WorldWideScience

Sample records for lengthy paid leaves

  1. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several......This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...

  2. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  3. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  4. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are

  5. Local mandate improves equity of paid sick leave coverage: Seattle’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Romich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paid sick leave allows workers to take time off work for personal or family health needs, improving health and potentially limiting infectious diseases. The U.S. has no national sick leave mandate, and many American workers - particularly those at lower income levels - have no right to paid time off for their own or family members’ health needs. This article reports on outcomes of a local mandate, the City of Seattle Paid Sick and Safe Time Ordinance, which requires certain employers to provide paid sick leave to eligible workers. Methods Survey collectors contacted a stratified random sample of Seattle employers before the Ordinance went into effect and one year later. Pre- and post- analysis draws on responses to survey items by 345 employers who were subject to the paid sick leave mandate. Results Awareness of the policy and provision of paid leave grew significantly over the year after the Ordinance was enacted. More employers offered leave to full-time workers (80.8 to 93.9%, p < .001 and part-time workers (47.1 to 66.7%, p < .001 with particularly large increases in the hospitality sector, which includes food workers (coverage of any hospitality employee: 27.5 to 85.0%, p < .001. Conclusions Absent a federal policy, local paid sick time mandates can increase paid sick leave coverage, an important social determinant of health.

  6. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... time between men and women. Findings contribute to the conceptual as well as empirical understanding of whether fathers' rights and use of parental leave can help bring about an egalitarian division of leave between mothers and fathers, often thought to be the foundation for gender equality....

  7. Paid leave benefits among a national sample of working mothers with infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F

    2014-01-01

    To describe a range of employment benefits, including maternity and other paid leave, afforded to working women with infants; and to examine the geographic, socio-demographic correlates of such benefits to inform the workplace policy agenda in the US. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey, a national sample of English-speaking women who gave birth in 2005, we conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between socio-demographic factors and employment leave variables (paid maternity, sick and personal leave). Forty-one percent of women received paid maternity leave for an average of 3.3 weeks with 31 % wage replacement. On average women took 10 weeks of maternity leave and received 10.4 days of paid sick leave and 11.6 days of paid personal time per year. Women who were non-Hispanic Black, privately insured, working full-time, and from higher income families were more likely to receive paid maternity leave, for more time, and at higher levels of wage replacement, when controlling for the other socio-demographic characteristics. Race/ethnicity, family income and employment status were associated with the number of paid personal days. Currently, the majority of female employees with young children in the US do not receive financial compensation for maternity leave and women receive limited paid leave every year to manage health-related family issues. Further, women from disadvantaged backgrounds generally receive less generous benefits. Federal policy that supports paid leave may be one avenue to address such disparities and should be modified to reflect accepted international standards.

  8. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Abraham, Jean M; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The United States is one of only three countries worldwide with no national policy guaranteeing paid leave to employed women who give birth. While maternity leave has been linked to improved maternal and child outcomes in international contexts, up-to-date research evidence in the U.S. context is needed to inform current policy debates on paid family leave. Methods Using data from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18-45 who gave birth in 2011-2012, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to predict the likelihood of outcomes related to infant health, maternal physical and mental health, and maternal health behaviors by the use and duration of paid maternity leave. Results Use of paid and unpaid leave varied significantly by race/ethnicity and household income. Women who took paid maternity leave experienced a 47% decrease in the odds of re-hospitalizing their infants (95% CI 0.3, 1.0) and a 51% decrease in the odds of being re-hospitalized themselves (95% CI 0.3, 0.9) at 21 months postpartum, compared to women taking unpaid or no leave. They also had 1.8 times the odds of doing well with exercise (95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and stress management (95% CI 1.1, 2.8), compared to women taking only unpaid leave. Conclusions for Practice Paid maternity leave significantly predicts lower odds of maternal and infant re-hospitalization and higher odds of doing well with exercise and stress management. Policies aimed at expanding access to paid maternity and family leave may contribute toward reducing socio-demographic disparities in paid leave use and its associated health benefits.

  9. Paid parental leave and family wellbeing in the sustainable development era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Sprague, Aleta R; Nandi, Arijit; Earle, Alison; Batra, Priya; Schickedanz, Adam; Chung, Paul J; Raub, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have the potential to have a significant impact on maternal and child health through their commitments both to directly addressing health services and to improving factors that form the foundation of social determinants of health. To achieve change at scale, national laws and policies have a critical role to play in implementing the SDGs' commitments. One particular policy that could advance a range of SDGs and importantly improve maternal and infant health is paid parental leave. This article analyzes literature on paid leave and related policies relevant to SDG 1 (poverty), SDG 3 (health), SDG 5 (gender equality), SDG 8 (decent work), and SDG 10 (inequality). In addition, this article presents global data on the prevalence of policies in all 193 UN Member States. A review of the literature finds that paid parental leave may support improvements across a range of SDG outcomes relevant to maternal and child health. Across national income levels, paid leave has been associated with lower infant mortality and higher rates of immunizations. In high-income countries, studies have found that paid leave increases exclusive breastfeeding and may improve women's economic outcomes. However, factors including the duration of leave, the wage replacement rate, and whether leave is made available to both parents importantly shape the impacts of paid leave policies. While most countries now offer at least some paid maternal leave, many provide less than the 6 months recommended for exclusive breastfeeding, and only around half as many provide paternal leave. To accelerate progress on the SDGs' commitments to maternal and child health, we should monitor countries' actions on enacting or strengthening paid leave policies. Further research is needed on the duration, wage replacement rate, and availability of leave before and after birth that would best support both child and parental health outcomes and social determinants of health more

  10. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  11. On the Need for Paid Maternity Leave in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    Maternity leave policies in the U.S. are among the worst in the world. The 12 weeks of un-paid family leave that the U.S. grants are only surpassed by South Korea's 8 un-paid weeks as the worst treatment to mothers and newborns in the developed world. California is the only state in the U.S. where two programs exist, the State Disability Insurance (SDI) and Paid Family Leave (PFL), which cover up to $840/week for up to 12 weeks (excluding a waiting period of 7 un-paid days combined for both SDI and PFL). Even with these State contributions, the average parent of a newborn in California receives less than the 100% paid 6 weeks of Portugal and the 100% paid 12 weeks of Mexico, with all other countries providing better treatment. For mothers and fathers, time at home during the first precious months after birth or adoption is critical to getting to know their babies. It can provide long-term benefits that improve a child's brain development, social development and overall well being. Parental leave results in better prenatal and postnatal care and more intense parental bonding over a child's life. It also improves the chance that a child will be immunized; as a result, it is associated with lower death rates for infants. But lawmakers and employers are denying those benefits to most families by refusing to provide paid parental leave. For some families, the economic burden of caring for a newborn alone results in financial hardship or ruin. Fortunately, about 12% of companies in the U.S. voluntarily choose to offer some sort of paid and/or longer maternity and family care leaves. Some companies offer on-site child care as a way to facilitate breastfeeding and bonding between new mothers and their babies. Other companies allow new parents to reduce their work schedule temporarily and to telecommute from their homes, both effective ways to guarantee work productivity without requiring the sacrifice of a newborn's right to better health through breastfeeding and bonding

  12. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount.

  13. The benefits of paid maternity leave for mothers' post-partum health and wellbeing: Evidence from an Australian evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Belinda; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Bill

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates the health effects of the introduction of a near universal paid parental leave (PPL) scheme in Australia, representing a natural social policy experiment. Along with gender equity and workforce engagement, a goal of the scheme (18 weeks leave at the minimum wage rate) was to enhance the health and wellbeing of mothers and babies. Although there is evidence that leave, especially paid leave, can benefit mothers' health post-partum, the potential health benefits of implementing a nationwide scheme have rarely been investigated. The data come from two cross-sectional surveys of mothers (matched on their eligibility for paid parental leave), 2347 mother's surveyed pre-PPL and 3268 post-PPL. We investigated the scheme's health benefits for mothers, and the extent this varied by pre-birth employment conditions and job characteristics. Overall, we observed better mental and physical health among mothers after the introduction of PPL, although the effects were small. Post-PPL mothers on casual (insecure) contracts before birth had significantly better mental health than their pre-PPL counterparts, suggesting that the scheme delivered health benefits to mothers who were relatively disadvantaged. However, mothers on permanent contracts and in managerial or professional occupations also had significantly better mental and physical health in the post-PPL group. These mothers were more likely to combine the Government sponsored leave with additional, paid, employer benefits, enabling a longer paid leave package post-partum. Overall, the study provides evidence that introducing paid maternity leave universally delivers health benefits to mothers. However the modest 18 week PPL provision did little to redress health inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Paid Sick Leave and Risks of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Adult Workers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The USA is one of only a few advanced economies globally that does not guarantee its workers paid sick leave. While there are plausible reasons why paid sick leave may be linked to mortality, little is known empirically about this association. Methods: In a pooled USA nationally-representative longitudinal sample of 57,323 working adults aged 18–85 years from the National Health Interview Surveys 2000–2002, paid sick leave was examined as a predictor of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the impact of paid sick leave on mortality. Results: Having paid sick leave through one’s job was associated with 10% (hazards ratio, HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.81–0.996; p = 0.04, 14% (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.74–0.99; p = 0.04, and 22% (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.65–0.94; p = 0.01 significantly lower hazards of all-cause mortality after mean follow-up times of 11.1, 6.5, and 4.5 years, respectively. This study further identified associations of paid sick leave with 24% (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59–0.98; p = 0.03, and 35% (HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.44–0.95; p = 0.03 lower hazards of dying from heart diseases and unintentional injuries, respectively. Conclusions: To the author’s knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence on the linkages between paid sick leave and mortality and supports protective effects, particularly against heart diseases and unintentional injuries. The most salient association corresponded to a lag period of just less than five years. Social policies that mandate paid sick leave may help to reduce health inequities and alleviate the population burden of mortality among working adults in the USA.

  15. Paid maternity leave and childhood vaccination uptake: Longitudinal evidence from 20 low-and-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, Jody; Strumpf, Erin; Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit

    2015-09-01

    The availability of maternity leave might remove barriers to improved vaccination coverage by increasing the likelihood that parents are available to bring a child to the clinic for immunizations. Using information from 20 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) we estimated the effect of paid maternity leave policies on childhood vaccination uptake. We used birth history data collected via Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to assemble a multilevel panel of 258,769 live births in 20 countries from 2001 to 2008; these data were merged with longitudinal information on the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) weeks of paid maternity leave guaranteed by each country. We used Logistic regression models that included country and year fixed effects to estimate the impact of increases in FTE paid maternity leave policies in the prior year on the receipt of the following vaccines: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) commonly given at birth, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP, 3 doses) commonly given in clinic visits and Polio (3 doses) given in clinic visits or as part of campaigns. We found that extending the duration of paid maternity leave had a positive effect on immunization rates for all three doses of the DTP vaccine; each additional FTE week of paid maternity leave increased DTP1, 2 and 3 coverage by 1.38 (95% CI = 1.18, 1.57), 1.62 (CI = 1.34, 1.91) and 2.17 (CI = 1.76, 2.58) percentage points, respectively. Estimates were robust to adjustment for birth characteristics, household-level covariates, attendance of skilled health personnel at birth and time-varying country-level covariates. We found no evidence for an effect of maternity leave on the probability of receiving vaccinations for BCG or Polio after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariates. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that more generous paid leave policies have the potential to improve DTP immunization coverage. Further work is needed to understand the health effects of

  16. Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

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    Nandi, Arijit; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Harper, Sam; Koski, Alissa; Strumpf, Erin C; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately 300,000 live births in 20 countries from 2000 to 2008; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. We estimated the effect of an increase in maternity leave in the prior year on the probability of infant (maternity was associated with 7.9 fewer infant deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 3.7, 12.0), reflecting a 13% relative reduction. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. Estimates were robust to adjustment for individual, household, and country-level characteristics, although there may be residual confounding by unmeasured time-varying confounders, such as coincident policy changes. More generous paid maternity leave policies represent a potential instrument for facilitating early-life interventions and reducing infant mortality in LMICs and warrant further discussion in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. From a policy planning perspective, further work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that explain the benefits of paid maternity leave for infant mortality.

  17. Sick leave among people in paid work after age 65: A Swedish population-based study covering 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, K; Marklund, S; Kjeldgård, L; Head, J; Alexanderson, K

    2017-09-01

    Extending working life into older age groups is discussed in many countries. However, there is no knowledge about how this affects rates of sick leave. The aim of this work was to investigate rates of sick leave among people in paid work after retirement age and if such rates have changed over time. Swedish nationwide register data on people aged >65 years and living in Sweden in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analysed. All people with a sufficiently high work income to be eligible for public sick leave benefits were included. The proportions in paid work and compensated rates of sick leave for people aged 66-70 and ≥71 were analysed by sex, educational level, country of birth, living area, and employment type and sector. The percentage of people in paid work at ages 66-70 years increased from aged ≥71 years from 2.7% in 1995 to 3.5% in 2010. The rates of sick leave among working people aged 66-70 years were 3.3% in 1995 and 2.4% in 2010 and for people aged ≥71 years the rates of sick leave were 2.2% in 1995 and 0.2% in 2010. Women had higher rates of sick leave than men in 2005 and 2010, but lower in 1995 and 2000. In 2010, the rates of sick leave were similar between employees and the self-employed, and higher among employees in the public sector than among employees in the private sector. Rates of sick leave among workers aged >65 years were lower in 2010 than in 1995, despite much higher rates of labour market participation in 2010.

  18. Educational differences in trajectories of self-rated health before, during, and after entering or leaving paid employment in the European workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan J W; Lingsma, Hester F; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate (i) the influence of entering or leaving paid employment on self-rated health trajectories before, during, and after this transition and (ii) educational differences in these health trajectories. In this prospective study, we used yearly measurements of self-rated health from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) to establish how health is affected by employment transitions in or out of the workforce due to early retirement, unemployment or economic inactivity. Trajectories of self-rated health were analyzed among 136 556 persons with low, intermediate, or high educational level by repeated-measures logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Among low-educated workers, ill-health partly prompted their voluntary labor force exit through early retirement and becoming economically inactive, but thereafter these exit routes seemed to prevent further deterioration of their health. In contrast, among higher educated workers, early retirement had an adverse effect on their self-rated health. Becoming unemployed had adverse effects on self-rated health among all educational levels. Entering paid employment was predetermined by self-rated health improvement in the preceding years among intermediate and high educated workers, whereas, among low-educated workers, self-rated health improved in the year of entering paid employed and continued to improve in the following years. Prolonging working life may have both adverse and beneficial effects on self-rated health. Health inequalities may increase when every person, independent of educational level, must perform paid employment until the same age before being able to retire.

  19. Paide Spordihall = Paide Sports Hall / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Paides Aiavilja 1 asuva spordihalli arhitektuursest lahendusest. Arhitektid: Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, kaasautor Jaan Port (Salto AB). Sisearhitekt Ville Lausmäe (VL Sisearhitektuur). Žürii liikme Kalle Komissarovi hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  20. Effects of Minimal versus Lengthy Delay between Simulated and In Vivo Instruction on Community Performance.

