Frustrated by the lack of progress, the European...

  19. Transsexualism and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R

    1994-01-01

    Transsexuals pose dilemmas for the law in (a) defining a male or a female; (b) deciding what partners are legally acceptable for marriage; (c) assessing the best interests of children after divorce; (d) interpreting employment discrimination based on gender or handicap; (e) permitting public cross dressing; (f) reviewing third-party reimbursement for medical procedures that may be deemed cosmetic or experimental; (g) determining eligibility for sports competition; (h) meeting military needs; and (i) determining socially and medically acceptable treatment in prison. Leading law cases are reviewed in each area, with commentary on relevant research findings.

  20. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  1. Mandeville on Corruption and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Simonazzi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes a distinction between two different meanings of the word «corruption»: moral corruption and legal corruption. The thesis is that in Mandeville's thought vice can be useful, while crime is always damaging. In this perspective, law is fundamental to tell vice from crime. Three points are examined: 1) the relationships between law and human nature, law and ethics, law and society; 2) the analysis of Mandeville's theory of law, in particular its nature and development; 3) the the...

  2. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  3. College factors that influence drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.

  4. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  5. Free Movement of Companies under Company Law, Tax Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Engsig Sørensen, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  6. High-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Ulinski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Method: Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years. Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. Conclusions: A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.

  7. High-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulinski, Sandra L; Moysés, Simone T; Werneck, Renata I; Moysés, Samuel J

    2016-01-08

    To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years). Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.

  8. Strike Laws, Not Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, a coalition of child advocacy groups, the Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth, and the Law, challenged Section 43 of Canada's criminal code, which permits "reasonable force" in disciplining children. The heavily debated issue turns on judges' varied interpretations. A court decision is expected by year's end. (MLH)

  9. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    execute laws.”5. Similarly, Moseneke provides the following practical explanation of the doctrine: “Checks and balances ensure that all branches of government are interdependent, and that no single branch may act ...... motion of no confidence in the President be conducted by secret ballot.96 The Speaker maintained that ...

  10. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    German-South African Dialogue on Democracy: The Preconditions of .... under apartheid and the centrality of the rule of law under the new constitutional dispensation.11 The politics of ..... uncertainty into the political system: Ballard R, Habib A & Valodia I “Conclusion: making sense of post- apartheid South Africa's voices of ...

  11. Haramaya Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scientific manuscripts and disseminates scientific and information to the users in Ethiopia, Africa and elsewhere in the world. It also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities and accepts papers from anywhere else in ...

  12. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    13 John D International law, a South African perspective 3 ed (Cape Town: Juta 2006) at 43. 14 Adopted 28 July 1951, entered into ..... centre stage in the endeavours by the Government to control the refugees.75 With the use of the encampment policy as the .... Their flight from protracted and brutal forms of armed conflict to ...

  13. Panarchy and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Ruhl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Panarchy theory focuses on improving theories of change in natural and social systems to improve the design of policy responses. Its central thesis is that successfully working with the dynamic forces of complex adaptive natural and social systems demands an active adaptive management regime that eschews optimization approaches that seek stability. This is a new approach to resources management, and yet no new theory of how to do things in environmental and natural resources management, particularly one challenging entrenched ways of doing things and the interests aligned around them, is likely to gain traction in practice if it cannot gain traction in the form of endorsement and implementation through specific laws and regulations. At some point, that bridge must be crossed or the enterprise of putting panarchy theory into panarchy practice will stall. Any effort to operationalize panarchy theory through law thus comes up against the mission of law to provide social stability and the nature of law itself as a complex adaptive system. To state the problem in another way, putting panarchy theory into practice will require adaptively managing the complex adaptive legal system to adaptively manage other complex adaptive natural and social systems, all in a way that maintains some level of social order. Panarchy theorists have yet to develop an agenda for doing so. It is time for lawyers to join the team.

  14. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  15. law - the Zambian experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    would not comprise matter relating to national security.15 Under such law the government would set conditions under which such information could be obtained.16 However, sometime in February 2001, the government published for stakeholder input a draft Freedom of Information Bill. The Zambia Inde- pendent Media ...

  16. Putting Law into Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Jethro K.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examined cautiously. (JMF)

  17. Nuclear law in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manóvil, Rafael Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The 21. AIDN / INLA Congress was organized by the International Nuclear Law Association, in Buenos Aires, between the October 20 and 23, 2014. In this event, were presented almost 50 papers about these subjects: radioactive sources, safety and licensing, radioactive waste management, radiation protection, nuclear transport, security and non-proliferation, nuclear liability and insurance, etc.

  18. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  19. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  20. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  1. Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan's articles aim at interpretation, description, exploration and diagnosis towards the solution of problems (or legal issues) ...

  2. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  3. | Yilma | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamic advances in the domain of the Internet have thus necessitated corresponding changes in Ethiopias intellectual property legal regime including copyright laws in relation with computer programs, databases, online service provision and Digital Rights Management systems (DRMs). New issues are also steadily ...

  4. Laws of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Emotion is an accessible new book that reviews much of the insightful new research on emotions conducted over the last ten years. It expands on the theory of emotions introduced in Nico Frijda's earlier work, and addresses a number of unanswered, basic problems on emotion theory. The

  5. Investigation on deterrence effect of legal punishment measures on driving after drinking in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Driving after drinking is one of the main causes associated with road accidents in China. China has been concerned about this serious problem and updated the regulations of road traffic safety law about driving after drinking 3 times in the last 10 years to deter this offense. The deterrence effect of the current punishment measures implemented since January 2013 was studied in this article. Data applied in the study were collected by questionnaire surveys carried out in Chongqing, a city in southwest China. A total of 329 drivers participated in 3 rounds of the survey and a 5-point scale rating was applied in the investigation. There was a slight difference between drivers' familiarity of the law regarding driving after drinking in April 2013 and April 2014. The perceived certainty of being caught for driving after drinking was higher in April 2013 than in April 2014 and it had a time-dependent decreasing tendency. Our investigations also show that license suspension is the most practical and effective measure and penalty points system ranks second. A monetary fine appears to be inefficient to achieve the desired effects. The fourth edition of the Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China, which took effect in January 2013 coinciding with the application of random breath testing and intensification of enforcement activity, is effective in deterring driving after drinking according to our investigation. More measures should be implemented to change the decreasing tendency of perceived certainty of being caught for driving after drinking. An increase in the monetary fine is suggested.

  6. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  7. Dose from drinking water Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Salonen, Laina; Huikuri, Pia; Arvela, Hannu

    1999-01-01

    The dose from drinking water originates almost totally from naturally occurring radionuclides in the uranium-238 series, the most important nuclide being radon-222. Second comes lead-210, and third polonium-210. The mean age-group-weighted dose received by ingestion of drinking water is 0.14 mSv per year. More than half of the total cumulative dose of 750 manSv is received by the users of private wells, forming 13% of the population. The most exposed group comprises the users of wells drilled in bedrock, who receive 320 manSv while comprising only 4% of the population. The calculated number of annual cancer incidences due to drinking water is very sensitive to the dose-conversion factors of ingested radon used, as well as to the estimated lung cancer incidences caused by radon released from water into indoor air. (au)

  8. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Home drinking-water purifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzichini, Massimo; Pozio, Alfonso; Russo, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    To salve the widespread problem of contaminated drinking water, home purifiers are now sold in Italy as well as other countries. This article describes how these devices work, how safe they are to use and how safe the water they produce, in the broad context of regulations on drinking water and mineral water. A new device being developed by ENEA to treat municipal water and ground water could provide greater chemical and bacteriological safety. However, the appearance of these new systems makes it necessary to update existing regulations [it

  10. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing mixed methods project about untreated heavy alcohol consumption amongst adult Danes. It is based upon 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with convicted drink drivers. All interviewees were contacted while attending mandatory courses in “Alcohol and Traffic safety...... with a more comprehensive approach towards drinking. In this paper focus is on the younger edgeworkers and post-edgeworkers, to which alcohol seems to play lesser role and is often mixed with other drugs as part of a wider scope of seeking excitement from risky behaviour....

  11. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Kleinjan, M.; Lemmers, L.A.C.J.; Spijkerman, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine

  12. Toward Greater Understanding of the Relationship between Public Perceptions of Speed, Speed Laws, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Speed continues to be a leading factor contributing to traffic fatalities in the U.S., implicated in over 9,500 deaths in 2015. Despite this, in recent years, some states have moved toward more lenient speed enforcement regimes. A public choice probl...

  13. 75 FR 28367 - Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... government contractors and subcontractors. The Department recognizes and appreciates the value of comments... improve employee morale, reduce intimidation, misinformation, harassment, and fear in the workplace... ``lenient standard'' that requires that the order have a ``sufficiently close nexus'' to the values of...

  14. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like ...

  15. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits What's in this article? What should I eat? ...