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    Nietupski, John; And Others

    1985-01-01

    No differential effects were revealed between minimal and relatively lengthy intervals in simulated and in vivo training of two students (8 and 13 years old) with severe handicaps. Performance in community fast food restaurants was measured. (CL)

  1. Effect of Lengthy Root Canal Therapy Sessions on Temporomandibular Joint and Masticatory Muscles

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    Safoora Sahebi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Trauma is one of the major factors associated with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD. These disorders result from macro-trauma or micro-trauma. Macro-trauma might be iatrogenic; for example, from intubation procedures, third molar extraction procedures, and lengthy dental appointments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lengthy root canal therapy (more than 2 hours on TMJ and its supporting structures. Materials and methods. Eighty patients whose root canal therapy session lasted more than 2 hours were examined for the status of TMJ and masticatory muscles. After one week the second part of the examination was carried out for TMJ problems and pain and tenderness levels of masticatory muscles. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon statistical test. Results. Women showed more pain compared to men. There was a significant increase in pain in the external acoustic meatus examination one week after root canal therapy. Patients who were treated for their posterior teeth suffered more pain than those who were treated for the anteriors and premolars. Other aspects of the examination were not affected significantly by lengthy root canal therapy. Conclusion. Lengthy dental treatments can harm TMJ and masticatory muscles and wide opening of the mouth during such appointments can worsen the situation. Therefore, it is wise to break the appointment into shorter intervals and let the patients rest during treatment to close their mouth to prevent iatrogenic damage to TMJ.

  2. Effect of Lengthy Root Canal Therapy Sessions on Temporomandibular Joint and Masticatory Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Safoora; Moazami, Fariborz; Afsa, Masoomeh; Nabavi Zade, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Trauma is one of the major factors associated with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). These disorders result from macro-trauma or micro-trauma. Macro-trauma might be iatrogenic; for example, from intuba-tion procedures, third molar extraction procedures, and lengthy dental appointments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lengthy root canal therapy (more than 2 hours) on TMJ and its supporting structures. Materials and methods Eighty patients whose root canal therapy session lasted more than 2 hours were examined for the status of TMJ and masticatory muscles. After one week the second part of the examination was carried out for TMJ problems and pain and tenderness levels of masticatory muscles. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon statistical test. Results Women showed more pain compared to men. There was a significant increase in pain in the external acoustic meatus examination one week after root canal therapy. Patients who were treated for their posterior teeth suffered more pain than those who were treated for the anteriors and premolars. Other aspects of the examination were not affected significantly by lengthy root canal therapy. Conclusion Lengthy dental treatments can harm TMJ and masticatory muscles and wide opening of the mouth during such appointments can worsen the situation. Therefore, it is wise to break the appointment into shorter intervals and let the patients rest during treatment to close their mouth to prevent iatrogenic damage to TMJ. PMID:22991607

  3. Rapid progress or lengthy process? electronic personal health records in mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major objective of many healthcare providers is to increase patients' participation in their own care. The introduction of electronic personal health records (ePHRs may help to achieve this. An ePHR is an electronic database of an individual's health information, accessible to and maintained by the patient. ePHRs are very much in vogue, with an increasing number of studies reporting their potential utility as well as cost. However, the vast majority of these studies focus on general healthcare. Little attempt has been made to document the specific problems which might occur throughout the implementation of ePHRs in mental health. This review identifies such concerns through an electronic search of the literature. Several potential difficulties are highlighted and addressed, including access to information technology, identifying relevant populations and the handling of sensitive information. Special attention is paid to the concept of 'empowerment' and what this means in relation to ePHRs.

  4. Paid care work and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Aust, Birgit; Burr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that employees in paid care work (e.g., child, health, and elderly care) have increased rates of hospitalization with depression and treatment with antidepressants. It is unclear, however, whether these findings reflect a causal effect of the work on employee mental...

  5. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    -questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows......Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-defined and memorable period of time. However, there is no a priori reasoning why major differentials at least at an aggregate level should be found by using the two techniques. The purpose of this paper is to test this hypothesis by using the Danish Time Use Survey 2001, where diary information as well as survey...

  6. Why are women more likely than men to extend paid work? The impact of work-family life history.

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    Finch, Naomi

    2014-03-01

    Extending working life beyond the state pension age is a key European Union policy. In the UK, women are more likely to extend paid work than men, indicating that factors other than the state pension age play a role in working longer. Women are less able to build pension income due to their role as carer within the family. It, therefore, follows that gender inequalities over the life course continue into older age to influence need, capacity and desire to undertake paid work after state pension age. This paper explores how work, marital and fertility history impact upon the likelihood of extending employment. It uses the British Household Panel Survey's retrospective data from the first 14 waves to summarise work-family histories, and logistic regression to understand the impact of work and family histories on extending paid work. Findings show that, on the one hand, women are extending paid work for financial reasons to make up for 'opportunity costs' as a result of their caring role within the family, with short breaks due to caring, lengthy marriages, divorcing and remaining single with children all being important. Yet, there is also evidence of 'status maintenance' from working life, with the women most likely to extend paid work, also those with the highest work orientation, prior to state pension age. But lengthy dis-attachment (due to caring) from the labour market makes extending working life more difficult. This has implications for policy strategies to entice women into paid work to make up for low independent financial resources.

  7. Research and Literature on the Sabbatical Leave: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, Carl H.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on college faculty sabbatical leave and sabbatical leave programs often described as 'paid vacations' with no accountability. The literature indicates that sabbatical leave was an important part of any faculty development program. Those who took sabbatical leaves overwhelmingly reported the experience as a…

  8. Paide raekoja renoveerimine = Renovation of the Paide Town Hall / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Paide raekoja muinsuskaitse eritingimused koostasid Epi Tohvri ja Pille Viirsalu. Arhitekt Merike Kordemets (Paide EKE Projekt), sisearhitektid Annes Arro ja Hanna Karits (Arro Projekt). Sisekujunduses lähtuti juugendstiilist. Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  9. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  10. Empirical Analysis of Pre-Paid and Post-Paid Mobile Subscription in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÇETİNKAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of pre-paid and post-paid mobile phone subscriptions in Turkey. The binary logit analysis is employed to explore the relationship between the subscribers’ characteristics and their subscription type i.e. pre-paid or post-paid. The data used in the analysis relies on a survey carried out during 2009-Q3. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the subscription type choice and the dependent variables. It is found that the choices of the other members living in the respondents’ household have significant effect on the decisions of the subscribers. The results also show that the subscribers who use their phones mainly for mobile calls and for surfing on internet are more likely to have a post-paid subscription while the pre-paid users usually use their phones for short messages and for playing games on their mobile phones.

  11. Are Female Top Managers Really Paid Less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay

  12. 38 CFR 8.10 - How paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance policy shall participate in and receive such dividends from gains and savings as... policy or policies, or that they be used to purchase paid-up additions, any such dividends shall be held... policy or policies held by the insured: Provided, That such dividend credits will be applied as of the...

  13. Pattern of pre-existing IgG subclass responses to a panel of asexual stage malaria antigens reported during the lengthy dry season in Daraweesh, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasr, A; Iriemenam, N C; Troye-Blomberg, M

    2011-01-01

    The anti-malarial IgG immune response during the lengthy and dry season in areas of low malaria transmission as in Eastern Sudan is largely unknown. In this study, ELISA was used for the measurement of pre-existing total IgG and IgG subclasses to a panel of malaria antigens, MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27...

  14. Housework, paid work and psychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S Santana

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that work burden, the simultaneous engagement in paid work and unpaid family housework, is a potential risk factor for psychiatric symptoms among women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 460 women randomly selected from a poor area of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Women between 18 to 70 years old, who reported having a paid occupation or were involved in unpaid domestic activities for their families, were eligible. Work burden-related variables were defined as: a double work shift, i.e., simultaneous engagement in a paid job plus unpaid housework; and b daily working time. Psychiatric symptoms were collected through a validated questionnaire, the QMPA. RESULTS: Positive, statistically significant associations between high (>7 symptoms QMPA scores and either double work shift (prevalence ratio -- PR=2.04, 95% confidence interval -- CI: 1.16, 2.29 or more than 10 hours of daily work time (PR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.96, 3.43 were found after adjustment for age, marital status and number of pre-school children. CONCLUSIONS: Major correlates of high QMPA scores are work burden variables. Being married or having pre-school children are also associated with high QMPA scores only when associated with work burden.

  15. Paide linna ja gümnaasiumi spordihall = Paide city and upper secondary school sports building

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Paides Aedvilja 1 asuva spordihalli sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Ville Lausmäe ja Kadi Karmann (VL Sisearhitektuur). Akustik Linda Madalik. Hoone arhitektid: Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, Maarja Kask, Jaan Port (Salto AB)

  16. Computing Cumulative Interest and Principal Paid For a Calendar Year

    OpenAIRE

    John O. MASON

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how easy it is use Microsoft Excel’s CUMPRINC and CUMIPMT functions to compute principal and interest paid for an entire year, even though the payments were made monthly. The CUMPRINC function computes the principal paid by a series of loan payments; the CUMIPMT function computes the interest paid. These two functions provide an alternative to preparing a monthly loan amortization schedule and adding up the amounts of monthly interest paid and principal paid for the ye...

  17. 48 CFR 53.205-1 - Paid advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paid advertisements. 53... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.205-1 Paid advertisements. SF 1449, prescribed in 53.212, shall be used to place orders for paid advertisements as specified in 5.503. [61 FR 39198...

  18. Fathers' use of parental leave. What do we know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the the literature on fathers' use of parental leave. Parental leave is a work-life reconciliation instrument with great potential to bring about a more equal distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. However, policy evaluation studies reveal that simply making

  19. Retention of Paid Related Caregivers: Who Stays and Who Leaves Home Care Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, A. E.; Matthias, Ruth E.; Kietzman, Kathryn; Furman, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The use of consumer-directed services is expected to grow in coming years, and paying family and friends is a key element of these home-based services. The goal of this study was to understand the careers of these "related workers" (family and friends) and their potential role in the long-term care workforce. Design and Methods:…

  20. Parental Leave Policies, Intra-household Time Allocations and Children's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Raquel; Fruttero, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model of marriage and divorce to assess how public policies on parental leave and leave benefits affect intra-household decision making, family structure, intergenerational mobility, and the distribution of income. The benchmark economy is calibrated to US data to replicate some characteristics relevant to the interaction between the marriage and labor markets. The effects of unpaid leave, paid leave benefits, and mandated leave on human capital investmen...

  1. Effects of Spatial Distance and Paid Card on Price Promotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dazhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paid card is an important mean of companies to maintain the customers and increase gain. It is applied extensively in retailing, fitness center, and by other service delivers. However, there is lack of studies focused on promotion mechanisms of paid card in the literature. In this paper, the promotion mechanisms of paid card based on the theories of mental accounting, construal level, and customer’s perceived value. The study has the results that the intention to purchase of paid card holders is higher than that of the consumers without payment in advance in the same discount rate. When there is large spatial distance between paid card holder and the target store, the traffic mode will impact on the purchase intention of paid card holders. Finally, the study has provided the corresponding suggestions for companies’ promotion management.

  2. Is Paid Surrogacy a Form of Reproductive Prostitution? A Kantian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    This article reexamines the "prostitution objection" to paid surrogacy, and argues that rebuttals to this objection fail to focus on surrogates as embodied persons. This failure is based on the false distinction between "selling one's reproductive services" and "selling one's body." To ground the analysis of humans as embodied persons, this article uses Kant's late ethical theory, which develops the conceptual framework for understanding human beings as embodied selves. Literature on surrogacy commonly emphasizes that all Kantian duties heed to the categorical prohibition to treat persons as mere means. What this literature leaves out is that this imperative commands us more specifically to engage ourselves and others as embodied persons. This article aims to relate this point to a specific issue in assisted reproduction. It argues that a Kantian account of human beings as embodied persons prohibits paid surrogacy on exactly the same grounds as it prohibits prostitution.

  3. Policies to support women’s paid work

    OpenAIRE

    Giannelli, Gianna Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in paid work is generally difficult for women in developing countries. Many women work unpaid in family businesses or on farms, are engaged in low-income self-employment activities, or work in low-paid wage employment. In some countries, vocational training or grants for starting a business have been effective policy tools for supporting women’s paid work. Mostly lacking, however, are job and business training programs that take into account how mothers’ employment affects child welf...

  4. Are over-paid Chief Executive Officers better innovators?

    OpenAIRE

    Habib Jouber

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the pay level of the highest paid executive directors, which we label as "Executive Director’s Organizational Level" (henceforth EDOL), to raise the question if highest paid CEOs invest heavily in innovative projects. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions show that over-paid CEOs are more likely to invest in R & D projects. They highlight, moreover, both from a "statutory" and an "activist" perspective, that CEOs’ intends to invest in value-enhancing innovations are...

  5. Sharing the caring : State, family and gender equality in parental leave policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widener, Anmarie J.

    2006-01-01

    Parental leave policies give parents a temporary leave from employment in order to care for a child. Secondary aims are to increase women’s attachment to the labour force as well as supporting gender equal roles in paid and unpaid work. This study researched parent satisfaction of parental leave

  6. Maternal depression, pregnancy intention, and return to paid work after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; Hofferth, Sandra L; Lee, Yoonjoo

    2014-01-01

    Maternal depression is an important public health issue for women, their families, and their employers. Previous studies have examined the impact of leave duration on maternal depression, but none have studied the association between maternal depression and the pace of return to paid work. We examine herein the relationship between maternal depression and return to work, and the moderating effects of pregnancy intention. We utilized data from the Listening to Mothers II Survey collected from January 20 through February 21, 2006. The woman had to be 18 to 45 years old, speak English, and have given birth in 2005 to a live singleton baby in a U.S. hospital. Our analyses were limited to women who worked for an employer during pregnancy (n = 882). The primary outcome was return to paid work at the time of the interview and the analyses utilized Cox proportional hazard models. In combination, intending the baby and being depressed suppressed return to paid work. Nondepressed mothers with unintended pregnancies returned to work the soonest. Compared with mothers who were not depressed and with unintended pregnancy, the risk ratio of returning to paid work (0.70) was significantly lower for mothers who were depressed and had an intended pregnancy. Mothers who were not depressed and with intended pregnancy also had a significantly lower risk ratio (0.60) of returning to paid work than those who were not depressed and with unintended pregnancy. Primary care providers and policy makers can use these findings to support employed women in their childbearing years. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 20 CFR 411.505 - How is an EN paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is an EN paid? 411.505 Section 411.505 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.505 How is an EN paid? An EN (including a State VR agency acting as...