  16. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  17. Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ground Water and Drinking Water Contact Us Share Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water Have a question that's not answered on this ...

  18. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  19. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides information on financial assistance to water systems needing capitalization grants and/or technical assistance to improve the quality of drinking water and for the delivery of safe drinking water to consumers.

  20. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. Updated March 14, 2014. www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html . Accessed March 20, 2016.

  1. Talking to your teen about drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use - teenager; Alcohol abuse - teenager; Problem drinking - teenager; Alcoholism - teenager; Underage drinking - teenager ... alcohol. Once you have started talking with your teenager, continue to bring it up at times when ...

  2. When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol - drinking too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much; Risky drinking - cutting back ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  3. Double Taxation Agreements: Between EU Law and Public International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    After the first drafts of the Treaty of Lisbon were available outside of the small circle of cogniscenti, specialists of the various policies tried to establish whether the new Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contained anything relevant for their specific areas of law. People interested in tax law and those interested in the relation between EU law and public international law quickly established that one familiar yet not always well u...

  4. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco…

  5. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and…

  6. Setting the Law Straight: Tanganyika Law Society & anor v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enabulele_&_ Bazuaye

    Department of Jurisprudence and International Law, Faculty of Law, University of. Benin, Nigeria; barrister and ... well established in the case law of international courts and tribunals that the purpose of the rule is to allow the .... the right to participate in public/governmental affairs, among others. The applications were later ...

  7. Harmonising the Fragmented Law of Transport Through Soft Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.M. Smeele (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis contribution raises the question of whether it is possible to bridge the divide between the various unimodal regimes and to develop a general law of transport. It explores also the role that soft law, such as in the form of a project to draw up Principles of Transport Contract Law,

  8. The Interplay between international law and labour law in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in the context of the diplomatic employment relationship. The overriding effect of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as supreme law to protect the labour rights of employees is weighed against the effect of various binding ...

  9. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  10. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  11. Psychoanalysis and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Morris N

    The paper discusses Freud's view of the law as the implementation of collective violence on the individual violator. I focus on the implications of the link between the superego (as the source of moral judgment) and the aggressive drive and suggest that we need to be ever vigilant regarding the danger of employing the law as a disguised means of taking pleasure in collective violence. The paper also discusses Freud's conception of personal responsibility, according to which we are responsible for all our behavior, including unconsciously motivated behavior (such as slips and dreams). However, the kind of responsibility Freud has in mind is not the moral responsibility of blameworthiness or praiseworthiness, but rather responsibility in the sense that, whether or not acknowledged, all our behavior reflects our personal desires and motives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Law in orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, D.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns space law and regulations to cope with the legal problems that space-faring governments must address. In 1957 the General Assembly of the United Nations established a committee on the peaceful uses of outer space (COPUOS), which worked on a treaty for outer space. COPUOS spent from 1962-1971 formulating a liability convention, and in 1976 a moon treaty was proposed. However COPUOS has not been able to reach a concensus on recent issues, including remote-sensing and communications satellites. COPUOS reached the end of its effective life in 1982, and now there is a need for governments to take a new initiative into Space law and regulations to cope with the problems posed by new technology. (U.K.)

  13. Law discourse and images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Cruz Pistori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer some remarks upon the argumentative use of images - mainly photographs - in the legal proceedings of the criminal and labor areas. Notions and categories of dialogical discourse analysis, inspired in the works of Bakhtin and the Circle, are the theoretical-methodological basis of the paper. We understand that every utterance in law proceedings belongs to a genre defined in the ideological sphere of law and, as such, presents a thematic content, style, and compositional form appropriate to the genre. In addition, they constitute themselves as the unique discursive project of the enunciator, who occasionally combines words and images in the construction of persuasive sense. In the statements presented, the set of words and images expressed evaluative standpoints, whether in agreement or not. Moreover, the analysis showed some different voices of the countless speeches that circulate in our society.

  14. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy

  16. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinkers in this group has an alcohol use disorder. A U.S. "standard" drink contains about 0.6 fluid ounces or 14 grams of "pure" alcohol. That's the amount in 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of table wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled ...

  17. EDTA in drink- en oppervlaktewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk-Looyaard AM; de Groot AC; Janssen PJCM; Wondergem EA

    1990-01-01

    The EDTA concentration in Dutch surface and drinking waters varies from 0-40 mug/l. The reduction during water treatment is 0 to 25-50% (when ozone is applied). Based on stoichiometry 40 mug/l EDTA can complex maximally 4-15 mug/l metals. In view of the present standards, this could only pose

  18. Women, Girls, and Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-01

    Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls.  Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/1/2013.

  19. 144__Olukosi_drinking wate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and Giardia lamblia; nutrients (fertilizers), dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic and so on) and dissolved organics (WHO, 2011). The demand for drinking water in Kaduna state is supplied by ground water sources such as wells and boreholes, tap water in areas where it is available, packaged water and ...

  20. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  1. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine...

  2. Nuclear Liability Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, S.

    2016-01-01

    The principles of the nuclear liability regime, including their application to the case of transport, are described in the IAEA Handbook on Nuclear Law, and will not be repeated in this paper. Rather, this paper examines some specific aspects of liability during transport, and particularly draws on some of the work of the IAEA International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX). In that regard, particular reference is made to the Explanatory Texts published in 2004

  3. Bankruptcy Law and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour; Douglas Cumming

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneurs, catalysts for innovation in the economy, are increasingly the object of policymakers’ attention. Recent initiatives both in the UK and at EU level have sought to promote entrepreneurship by reducing the harshness of the consequences of personal bankruptcy law. Whilst there is an intuitive link between the two, little attention has been paid to the question empirically. We investigate the link between bankruptcy and entrepreneurship using data on self employment over 13 years (1...

  4. Military Personnel Law Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    initial prenatal evaluation and at time of delivery, if the mother is identified as being at high risk; h. All persons enrolled in inpatient alcohol...for a crime of moral turpitude (regardless of the sentence), including, but not limited to, child abuse, incest , indecent exposure, soliciting...notice procedures, but normally not appropriate. 5. Other bases within Chap 5: surviving sons and daughters, aliens not lawfully admitted to the

  5. Drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwajung; Kim, YoungHo

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of drinking behavior and sex differences were examined. A possible relationship between drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) also was investigated among a convenience sample of 582 Korean college students (309 men, 273 women). A drinking habit scale (from AUDIT-K) and drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire (DRSEQ-R) were administered. Results indicated 74.4% of the students drank alcohol and 80.1% of the students were regular drinkers (> 2 to 4 times per month). There were significant differences in drinking behavior by sex and in the DRSE constructs for current drinking statuses. Drinking behavior was significantly associated with sex and DRSE. The present study offers more information about practical interventions aimed at reasonably controlling the drinking behavior of Korean college students in a university setting. The findings may provide better understanding of Korean students' drinking behavior.

  6. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  7. [Risks of energy drinks in youths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigard, A-X

    2010-11-01

    The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy

  8. Law and Investment in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A., Asongu

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to mainstream consensus on the dominance of English common law countries in investment prospects, this paper sets a new tone in the legal origins debate by providing empirical validity on the dominance of French civil-law countries in private investment. The assessment is based on 38 African countries for the period 1996-2007. The law mechanisms of regulation quality and rule of law are used to investigate how legal origins (French, English, French sub-Saharan, Portuguese and North A...

  9. Law, Coercion and Socioeconomic Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimos T. SOLDATOS

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic conditions under which the performance of a Judiciary does not impede non-coercive fair socioeconomic allocations under “Strotz-myopia” regarding the law variable, i.e. under a static view of it in an otherwise dynamic context. The law, here, is the positive factor by which consumption volume is multiplied as a result of law introduction in an otherwise fully private social economy. Lexicographic preferences regarding the law is the keyword in establishing...

  10. Economic Analysis of Accident Law

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Shavell

    2003-01-01

    Accident law is the body of legal rules governing the ability of victims of harm to sue and to collect payments from those who injured them. This paper contains the chapters on accident law from a general, forthcoming book, Foundations of Economic Analysis of Law (Harvard University Press, 2003). The analysis is first concerned (chapters 2-4) with the influence of liability rules on incentives to reduce accident risks. Then consideration of accident law is broadened (chapter 5) to reflect the...