  8. 'It is hard for mums to put themselves first': how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer manage the sociological boundaries between paid work, family and caring for the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine Ruth

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding of how mothers diagnosed with breast cancer while in the paid workforce experience and manage their multiple demands of taking care of themselves, their children and their paid work. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 women who were mothers of dependent children and in the paid workforce at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. The sample includes women living in urban and rural Australia. The study found that after a breast cancer diagnosis, participants tended to prioritise their health and wellbeing over paid work. Yet dominance of gendered identity meant that they tended to place the needs of family, especially children, above their own health and wellbeing. The key factors that influenced mothers' decisions to continue in, return to, or leave paid work after a breast cancer diagnosis included: a change in perspective regarding what was important in their lives; level of support from the workplace and home; the extent to which participating in paid work was a financial necessity; the extent to which their identity was connected to paid work, and; ongoing level of pain or fatigue. The paper concludes that using the sociological concepts of the fateful moment, boundary maintenance and a feminist ethic of care produces a more nuanced understanding of women's participation in paid work after breast cancer than examining paid workforce participation, or unpaid responsibilities and mothering, separately. The nature of the permeability or malleability of boundaries between work, family and taking care of the self affects women's participation in paid work during and/or after breast cancer treatment. Increased boundary permeability or malleability brought about more by cooperation than conflict facilitated positive experiences of re-negotiating boundaries, whereas increased permeability or malleability brought about more by conflict than cooperation created difficulties for women in finding an

  9. Malpractice paid losses and financial performance of nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Haley, D Rob; Oetjen, Reid M; Carretta, Henry J

    2011-01-01

    Florida's nursing home industry has experienced significant financial pressure over the past decade. One of the primary reasons is the dramatic increase in litigation activity for nursing home providers claiming negligent care and abuse. Although anecdotal reports indicate a higher cost because of malpractice in nursing facilities, few studies have examined the extent of malpractice paid losses and their effect on the financial performance of nursing homes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of malpractice paid losses on the financial performance of nursing homes. Medicare Cost Report data and Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data for Florida skilled nursing facilities over the 6-year period from 2001 to 2006 were used to calculate the malpractice paid losses and the financial performance indicators as well as the nursing home organizational and market factors. Descriptive analysis and multivariate regression analysis were used to examine the effect of paid loss on financial performance. The paid loss for malpractice claims was strongly associated with financial performance. Nursing facilities with malpractice paid losses had consistently lower total margins over the study period. The threat of nursing home litigation may create an incentive for nursing homes to improve quality of care; however, large paid claims can also force nursing homes into a financial situation where the organization no longer has the resources to improve quality. Nursing home managers must assess their malpractice litigation risk and identify tactics to mitigate these risks to better provide a safe and secure environment for the older persons. In addition, this research offers support for local, state, and federal policymakers to revisit the issue of malpractice litigation and the nursing home industry through its insight on the relationship of nursing home margins and litigation.

  10. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  11. 20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness, accident... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...

  12. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  13. Differences between paid and unpaid social services for beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Judith; Roza, Lonneke; Meijs, Lucas; van Baren, Eva; Hoogervorst, Niek

    2017-01-01

    In many Western welfare states, social work services that have traditionally been provided by paid employees are being replaced by family support, community support, informal networks and volunteering. For the field of social work, it is relevant to know what it matters to beneficiaries whether

  14. 13 CFR 134.618 - How are awards paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....618 How are awards paid? If you are seeking payment of an award, you must submit a copy of the final... of Financial Operations, SBA, P.O. Box 205, Denver, CO 80201-0205. SBA will pay you the amount...

  15. 38 CFR 6.11 - How dividends are paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Service Life Insurance policy or policies in force, dividends used to pay premiums in advance will... premiums on more than one policy having the same premium due date are unpaid and the dividend credit of the... payment of premium. Upon maturity of the policy, any unpaid dividend will be paid to the person(s...

  16. Individual loss reserving using paid-incurred data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigeon, M.; Antonio, K.; Denuit, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a stochastic model for individual claims reserving using observed data on claim payments as well as incurred losses. We extend the approach of Pigeon et al. (2013), designed for payments only, towards the inclusion of incurred losses. We call the new technique the individual Paid

  17. 29 CFR 452.87 - Dues paid by checkoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arrears when the union changes to a checkoff system. The member may not be denied the right to vote merely... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dues paid by checkoff. 452.87 Section 452.87 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT...

  18. Group Seeks Standards for Paid Recruiters of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In the world of international education, few subjects are as controversial as the use of paid recruiting agents. Paying the agents, particularly on commission, is often viewed as unseemly, if not downright unethical. But a new organization, the American International Recruitment Council, hopes to change that attitude. The council wants to develop…

  19. Pain assessment and medications use among daily paid skilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paracetamol 186(46.5%) was the most commonly used analgesic followed by Ibuprofen 100(25%). The pain experienced by daily paid skilled workers was found to be work- related musculoskeletal disorder. There is a need for establishment of intervention programs to reduce the risk of work - related musculoskeletal ...

  20. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  1. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  2. Paid caregiver motivation, work conditions, and falls among senior clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Lee A; Tam, Karen; Friesema, Elisha; Martin, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation of paid non-familial caregivers of seniors, understand more about their work conditions, and identify any links to negative outcomes among their senior clients. Ninety-eight paid caregivers (eighty-five female and thirteen male), recruited from multiple sites (i.e. senior centers, shopping malls, local parks, lobbies of senior apartments, caregiver agency meetings) completed face-to-face questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. We found that 60.7% of participants chose to become a caregiver because they enjoyed being with seniors while 31.7% were unable to obtain other work, and 8.2% stated it was a prerequisite to a different health related occupation. Caregivers stated that the most challenging conditions of their work were physical lifting (24.5%), behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (24.5%), senior depression/mood changes (18.4%), attachment with impending death (8.2%), missing injuries to client (5.1%), lack of sleep (4.1%), and lack of connection with outside world (3.1%). Caregivers who reported that the best part of their job was the salary, flexible hours, and ease of work were significantly more likely to have clients who fell and fractured a bone than those who enjoyed being with seniors (job characteristics, 62.5% vs. senior enjoyment, 25.6%; pmotivated commonly by their love of seniors and also by their lack of other job opportunities. Paid caregivers frequently face challenging work conditions. When seeking a caregiver for a senior, motivation of the caregiver should be considered when hiring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The growth of medical groups paid through capitation in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C; Casalino, L P

    1995-12-21

    In California, it is common for health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to contract with large medical groups that are paid through capitation and are responsible for managing a full spectrum of medical services. We studied six large medical groups in California--Bristol Park Medical, Friendly Hills HealthCare Network, HealthCare Partners Medical Group, Mullikin Medical Centers, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, and San Jose Medical Group--that are paid through capitation and that are growing as a result of contracts with managed-care organizations. We conducted interviews and obtained data on factors such as patient enrollment, capitation and other revenue, numbers of days spent by enrollees in the hospital, and numbers of visits to physicians per enrollee. Between 1990 and 1994, the number of HMO enrollees whose care was paid for through capitation in the six medical groups increased by 91 percent, from 398,359 to 759,474. In 1994, the mean number of hospital days per 1000 HMO enrollees ranged from 120 to 149 for non-Medicare patients and from 643 to 936 days for Medicare patients. By comparison, in 1993 the mean numbers of hospital days per 1000 HMO enrollees not covered by Medicare were 232 for California and 297 for the United States; for HMO enrollees covered by Medicare, the numbers were 1337 for California and 1698 for the United States. In 1994, the average annual number of visits to physicians for HMO patients in the six groups not covered by Medicare ranged from 3.1 to 3.9; for Medicare patients, it ranged from 7.2 to 9.3; these rates were slightly lower than statewide and national rates. Four of the groups have sold their assets (such as facilities, supplies, equipment, and patients' charts) to outside investors; the physicians remain employed by physician-owned professional corporations. Medical groups paid through capitation offer a model for the status of physicians in managed-care systems that differs from the employee status offered by staff-model HMOs

  4. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  5. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers and whet...

  6. Sick of inequality: gender and support for paid sick days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Danielle J; Houser, Linda; White, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The availability of paid sick days (PSD) is on the forefront of policy issues relating to women's health and well-being. Previous research regarding PSD and other forms of family-work balance legislation has linked access to paid time off from work for addressing one's own or another's health concerns to a range of health benefits for working women and their families. In general, public support for such policies is high, but little work has tested the extent to which support extends to PSD. Researchers have yet to engage in a rigorous statistical analysis of public opinion on PSD, including whether opinion varies by gender. Using data from a 2013 poll of adults in New Jersey (n = 925), we bridged this research gap by conducting the first multivariate analysis of public attitudes toward PSD. As expected, we found markedly high levels of support for PSD across all respondents, with a preponderance of most sociodemographic categories supporting proposed PSD legislation in New Jersey. We also found that gender was a strong predictor of support for PSD, with women significantly (odds ratio, 1.916; p ≤ .01) more likely than men to be in favor of such legislation. We discuss the implications of our findings for future work on PSD as well as for research concerning women, wellness, and work-life legislation more broadly. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Juggling identities of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood and paid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Helle; Mechlenborg Kristiansen, Tine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2018-01-01

    professionals have an important role to play in investigating possible ways for the individual to maintain employment or return to work. Living with rheumatoid arthritis and being a paid worker challenge women's role performance and thereby their identification as mothers. Therefore, rehabilitation......PURPOSE: To explore how women with rheumatoid arthritis manage their illness, motherhood, and work life. METHODS: A constructivist, grounded theory approach based on individual interviews and participant observations with 20 women with rheumatoid arthritis who participated in work life and had...... children living at home or were pregnant. After initial and focused coding Goffman's concepts of social identity were applied. RESULTS: A core category: "Juggling meaningful identities" and three conceptual categories were developed: (1) Work life as the strongest identity marker; (2) Motherhood: a two...

  8. Are Ontario Teachers Paid More Equitably? Do Local Variables Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Ontario’s education funding reform of 1998 made teacher salaries more equitable. It also examined whether selected local variables had the same influence on teacher salaries in 2001-02 as they did in 1995-96 before the reform. Average teacher salaries before the reform in 1995-96 and after the reform in 2001-02 among school boards and among census divisions were compared to see whether the variation in teacher salaries increased or decreased. A partial correlation analysis was conducted to examine the influence on teacher salaries from local variables, which were derived from a literature review. This study finds that (a teachers are paid more equitably today than before the reform, and (b local variables no longer really matter, as a result of the changed provincial funding formula.

  9. Procurement Prices Paid for Aircraft Weapons Systems for Foreign Military Sales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the audit was to determine whether the prices paid to DoD contractors for aircraft weapons systems procured for FMS customers were reasonable, compared to the prices DoD paid for similar items...

  10. Feasibility and outcomes of paid undergraduate student nurse positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamroth, Lucia; Budgen, Claire; Lougheed, Mary

    2006-09-01

    An Undergraduate Nurse Employment Demonstration Project (UNDP) was implemented in four Health Service Areas in British Columbia with a concurrent evaluation study. This demonstration project comprised the development and implementation of a new position in the BC healthcare system. The position enabled third- and fourth-year nursing students to be employed at their level of education. The purposes of the evaluation were to explore the feasibility and outcomes of this type of paid undergraduate student nurse employment. The three-year project and evaluation included both implementation and outcome analysis. The implementation evaluation design was descriptive and prospective, involving multiple data sources. The outcome evaluation design was quasi-experimental, with intervention and comparison groups. Learning outcomes for undergraduate nurses were increased confidence, organizational ability, competency and ability to work with a team. Workplace outcomes were increased unit morale, help with workload and improved patient care. New graduates with undergraduate nurse experience reported less time required for orientation and transition than other graduates who did not have this experience, and workplace nurses viewed these new graduates as more job-ready than other new graduates. After 21 months, new graduates with undergraduate nurse experience were less likely to move to other employment than other new graduates. Results from the four Health Service Areas indicated that the paid undergraduate nurse position was feasible and that outcomes benefited students, new graduates and workplaces. The undergraduate nurse position is now being implemented throughout all Health Service Areas in British Columbia.By 2000, concerns in British Columbia about the nursing workforce, workplace and patient safety had escalated to the point where diverse stakeholder groups were prepared to work together in new ways to prepare nursing graduates to be more job-ready, to recruit and retain

  11. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  12. NRC hopes to discourage lengthy onsite storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Now it has become clear why last year's partial voiding of the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act was seen as significant in some quarters. On June 19, 1992, the US Supreme Court ruled that the passage requiring states to take title to LLW produced within their borders was unconstitutional (NN, July 1992, p. 17). This did not change the facts that LLW is still being generated, and that interstate compacts with licensed disposal sites are now empowered to refuse LLW from outside the compacts. Still, state officials had a reason to be relieved-because they knew that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was at work on a regulation that would have made them take title to LLW, at a radwaste generator's request, at any time after January 1, 1996, if the state did not have access to a licensed disposal site. The court ruling has forced the NRC to take this passage out of the proposal, but the agency has still gone ahead and published draft amendments intended to establish long-term onsite storage as the last resort option for LLW management

  13. 76 FR 1105 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... and paid to nonresident alien individuals. These proposed regulations affect persons making payments.... bank deposit interest paid to any nonresident alien individual must be reported annually to the IRS. On...

  14. 38 CFR 2.4 - Delegation of authority to order paid advertising for use in recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paid advertising for use in recruitment. Paid advertisements may be used in recruitment for VA competitive and excepted service positions. Authority to order such advertisements is hereby delegated to... to order paid advertising for use in recruitment. 2.4 Section 2.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans...

  15. Divergent Trends in US Maternity and Paternity Leave, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, Jay L

    2017-03-01

    To determine the number and type of US workers taking maternity or paternity leave. We created a publicly available ecological long-term series for measuring parental leave from 1994 to 2015 by using the Current Population Survey, which interviews about 60 000 randomly selected households monthly. The average month from 1994 to 2015 saw 273 000 women and 13 000 men on maternity or paternity leave. Maternity leave rates per 10 000 births showed no trend over 22 years (mean = 677.6). Paternity figures increased by a factor of 3, but started from a small base (14.7-54.6). We observed no national impact on maternity or paternity leave after implementation of state laws that provided paid leave. About half (51.1%) of employees on maternity or paternity leave during 2015 received paid time off. The typical woman on maternity leave was older, more likely married, more likely non-Hispanic White, and more educated than the typical woman who gave birth. Although the US economy has expanded dramatically since 1994, this improvement does not appear to have translated into more women taking maternity leave.

  16. 24 CFR 245.416 - Initial submission of materials to HUD: Conversion from project-paid utilities to tenant-paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... projects, and utility rate information, as obtained from the utility supplier; (iv) The estimated monthly... HUD: Conversion from project-paid utilities to tenant-paid utilities or a reduction in tenant utility... AUTHORITIES TENANT PARTICIPATION IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Procedures for Requesting Approval of a...

  17. Commitment with or without a stick of paid work: comparison of paid and unpaid workers in a non-profit organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether nonpaid volunteers have other reasons to be a member of an organization than paid workers. Volunteers are assumed to be hard to manage, because there is no “stick of a paid contract” to keep them in line. Therefore, we studied different dimensions

  18. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  19. Leaving Employment to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    : the relative inattention paid to other human resources beyond the founder, and the hetero-geneous context where employee startups may be established. We use a rich matched employer-employee dataset for Portugal, and estimate a multi-stage model addressing the issues of self-selection in entrepreneurship...... outcomes of arrival fi rms, and also for developing theories on labor markets for entrepreneurship. It also constitutes an important step towards unpacking the mechanisms through which mobile human capital affects the performance of receiving firms....

  20. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  1. Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chronholm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.

  2. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  3. Timing Matters: Length of Leave and Working Mothers' Daily Reentry Regrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Ritter, Johannes O.

    2012-01-01

    Dealing with developmental tasks in work and family domains is an important challenge for young and middle-aged adults. We investigated a transition that has evolved into a normative task for women, namely, the retransition back to paid work following maternity leave. In a diary study with 149 mothers who had just returned to work, we examined the…

  4. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Fresh Maize Leaves with Elephant Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic co-digestion of maize leaves (ML) with Elephant grass (EG) was studied in a single phase digester at ambient temperature (29+3oC). Special attention was paid to synergistic and antagonistic effect of co-digestion of the substrates on biogas production in order to establish the best blend. Six different treatments ...