  11. Is law science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolien MC Roos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The question this contribution sets out to address is whether or not law can be regarded as a science. This notion is readily accepted by many, yet it is submitted that a proper theoretical justification for such an assumption is usually missing. The traditional primary sources of law, South African case law and legislation, distinguish between legal practice and legal science, but the basis of the distinction is not clear. However, an entire body of literature in the philosophy of science has developed around the question of when a discipline will amount to science. Various demarcation criteria proposed in the philosophy of science are considered. These include that science uses the scientific method, is susceptible to falsification, is puzzle-solving within a paradigm or renders beneficial results. None of these criteria offers a satisfactory solution to the problem. The proposition by a group of philosophers including Herman Dooyeweerd, Marinus Stafleu and DFM Strauss, that the answer to the demarcation question is to be found in modal abstraction, is then considered. Modal abstraction amounts to a consideration of reality (persons, things, theories and rules from one or more defined point(s of entry. It is an artificial and learnt manner of thinking as it approaches reality from the perspective of one of the modalities of being. For example, juridical abstraction would mean that a cow is considered as the object of someone's proprietary rights. An abstract idea of the cow's characteristics, from a juridical point of view, is formed and the rules of property law are applied. A number of South African legal philosophers, amongst others Van Zyl, Van der Vyver and LM du Plessis, have followed this approach. The South African legislature has also attempted to define the terms "science" and "research", mainly for funding purposes. These definitions are considered and the conclusion is that they do not provide the clear-cut answers one would expect

  12. The relationship between drinking games and intentions to continue drinking, intentions to drive after drinking, and adverse consequences: results of a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, John D; Reed, Mark B; Ruderman, Danielle E

    2014-09-01

    Drinking games have become a nearly universal aspect of excessive drinking on university campuses with 50-62% of college students reporting playing drinking games in the past month. Participation in drinking games has been correlated with numerous negative consequences and increased consumption of alcohol. The present study addresses the influence of drinking games on three drinking-related outcomes: problems experienced the night of the drinking event, the intent to keep drinking, and the intent to drive after drinking. The data collected for the present study were part of a study testing environmental influences of drinking behaviors of young adults. A total of 226 randomly selected parties (representing 1725 partygoers) were selected for study inclusion. Three multilevel logistic regression models tested the relationship between drinking games and the three drinking-related outcomes. Participants who reported playing drinking games were 1.58 times more likely to report continued drinking intentions than participants who did not play drinking games. If drinking games were observed at a party, participants were 2.38 times more likely to plan to drive while intoxicated. Additionally, participants who reported playing drinking games were 1.59 times more likely to report experiencing a drinking-related problem than participants who did not play drinking games. Drinking games have consequences beyond increasing the level of intoxication; they contribute to problematic behavior at individual and environmental levels. Preventing drinking games is warranted.

  13. Administrative sanctions in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor-van Vugt, A.

    2012-01-01

    EU law has broadened the scope of administrative sanctioning by adding a variety of sanctions to the palette of sanctions in national law. Since the coming into force of the Charter, EU procedural standards are modelled on the ‘criminal charge’ case law of the ECtHR. These standards are discussed

  14. Private Law, Regulation, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    This paper critically engages with the European Regulatory Private Law thesis (ERPL). The main strength of ERPL is that it offers an entirely new perspective on European private law. However, as a complete theory of European private law, ERPL is too one-sided, both from a descriptive and from a

  15. Estimation in the Power Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben

    1981-01-01

    Psychophysicists neglect to consider how error should be characterized in applications of the power law. Failures of the power law to agree with certain theoretical predictions are examined. A power law with lognormal product structure is proposed and approximately unbiased parameter estimates given for several common estimation situations.…

  16. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  17. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  18. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  19. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  20. Environmental law in Thuringia. Text collection with introduction. Pt. 1. Waste law, nuclear, radiation and energy law, soil protection law and land reparcelling, forestry law, fishing and hunting law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Matthias Werner

    2015-01-01

    The volume 1 of the collection on the Thuringian Environmental Law contains additional to a detailed introduction: - Waste management - Nuclear, radiation and energy law - Soil protection law and land reparcelling - Forestry, fishery and hunting law. [de

  1. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-04-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries-Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi-as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers.

  2. The effectiveness of commercially available sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J S; Hamilton, K L

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available sports drinks by answering the questions: (i) will consuming a sports drink be beneficial to performance? and (ii) do different sports drinks vary in their effectiveness? To answer these questions we have considered the composition of commercially available sports drinks, examined the rationale for using them, and critically reviewed the vast number of studies that have investigated the effectiveness of sports drinks on performance. The focus is on the drinks that contain low carbohydrate concentrations (10%, which are intended for carbohydrate loading. Our conclusions are 3-fold. First, because of variations in drink composition and research design, much of the sports drinks research from the past cannot be applied directly to the effectiveness of currently available sports drinks. Secondly, in studies where a practical protocol has been used along with a currently available sports beverage, there is evidence to suggest that consuming a sports drinks will improve performance compared with consuming a placebo beverage. Finally, there is little evidence that any one sports drink is superior to any of the other beverages on the market.

  3. Perceptions about energy drinks are associated with energy drink intake among U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks are growing in popularity among youth because of their stimulant properties. However, they can increase blood pressure and are associated with serious consequences such as cardiac arrest. This study examined the associations between energy drink perceptions and energy drink consumption among youth. The design was a cross-sectional study using the YouthStyles Survey 2011. The online survey was administered at home. Subjects were youths aged 12 to 17 years in the summer of 2011 (n = 779). Energy drink consumption, perceptions about energy drinks, and sociodemographic and behavioral variables were measured. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Overall, 9% of youth drank energy drinks, 19.5% agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens, and 12.5% agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink. The proportion of youth consuming energy drinks once per week or more was highest among youth aged 16 to 17 years and among those who are physically active three to six times a week. The odds for drinking energy drinks once per week or more was higher among youth who agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens (odds ratios [OR] = 7.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =3.6, 16.4) and among those who agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.4, 10.7). These findings suggest that many youth may be unaware or misinformed about the potential health effects and nutritional content of energy drinks. Efforts to improve education among youth about the potential adverse effects of consuming energy drinks are needed.

  4. International and European Security Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herbach

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security law, or more comprehensively conflict and security law, on the international level represents the intersection of three distinct but interrelated fields: international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict, jus in bello, the law of collective security (most identified with the United Nations (UN system, jus ad bellum and arms control law (including non-proliferation. Security in this sense is multifaceted - interest security, military security and, as is often referred to in the context of the EU, human security. As such, the law covers a wide range of specific topics with respect to conflict, encompassing the use of force, including choice of weapons and fighting techniques, extending to the rules applicable in peacekeeping and peace enforcement, and yet also dictating obligations outside the context of conflict, such as safeguarding and securing dual-use materials (those with both peaceful and military applications to prevent malicious use.

  5. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behavior with important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. We report on our most recent developments of a real-space formulation of an equation-of-motion...... that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  6. Violence or law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimminich, O.; Troendle, H.; Middendorff, W.; Flor, G.; Guenzler, C.; Boehme, W.

    1982-01-01

    Bloody demonstrations, occupations of houses and airports, violence against things and persons make the citizens feel that the protection of life and property is no longer in a good state in the F.R. of Germany. How can a further erosion of the sense of justice be met. What can the citizens do to strengthen the sense of justice and to help making the respect of law grow again as a condition for the peaceful coexistence of people. The contributions from a meeting of the Evangelische Akademie Bad Herrenalb deal with these problems. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Tokamak confinement scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.

    1998-01-01

    The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)

  8. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  9. Ecology and basic laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de

  10. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  11. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  12. Environmental law and nuclear law: a growing symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennerechts, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article is divided in two parts. The first part deals with the interrelationship between environmental law and nuclear law. It specifically addresses selective topics which the author considers as substantial proof that environmental law is in evidence in the nuclear field. These topics are access to nuclear information, public participation in nuclear decision-making and prevention and compensation of environmental damage caused by nuclear incidents. Environmental law will be considered in its narrow sense, meaning the law that seeks to protect nature such as soil, water, air and biodiversity. The position of the author is that the importance of environmental law for nuclear activities is increasing and may lead to a growing symbiosis with nuclear law. Environmental law and nuclear law share the same objectives: protection against mitigation of and compensation for damage to the environment. In the second part a specific problem that touches upon the extra-territorial effect of environmental legislation in the nuclear field will be examined. At the beginning of the 21. century, it can be expected that vendors of nuclear facilities will spare no efforts in trying to enter new markets all over the world. Countries with more developed environmental requirements on the construction of nuclear facilities by their national vendors in customer countries. This part of the article will analyse whether public international laws to the construction of nuclear facilities abroad. The author believes that there may well be a legal basis under customary international law justifying the application of national environmental law to the construction of nuclear facilities and the performance of work on nuclear facilities in foreign countries, but there would appear to be none permitting the enforcement of these laws in the absence of an agreement with the foreign country. (N.C.)