  5. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  6. Combining informal care and paid work: The use of work arrangements by working adult-child caregivers in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Bültmann, Ute; Wittek, Rafael P M; Stolk, Ronald P; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Smidt, Nynke

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of people combine paid work with the provision of informal care for a loved one. This combination of work and care may cause difficulties, necessitating adaptations at work, i.e. work arrangements. The present study explores what types of work arrangements are used by working caregivers, and which caregiver, care and work characteristics are associated with the use of these work arrangements. Within the Lifelines Informal Care Add-on Study (Lifelines ICAS), data on 965 Dutch informal caregivers in the North of the Netherlands were collected between May 2013 and July 2014 (response rate 48%), and data on 333 working adult-child caregivers (aged 26-68 years, 82% female) were used in this study. A small majority (56%) of the working caregivers used one or more work arrangement(s): taking time off (41%), individual agreements with supervisor (30%), formal care leave arrangement (13%), and reduction in paid work hours (6%). Logistic regression analyses showed that long working hours (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.08), and the experience of more health problems (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.56-4.05) or a disrupted schedule due to caregiving (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.66-3.78) increased the chance to have used one or more work arrangements. Lower educated working caregivers were less likely to have used a formal care leave arrangement (tertiary vs. primary education OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.13-6.67; tertiary vs. secondary education OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.27-5.09). Policy makers should inform working caregivers about the availability of the different work arrangements, with specific attention for low educated working caregivers. Employers need to consider a more caregiver-friendly policy, as almost half of the working adult-child caregivers did not use any work arrangement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sick leave and self-reported reasons given for sick leave during pregnancy. Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the frequency of long-term sick leave during pregnancy in relation to pre-baseline maternal characteristics and to identify predictors...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  8. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... who might become ill as a result of exposure to a patient or employee with the H1N1 virus. A new leave... examination or treatment. OPM's Authority To Regulate Advanced Sick Leave Two agencies opposed allowing... leave that an employee may use for his or her own medical, dental, or optical examination or treatment...

  9. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  10. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  11. Sabbatical Leaves in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, August W.; Thompson, Robert E.

    This document presents a status report of various sabbatical leave policies and plans at 386 higher education institutions across the U.S. The report provides information that can serve as a guide for institutions that do not presently provide sabbatical leaves of absence or that can be compared with existing sabbatical leave plans. It was found…

  12. 25 CFR 20.501 - What services can be paid for with Child Assistance funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds Can Be Used § 20.501 What services can be paid for with Child Assistance funds? The social services program can use... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What services can be paid for with Child Assistance funds...

  13. 76 FR 42038 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... contains final regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured transactions that...

  14. 76 FR 42076 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... temporary regulations that provide guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  15. 78 FR 54391 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... contains final regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  16. 76 FR 53819 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service..., July 18, 2011, providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  17. 76 FR 42036 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... temporary regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  18. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect...

  19. 25 CFR 12.61 - Can I be paid for information that helps solve a crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I be paid for information that helps solve a crime... COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Support Functions § 12.61 Can I be paid for information that helps solve a crime... investigation of a crime. This is subject to the availability of funds. This authority may be delegated in...

  20. 7 CFR 1951.15 - Return of paid-in-full or satisfied notes to borrower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... making marginal releases or satisfactions or security instruments, the notes will be held until the... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Return of paid-in-full or satisfied notes to borrower... Servicing Policies § 1951.15 Return of paid-in-full or satisfied notes to borrower. (a) Notes not held in...

  1. 76 FR 20595 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue.... offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. DATES: The public...

  2. 76 FR 7757 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue... maintained at U.S. offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. FOR...

  3. 76 FR 2852 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue.... offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. FOR FURTHER...

  4. 76 FR 22064 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 [REG-146097-09] RIN 1545-BJ01 Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue... and paid to nonresident alien individuals. DATES: The public hearing is being rescheduled from Monday...

  5. The Division of Paid Labor in Same-Sex Couples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, E.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the division of paid labor among gay male and lesbian couples in the Netherlands. We hypothesize that same-sex couples have a more equal division of paid labor than different-sex couples, partly because of lower marriage and fertility rates, and partly because equity norms are

  6. 20 CFR 404.1243 - Use of reporting forms-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of reporting forms-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1243 Section 404.1243 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... submit an annual report of the covered wages the State and its political subdivisions paid their...

  7. 12 CFR 701.6 - Fees paid by Federal credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees paid by Federal credit unions. 701.6 Section 701.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.6 Fees paid by Federal credit unions. (a) Basis for...

  8. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of beer tax excessively paid. 25.285 Section 25.285 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... quantity of beer eligible to be taxpaid at the lower rate of tax, but which was paid at the higher rate of...

  9. The division of paid labor in same-sex couples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, E.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the division of paid labor among gay male and lesbian couples in the Netherlands. We hypothesize that same-sex couples have a more equal division of paid labor than different-sex couples, partly because of lower marriage and fertility rates, and partly because equity norms are

  10. An analysis of factors affecting job satisfaction of women in paid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the job satisfaction of women in paid employment in Benin City. The purpose of this study was to find out whether women in paid employment are satisfied with their jobs or not and to establish the effects of marital status, experience, academic qualification and relationship with superior officers of the ...

  11. 26 CFR 1.247-1 - Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of public utilities. 1.247-1 Section 1.247-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....247-1 Deduction for dividends paid on preferred stock of public utilities. (a) Amount of deduction. (1... lesser of (i) the amount of the dividends paid during the taxable year by a public utility on its...

  12. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  13. Rates and Characteristics of Paid Malpractice Claims Among US Physicians by Specialty, 1992-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Adam C; Jena, Anupam B; Seabury, Seth A; Singh, Harnam; Chalasani, Venkat; Kachalia, Allen

    2017-05-01

    Although physician concerns about medical malpractice are substantial, national data are lacking on the rate of claims paid on behalf of US physicians by specialty. To characterize paid malpractice claims by specialty. A comprehensive analysis was conducted of all paid malpractice claims, with linkage to physician specialty, from the National Practitioner Data Bank from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2014, a period including an estimated 19.9 million physician-years. All dollar amounts were inflation adjusted to 2014 dollars using the Consumer Price Index. The dates on which this analysis was performed were from May 1, 2015, to February 20, 2016, and from October 25 to December 16, 2016. For malpractice claims (n = 280 368) paid on behalf of physicians (in aggregate and by specialty): rates per physician-year, mean compensation amounts, the concentration of paid claims among a limited number of physicians, the proportion of paid claims that were greater than $1 million, severity of injury, and type of malpractice alleged. From 1992-1996 to 2009-2014, the rate of paid claims decreased by 55.7% (from 20.1 to 8.9 per 1000 physician-years; P malpractice claims paid on behalf of physicians in the United States declined substantially. Mean compensation amounts and the percentage of paid claims exceeding $1 million increased, with wide differences in rates and characteristics across specialties. A better understanding of the causes of variation among specialties in paid malpractice claims may help reduce both patient injury and physicians' risk of liability.

  14. Leave and professional development benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martyniak, Cathleen; Keith, Brian

    2009-01-01

    ...; and professional development leaves such as dedicated research time and sabbaticals. Other professional development topics include financial support and relief from duties for conference attendance...

  15. Relationships Between Depression and Stress Factors in Housework and Paid Work Among Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Hoshino

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Rehabilitation programmes involving variance in workload and under self-evaluation in housework, and interpersonal conflict in paid work must be adequately addressed to support working women with depression.

  16. Paide raekoja (Keskväljak 14) renoveerimine / Merike Kordemets, Annes Arro, Hanna Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kordemets, Merike

    2009-01-01

    Ill.: situatsiooniplaan, 1. ja 2. korruse plaan, välisvaade, 3 sisevaadet; fotod: Kalle Veesaar, Arne Maasik; muinsuskaitse eritingimused: Epi Tohvri, Pille Viirsalu; arhitektuur: Paide EKE Projekt; sisearhitektuur: Arro Projekt

  17. Mats valib Paides kuningaid ja põletab mõisaid / Tiina Laanem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanem, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    Kati Murutari "Eestlase neli kuningat" peaproovilt (lavastaja Ivo Eensalu, muusika autor Siiri Sisask, kunstnik Vadim Fomitshev). Esietendus 28. juunil Paide Vallimäel. Vabaõhuetenduses teevad kaasa tuntud näitlejad ja ansambel Ultima Thule

  18. End-of-life training for paid carers working with people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Mary; Knowles, Jane; Vevers, Ann

    2014-04-01

    People with learning disabilities are living longer lives. Over the past few years, research has explored the needs of people with learning disabilities, their families and learning disability professionals in relation to end-of-life care and death. However, little is known about the needs of paid carers and their experience of end-of-life care. This article discusses the development, implementation and evaluation of a study day about end-of-life care that was delivered to paid carers on two separate occasions in Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. A total of 43 paid carers attended and the days were well evaluated. The need for further training for paid carers who work with people with learning disabilities at the end of life was highlighted.

  19. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Places and Rates at Which Allowances Are Paid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential... Allowances Are Paid This appendix lists the places approved for a cost-of-living allowance and shows the...

  20. Archaeological studies in the church and churchyard of Paide / Villu Kadakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadakas, Villu, 1972-

    2014-01-01

    Uuringutest Paide Püha Risti kirikus ja kirikuaias. Oluliselt õnnestus täpsustada praeguse hoone kohal asunud keskaegse eelkäija põhiplaani. Keskaegse ja 1770-1780. aastatel valminud hoonete erinevusest

  1. Determinants of perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors in the pension funds industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Farías

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors in the Chilean pension funds industry. Results show that price consciousness and brand credibility are positively associated with perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by pension fund contributors. Results also show that financial literacy is only positively associated with actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors. Additionally, results show that price based advertising exposure is only positively associated with perceived knowledge of commission paid by contributors. This association is stronger for contributors with a high use of the price-quality cue. Based on the findings presented, implications for managers, regulators and researchers are drawn.

  2. Mind the Gap: Privileging Epistemic Access to Knowledge in the Transition from Leaving Certificate Music to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, music at Leaving Certificate level has come under increasing focus in media and higher education discourse as an easy option. In particular, scant attention has been paid to the musical knowledge and skills needed in the transition to higher music education within the Irish context. This paper addresses the perceived gap in…

  3. Customer orientation on online newspaper business models with paid content strategies: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Goyanes, Manuel; Sylvie, George

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the transformations that trigger business models with paid content strategies on news organizations under the theoretical framework of market orientation. The results show three main factors: those related to competence, to the organization culture and to understanding of needs and wants of the audience. The findings also suggest that online newspapers business models with paid content strategies are more like experiments or forays rather than definitive methods that monet...

  4. Paid and Unpaid Online Recruitment for Health Interventions in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiat, Peter; Winsall, Megan; Orlowski, Simone; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Battersby, Malcolm; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need to identify new and innovative approaches to recruit representative samples of young adults in health intervention research. The current study used a data set of screening information from an online well-being intervention trial of young adults, to investigate cost-effectiveness of different recruitment strategies and whether the clinical and demographic characteristics of participants differed depending on paid or unpaid online recruitment sources. Data were collected from 334 18- to 25-year-old Australians. The study was advertised through a variety of paid and unpaid online recruitment channels (e.g., Google, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, recruitment agency), with response rates to different recruitment channels tracked using unique Web links. Well-being of participants was measured using the Mental Health Continuum Short Form. Analyses consisted of independent t tests and χ 2 tests. Overall, unpaid recruitment channels had a considerably higher yield than paid recruitment channels. Of paid recruitment channels, a recruitment agency and paid Facebook advertisements attracted the largest number of individuals. This study also found differences between paid and unpaid online recruitment channels with regard to the well-being and mood of participants. Although the success of online recruitment channels is likely subject to a complex interplay between the number of exposures, the targeted sample, the wording, and placement of the advertisement, as well as study characteristics, our study demonstrated that unpaid recruitment channels are more effective than paid channels and that paid and unpaid channels may result in samples with different characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  6. Crowdsourcing Analysis of Twitter Data on Climate Change: Paid Workers vs. Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei P. Kirilenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Web based crowdsourcing has become an important method of environmental data processing. Two alternatives are widely used today by researchers in various fields: paid data processing mediated by for-profit businesses such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, and volunteer data processing conducted by amateur citizen-scientists. While the first option delivers results much faster, it is not quite clear how it compares with volunteer processing in terms of quality. This study compares volunteer and paid processing of social media data originating from climate change discussions on Twitter. The same sample of Twitter messages discussing climate change was offered for processing to the volunteer workers through the Climate Tweet project, and to the paid workers through the Amazon MTurk platform. We found that paid crowdsourcing required the employment of a high redundancy data processing design to obtain quality that was comparable with volunteered processing. Among the methods applied to improve data processing accuracy, limiting the geographical locations of the paid workers appeared the most productive. Conversely, we did not find significant geographical differences in the accuracy of data processed by volunteer workers. We suggest that the main driver of the found pattern is the differences in familiarity of the paid workers with the research topic.

  7. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  8. Directions on the use of stevia leaves (Stevia Rebauidana) as an additive in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus-Moryson, Małgorzata; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high intake of sugars, especially sucrose, global trends in food processing have encouraged producers to use sweeteners, particularly synthetic ones, to a wide extent. For several years, increasing attention has been paid in the literature to the stevia (Stevia rebauidana), containing glycosidic diterpenes, for which sweetening properties have been identified. Chemical composition, nutritional value and application of stevia leaves are briefl y summarized and presented.

  9. The Experience of Paid Family-Care Workers of People with Dementia in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Kim, RN, MN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of “paid family-care worker” to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. Methods: The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Results: Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Conclusion: Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Keywords: dementia, health personnel, long-term care, Republic of Korea

  10. The Experience of Paid Family-Care Workers of People with Dementia in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmin; De Bellis, Anita Marie; Xiao, Lily Dongxia

    2018-03-01

    The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of "paid family-care worker" to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  12. Beyond money and survival: the meaning of paid work among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the meaning and experiences of paid work for older women. Taped, in-person interviews were conducted with 53 ethnically and economically diverse women, 55 to 84 years old. The interview guide contained open-ended questions regarding the meaning of work, reasons for working, and the centrality of work to personal identity. Participants discussed the following topics: independence from men; lost dreams and regrets related to paid work and educational opportunities; being responded to as mother by co-workers and supervisors; and working above and beyond the call of duty.

  13. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  14. Marital conflict about the division of household labor and paid work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the relations between time use, dissatisfaction, and marital conflict about the division of house-hold labor and paid work. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 54 Dutch couples who were either expecting their first child or had a first

  15. 20 CFR 411.535 - Under what circumstances will milestones be paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances will milestones be paid? 411.535 Section 411.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.535 Under what circumstances will...

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE RATIO OF FREE AND PAID EDUCATIONAL SERVICES IN HIGHER PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Dmitrievich Naydenov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship of public and private ownership in education in the Russian Federation. Recommendations to improve theoperating conditions of education by sector of free and paid educational services system of higher education are given.Modernization of production necessitates a clear understanding of private and public ownership in education, dynamics of free and paid educational services. In the economic literature there is not enough attention to the analysis of rational combination of paid and free educational services, particularly in the higher education system.In the article the analysis of trends in the delimitation of the sphere of higher professional education by form of ownership and the nature of reimbursement of educational services in the Russian Federation for the years 1993-2010 is given.Research methods: abstract-analytical method, statistical methods, analysis, aggregation, interviews.The society localizes areas of public and private property in accordance with the maximum efficiency of resources involved.The main trend in the development of higher professional education in the Russian Federation and CIS (The Commonwealth of independent States countries is the adoption by universities of properties of business structures. The share of the commercial sector in educational services is growing. «Free» educational services are dominated in the field of fundamental education. Paid public and private educational services are dominated in the field of specia-lized professional educational services.