  13. Drinking-water monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A new measuring system was developed by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for monitoring the quality of drinking-water. It is based on the experience made with the installation of UWEDAT (registered trademark) environmental monitoring networks in several Austrian provinces and regions. The standard version of the drinking-water monitoring system comprises sensors for measuring chemical parameters in water, radioactivity in water and air, and meteorological values of the environment. Further measuring gauges, e.g. for air pollutants, can be connected at any time, according to customers' requirements. For integration into regional and supraregional networks, station computers take over the following tasks: Collection of data and status signals transmitted by the subsystem, object protection, intermediate storage and communication of data to the host or several subcentres via Datex-P postal service, permanent lines or radiotransmission

  14. Large drinks are no mistake: glass size, not shape, affects alcoholic beverage drink pours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Patterson, Deidre; Koenen, Mary A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2009-07-01

    Alcohol content in drinks has been shown to be variable. This study evaluates claims regarding the effects of glass size and glass shape on the amount of alcohol served in on-premise drinks. Wine and spirits drinks were purchased and measured in 80 on-premise establishments in 10 Northern California Counties. Alcohol content was measured as the liquid volume of the drink multiplied by the percentage alcohol by volume of given brands or from analysis of mixed drink and wine samples. Spirits drinks were classified as either straight shots or mixed drinks. Mixed drinks poured in short wide glasses were not found to contain more alcohol than those poured in tall thin glasses. Straight shots and mixed drinks served in the relatively large pint glass and variable 'other' glass type were found to contain more alcohol than drinks served in a short wide glass. No other significant differences were found between glass types. Analyses of establishment characteristics found that bars with mostly black patrons serve spirits drinks with more alcohol than bars with other patron types. Glass shape does not affect actual drink pours in the USA but glass size does in some cases. Consumer education programs should foster awareness of the relatively high alcohol content of on-premise wine and mixed spirits drinks. More research is needed to evaluate potential differences in drink pours by patron race and ethnicity.

  15. Energy Drinks: Ergolytic or Ergogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillivent, Joe; Blevins, Jennifer; Peak, Kayla

    Despite the growing popularity of energy drinks, many do not realize the negative effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of energy drink ingestion on estimated VO 2 max, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively), rate pressure product (RPP), and RPE at rest and during exercise. Seven healthy adults (age: 24.3 ± 3.5 yrs; body mass: = 66.0 ± 2.2 kg) participated in this randomized double blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested a placebo (PL) or Redline (RL) energy drink (240ml; 250 mg caffeine) 40 minutes before maximal graded exercise test (GXT). Estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) was lower in the RL trial (37.9±5.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) compared to the PL trial (39.7±6.5 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; P = 0.02). Although no significant differences were noted for the number of ectopic beats (ETB) between the trials, a five to one ratio for the RL and PL existed (RL = 106 total ectopic beats; PL = 21 total ectopic beats). Sub-maximal exercise heart demand (RPP: systolic BP × HR) at the same workload was considerably higher in the RL trial (224.9 ± 39.9 mmHg·bts·min -1 ; P =0.04) compared to PL (195.8 ± 22.9 mmHg·bts·min -1 ). Recovery DBP was significantly higher at one min. in the RL trial (51.6 ± 25.1 mmHg) compared to PL (25.4 ± 33.8 mmHg; P =0.05). Based on the results of this study, it was determined that energy drinks lowered estimated VO 2 max while elevating RPP and recovery DBP.

  16. Injured coliforms in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    McFeters, G A; Kippin, J S; LeChevallier, M W

    1986-01-01

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater th...

  17. When Economics Meets Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    experience, many readers and students of law-and-economics feel they have to work twice as hard for half the reward. It is not a traditional subject. This first impression may be with some good reason, but let me assure you the subject’s bark is far worse than its bite, at least with the help of this book......-book with the hard copy version so that one, or other, or both, are available to make the resource more convenient for reader-students. Thirdly, I wanted the audience to be at the forefront of my mind, and for me to see visualise them as using the book; hence, I will often refer to then – to you as readers...... to begin with. What I can promise is with effective use of this book – and participation in lectures and case studies, reader-students will gain relevant knowledge and analytical skills, and be much more likely to enjoy success in their assessments related to Law-and-Economics, and after that too. Above...

  18. Telemedicine and the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilloy, W.J.; Lewalle, L.; Pilloy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To identify the legal and ethical obstacles to the development of tele (nuclear) medicine, and to propose solutions. Material and method: Lessons have been drawn from 4 years practice of telemedicine between Luxemburg and 5 European centres. Problems so raised have been confronted with the US and EU literature. Results: Academic applications (web sites, teaching, hospital networks) are yet functional and are not dealt with here. Difficulties arise in case of 1st reading (e.g. 24 hour service), 2nd reading (expert advice) or distant reading (locum, service in remote places). In most applications, the relation is doctor to doctor; patient issues like quality of content, freedom of choice are minor. A body of laws, rules and directives apply to other issues. Confidentiality is ruled by the EU Directives on the Protection of Individuals and on Data Protection. Data are commonly encrypted/anonymized. Consent and free choice are ruled by the law of medicine. A doctor requiring 2nd advice stays in charge of the patient (no need to consent). Remote reading or 1st reading is usually based on prior agreement between doctors (like after hours service), and information or consent is recommended. Registration and accreditation are ruled by the Directives of the European Internal Market for Services. No obstacle to the delivery of services across the EU would remain if it is perceived that a tele-patient consults abroad rather than a tele-doctor practices abroad. (author)

  19. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  20. Reflections on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, F.

    1977-01-01

    Despite contradictory public attitudes to nuclear power, this source of energy is bound to be used all over the world because of exhaustible other energy sources and increasing energy needs. The role of nuclear law is analysed in this context. Innovative legislation in this field has kept in step with the constant evolution of nuclear technology and has fixed new criteria of liability, financial coverage and specific standards for users of nuclear power, and set administrative measures to be complied with. It has fixed a barrier of protection mechanisms, i.e. licences, exemptions, controls, to keep an acceptable balance between economic advantages and social needs. In Italy, apart from ratification of international nuclear conventions, an increasing number of laws and decrees are made touching the various aspects of nuclear energy, thus providing a detailed, expanding legal framework for nuclear activities. Finally, existing legislation should be still further refined as regards emergency plans and measures to ensure maximum protection in the event, however remote, of a major nuclear incident. (NEA) [fr

  1. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  2. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  4. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  5. Characterization of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria from biofilm and bulk water samples from the Potchefstroom drinking water distribution system / by S. Walter

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Sunette

    2009-01-01

    The presence of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in drinking water distribution systems is usually not considered harmful to the general consumer. However, precautions must be taken regarding the immunocompromised. All water supply authorities in South Africa are lawfully required to provide consumers with high-quality drinking water that complies with South African-and international standards. This study mainly focused on the isolation, identification and characterization of HPC and ...

  6. RECENT CJEU CASE LAW TRENDS IN COMPETITION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Valančius

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the most significant recent case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU related to the competition law. Firstly, focus is given to some recent CJEU case law in the antitrust area, i.e. the judgments dealing with the application of Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. A special attention is paid to the most recent CJEU case law analyzing the distinction between the object and effect of the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition. Secondly, some significant State aid cases are dealt with, i.e. the cases related to the application of Article 107 TFEU. Although the CJEU case law has not recently undergone major changes in the competition law field, the article reflects the main trends towards the current jurisprudence and what challenges may be expected in the future.

  7. ExtLaw_H18: Extinction law code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Matthew W., Jr.; Lu, Jessica R.; Anderson, Jay; Do, Tuan; Schlafly, Edward F.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Clarkson, William I.; Morris, Mark R.; Albers, Saundra M.

    2018-03-01

    ExtLaw_H18 generates the extinction law between 0.8 - 2.2 microns. The law is derived using the Westerlund 1 (Wd1) main sequence (A_Ks 0.6 mag) and Arches cluster field Red Clump at the Galactic Center (A_Ks 2.7 mag). To derive the law a Wd1 cluster age of 5 Myr is assumed, though changing the cluster age between 4 Myr - 7 Myr has no effect on the law. This extinction law can be applied to highly reddened stellar populations that have similar foreground material as Wd1 and the Arches RC, namely dust from the spiral arms of the Milky Way in the Galactic Plane.

  8. China's Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Law: the law and the philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lening Zhang; Jianhong Liu

    2007-10-01

    The present study introduces and discusses the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Law of the People's Republic of China. The law was promulgated in the context of Chinese socioeconomic reforms and legal reforms in response to the rising delinquency since the early 1980s. The study explains the social and political background of the law with respect to the patterns of delinquency in China. The law has several main features that reflect the Chinese philosophical underpinnings of crime prevention and control, and the study discusses the connection between the law and the traditional Chinese philosophy and thinking. Finally, the study discusses the challenges to the enforcement of the law in Chinese society, which has lacked a legal tradition in its history.

  9. Changing Drinking Styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of Male and Female Drinking Among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Torronen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations in which you need to play with different aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23 years) in Denmark......, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking", has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations where you need to play with different...