  17. Determinants of job satisfaction: a European comparison of self-employed and paid employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Millan; S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A.R. Thurik (Roy); R. Aguado (Rafael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe job satisfaction of self-employed and paid-employed workers is analyzed using the European Community Household Panel for the EU-15 covering the years 1994-2001. We distinguish between two types of job satisfaction: job satisfaction in terms of type of work and job satisfaction in

  18. 20 CFR 363.1 - Authorization for garnishment of remuneration for employment paid by the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or to make alimony payments. (b) Remuneration for employment includes compensation paid or payable for personal services, whether such compensation is denominated as wages, salary, commission, bonus... individual concerned claimed all dependents to which he was entitled (the withholding of additional amounts...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1463-1 - Tax paid by recipient of income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise applicable. See § 1.1441-7(b) for additional applicable rules. See § 1.1446-3(e) and (f) for application of the rule of this paragraph (a), and for additional rules, where the withholding tax was required to be paid under section 1446. The previous sentence shall apply to partnership taxable years...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6049-8 - Interest and original issue discount paid to residents of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residents of Canada. 1.6049-8 Section 1.6049-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... original issue discount paid to residents of Canada. (a) Interest subject to reporting requirement. For... nonresident alien individual is an individual who resides in Canada and is not a United States citizen. The...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1270 - Adjustments in general-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments in general-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1270 Section 404.1270 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... contributions. A State but not its political subdivisions is authorized to adjust errors in the underpayment of...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1275 - Adjustment of employee contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of employee contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1275 Section 404.1275 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... matter between the employee and the State or political subdivision. The State shall show any correction...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1251 - Final reports-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final reports-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1251 Section 404.1251 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... to 1987. If a political subdivision is legally dissolved, the State shall file a final report on that...

  4. 26 CFR 1.25-1T - Credit for interest paid on certain home mortgages (Temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25-1T Credit for interest paid... against his Federal income taxes. The amount of the credit depends upon (1) the amount of mortgage... residences. The terms “single-family” and “owner-occupied” have the meaning given those terms under section...

  5. How Pensions Contribute to the Premium Paid to Experienced Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Joshua B.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    Many argue that public school systems should stop linking teachers' salaries so closely to their years of experience. However, the effect of deferred retirement compensation on the premium paid to experienced teachers has, to date, been underappreciated. To shed more light on this issue, we calculate the total compensation earned by teachers in…

  6. Green Purchasing Behavior Analysis of Government Policy About Paid Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khoiruman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research will be conducted to know: 1 The influence of green perceived value to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 2 The influence of green perceived risk to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 3 The effect of green trust on green purchase behavior of consumers to use plastic bags after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. The study was conducted in modern retail stores (Alfamart, Indomart and Superindo in Surakarta using 200 respondents who shop at the modern retail store. A model that can be used to measure green purchasing behavior in the use of paid plastic bags using four interrelated variables: green perceived value, green perceived risk, green trust and green purchasing. Data analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM. The result of analysis and discussion showed that green perceived value have positive and significant effect to green trust, green trust has positive effect on green purchasing, but green perceived risk has no significant effect to green trust.

  7. Parenthood and Well-Being : The Moderating Role of Leisure and Paid Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to adapt

  8. 18 CFR 382.106 - Accounting for annual charges paid under part 382.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for annual... Provisions § 382.106 Accounting for annual charges paid under part 382. (a) Any natural gas pipeline company... Account No. 928, Regulatory Commission Expenses, of the Commission's Uniform System of Accounts. (b) Any...

  9. Increasing attention is being paid to the quality of meat as living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing attention is being paid to the quality of meat as living standards rise and this tendency is accentuat- ed in game meat. Whereas game meat is a common and essential component of the human diet in some countries, it is considered a delicacy in highly developed countries and for this reason stronger emphasis is ...

  10. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Women in Paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    An Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Women in Paid Employment in Benin City. Ofuani, F. N.. 124. Women‟s participation in the labour force is on the increase. This is as a result of increased women education, training, urbanization and the demands of the present day economy in Nigeria. The economic ...

  11. Recruiting Science Majors into Secondary Science Teaching: Paid Internships in Informal Science Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Heather M.; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Soucie, Marilyn; Barnett, Ellen; Akiba, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of recruiting highly qualified individuals into the science teaching profession, little is known about the effectiveness of particular recruitment strategies. Over 3 years, 34 college science majors and undecided students were recruited into paid internships in informal science settings to consider secondary science teaching…

  12. A household production model of paid labor, household work and child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we use data on time allocation of women to estimate the value of market and non-market work. Four time use categories are distinguished: paid work, household work, care for children, and leisure. The estimation results show that the value of non-market production (household production

  13. an analysis of factors affecting job satisfaction of women in paid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Data collected were analysed using the t-test. The result of the study revealed that marital status, experience, academic qualification and relationship with superior officers had no significant effect on the job satisfaction of women in paid employment in Benin City. It is recommended that women should be given opportunities ...

  14. 48 CFR 225.7303-5 - Aquisitions wholly paid for from nonrepayable funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aquisitions wholly paid for from nonrepayable funds. 225.7303-5 Section 225.7303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1292 - How to request review-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1987. 404.1292 Section 404.1292 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Review of Decisions on Credits, Refunds, Or Assessments-for Wages Paid Prior to 1987 § 404.1292 How to... disallowance being questioned; (2) Describe the specific issue on which the review is requested; (3) Contain...

  16. Combination Pressure : The Paid Work–Family Balance of Men and Women in European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, Tanja van der; Jager, Annet; Kops, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    People today lead busy, hurried lives with competing time claims between the spheres of paid work and the household. The aim of this article is to provide more insight into the way men and women experience the multiple claims on their time and to attempt to understand the differences between

  17. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: Evidence in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); A. Burdorf (Alex); A.E. Kunst (Anton); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. Methods: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590

  18. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: evidence in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Lex; Kunst, Anton; Mackenbach, Johan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. METHODS: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590 (36%) subjects

  19. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  20. Maternity leave, what about Paternity leave?: child care and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it is noteworthy that in child development and care, the roles of both parents are important. Analysis of the paper is done with the review of literatures and interviews conducted randomly among working women and men in Abeokuta on their experiences and views about maternity and paternity leaves respectively.

  1. [Sick leave and nursing personnel management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estorce, Thiago Puliesi; Kurcgant, Paulina

    2011-10-01

    Sick leaves in the nursing team demand immediate managerial actions when health care has quality as a goal. This descriptive-exploratory, quantitative study was performed with the purpose of characterizing that phenomenon in a university hospital between 2003 and 2007. The medical leaves added up to 3,207 leaves and 32,022 days lost. Leaves lasting up to two days accounted for 54% of the total leaves and to 7% of the days lost; leaves of more than 15 days, 5% of the total, and 66% of the lost days. Hence, sick leaves consist of an important tool in nursing personnel management.

  2. Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamizah, Sulaiman; Roslida, A H; Fezah, O; Tan, K L; Tor, Y S; Tan, C I

    2012-01-01

    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (pmuricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.

  3. Family leave after childbirth and the mental health of new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that short maternity leave, and, more generally, full-time maternal employment during the first year of life, detract from children's health, cognitive development, and behavioral outcomes. Much less is known, however, about how early parental employment affects the mental and physical health of the mothers themselves. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between short family leave length (less than 12 weeks of total leave after childbirth, less than 8 weeks of paid leave) and mental and physical health outcomes among new mothers. Data come from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of 14,000 children born in 2001 and followed until kindergarten entry. We focus on a sample of ECLS-B mothers from the first wave of the survey who had worked during pregnancy and who had returned to work by the time of the first follow-up interview, which was conducted about 9 months after childbirth. When examining the effects of paternal leave, we further restrict this sample to mothers who were married at the time of the first follow-up interview. The maternal health outcomes of interest are measures of depression and overall health status. We use standard OLS and ordered probit models, as well as two-stage least squares and two-stage residual inclusion methods which address the potential endogeneity of family leave with respect to maternal health. Our findings from the OLS and ordered probit models indicate that, for mothers who worked prior to childbirth and who return to work in the first year, having less than 12 weeks of maternal leave and having less than 8 weeks of paid maternal leave are both associated with increases in depressive symptoms, and having less than 8 weeks of paid leave is associated with a reduction in overall health status. Findings from models that address the potential endogeneity of maternal leave generally support these results, and suggest that longer

  4. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  5. There's a Policy: Nobody Bats an Eye at Babies Being Born, a Critical Feminist Policy Discourse Analysis of a Paid Parental Leave Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie, Jennifer Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Research has continued to suggest high institutional costs of not accommodating work-life balance, and institutions of higher education are recognizing the importance of formally addressing these issues in the increasingly competitive labor market. However, there is concern whether faculty members 1) are actually aware of policies; 2) feel safe in…

  6. Racism and the older voter? Arizona's rejection of a paid holiday to honor Martin Luther King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, R

    1991-01-01

    Two propositions that would have established a paid Martin Luther King holiday were defeated in Arizona's statewide elections of November 6, 1990. Communities and counties with high proportions of senior adult voters cast proportionately more votes against these propositions. Was this an example of racism among the primarily anglo senior adult voters of Arizona? Three models were proposed to account for the general pattern of election-related behavior as well as the vote itself: 1) proactive racist, 2) pragmatic self-interest, and 3) fortress mentality. It was suggested that proactive racism and pragmatic self-interest accounted for less of the opposition to a paid holiday honoring Martin Luther King than did a fortress mentality that has developed through a combination of circumstances. Attention is also given to the larger question of senior adults as perpetrators as well as victims of bigotry.

  7. Specific occupational satisfaction and stresses that differentiate paid and volunteer EMTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, E J; Whitley, T W; Revicki, D A; Landis, S S

    1987-06-01

    A survey completed by 265 emergency medical technicians (EMTs) who provide emergency prehospital care in a rural area included a stress inventory for health professionals and a job satisfaction scale. Logistic regression indicated that the 118 paid EMTs were more likely to be dissatisfied with the freedom they have on the job than were the 147 volunteer EMTs. Paid EMTs also are less likely to be satisfied with the recognition they receive and more likely to cite work interference with family life and perceptions that others are trying to take advantage of them as sources of stress. Volunteer EMTs are more likely to be dissatisfied with the way their days off work are scheduled and to report stress attributable to work responsibilities different from those they had anticipated. Additional information about the demographic characteristics of EMTs from a rural area is provided.

  8. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, David; Balamurugan, Appathurai; Oakleaf, Ernest J

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens) do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods Fro...

  9. Japanese women's paid labor force : its changing dimensions and present situations : a review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohsin-Ul

    1995-01-01

    Japanese women's paid labor force participation has been increased tremendously backed by the economic development and expansion of tertiary industry in the recent past. The traditional M-shape pattern of Japanese women participation in the labor force is found to be changed since the participation behavior at the crucial age has undergone a change. Higher education, declining fertility rate, working hours, wage rate and household earnings are found more influential towards the participation ...

  10. Higher fees paid to US physicians drive higher spending for physician services compared to other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Miriam J; Glied, Sherry A

    2011-09-01

    Higher health care prices in the United States are a key reason that the nation's health spending is so much higher than that of other countries. Our study compared physicians' fees paid by public and private payers for primary care office visits and hip replacements in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We also compared physicians' incomes net of practice expenses, differences in financing the cost of medical education, and the relative contribution of payments per physician and of physician supply in the countries' national spending on physician services. Public and private payers paid somewhat higher fees to US primary care physicians for office visits (27 percent more for public, 70 percent more for private) and much higher fees to orthopedic physicians for hip replacements (70 percent more for public, 120 percent more for private) than public and private payers paid these physicians' counterparts in other countries. US primary care and orthopedic physicians also earned higher incomes ($186,582 and $442,450, respectively) than their foreign counterparts. We conclude that the higher fees, rather than factors such as higher practice costs, volume of services, or tuition expenses, were the main drivers of higher US spending, particularly in orthopedics.

  11. 20 CFR 404.1018a - Work by civilians for the United States Government or its instrumentalities-remuneration paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the retirement system. (e) Work as a Peace Corps Volunteer—remuneration paid prior to 1984. Work... United States. (g) Work by Volunteer in Service to America—remuneration paid prior to 1984. Work... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work by civilians for the United States...

  12. "I'm so Much More Myself Now, Coming Back to Work"--Working Class Mothers, Paid Work and Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Annette; Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which working class mothers negotiate mothering and paid work. Drawing on interviews with 70 families with pre-school children, we examine how caring and working responsibilities are conceptualised and presented in mothers' narratives. Mothers showed a high degree of commitment to paid work and, in contrast to…

  13. Family life under pressure? Parents' paid work and the quantity and quality of parent-child and family time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even though family life and paid work are often considered as difficult to reconcile, prior research found that family time is relatively unaffected by the demands paid work imposes upon employed parents. This dissertation investigates this puzzling finding by exploring how parents protect family

  14. 43 CFR 30.148 - Will interest or penalties charged after the date of death be paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... date of death be paid? Interest or penalties charged against claims after the date of death will not be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will interest or penalties charged after the date of death be paid? 30.148 Section 30.148 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the...

  15. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY: Internal... foreign tax credit results. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Cowan, (202) 622-3850 (not a toll... profits tax paid or accrued. * * * * * (e) * * * (5) * * * (iv) * * * (B) * * * (1) * * * (iii) [The text...

  16. 26 CFR 1.221-2 - Deduction for interest due and paid on qualified education loans before January 1, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements, Student A may deduct the $750 of interest paid in 1998 under section 221. Example 2. Student... Federal income tax. Student B may not deduct the $750 of interest paid in 1998 under section 221. Because.... Payment by employer. Student C obtains a qualified education loan to attend college. Upon Student C's...

  17. Micromycetes on ericaceous plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out on the ericaceous plant collection of the Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow and the Rogów Arboretum of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences on the following plants: wild rosemary Ledum palustre L., leatherleaf Chamaedaphne calyculata (L. Moench and American cranberry Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Ait. Pursh. Diverse micromycetes species composition was specified on the leaves of tested ericaceous plants. The perpetrators of dying leaves were recognized, among which the dominant role was played by the necrotroph Pestalotiopsis sydowiana. Quantitative and qualitative comparative analyses of micromycetes in both locations were carried out, showing a comparable degree of plant colonization by these fungi in the botanic garden and arboretum. The study may be helpful in explaining the causes of dieback of protected and endangered plants in Polish flora.

  18. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  19. A method of detecting carbonyl compounds in tree leaves in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Feng, Yanli; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2010-06-01

    Carbonyl compounds have been paid more and more attention because some carbonyl species have been proven to be carcinogenic or a risk for human health. Plant leaves are both an important emission source and an important sink of carbonyl compounds. But the research on carbonyl compounds from plant leaves is very scarce. In order to make an approach to the emission mechanism of plant leaves, a new method was established to extract carbonyl compounds from fresh plant leaves. The procedure combining derivatization with ultrasonication was developed for the fast extraction of carbonyl compounds from tree leaves. Fresh leaves (trees, i.e., camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), sweet olive (Osmanthus fragrans), cedar (Cedrus deodara), and dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), were selected and extracted by this method. Seven carbonyl compounds, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, p-tolualdehyde, m/o-tolualdehyde, and hexaldehyde were determined and quantified. The most common carbonyl species of the four tree leaves were formaldehyde, acrolein, and m/o-tolualdehyde. They accounted for 67.3% in cedar, 50.8% in sweet olive, 45.8% in dawn redwood, and 44.6% in camphor tree, respectively. Camphor tree had the highest leaf level of m/o-tolualdehyde with 15.0 +/- 3.4 microg g(-1)(fresh leaf weight), which indicated that camphor tree may be a bioindicator of the level of tolualdehyde or xylene in the atmosphere. By analyzing carbonyl compounds from different tree leaves, it is not only helpful for further studying the relationship between sink and emission of carbonyls from plants, but also helpful for exploring optimum plant population in urban greening.

  20. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. After an illness, leaving the hospital is your next step toward recovery. Depending on ...

  1. Employment and sick leave in patients with prostate cancer before, during and after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveistrup, Joen; Mortensen, Ole S; Rosenschöld, Per M; Engelholm, Svend A; Petersen, Peter M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine employment outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa). The Danish DREAM database contains information about social benefits paid to Danish citizens. Data are recorded prospectively every week. From the database, it is possible to assess whether a patient is working, on sick leave or retired at a certain time. Data on 417 Danish citizens treated with RT for PCa at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, between 1 January 2005 and 1 May 2010 were obtained from the database. The data were collected during a 2 year period from 1 year before RT to 1 year after RT. Among patients of working age, 75% were still available for work 1 year after RT. The degree of sick leave increased almost continuously in the year before the start of RT and reached a maximum of 56% during RT. After RT it gradually declined. There was no significant difference between the number of patients on sick leave 1 year after RT compared to 1 year before RT (p = 0.23). Patients spent a significantly higher number of weeks on sick leave in the year after the start of RT compared to the year before RT (p = 0.001). Except for a transient increase in sick leave during treatment, RT did not seem to affect the working lives of patients with PCa significantly.

  2. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  3. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  4. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich nutritional

  5. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave. (a) Enrolled before..., 1982. Midshipmen will be granted leave without loss of incentive payments as follows: (1) Medical leave... (30) days will result in loss of incentive payments. Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...

  6. Juggling identities of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood and paid work - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, Helle; Mechlenborg Kristiansen, Tine; Tanggaard Andersen, Pernille; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2018-02-01

    To explore how women with rheumatoid arthritis manage their illness, motherhood, and work life. A constructivist, grounded theory approach based on individual interviews and participant observations with 20 women with rheumatoid arthritis who participated in work life and had children living at home or were pregnant. After initial and focused coding Goffman's concepts of social identity were applied. A core category: "Juggling meaningful identities" and three conceptual categories were developed: (1) Work life as the strongest identity marker; (2) Motherhood: a two-sided act; (3) Living with rheumatoid arthritis as an identity? Paid work, motherhood, and illness are linked to the women's social identities. The women construct and change their identities in interactions with children, partners, other parents, colleagues, and employers. The women attribute the highest priority to their professional identity, spending the majority of their time and energy in an effort to appear as "good stable workers". The disease is seen as a hindrance in this regard, and the illness identity is almost completely rejected. In motherhood, the women prioritize close interaction with their children, and deprioritize external activities. Extended outbreaks of the disease and issues regarding the children force the women to deprioritize working life. Implications for rehabilitation Juggling meaningful identities of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood, and paid work challenge women in managing their everyday lives. Therefore, rehabilitation professionals should support individuals to develop new strategies to manage the challenges they experience regarding juggling motherhood and work ability. Work is a dominant identity marker for women with rheumatoid arthritis therefore, rehabilitation professionals have an important role to play in investigating possible ways for the individual to maintain employment or return to work. Living with rheumatoid arthritis and being a paid worker challenge

  7. The nature and correlates of paid and unpaid work among service users of London Community Mental Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, B; Marwaha, S; Burns, T; Secker, J; Latimer, E; Blizard, R; Killaspy, H; Totman, J; Tanskanen, S; Johnson, S

    2013-06-01

    Aims. Little is known about how the rates and characteristics of mental health service users in unpaid work, training and study compare with those in paid employment. Methods. From staff report and patient records, 1353 mental health service users of seven Community Mental Health Teams in two London boroughs were categorized as in paid work, unpaid vocational activity or no vocational activity. Types of work were described using Standard Occupational Classifications. The characteristics of each group were reported and associations with vocational status were explored. Results. Of the sample, 5.5% were in paid work and 12.7% were in unpaid vocational activity, (including 5.3% in voluntary work and 8.1% in study or training). People in paid work were engaged in a broader range of occupations than those in voluntary work and most in paid work (58.5%) worked part-time. Younger age and high educational attainment characterized both groups. Having sustained previous employment was most strongly associated with being in paid work. Conclusions. Rates of vocational activity were very low. Results did not suggest a clear clinical distinction between those in paid and unpaid activity. The motivations for and functions of unpaid work need further research.

  8. Recruiting Science Majors into Secondary Science Teaching: Paid Internships in Informal Science Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Heather M.; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Soucie, Marilyn; Barnett, Ellen; Akiba, Motoko

    2014-02-01

    Despite the importance of recruiting highly qualified individuals into the science teaching profession, little is known about the effectiveness of particular recruitment strategies. Over 3 years, 34 college science majors and undecided students were recruited into paid internships in informal science settings to consider secondary science teaching as a career. Analysis of interns' subsequent career plans revealed the internships were not effective in recruiting the interns into the secondary science teacher education program, although many interns thought they might consider becoming teachers later in their lives. Reasons for not pursuing teaching included continued indecisiveness, inflexibility of required plans of study, and concerns about teachers' pay and classroom management.

  9. Construction of meaningful identities in the context of rheumatoid arthritis, motherhood and paid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Helle; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2017-01-01

    aspects of life; however, little is known about how women with rheumatoid arthritis simultaneously manage their illness, motherhood and paid work. DESIGN: Qualitative metasynthesis. METHODS: A qualitative metasynthesis informed by Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography was carried out, based on studies...... arthritis. Pressure in managing one of the sub-identities could restrict the fulfilment of the others. The sub-identities were interpreted as being flexible, situational, contextual and competing. The women strove to construct meaningful sub-identities by taking into account feedback obtained in social...

  10. Paid celebrity endorsement in health promotion: a case study from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Leask, J A

    2001-12-01

    In late 1998, Australian cricketer Shane Warne was allegedly paid A$200 000 ( pound78 060, US$123 000) by a pharmaceutical company to publicize his attempt to stop smoking. Warne failed to stop, and his continuing smoking remained newsworthy more than a year later. The arrangement caused considerable media controversy about the ethics of payment for charitable or socially worthy actions. This paper explores the community's reaction to payment for modelling a healthy behaviour, discussing the values that Warne transgressed and whether these mattered, given that the campaign caused an unprecedented rise in the use of nicotine replacement therapy.

  11. Decomposing Fees paid to Audit Firms-Assessing Knowledge Spillovers and Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    We extend prior studies (e.g., Whisenant et al., 2003; Krishnan and Yu, 2011; Chan et al., 2012) by explicitly utilizing a stringent decomposition of total fee paid for audit services and other services in a sample of listed non-financial Danish companies. When controlling for the joint...... determination of fees pertaining to the statutory audit and non-audit services, we find support for the existence of positive knowledge spillover from non-audit to audit and the possible independence problems related to this economic bonding. In terms of the non-audit components, the knowledge spillover...

  12. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accommodated through an intermittent or reduced leave schedule. The treatment regimen and other information... treatment by a health care provider. See §§ 825.113 and 825.127. (c) Birth or placement. When leave is taken... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  15. Typography and colour: A comparative analysis of the free and paid-for newspapers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Parratt-Fernández, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the design of free newspapers in Spain, with special emphasis on their format, typography and colour. In order to establish the main features of the design of the free press, we compare it with the paid-for newspapers. The method of analysis is a comparative quantitative analysis based on case studies. The sample of analysis comprises eight Spanish newspapers: the four most-circulated free newspapers (Qué!, 20 Minutos, Metro Directo, and Adn, and the four highest-selling newspapers (El Mundo, El País, Abc, and La Vanguardia. This work is part of a larger research project that examines the model of the free press by taking into account the publishers, the papers, and the audience. This article presents the results related to the design of the papers. The analysis shows that there are obvious similarities between the free and paid-for newspapers, but also very subtle differences in the treatment of typography and colour.

  16. Paid- and family-carers' views on supporting women with intellectual disability through breast screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D S; Kilbride, L; Horsburgh, D; Kennedy, C M

    2015-07-01

    The cancer needs of people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being debated. This paper explores the views and experiences of paid- and family-carers when supporting women with intellectual disabilities through breast screening. An ethnographic approach was drawn on and purposive sampling methods were employed. One-to-one semi-structured interviews with 13 carers (10 paid-carers, three family-carers) were undertaken and supported by periods of focused observation on behaviour related to breast awareness and breast screening. Findings indicated that most women with intellectual disabilities needed some support but the quality and quantity of support depended upon both the woman's level of intellectual disability and who was supporting them. In terms of breast screening, the findings suggested that the women were potentially being let down at all the different stages of the breast screening process, from the arrival of the invitation letter to the experience of having a mammogram. The conclusion drawn was that there was evidence of equality of service provision but inequality of service delivery and uptake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Balancing Study and Paid Work: The Experiences of Construction Undergraduates in an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lingard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey was undertaken among third year studentsenrolled in the University of Melbourne’s Bachelor of Property andConstruction (BPC programme. The survey explored students’experiences in balancing paid work with study. Hours spent in paidemployment were at least as long and, in many cases, were inexcess of hours spent at university. While work was not perceivedby students to pose a difficulty for attending lectures and tutorials,students indicated that their paid work made it difficult for them toengage in independent learning activities, such as using libraryresources or preparing for classes by reading beforehand. Twoscales, previously used in other countries to measure students’burnout and engagement, were tested. Both scales were foundto be valid and reliable in that the factorial structures foundin previous studies were confirmed and acceptable internalconsistency reliability coefficients were generated for each of thescales’ component factors. This opens the way for more in-depthmultivariate analysis to determine the linkages between workhours, work-study conflict and students’ burnout or engagementwith university life.

  18. Short-term and long-term sick-leave in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    period) in relation to variables representing certain social circumstances and aspects of the work situation. Particular attention was paid to gender differences. The study, which had a cross-sectional design, employed data from the surveys of living conditions (ULF) conducted by Statistics Sweden over...... the period 1986-89. The study group comprised 13,828 employed persons between the ages of 16 and 65. The results suggested the existence of a common mechanism by which a variety of factors are related to the taking of both repeated short spells and long-term sick-leave; gender differences with regard......The primary aim of the study was to analyse similarities and differences between repeated spells of short-term sick-leave (more than 3 spells of less than 7 days' duration in a 12-month period) and long-term absence through sickness (at least 1 spell of more than 59 days' duration in a 12-month...

  19. Housework, paid work and psychiatric symptoms Trabalho doméstico, trabalho assalariado e sintomas psiquiátricos

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma S Santana; Dana P Loomis; Beth Newman

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that work burden, the simultaneous engagement in paid work and unpaid family housework, is a potential risk factor for psychiatric symptoms among women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 460 women randomly selected from a poor area of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Women between 18 to 70 years old, who reported having a paid occupation or were involved in unpaid domestic activities for their families, were eligible. Work burden-related ...

  20. Digital advertising around paid spaces, e-advertising industry’s revenue engine : A review and research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Bilal; Karjaluoto, Heikki

    2017-01-01

    We develop and describe a framework for research in a particular segment of digital advertising. Internet Advertising Paid Slots and Spaces (IAPS) is a neologism and work almost like a stock exchange for buying and selling advertising in various formats on designated spaces around web and make a significant contribution to Internet advertising revenues. These paid spaces were found to encompass diverse areas of Internet advertising that include search engine marketing, social media advertisin...

  1. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Document Server

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  2. Impact of paid work on the academic performance of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, Mery Constanza; Rizo-Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little research exists on the impact of paid work on academic performance of students of health sciences. No research exists on this subject for students in Colombia. Objectives. This paper seeks to analyze the impact of paid work on academic performance among nursing students. cross-sectional research, involving 430 of nursing students from the National University of Colombia (N = 566). Methods. Variables analyzed: sex, age, work activity, attendance, current semester, degree subjects studied and unavailable, lost credits, grades during the second semester of 2013, and delayed semesters. Subgroups analyzed: (i) according to labor activity: do not work, work up to 20 h and work more than 20 h per week; (ii) Grade point average: failing is considered as less than 3.0 and passing 3.0 or above out of 5.0. Percentage of delayed semesters were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed for groups by work activity. The percentage and probability of students getting a grade point average less than 3.0 and delaying semesters were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Results. A total of 219 of the students work (50.9%), the main reason is socioeconomic, of which 99 (45.2%) work more than 20 h per week and have an increased risk of failing, which is higher in the first semester. They also get lower grades, lose more credits and take longer to finish the degree. The logistic bivariate regressions of success (grade point average, credits gained, courses gained and not having delayed semesters) reduce with work, above all in those who work more than 20 h per week and increase as the number of semesters completed increases, independent of sex. Conclusion. A high percentage of nursing students work more than 20 h per week. The compatibility of paid work with studies in university nursing students has a negative impact on academic performance, more so when they work more than 20 h per week. This negative impact diminishes as the student

  3. Impact of paid work on the academic performance of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Constanza García-Vargas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little research exists on the impact of paid work on academic performance of students of health sciences. No research exists on this subject for students in Colombia. Objectives. This paper seeks to analyze the impact of paid work on academic performance among nursing students. Design, settings and participants: cross-sectional research, involving 430 of nursing students from the National University of Colombia (N = 566. Methods. Variables analyzed: sex, age, work activity, attendance, current semester, degree subjects studied and unavailable, lost credits, grades during the second semester of 2013, and delayed semesters. Subgroups analyzed: (i according to labor activity: do not work, work up to 20 h and work more than 20 h per week; (ii Grade point average: failing is considered as less than 3.0 and passing 3.0 or above out of 5.0. Percentage of delayed semesters were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed for groups by work activity. The percentage and probability of students getting a grade point average less than 3.0 and delaying semesters were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Results. A total of 219 of the students work (50.9%, the main reason is socioeconomic, of which 99 (45.2% work more than 20 h per week and have an increased risk of failing, which is higher in the first semester. They also get lower grades, lose more credits and take longer to finish the degree. The logistic bivariate regressions of success (grade point average, credits gained, courses gained and not having delayed semesters reduce with work, above all in those who work more than 20 h per week and increase as the number of semesters completed increases, independent of sex. Conclusion. A high percentage of nursing students work more than 20 h per week. The compatibility of paid work with studies in university nursing students has a negative impact on academic performance, more so when they work more than 20 h per

  4. What Provisions Do Orthopaedic Programs Make for Maternity, Paternity, and Adoption Leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jennifer; Teuscher, David

    2016-09-01

    the programs have paternity leave policy (formal: 22 of 45 [49%]; unwritten: 19 of 45 [42%]), and fewer programs have adoption leave policy (formal: eight of 45 [18%]; unwritten: 11 of 45 [24%]). For programs that have formal or unwritten policies, most programs allow 4 to 6 weeks off (26 of 43 [60%]) with nearly half of programs allocating leave as paid time off (15 of 37 programs [41%]) and nearly half of programs requiring makeup time (17 of 37 [46%]). Many programs reported no utilization of leave by trainees (23 of 36 [61%]); many programs reported utilization by three or fewer residents (11 of 13 [85%]); and among residents who took leave, maternity was the most common reason (maternity: 22 of 36 [61%]; paternity: 11 of 36 [31%]; adoption: three of 36 [8%]). This study highlights the lack of uniformity among orthopaedic surgery residency and training programs regarding approach to maternity, paternity, and adoption leave. Discussion among program directors, perhaps facilitated by the Council of Orthopedic Residency Directors within the American Orthopaedic Association, to align the programs' policy in this arena may provide more transparent and uniform policy for trainees in orthopaedic surgery.