  10. The Essential Elements of Corporate Law. What is Corporate Law?

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, John; Hansmann, Henry; Kraakman, Reinier

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first chapter of the second edition of “The Anatomy of Corporate Law: A Comparative and Functional Approach”, by Reinier Kraakman, John Armour, Paul Davies, Luca Enriques, Henry Hansmann, Gerard Hertig, Klaus Hopt, HidekiKanda and Edward Rock (Oxford University Press, 2009). The book as a whole provides a functional analysis of Corporate (or Company) Law in Europe, the U.S., and Japan. Its organization reflects the structure of Corporate Law throughout all jurisdictions, w...

  11. How Darcy's Law sparked various fields of subsurface hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Gerrit H.

    2016-04-01

    Henry Darcy built the drinking water supply system of the French city of Dijon in the mid-19th century. In doing so, he developed an interest in the flow of water through sands, and, experimented with water flow in a vertical cylinder filled with different sands. He found Darcy's Law in this way, and until this day it is the cornerstone of the theory of water flow in porous media. Darcy's Law was quickly adopted for calculating groundwater flow, which blossomed after the introduction of a few very useful simplifying assumptions that permitted a host of analytical solutions to groundwater problems, including flows toward pumped drinking water wells and toward drain tubes. In soil hydrology, Darcy's Law itself required modification to facilitate its application for different soil water contents. The understanding of the relationship between the potential energy of soil water and the soil water content emerged early in the 20th century. The mathematical formalization of the consequences for the flow rate and storage change of soil water was established in the 1930s, but only after the 1970s did computers become powerful enough to tackle unsaturated flows head-on. In combination with crop growth models, this allowed Darcy-based models to aid in the setup of irrigation practices and to optimize drainage designs. In the past decades, spatial variation of the hydraulic properties of aquifers and soils has been shown to affect the transfer of solutes from soils to groundwater and from groundwater to surface water. All this emerged from a law derived from a few experiments on a cylinder filled with sand in the 1850s. The poster tracks this development of groundwater hydrology and soil water hydrology through seminal contributions over the past 160 years.

  12. [What are the physician's role and responsibility in the law named "Basic Act on Measures against Alcohol-related Health Harm"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Io, Aro; Yoshimoto, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Japan passed the national law "Basic Act on Measures against Alcohol-related Health Harm" on December 2013. This law is expected to prevent inappropriate drinking that leads to alcohol-related problems such as physical and mental disorder, drunk driving, suicide, domestic violence, child abuse, and poor work performance. The physician's responsibilities under this law are described as follows: i) to provide high quality and appropriate medical care concerning alcohol-related health harm; ii) to reduce or eliminate the consumption of alcohol, thus preventing the progression of alcohol-related health harm; and iii) to coordinate these efforts amongst medical institutions. Based on this law, we believe that Japanese physicians will have essential roles in achieving the goals of this law and that we can fulfill our responsibilities by observing the following aspects: a) changing our message to the patients from "drink sensibly and moderately" to "low-risk drinking; but any drinking has a risk of harm and low-risk drinking is not risk-free"; b) encouraging the spread and use of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT); and c) establishing community healthcare systems for alcohol-related problems, including dementia in the elderly and during alcohol emergencies.

  13. Interdisciplinary Success Of Law And Economy: Economic Analysis Of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of law defines as an application of economic theory and economic methods in studies of forming, structure, process and influence of the law and legal institution. Although many comment that it is the question of a new scientific discipline or contemporary intellectual movement, the economic analysis of law reaches even the classics of economic thought Adam Smith and David Hume but the real recognition of the analysis was the publishing of the famous article of Ronald Coase (1960 “Problem of Public Expense” . Here he discusses how the incentives for damage reduction and various negativities come from the allocation of property rights. The aim of this work is to present an economic analysis of law as an interdisciplinary success of two great fields – law and economy, i.e. to present the way on which economy helps to understand law in a new way. Realizing it, the economy uses mathematically precise theories (e.g. price theory, game theory etc. and empirically firm methods (statistics and econometrically to analyse the impact of prices, i.e. of sanctions on behaviour. The article shows basic economic analyses of law which especially cite the contract law and balance law.

  14. The Influence of Byzantine Law on Serbian Mediaeval Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Šarkić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian law had being developed from the early 13th century under the direct influence of Byzantine law. Serbian lawyers adopted the Byzantine law in the form of translation of Byzantine legal compilations. The first of them was Nomokanon of Saint Sava of 1219 which contained ecclesiastical rules together with canonist’s glosses, a translation of part of Justinian’s Novels and the whole of the Procheiron of Basil I. In 1349-1354 Serbian lawyers created a special Codex Tripartitus, codifying both Serbian and Byzantine law. The Russian scholar T. Florinsky noticed this in 1888, pointing out that in the oldest manuscripts Dušan’s Code is always accompanied by two other compilations of Byzantine law: the abbreviated Syntagma of Matheas Blastar and the so-called Justinian’s Law. Beside the translations of Byzantine legal miscellanies, Serbian lawyers adopted a great number of the institutes of Roman law. However, Serbian lawyers were not educated in Bologna, so that Roman law was adopted in an indirect way, i.e. through Greek (Byzantine translations, not from original Latin texts. Dušan’s Code as the most important legal source of mediaeval Serbian law borrowed about 60 articles directly from the Basilica: articles 171 and 172 are the most important of them.

  15. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  16. Are energy Drinks Scapegoats? Decomposing Teenagers' Caffeine intake from Energy Drinks and Soda Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir

    2018-02-22

    Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day. These were converted into mg caffeine/day and were contrasted with common guidelines for healthy caffeine intake, stratified by age group and sex. Error-bar charts, ANOVA and ROC curves were used for contrasting caffeine intake from soda drinks and energy drinks, as well as their contribution to exceeding recommended caffeine intake cutoffs. First, in both sexes and grades the intake from soda drinks was significantly higher than the intake from energy drinks. The soda and energy drink intake for males was higher than the intake for females; intake for 8th graders was higher than this of 10th graders. Second, caffeine intake from soda drinks was significantly higher even in those who exceeded the recommended maximum caffeine intake. Third, caffeine intakes from soda and energy drinks were efficacious in explaining the exceeding of the recommended threshold for daily caffeine intake, but the explanatory power of soda drinks was larger. From a caffeine consumption standpoint, health professionals should emphasize reduction in both soda and energy drinks.

  17. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  18. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  19. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  20. Law and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Lowenstein, Ariela; Biggs, Simon

    2017-03-01

    In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases-in the United States, Canada, and Israel-were analyzed and compared. Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.

  1. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  2. Kirschmann's Fourth Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosten, J M; Mollon, J D

    2012-01-15

    Kirschmann's Fourth Law states that the magnitude of simultaneous color contrast increases with the saturation of the inducing surround, but that the rate of increase reduces as saturation increases. Others since Kirschmann have agreed and disagreed. Here we show that the form of the relationship between simultaneous color contrast and inducer saturation depends on the method of measurement. Functions were measured by four methods: (i) asymmetric matching with a black surround, (ii) asymmetric matching with a surround metameric to equal energy white, (iii) dichoptic matching, and (iv) nulling an induced sinusoidal modulation. Results from the asymmetric matching conditions agreed with Kirschmann, whereas results from nulling and from dichoptic matching showed a more linear increase in simultaneous contrast with the saturation of the inducer. We conclude that the method certainly affects the conclusions reached, and that there may not be any "fair" way of measuring simultaneous contrast. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterns of drinking and driving offenses among nightclub patrons in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gabriela A; Sanchez, Zila M

    2017-05-01

    Brazil has a strict drinking and driving law known as the Brazilian "Dry Law". The aim of the present study was to investigate characteristics associated with the breaking of the Brazilian traffic law, on drinking and driving, at nightclub exit among a representative sample of nightclub patrons in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Portal survey realized with a two-stage cluster sampling survey design to collect data from 2422 patrons at the entrance and 1822 patrons at the exit of 31 nightclubs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Patrons' breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) at the entrance and exit of the nightclubs were categorized according to the law as either a "traffic offense" or a "traffic offense and crime". Weighted multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with different patterns of drinking and driving offenses. Of the subjects, 16.5% (n=369) were identified as driving patrons at the entrance and exit of the nightclubs. At entry, 80.1% of the patrons had a zero BrAC, 14.9% had a BrAC meeting the traffic offense criteria and 5.0% had a BrAC meeting the traffic offense and crime criteria. Women were less likely to have BrACs meeting the traffic offense criteria. At nightclub exit, 63.4% of patrons had maintained a zero BrAC, 24.7% had a BrAC that had increased and now met the traffic offense and crime criteria, and 11.9% had a decreased or stable BrAC. An increased BrAC was more frequently identified in patrons who were men, were single, and had used illicit drugs inside the nightclub. Despite the existence of a strict law regarding drinking and driving, a significant proportion of nightclub patrons in the city of São Paulo had violated this law, suggesting a perception of impunity and need for law enforcement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. What do we know about energy drinks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süber Dikici