  5. The role of the paid non-professional nursing helper: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, B J; Clark, J M

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research into the role of paid non-professional nursing helpers. This term refers to auxiliaries, ward clerks, healthcare assistants and support workers. The focus of the review is on work carried out on attitudes of qualified staff to the role of the helper, role descriptions and the role of the helper in different organizational modes of work. Some of the research reviewed in relation to the role description and attitudes to the helper date back to 1978. However, the emphasis of the paper is on research published in the past 3 years. The research is reviewed against the background of two theoretical frameworks, both of which are perceived to be useful in analysing the division of labour between the nurse, the patient and the helper.

  6. Harsh choices: Chinese women's paid work and unpaid care responsibilities under economic reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah; Dong, Xiao-yuan

    2011-01-01

    China's economic reforms over the past three decades have dramatically changed the mechanisms for allocating goods and labour in both market and non-market spheres. This article examines the social and economic trends that intensify the pressure on the care economy, and on women in particular in playing their dual roles as care givers and income earners in post-reform China. The analysis sheds light on three critical but neglected issues. How does the reform process reshape the institutional arrangements of care for children and elders? How does the changing care economy affect women's choices between paid work and unpaid care responsibilities? And what are the implications of women's work–family conflicts for the well-being of women and their families? The authors call for a gendered approach to both social and labour market policies, with investments in support of social reproduction services so as to ease the pressures on women.

  7. An unsettled bargain? Mothers' perceptions of justice and fairness in paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Mara A; Martin, Bill; Baxter, Janeen; Rose, Judy

    2017-06-01

    Mothers' return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It focuses on mothers' perceptions of the fairness and justice of the flexibility of arrangements they commonly enter into upon return to work. The article draws attention to the importance of different justice frameworks, distributive, procedural and interactional, in understanding women's acceptance of gender inequality in paid work. The results indicate that most mothers view their workplace arrangements as fair, consistent with a distributive justice framework. Many women also place great importance on interactional justice, particularly in their experiences in negotiating flexibility. The article also identifies differences across employment type with women in jobs with career prospects more likely to invoke interactional justice frameworks than women in jobs with few career prospects.

  8. The Best and Worst-Paid Sectors in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílková Diana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the issue of diff erent behaviour of wage distribution of two highest and two lowest-paid sectors of the Czech economy in the period since the beginning of the global economic crisis; the former ones are the sectors of “Financial and Insurance Activities” and “Information and Communication”, the latter ones being those of “Accommodation and Food Service Activities” and “Administrative and Support Service Activities”. The aim is to capture the differences between these two groups of sectors, not only in terms of wage levels, but also as far as the variability and concentration of wage distribution is concerned. The gross (nominal monthly wage in CZK represents a research variable. The paper focuses on diff erent developments of wage distribution of the above sector groups in time, wage level forecasts for 2015 and 2016 being included.

  9. Informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults (National Health Survey, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo

    2017-06-01

    To describe the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults with functional limitations. Of the 23,815 participants of the National Health Survey aged 60 or older, 5,978 reported needing help to perform activities of daily living and were included in this analysis. The dependent variable was the source of care, categorized as exclusively informal (unpaid), exclusively formal (paid), mixed or none. The socio-demographic variables were age (60-64, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old), gender and number of residents in the household (1, 2, ≥ 3). The multivariate analysis was based on binomial and multinomial logistic regressions. Informal care predominated (81.8%), followed by paid (5.8%) or mixed (6.8%) and no care (5.7%). The receipt of care from any source increased gradually with the number of residents in a same household, regardless of age and gender (OR = 4.85 and 9.74 for 2 and ≥ 3, respectively). Age was positively associated with receiving any care while the male gender showed a negative association. The number of residents in the household showed the strongest association with informal care (OR = 10.94 for ≥ 3 residents), compared with paid (OR = 5.48) and mixed (OR = 4.16) care. Informal care is the main source of help for community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. In a context of rapid population aging and decline in family size, the results reinforce the need for policies to support long-term care for older Brazilians. Descrever a prevalência e fatores sociodemográficos associados à ajuda informal e remunerada a idosos com limitações funcionais. Dos 23.815 participantes com 60 anos ou mais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 5.978 declararam necessitar de ajuda para realizar atividades da vida diária e foram incluídos nesta análise. A variável dependente foi a fonte de ajuda, categorizada como exclusivamente informal (não remunerada), exclusivamente remunerada, mista ou

  10. [New cerebroside from leaves of pineapple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Hong-Ying; Du, Li-Jun; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2007-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectral methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. Compound 1 was isolated from the leaves of pineapple. It was identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 11E)-2-[(2(R)-hydroxydocosanoyl) amido]-4, 11-hexadecanediene-1, 3-diol. Compound 1 was a new compound.

  11. Metal ion adsorption characteristics of tea leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, Hiromitsu; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract] For effective use of tea leaves, this study experimentally evaluated metal ion adsorption by tea leaves. The experiment described herein was conducted by measuring the ionic solution at a constant density using a fluorescence X-ray device. The metallic ion concentration in the solution and the fluorescence X-ray output intensity showed good correlation. Tea leaves were put into solution adjusted with density of an already-known metallic ion. Then the decrease of the metal ion was m...

  12. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  13. 41 CFR 304-3.12 - Must I receive advance approval from my agency before I perform travel paid by a non-Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approval from my agency before I perform travel paid by a non-Federal source to attend a meeting? 304-3.12... agency before I perform travel paid by a non-Federal source to attend a meeting? Yes, you must receive advance approval from your agency before performing travel paid by a non-Federal source to attend a...

  14. Application of reflectance spectroscopies (FTIR-ATR & FT-NIR) coupled with multivariate methods for robust in vivo detection of begomovirus infection in papaya leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Quazi M I; Mabood, Fazal; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Gilani, Sayed A; Hussain, Javid; Jabeen, Farah; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Sabari, Ruqaya S M; Al-Khanbashi, Fatema H S; Al-Fahdi, Amira A M; Al-Zaabi, Ahoud K A; Al-Shuraiqi, Fatma A M; Al-Bahaisi, Iman M

    2018-06-05

    Nucleic acid & serology based methods have revolutionized plant disease detection, however, they are not very reliable at asymptomatic stage, especially in case of pathogen with systemic infection, in addition, they need at least 1-2days for sample harvesting, processing, and analysis. In this study, two reflectance spectroscopies i.e. Near Infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) and Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflection (FT-IR, ATR) coupled with multivariate exploratory methods like Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been deployed to detect begomovirus infection in papaya leaves. The application of those techniques demonstrates that they are very useful for robust in vivo detection of plant begomovirus infection. These methods are simple, sensitive, reproducible, precise, and do not require any lengthy samples preparation procedures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-08-01

    In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.

  16. Lifetime Paid Work and Mental Health Problems among Poor Urban 9-to-13-Year-Old Children in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel A. Bordin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To verify if emotional/behavioral problems are associated with lifetime paid work in poor urban children, when taking into account other potential correlates. Methods. Cross-sectional study focused on 9-to-13-year-old children (n=212. In a probabilistic sample of clusters of eligible households (women 15–49 years and son/daughter <18 years, one mother-child pair was randomly selected per household (n=813; response rate = 82.4%. CBCL/6-18 identified child emotional/behavioral problems. Potential correlates include child gender and age, socioeconomic status/SES, maternal education, parental working status, and family social isolation, among others. Multivariate analysis examined the relationship between emotional/behavioral problems and lifetime paid work in the presence of significant correlates. Findings. All work activities were non-harmful (e.g., selling fruits, helping parents at their small business, and baby sitting. Children with lower SES and socially isolated were more involved in paid work than less disadvantaged peers. Children ever exposed to paid work were four times more likely to present anxiety/depression symptoms at a clinical level compared to non-exposed children. Multivariate modeling identified three independent correlates: child pure internalizing problems, social isolation, and low SES. Conclusion. There is an association between lifetime exposure to exclusively non-harmful paid work activities and pure internalizing problems even when considering SES variability and family social isolation.

  17. Leaving Home and Family Relations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    Drawing on census data from 1975 to 1994, reports on the leaving-home behavior of youth in France. Findings indicate that French youth tend to leave the parental home increasingly later, mainly due to unemployment. But the impact of unemployment varied according to the young person's sex and residential situation. (RJM)

  18. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  20. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  1. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  2. Developing an Alternative Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, John J.

    A study was conducted at Vista College to compare the sabbatical leave policy of the Peralta Community College District with those of other districts and to develop alternative policies that would permit a greater number of faculty to obtain sabbatical leaves. Policy statements were received from nine of the twelve districts surveyed, and…

  3. Factors associated with breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in mothers returning to paid employment postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Tarrant, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Mothers who are employed postpartum are less likely to continue breastfeeding than mothers who are not formally employed. However, as postpartum employment is increasingly necessary for the majority of new mothers, it is important to investigate factors that influence the continuation of breastfeeding in employed mothers. A sample of 1,738 mothers who returned to paid employment postpartum were recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong, and prospectively followed for 12 months or until their infant was weaned. More than 85 % of participants returned to formal employment within 10 weeks postpartum, with over 90 % of these employed full-time. About one-third of the participants (32 %) were able to combine breastfeeding and employment, with breastfeeding defined as continuing for more than 2 weeks after returning to work postpartum. Later return to work and higher maternal education were associated with new mothers being able to combine breastfeeding and employment. Later return to work, shorter working hours, parental childcare, and higher maternal education were also associated with less likelihood of weaning from any or exclusive breastfeeding. Improvements in employment-related conditions for mothers and additional support for lower educated mothers may be effective strategies to enable employed women to continue breastfeeding after their return to work.

  4. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? Design/Methodology/Approach To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. Findings Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. Implications These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. Originality/Value Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development. PMID:20495611

  5. Paid part-time employment and academic performance of undergraduate nursing students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rochford, Ceire

    2012-02-01

    Nursing students are increasingly undertaking paid term-time employment to finance their living expenses and studies. However the type and duration of this part-time work is unknown; furthermore there is a limited evidence on the extent to which this part-time employment is impacting on academic performance and the student\\'s experience of higher education. To address this shortfall this study undertook a cross-sectional survey of undergraduate nursing students to explore the incidence of student involvement in term-time employment and to develop an understanding of the relationship of employment on student\\'s academic and clinical achievement, and on their experience of higher education. The results found that the vast majority of the sample were working in part-time employment during term-time. The average number of hours worked per week was sixteen. The number of hours worked per week was found to be a predictor of course performance, the student\\'s experience of college and grades achieved. Students who worked greater hours reported negative outcomes in each of these three domains. The findings also support the contention that it is not working per se that has a detrimental effect on student outcomes but the numbers of hours\\' students are actually working while attending college. Therefore policy makers, educationalists and health service providers need to be aware of the burden that nursing students may have to contend with in combining work with their academic studies.

  6. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E

    2010-06-01

    PURPOSE: This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. FINDINGS: Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development.

  7. Pre-registration paid employment choice: the views of newly qualified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Craig; Kenny, Amanda; Smith, Colleen; Esterman, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, nurse education was transferred from hospital based nursing schools to the higher education sector. This transfer resulted in a change for students, from hospital employee to an unpaid, supernumerary role during professional placements. The majority of undergraduate nursing students now combine part time employment with their studies, working mainly within health settings or service sectors such as hospitality and retail. The aims of this study were to identify if newly qualified registered nurses engaged in paid employment during their final year of undergraduate studies, the types of employment they chose, reasons for that choice, skills acquired and their views on any link between employment choice and transition to practice. Focus group interviews involving sixty seven new graduates were conducted. From the data, four organising themes were identified; financial independence and autonomy, confidence and experience, future opportunity and ease of transition. The global theme maximising opportunity describes nurse's views about their decisions on student employment. Participants had differing views on employment choice and transition to practice. Further research is needed in the area to identify whether there is any link between student employment choice and transition to practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paid part-time employment and academic performance of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Céire; Connolly, Michael; Drennan, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Nursing students are increasingly undertaking paid term-time employment to finance their living expenses and studies. However the type and duration of this part-time work is unknown; furthermore there is a limited evidence on the extent to which this part-time employment is impacting on academic performance and the student's experience of higher education. To address this shortfall this study undertook a cross-sectional survey of undergraduate nursing students to explore the incidence of student involvement in term-time employment and to develop an understanding of the relationship of employment on student's academic and clinical achievement, and on their experience of higher education. The results found that the vast majority of the sample were working in part-time employment during term-time. The average number of hours worked per week was sixteen. The number of hours worked per week was found to be a predictor of course performance, the student's experience of college and grades achieved. Students who worked greater hours reported negative outcomes in each of these three domains. The findings also support the contention that it is not working per se that has a detrimental effect on student outcomes but the numbers of hours' students are actually working while attending college. Therefore policy makers, educationalists and health service providers need to be aware of the burden that nursing students may have to contend with in combining work with their academic studies.

  9. Educational Inequalities in Exit from Paid Employment among Dutch Workers: The Influence of Health, Lifestyle and Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Rongen, Anne; Arts, Coos H; Otten, Ferdy W H; Burdorf, Alex; Schuring, Merel

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force participation. Therefore, it is aimed to investigate the influence of health status, lifestyle-related factors and work characteristics on educational differences in exit from paid employment. 14,708 Dutch employees participated in a ten-year follow-up study during 1999-2008. At baseline, education, self-perceived health, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, sports, BMI) and psychosocial (demands, control, rewards) and physical work characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Employment status was ascertained monthly based on tax records. The relation between education, health, lifestyle, work-characteristics and exit from paid employment through disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement and economic inactivity was investigated by competing risks regression analyses. The mediating effects of these factors on educational differences in exit from paid employment were tested using a stepwise approach. Lower educated workers were more likely to exit paid employment through disability benefits (SHR:1.84), unemployment (SHR:1.74), and economic inactivity (SHR:1.53) but not due to early retirement (SHR:0.92). Poor or moderate health, an unhealthy lifestyle, and unfavourable work characteristics were associated with disability benefits and unemployment, and an unhealthy lifestyle with economic inactivity. Educational differences in disability benefits were explained for 40% by health, 31% by lifestyle, and 12% by work characteristics. For economic inactivity and unemployment, up to 14% and 21% of the educational differences could be explained, particularly by lifestyle-related factors. There are educational differences in exit from paid employment, which are partly mediated by health, lifestyle and work

  10. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...... employer-paid health insurance coverage. RESULTS: The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity...

  11. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Hotch, D F

    1981-02-01

    Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted.

  13. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employing agency may not be sufficient to meet the needs of the leave recipient; or (3) In the judgment of... specified leave recipient. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, annual leave may be transferred only to a leave recipient employed by the leave donor's employing agency. (b) Except as provided...

  14. Latent profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L

    2015-10-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N = 880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: family time protected, family time sacrificed, and time balanced. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the family time sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the family time protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the time balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the family time protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the family time sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the family time protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the family time sacrificed profile. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Latent Profiles of Perceived Time Adequacy for Paid Work, Parenting, and Partner Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N=880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified three profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: Family Time Protected, Family Time Sacrificed, and Time Balanced. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the Family Time Sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the Family Time Protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the Time Balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the Family Time Protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the Family Time Protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. PMID:26075739

  16. National stereotypes of older people's competence are related to older adults' participation in paid and volunteer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Catherine E; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-11-01

    Why are older people perceived as more competent in some countries relative to others? In the current study, we investigate the extent to which national variation in perceptions of older people's competence is systematically related to national variation in the extent to which older people participate in paid and volunteer work. We used multilevel regression to analyze data from the European Social Survey and test the relationship between perceptions of older people's competence and older people's participation in paid and volunteer work across 28 countries. We controlled for a number of potentially confounding variables, including life expectancy as well as the gender ratio and average education of the older population in each country. We controlled for the average objective cognitive abilities of the older population in a subsample of 11 countries. Older people were perceived as more competent in countries in which more older people participated in paid or volunteer work, independent of life expectancy and the average education, gender makeup, and average cognitive abilities of the older population. The results suggest that older people's participation in paid and volunteer work is related to perceptions of older people's competence independent of older people's actual competence.