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks are popular among young individuals andmarketed to college students, athletes, and active individualsbetween the ages of 21 and 35 years. In the beginningconsumption of energy drinks can significantlyimprove physical and mental performance. Energy drinkscontain a mixture of compounds, of which caffeine, guarana,and herbal supplements such as ginkgo and ginsengare major components. Unfortunately, the body ofliterature is limited and it is not known whether these improvementsare due to the caffeine other herbal ingredients.Severe clinical manifestations may occur after useof energy drinks with alcohol The aim of this article is risingawareness about the ingredients of energy drinks andclinical manifestations that may occur after usage and updateabout knowledge.Key words: Energy drinks, energy drinks ingredients,clinical manifestations

  5. Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    in the international system, States could expect other States not to interfere in their internal affairs. Human rights law, however, pierced the “ veil ...transactions of individuals and corporations .”4 B. States. International law developed to regulate relations between States, and States are the focus of the...conflict. Whenever international law operates to regulate the conduct of a State, it must pierce the shield of sovereignty. The LOAC is therefore

  6. Law and Finance in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses how legal origin influences financial development through regulation quality and the rule of law. It employs all the dimensions identified by the Financial Development and Structure Database of the World Bank. The law channels are instrumented with legal origins to account for financial intermediary dynamics of depth, efficiency, activity and size. The results broadly support the benefits of law mechanisms in financial development. The findings only show partial support fo...

  7. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures....

  8. On Interpretivism and International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Çali, Başak (Prof.)

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of interpretivism within theoretical and normative debates about international law. To do this, the article carries out two tasks. First, it draws out the central features of interpretivism that make it a theoretically distinct contribution to understanding the nature and theory of law. Secondly, it identifies four important objections, two external and two internal, to the relevance of interpretivism to international law. External objections stem from po...

  9. Film Law: A copyright perspective

    OpenAIRE

    David, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Film Law: A Copyright Perspective (Abstract) The rigorous work describes and analyses the film law, understood as a set of norms of public and private law, bound by common denominator in the form of direct or indirect regulation of production and exploitation of film, with a special focus on film copyright. The work focuses on contemporary and historical treatment of the film copyright in the Czech Republic, while in some parts performs its comparison with the film copyright in other countrie...

  10. Water security and international law

    OpenAIRE

    Kuokkanen Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    The article explores water security from an international law point of view. The article argues that in order to better understand water security it is important to focus on the function of international water law. Even though water security is a relatively recent concept it was latent in the process of the evolution of international water law. In addition, the article examines the relationship between man and water from the point of view of water security. The article seeks to answe...

  11. Essential Elements of Corporate Law

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, Reinier H.; Armour, John; Hansmann, Henry

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first chapter of the second edition of The Anatomy of Corporate Law: A Comparative and Functional Approach, by Reinier Kraakman, John Armour, Paul Davies, Luca Enriques, Henry Hansmann, Gerard Hertig, Klaus Hopt, Hideki Kanda and Edward Rock (Oxford University Press, 2009). The book as a whole provides a functional analysis of corporate (or company) law in Europe, the U.S., and Japan. Its organization reflects the structure of corporate law across all jurisdictions, while ...

  12. Alcohol consumption and factors associated with binge drinking among female university students of health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Rocha Hora Mendonça

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption and the prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking among university students of health-related courses in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of 865 female students from two universities in the Brazilian Northeast. The instruments used were the AUDIT and a questionnaire used to collect sociodemographic data. The chi-square test and logistic regression were used, with statistical significance set at p-value < 0.05. Results: Risky alcohol consumption was evidenced in 16.4%, while the prevalence of binge drinking was 48.0%. Binge drinking was strongly associated with drunk driving (OR = 12.24 and living in a conflicting family environment (OR = 6.33. Binge drinking was a constant in students who engaged in fights, those who had problems with the law and among smokers. Conclusion: The high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, binge drinking and the association of these with risky behaviors in students serve to guide future public policies on prevention.

  13. Analysis of application of different approaches to secure safe drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendić Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis, the risk systems include the systems within which services sensitive to risk are executed. The complex service of population supply with safe drinking water is considered to be risky. Guidelines for drinking water quality of the World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of effective preventive approaches to risk-based management of the safety and quality of drinking water. For example, Food Safety Law of the Republic of Serbia stipulates mandatory application of HACCP system in order to obtain safe drinking water. Different approaches to preventive risk-based management for the sake of the safety and quality of drinking water are applied nowadays. In this paper we consider the following approaches: Original Codex Alimentarius HACCP system and some of its modified versions; International standard ISO 22000: 2005 Food safety management systems - Requirements for any organization in the food chain; Water Safety Plan (WSP of the World Health Organization (WHO; Generalized HACCP system. All of these approaches are based, to a greater or lesser extent, on the original Codex Alimentarius HACCP system. The paper gives a situation analysis (SWOT analysis of considered approaches.

  14. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  15. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  16. Practical concepts in Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan, zarrokh

    2008-01-01

    A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. Contract law is based on the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (literally, promises must be kept) [1]. Breach of a contract is recognised by the law and remedies can be provided. Almost everyone makes contracts everyday. Sometimes written contracts are required, e.g., when buying a house [2]. However the vast majority of contracts can be and are made orally, like buying a law text book,...

  17. The law of international organisations

    CERN Document Server

    White, Nigel D

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the main-type of international organisation - the inter-governmental organisation (IGO). That law consists of principles and rules found in the founding documents of IGOs along with applicable principles and rules of international law. The book also identifies and analyses the law produced by IGOs, applied by them and, occasionally, enforced by them. There is a concentration upon the United Nations, as the paradigmatic IGO, not only upon the UN organisation headquartered in New York, but on other IGOs in the UN system (the specialised agencies such as the World Health Organisation).

  18. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, P; Meek, M E

    1983-01-01

    For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that...

  19. Dissonance and alcohol: drinking your troubles away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C M; Southwick, L L; Critchlow, B

    1981-11-01

    Based on recent evidence supporting the assumption that cognitive dissonance is experienced as an unpleasant emotional state, and further evidence pertaining to the effects of drinking alcohol, it was predicted that among social drinkers, dissonance arousal would increase the amount of drinking and that drinking, in turn, would reduce dissonance and subsequent attitude change. This hypothesis was tested in the first two experiments by having subjects taste rate different brands of an alcoholic beverage--ostensibly to test taste discrimination but in fact to measure the amount of drinking--immediately after dissonance was aroused by having them write a counterattitudinal essay. The effect of drinking on dissonance reduction was assessed by measuring subjects' postattitudes immediately after the drinking task. Both experiments found that although dissonance arousal had little effect on the amount of drinking, whatever drinking occurred was sufficient to eliminate dissonance-reducing attitude change. The second experiment further established that these results occurred for light as well as heavy social drinkers. Evidence that the dissonance-reducing effect of drinking resulted form some effect of drinking alcohol was provided by the finding, in the second and third experiments, that neither water or coffee drinking was sufficient to eliminate attitude change in this paradigm. Both the practical and theoretical implications are discussed. The practical implication is that some forms of alcohol abuse may evolve through the reinforcement of drinking as a means of reducing dissonance; the theoretical implication is that dissonance may be frequently reduced through behaviors that ameliorate the feelings of dissonance without involving cognitive change.

  20. RUSSIAN DRINKING: TOO LATE FOR EMERGENCY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Evgenjevich Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian drinking for the first time demonstrates weakening of specialization in spirits drinking and stabilization of amount drunk. This suggests expectations of drinking qualitative turn, i.e. to consumer’s choice oriented to quality of drinking rather than to quantity, and further to lessening the drinking norm. Experience of wine-drinking countries of Europe and influence of pan-European homogenization of patterns of drinking, favor such a perspective. The marked decrease of drinking norm in wine-drinking countries was achieved with the minimal state intervention. Survey data (n=904 is provided to corroborate the claim that Russian drinking is able to self-regulate. The data witness weak support for government’s measures taken to restrict access to beverages sale in terms of age, time, place, and price; customers are likely to value freedom of choice unbridled. Governmental pursuance of simplistic access-and-pricing restrictive policies recently undertaken, may force Russian drinking back to another cycle of alcoholisation within the old ‘northern’ model. Bootlegging expansion, formerly progressive specialization in spirits drinking, habit of making gross purchases in population are explained by former experiences of coping with deficits, dry campaigns, and traditional culture of religious and secular abstinences. Scarcity of modes of compensatory behaviors and low concern for health also back up the special cultural status of alcohol. Government should seek for positive measures, viz. wider sporting involvement for students and inclusion for disabled to revive the nation’s regard for health and awareness of health-related risks.

  1. Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled...

  2. Evaluating the relationship between explicit and implicit drinking identity centrality and hazardous drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P. Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  3. Divergent drinking patterns and factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption (the case of Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaev, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    Unrecorded homemade alcohol consumption has been less examined in the literature. Previous studies of homemade alcohol in Russia have almost entirely focused upon the use of samogon (moonshine) attributed to the northern style of drinking. No systematic analysis is available regarding the production and consumption of homemade wine. This paper explores the drinking patterns demonstrated by consumers of samogon and homemade wine in Russia. The main factors affecting the consumption of these beverages are investigated. Data were collected from a 2014 nationwide survey of 14,986 respondents aged 15+ years. Beverage preferences, volume of consumed alcohol, drinking habits, and alcohol availability were the main measures reported. Demographic, socio-economic, spatial, and policy-related factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption are examined using logistic regression. The percentages of samogon and homemade wine consumers were similar, although a greater volume of samogon in pure alcohol was consumed compared to homemade wine. The groups of samogon and homemade wine consumers showed very little overlap. Unlike homemade wine consumers, samogon drinkers consumed larger amounts of alcohol and were more engaged in frequent and excessive drinking, drinking without meals and drinking in marginal public settings. Gender, education, regional affiliation, and type of residence showed opposite associations with regard to the consumption of samogon and homemade wine. Availability of homemade alcohol in the neighbourhood was the most influential predictor due to respondents' own production, presence of homemade alcohol in friendship networks and at illegal market. The prices of manufactured alcohol and the consumption of homemade alcohol did not show significant relationships. Consumers of samogon and homemade wine demonstrate contrasting drinking patterns that are largely driven by different factors. Samogon is consumed in a more hazardous manner, whereas homemade wine is

  4. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  5. Ulpian's Appeal to Nature : Roman Law as Universal Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, René

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I argue that against the political and perhaps even religiously motivated background of the Constitutio Antoniniana, in order to further enhance the appeal of Roman law, Ulpian seeks to connect law and nature by using Stoic terminology. However, his usage of this terminology is

  6. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk The Drunkard's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk The Drunkard's Walk. Rahul Roy. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 33-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk Related Electrical Networks. Rahul Roy. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 36-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In social-security law, the receipt of more than one social benefit is called "double dipping", whereas in private law the problem of double compensation is addressed by applying the collateral-source rule. In some instances the applicable legislation clearly prescribes the deduction or not of the social benefit, but ...

  9. Book Review: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law Title to Land. Book Author: U Secher. (2014 Hart Publishing Oxford and Portland Oregon) ISBN 978-1-84946-553-3. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  10. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.

  11. Energy Drinks: A Contemporary Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita; Deuster, Patricia A; Shearer, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Since their introduction in 1987, energy drinks have become increasingly popular and the energy drink market has grown at record pace into a multibillion-dollar global industry. Young people, students, office workers, athletes, weekend warriors, and service members frequently consume energy drinks. Both health care providers and consumers must recognize the difference between energy drinks, traditional beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks/sodas, juices, or flavored water), and sports drinks. The research about energy drinks safety and efficacy is often contradictory, given the disparate protocols and types of products consumed: this makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Also, much of the available literature is industry-sponsored. After reports of adverse events associated with energy drink consumption, concerns including trouble sleeping, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, and even death, have been raised about their safety. This article will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, side effects associated with their consumption, and suggested recommendations, which call for education, regulatory actions, changes in marketing, and additional research.

  12. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude. PMID:20657817

  13. Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments.

  14. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  15. State Firearm Laws and Interstate Firearm Deaths From Homicide and Suicide in the United States: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Data by County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Elinore J; Morrison, Christopher N; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-03-05

    Firearm laws in one state may be associated with increased firearm death rates from homicide and suicide in neighboring states are uncertain. To determine whether counties located closer to states with lenient firearm policies have higher firearm death rates. This cross-sectional study of firearm death rates by county for January 2010 to December 2014 examined data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for firearm suicide and homicide decedents for 3108 counties in the 48 contiguous states of the United States. Each county was assigned 2 scores, a state policy score (range, 0-12) based on the strength of its state firearm laws, and an interstate policy score (range, -1.33 to 8.31) based on the sum of population-weighted and distance-decayed policy scores for all other states. Counties were divided into those with low, medium, and high home state and interstate policy scores. County-level rates of firearm, nonfirearm, and total homicide and suicide. With multilevel Bayesian spatial Poisson models, we generated incidence rate ratios (IRR) comparing incidence rates between each group of counties and the reference group, counties with high home state and high interstate policy scores. Stronger firearm laws in a state were associated with lower firearm suicide rates and lower overall suicide rates regardless of the strength of the other states' laws. Counties with low state scores had the highest rates of firearm suicide. Rates were similar across levels of interstate policy score (low: IRR, 1.34; 95% credible interval [CI], 1.11-1.65; medium: IRR, 1.36, (95% CI, 1.15-1.65; and high: IRR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.20-1.73). Counties with low state and low or medium interstate policy scores had the highest rates of firearm homicide. Counties with low home state and interstate scores had higher firearm homicide rates (IRR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02-1.88) and overall homicide rates (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67). Counties in states with low firearm policy scores had lower

  16. INTERFERENCES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW WITH THE URBAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the large, complex issue of influences that urbanization can have on the environment, requires first of all, some general considerations on the interferences between the urban law and the environmental law. The urban law investigates and regulates the affecting and planning of the urban space. Therefore, this type of regulations are at the interference with the environmental law , which, inter alia , deals with the protection and conservation of the environment in the urban settlements, in the built space and also the ecological deployment of the activities in this space. The interaction between the two is becoming increasingly important especially when the urban law is increasingly correlated with the environmental protection, the natural space and the ecological activities.

  17. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  18. Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy Soon Leong

    2012-01-01

    College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…

  19. The Disparity between Social Drinking Motives and Social Outcomes: A New Perspective on College Student Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Allison M.; Brown, B. Bradford; Moreno, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Mid-western University. Consistent with previous research, social drinking…

  20. LISTENING TO LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert YELḰÁTŦE Clifford

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available My journey to better understand and to live my own WSÁNEĆ legal tradition has always been both complex and incredibly rewarding.  This journey has, at times, also come with its challenges and tensions, including through law school and academia.  Through the use of story I reflect upon this path of learning, and many of my own thoughts and experiences along the way.  I have learned, and continue to learn, from many different people along this path, and I am so grateful to each of them.  While this story is primarily a self-reflection, the themes and tensions that the character of this story (Cedar embodies may resonant with many Indigenous people.  These themes include family, community, place, identity, stories, law and culture.  Each of these themes comes together and to life in this story through lived experience and my own empowering moments of living and coming to better understand WSÁNEĆ law.  Ultimately, writing this story helped me in a moment when I needed it.  My hope is that you too can find something helpful and rewarding within this story, and that you can use that along your own path.   Le périple que j’ai fait pour mieux comprendre et vivre ma propre tradition juridique dans la communauté WSÁNEĆ a toujours été à la fois complexe et incroyablement enrichissant. Bien entendu, cette expérience a également donné lieu à des défis et des tensions, notamment à l’école de droit et dans le milieu universitaire. À l’aide d’un récit, je décris mon cheminement et bon nombre de mes propres réflexions et expériences connexes. Tout au long de mon parcours, j’ai appris et je continue d’apprendre auprès de nombreuses personnes différentes et je leur en suis infiniment reconnaissant. Bien que ce récit soit d’abord et avant tout une autoréflexion, il se pourrait que de nombreux Autochtones retrouvent une part d’eux-mêmes dans les thèmes abordés et les tensions vécues par le personnage central

  1. Economic effects of Ohio's smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J

    2011-01-01

    To determine if the Ohio statewide smoke-free law is associated with economic activity in Ohio or Kentucky counties that lie on the border between the two states. In November 2006, Ohio implemented a comprehensive statewide smoke-free law for all indoor workplaces. A feasible generalised least squares (FLGS) time series design to estimate the impact of the Ohio smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties. Six Kentucky and six Ohio counties that lie on the border between the two states. All reporting hospitality and accommodation establishments in all Kentucky and Ohio counties including but not limited to food and drinking establishments, hotels and casinos. Total number of employees, total wages paid and number of reported establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services, 6 years before Ohio's law and 1 year after. There is no evidence of a disproportionate change in economic activity in Ohio or Kentucky border counties relative to their non-border counterparts. There was no evidence of a relation between Ohio's smoke-free law and economic activity in Kentucky border counties. The law generated a positive influence on wages and number of establishments in Ohio border counties. The null result cannot be explained by low test power, as minimum changes necessary in the dependent variables to detect a significant influence are very reasonable in size. Our data add to the large body of evidence that smoke-free laws are neutral with respect to the hospitality business across jurisdictions with and without laws.

  2. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  3. Energy law novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Paula

    2004-01-01

    Energy Law no. 318/2003 has been worked out in compliance with the EU Electricity Directive based on the following principles and objectives: - clearly defining the positions and roles of various institutional entities and structures; - introducing the competitions in energy generation and supply; - creation and functioning of electricity competitive markets; - right of certain consumers to buy electricity directly from the producers; - direct, fair and regulated access to electrical network of all the participants in the electricity market; - generators, distributors and consumers; - achieving the activities in the field under reliable conditions and at the quality standards for optimally using the primary energy resources by observing the environmental protection norms in force; - promoting, in a balanced manner, the interests of the National Power System based on the European regulations and requirements on optimal and efficient resources use by observing the environmental criteria and norms; - ensuring the sustainable development of the national economy; - diversifying the primary energy resources basis; - transparency of electricity tariffs, prices and taxes; - creating the security stocks of needed fuels for electricity and heat co-generation; - ensuring the interconnected operation of the NPS with the energy systems in the neighboring countries and with the ones in the UCTE; - promoting the use of renewable energy sources. Among the novelties brought by this Law by the definitions given to the terms used it is worth mentioning: - Access to the public electricity network; - Energy capacity; - Passageway of the electric line; - Natural monopoly in the energy field; - Electricity market operator; - Distribution system operator; - Transmission system operator; -Merit order (i.e the order in which an electricity producer is taken into consideration according to the price offered to cover the NPS electricity demand); - Electricity market; - Rehabilitation

  4. Drinking to have fun and to get drunk: Motives as predictors of weekend drinking over and above usual drinking habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Cooper, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Most evidence on the motives-alcohol use link has come from cross-sectional research using retrospective assessments. It remains also to be demonstrated whether motives predict drinking in particular circumstances. In the present study, drinking motives assessed 2 weeks prior to a diary study were

  5. INDONESIAN SALVAGE LAW WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF CONTEMPORARY MARITIME LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiana Puspitawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in a strategic position, that is between two great oceans and two land masses have made Indonesia a centre of international trade and shipping. In fact, 90% of international trades are carried out through the ocean. It is therefore crucial to assure that the activities in carrying goods across the ocean are incident free. However, if accident happens, assistance from professionals to preserve items of property is desirable. In such, salvage law emerged. This paper discusses comprehensively Indonesian salvage law within the framework of contemporary maritime law. While Indonesian maritime law is mostly based on its national law on the carriage of goods by the sea, in fact, the development of maritime law is highly affected by international practices which are largely based on international conventions and regulations. This research finds that while Indonesian salvage law can be found in Book II Chapter VII article 545-568k Wetboek Van Koophandel or known as Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang (KUHD, which focused narrowly on the value of salved property as the primary measures of success, yet Indonesian salvage law has not been developed in accordance with current international salvage law, which adopted a broader and more balanced approached in both commercial and environmental aspects. Although it is believed that such approached is “culturally unrecognized” in Indonesia, this research argued that since Indonesian waters are part of international waters, all process by waters including salvage should confirm the relevant international practices and regulations. While Indonesia has taken out salvage law from KUHD and regulates it within Act Number 17/2008 on navigation, however, such act only provides one article for salvage stating that salvage will be regulates further by Ministry Regulation. Untill this paper was written no such government regulation produced yet by Indonesia. Since Indonesian waters is the centre of international

  6. Space, time and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, R.A.; Ugarov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Neter theorem establishing correspondence between conservation laws and symmetry properties (space and time in particular) is considered. The theorem is based on one of the possible ways of finding equations of motion for a physical system. From a certain expression (action functional) equations of motion for a system can be obtained which do not contain new physical assertions in principal in comparison with the Newtonian laws. Neter suggested a way of deriving conservation laws by transforming space and time coordinates. Neter theorem consequences raise a number of problems: 1). Are conservation laws (energy, momentum) consequences of space and time symmetry properties. 2). Is it possible to obtain conservation laws in theory neglecting equations of motion. 3). What is of the primary importance: equations of motion, conservation laws or properties of space and time symmetry. It is shown that direct Neter theorem does not testify to stipulation of conservation laws by properties of space and time symmetry and symmetry properties of other non-space -time properties of material systems in objective reality. It says nothing of whether there is any subordination between symmetry properties and conservation laws

  7. Advanced Introduction to Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,

  8. International school of nuclear law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    This is a report about the second International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on August 26 to September 7, 2002, by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  9. International School of Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  10. A Law of Comparative Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurstone, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The law of comparative judgment is described, and applications in the measurement of psychological values are reviewed. The law defines the psychological continuum and expresses the experimentally observed proportion of judgments as a function of scale values of stimuli, their respective discriminal dispersions, and the correlation between paired…

  11. International School of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  12. Law Reform and Child Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Cormacain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Editorial Ronan Cormacain (Editor-in-Chief, ISLRev, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies welcomes you to the third issue of the IALS Student Law Review. He explains the background to this special edition focusing on Law Reform and Child Protection and introduces the articles featured in this issue of the journal.

  13. Law and Protestantism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamm, Ditlev

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with the influence of the Reformation on the law in Denmark. The Reformation was basically a reform of the church, but it also affected the concept of law and state in general. In 1536, King Christian III dismissed the catholic bishops and withheld the property of the chur...

  14. Electicism in Law and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arcuri (Alessandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAs the popularity of ‘law and economics’ is rapidly increasing, this essay is an invitation to pause and reflect on its methodology. Mainstream law and economics is generally associated with a paradigm that embraces rational choice theory as the theoretical grid that best understands

  15. Student difficulties with Gauss' law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanim, Stephen

    2000-09-01

    Many students in introductory courses have difficulty solving Gauss' law problems. Through interviews with students and analysis of solutions to homework and examination questions we have identified some specific conceptual difficulties that often contribute to students' inability to solve quantitative Gauss' law problems. We give examples of common difficulties and discuss instructional implications.

  16. Three lectures on Newton's laws

    OpenAIRE

    Kokarev, Sergey S.

    2009-01-01

    Three small lectures are devoted to three Newton's laws, lying in the foundation of classical mechanics. These laws are analyzed from the viewpoint of our contemporary knowledge about space, time and physical interactions. The lectures were delivered for students of YarGU in RSEC "Logos".

  17. Law and Protestantism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamm, Ditlev

    2016-01-01

    . The king, as custos duarum tabularum, guardian of both the tablets of law, also took over the legislation for the church. Especially in subjects of morals and criminal law new principles and statutes were enacted. Copenhagen University was reformed into a protestant seminary even though the former...

  18. A note on the laws of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning-Davies, J.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that, while links exist between the second and third laws, between the zeroth and proposed fourther laws and between the zeroth and second laws, no equivalences have been proved. Moreover, for positive absolute temperatures, the second law is seen to imply the zeroth law, provided the validity of the first law is assumed. However, since this result does not hold for negative absolute temperatures, no redundancy among the laws of thermodynamics can be claimed to have been established

  19. Power-law inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchin, F.; Matarrese, S.

    1985-01-01

    The outstanding cosmological problems (horizon, flatness, . . .) which may be solved by the usual inflationary models may also find a solution in the frame of a ''generalized'' inflationary cosmology which is characterized by a suitable phase of accelerated expansion. The usual exponential growth of the scale factor S is just a particular case of such a general idea. Following this line of thought, we study in some detail a simple inflationary model characterized by a scale factor which grows like Sapprox.t/sup p/, with p a constant greater than one, which we call power-law inflation (PLI). Some properties of PLI have been analyzed, in different contexts, also by other authors. We consider the constraints on this model coming from the requirement of solving the horizon, flatness, ''good'' reheating, and ''convenient'' perturbation-spectrum problems. In order to obtain the perturbation spectrum when re-entering the horizon during the Friedmann phase, we extend to PLI the gauge-invariant approach developed by Bardeen et al. for the usual inflationary models. We find that the above constraints can be suitably satisfied. Finally, we outline possible connections between PLI and particular inflationary models which have recently been proposed

  20. Regulating tritium in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article incorporates an article by E. Koehl from an internal Ontario Hydro publication, and a letter from the Joint Committee of Health and Safety of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Engineering, submitted to the Ontario Minister of the Environment and Energy. The Advisory Committee on Environmental Standards had recommended that the limit for tritium in Ontario drinking water be reduced from 40,000 to 100 Bq/L, with a further reduction to 20 in five years. Some facts and figures are adduced to show that the effect of tritium in drinking water in Ontario is negligible compared to the effect of background radiation. The risk from tritium to the people of Ontario is undetectably small, and the attempt to estimate this risk by linear extrapolation is extremely dubious. Regulation entails social and economic costs, and the government ought to ensure that the benefits exceed the costs. The costs translate into nothing less than wasted opportunity to save lives in other ways. 3 refs