  17. The influence of chronic health problems and work-related factors on loss of paid employment among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Wind, A. de; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background With an ageing society and increasing retirement ages, it is important to understand how employability can be promoted in older workers with health problems. The current study aimed to determine whether (1) different chronic health problems predict transitions from paid employment to

  18. 20 CFR 411.510 - How is the State VR agency paid under the Ticket to Work program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the State VR agency paid under the Ticket to Work program? 411.510 Section 411.510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.510 How is the State...

  19. Is Date Rape Justifiable? The Effects of Dating Activity, Who Initiated, Who Paid, and Men's Attitudes toward Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenhard, Charlene L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined justifiability of date rape under various circumstances among male undergraduates. Rape was rated as significantly more justifiable if the couple went to the man's apartment rather than to a religious function, if the woman asked the man out, and if the man paid all the dating expenses. Differences between traditional and nontraditional…

  20. Determinants of Job Satisfaction across the EU-15: A Comparison of Self-Employed and Paid Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Millan; A.R. Thurik (Roy); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); R. Aguado (Rafael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractJob satisfaction of self-employed and paid-employed workers is analyzed using the European Community Household Panel for the EU-15 covering the years 1994-2001. We distinguish between two types of job satisfaction, i.e. job satisfaction in terms of type of work and job satisfaction in

  1. 29 CFR 553.51 - Records to be kept for employees paid pursuant to section 7(k).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(k). 553.51 Section 553.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... GOVERNMENTS General Recordkeeping § 553.51 Records to be kept for employees paid pursuant to section 7(k). For each employee subject to the partial overtime exemption in section 7(k) of the Act, a public agency...

  2. 76 FR 54409 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [Docket No. REG-126519-11] RIN 1545-BK41 Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit; Correction Correction Proposed Rule document 2011-22067 was inadvertently published in the Rules section of the issue of...

  3. The impact of a regulatory change on the fees paid to the auditor: a look at Dutch and German evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, D.N.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this study an analysis is made on the impact of the transition to IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) for first-time IFRS users on the fees paid to auditors. This was tested on Dutch and German data collected partially by hand and partially via Datastream. Due to previous research

  4. 26 CFR 1.170A-2 - Amounts paid to maintain certain students as members of the taxpayer's household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization to provide educational opportunities for pupils or students placed in private homes by such... deduction under section 170 would be allowed for amounts paid for books, tuition, food, clothing... educational opportunities for children it places in private homes. In order to implement the program, the...

  5. Cut points for identifying clinically significant diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using the PAID-T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel; Cameron, Fergus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish cut point(s) for the Problem Areas in Diabetes-teen version (PAID-T) scale to identify adolescents with clinically meaningful, elevated diabetes distress. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were available from the Diabetes Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment...

  6. 26 CFR 1.901-2T - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of tax paid. (3) Direct investment. The U.S. party's proportionate share of the foreign payment or... controlled for U.S. tax purposes: (i) The classification of the SPV (or an entity that has a direct or... of the SPV for one or more tax years during which the arrangement is in effect. (C) Definitions. The...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1265 - Addition of interest to contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1265 Section 404.1265 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... to pay its contributions to the appropriate Federal Reserve bank or branch (see § 404.1262), when due... first wage report filed after notification of the underpayment by the Social Security Administration, or...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1262 - Manner of payment of contributions by State-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of payment of contributions by State-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1262 Section 404.1262 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... contributions, the State shall deposit its payment at the specific Federal Reserve bank or branch designated by...

  9. Combining informal care and paid work : The use of work arrangements by working adult-child caregivers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Bultmann, Ute; Wittek, Rafael P. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Smidt, Nynke

    An increasing number of people combine paid work with the provision of informal care for a loved one. This combination of work and care may cause difficulties, necessitating adaptations at work, i.e. work arrangements. The present study explores what types of work arrangements are used by working

  10. 41 CFR 301-11.100 - What will I be paid for lodging under Lodgings-plus per diem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lodging under Lodgings-plus per diem? 301-11.100 Section 301-11.100 Public Contracts and Property... 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Lodgings-Plus Per Diem § 301-11.100 What will I be paid for lodging under Lodgings-plus per diem? When travel is more than 12 hours and overnight lodging is required you are...

  11. The benefits of paid employment among persons with common mental health problems: Evidence for the selection and causation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of paid employment on self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, and happiness among previously unemployed persons with common mental health problems, and (ii) determine whether there are educational inequalities in these

  12. 26 CFR 1.855-1 - Dividends paid by regulated investment company after close of taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dividends paid by regulated investment company after close of taxable year. 1.855-1 Section 1.855-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and...

  13. 26 CFR 1.858-1 - Dividends paid by a real estate investment trust after close of taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dividends paid by a real estate investment trust after close of taxable year. 1.858-1 Section 1.858-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1...

  14. A panel data analysis of the effects of wages, standard hours and unionisation on paid overtime work in Britain"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalwij, A.S.; Gregory, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the basic wage rate, standard working hours and unionisation on paid overtime work in Britain using individual-level data from the New Earnings Survey over the period 1975-2001. For this purpose we estimate a panel data model. We show that to obtain consistent

  15. The impact of term-time paid work on academic performance in nursing students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Everett, Bronwyn; Koch, Jane; Andrew, Sharon; Davidson, Patricia M

    2012-05-01

    Nursing students in higher education are spending more time in paid employment despite evidence that this can impact negatively on academic performance. To examine the effect of paid work on academic performance in undergraduate nursing students. Descriptive, correlational survey with longitudinal follow-up. Nursing students in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. First year nursing students surveyed at baseline were followed up at the end of the final year of their nursing program to examine factors influencing academic performance. Of the 566 Year 1 nursing students who were surveyed in the second semester of their Bachelor of Nursing program, 182 students (32%) completed the follow-up survey in Year 3. The percentage of students engaging in paid work during term-time had increased (pstudents' GPA in their final year. Taking into account demographic factors, the mean hours spent in paid work during term-time had a negative impact on nursing students' GPA (pstudents as students and employees and therefore not endanger their academic performance. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of chronic health problems and work-related factors on loss of paid employment among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; de Wind, Astrid; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, J.F.; van der Beek, Allard J; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With an ageing society and increasing retirement ages, it is important to understand how employability can be promoted in older workers with health problems. The current study aimed to determine whether (1) different chronic health problems predict transitions from paid employment to

  17. The influence of chronic health problems and work-related factors on loss of paid employment among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); A. de Wind (Astrid); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A.J. van der Beek (Allard); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground With an ageing society and increasing retirement ages, it is important to understand how employability can be promoted in older workers with health problems. The current study aimed to determine whether (1) different chronic health problems predict transitions from paid

  18. Maternity Leave: Tips for Returning to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day your maternity leave ends? Don't despair. Working mothers face many challenges, but with some planning you ... there is no such thing as a perfect mother. Working outside the home doesn't make you a ...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... needs of individual emergency leave recipients, an employing agency may allow an employee to receive... annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... recipient. An emergency leave recipient may receive a maximum of 240 hours of donated annual leave at any...

  20. Chlorophyll catabolism in Prunus serrulata autumnal leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Đapić Nina

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyll catabolism in Prunus serrulata autumnal leaves was investigated. The amount of chlorophyll catabolites accumulated within the same plant species varies with the time of the leaf collection, seasonal climate and developmental stage of the plant. The chlorophyll catabolites found in P. serrulata autumnal leaves presented the tendency of the organism to decrease the level of photodynamically active chlorophyll before the programmed cell death. In the methanol extract several ch...

  1. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...... was available, results suggest that the kind of involvement matters. These results suggest that what matters is the quality and not the quantity of father-child interactions....

  2. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  3. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections, Daphniphyllum and Staminodia). The glabrous leaves with brachyparacytic stomata appear in all species in this study; hemiparacytic, laterocytic or anomocytic stomata occur in some taxa. Two (out of three)...

  4. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  5. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  6. The evaluation of vine leaves development dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was focused on evaluation of grape vine leaves surface area development of the six varieties on experimental sites in Velke Bilovice and Lednice, in the viticultural conditions of the South Moravia. The dynamic of leaves surface area development was mesured by using device LAM CI–202 (Leaf Area Meter, the device operating on the principle of the scanner and the resulting values are expressed through the leaf area index (LAI. The measurements were carried out in four dates (May, June, July, August during phenological growth stages of growth, flowering, initial development of fruits (Berries pea-sized, berries beginning to touch. Obtained results show, that the greatest increase of the leaves surface area on annual shoots is during phenological growth stages of flowering and during initial development of fruits.To the development of the leaves surface area of the leaves on lateral shoots then occurs after tipping of the top parts of the annual shoots, the main axes of herbaceous shoot are interrupted. During the phenological growth stage of the development of fruits was measured at both sites the largest leaves surface area on the varieties St. Laurent in the variety, Lemberger, Cabernet Moravia and ranged from 2.74 to 4.24 m2 per plant.

  7. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  8. Effects of processing method and age of leaves on phytochemical profiles and bioactivity of coffee leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Ma, Zhili; Kitts, David D

    2018-05-30

    The use of coffee leaves as a novel beverage has recently received consumer interest, but there is little known about how processing methods affect the quality of final product. We applied tea (white, green, oolong and black tea) processing methods to process coffee leaves and then investigated their effects on phytochemical composition and related antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using Japanese-style green tea-processing of young leaves, and black tea-processing of mature (BTP-M) coffee leaves, produced contrasting effects on phenolic content, and associated antioxidant activity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity in IFN-γ and LPS induced Raw 264.7 cells. BTP-M coffee leaves also had significantly (P coffee leaves and the type of processing method affect phytochemical profiles sufficiently to produce characteristic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health. © 2011 APJPH.

  10. The relationship between job satisfaction and intention to leave current employment among registered nurses in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoo, Vimala; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-11-01

    To assess Malaysian nurses' perceived job satisfaction and to determine whether any association exists between job satisfaction and intention to leave current employment. There is currently a shortage of qualified nurses, and healthcare organisations often face challenges in retaining trained nurses. Job satisfaction has been identified as a factor that influences nurse turnover. However, this has not been widely explored in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey. Registered nurses in a teaching hospital in Malaysia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 150 questionnaires distributed, 141 were returned (response rate = 94%). Overall, nurses had a moderate level of job satisfaction, with higher satisfaction for motivational factors. Significant effects were observed between job satisfaction and demographic variables. About 40% of the nurses intended to leave their current employment. Furthermore, age, work experience and nursing education had significant associations with intention to leave. Logistic regression analysis revealed that job satisfaction was a significant and independent predictor of nurses' intention to leave after controlling for demographic variables. The results suggest that there is a significant association between job satisfaction and nurses' intention to leave their current employment. It adds to the existing literature on the relationship between nurses' job satisfaction and intention to leave. Methods for enhancing nurses' job satisfaction are vital to promote the long-term retention of nurses within organisations. Attention must be paid to the needs of younger nurses, as they represent the majority of the nursing workforce and often have lower satisfaction and greater intention to leave than older nurses do. Strategies to nurture younger nurses, such as providing opportunities for further education, greater management decision-making capabilities and flexible working environment, are essential. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of ankylosing spondylitis on sick leave, presenteeism and unpaid productivity, and estimation of the societal cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Annelies; Brinkhuizen, Tjinta; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée; Severens, Johan L

    2010-06-01

    To describe the influence of ankylosing apondylitis (AS) on sick leave, presenteeism and unpaid work restrictions and to estimate related productivity costs. 142 consecutive and unselected patients with AS under the care of rheumatologists participated in a longitudinal observational study and completed the Health and Labour Questionnaire (HLQ) assessing disease-related sick leave, presenteeism and restrictions in unpaid work over the previous 2 weeks. Logistic regressions explored which explanatory variables were associated with work outcome. Productivity loss was valued in monetary terms. Among 72 patients in paid employment, 12% had sick leave over a period of 2 weeks and 53% experienced an adverse influence of AS on work productivity while at work. Over this period they reported on average of 5.8 h sick leave and 2.4 inefficient working hours, for which they estimated an extra 1.9 h were needed to complete unfinished work. Among all patients (n=137), 71% had experienced restrictions in unpaid work during the previous 2 weeks with 42% needing help for these tasks for an average of 8 h. The annual production costs for the total group were euro1451 (95% CI 425 to 2742) per patient for sick leave, euro967 (95% CI 503 to 1496) to compensate for hours worked inefficiently while at work and euro1930 (95% CI 1404 to 2471) to substitute loss of unpaid work production. Patients with AS not only have substantial sick leave but also experience restrictions while being at work and when performing unpaid tasks. Limitations in physical functioning are strongly associated with work restrictions. Societal costs of formal and informal care are comparable with the costs of sick leave and presenteeism combined.

  12. Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell, Barbara A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishIn this exploratory study, we profile variations in home leaving, homereturning,and home staying behaviour among four ethnocultural groups in Canada -British, Chinese, Indian, and South European. Data collected in a 1999-2000survey of 1,907 young adults (ages 19-35 residing in the Vancouver area areused. Our principal foci are ethnocultural and gendered aspects of home leavingtrajectories, specifically: ages at home leaving and returning, and reasons forhome leaving, home returning and home staying. Special attention is paid toreturners/boomerangers, given an increasing overall trend in home returning inCanada. We find that: (a both ethnocultural origin and gender are importantdeterminants of home leaving trajectory, (b there is a distinct (but far from tidydifference between European-origin and Asian-origin groups in home leavingtrajectory, (c British-Canadians leave home at the youngest ages and Indo-Canadians at the oldest ages, (d the main reason for home leaving isindependence for British-Canadians; schooling for Chinese-Canadians, andmarriage for Indo-Canadians, (e among all four groups, home returners leavehome initially at younger ages and, with the exception of Indo-Canadian youngmen, who typically leave home for school, and (f gender differences in homeleaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than amongpersons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of theindividualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups inCanada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on thetopic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions.FrenchDans cette étude préliminaire, nous donnons le profil de plusieurscomportements relatifs au fait de quitter la maison, d’y retourner et d’y rester dequatre groupes ethnoculturels au Canada, notamment les Britanniques, lesChinois, les Indiens et les ressortissants du sud de l’Europe. On s’est servi

  13. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  15. Leaving home and leaving the state: evidence from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Clark, W.A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Leaving the parental home is an important first step in a long-term housing career. We extend the previous research on this topic by examining the impact of housing market factors on the risks of leaving with or without a partner in the United States. We also re-examine the role of the income of the

  16. [Chemical Constituents from Leaves of Liquidambar formosana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan-yue; Fu, Hui-zheng; Zhou, Guo-ping; Zhong, Rui-jian; Yuan, Hui; Guo, Qing; Yan, Qing-wei

    2014-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Liquidambarformosana. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography on silicagel, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and special analysis. Eight compounds were isolated from the leaves of Liquidambar formosana, whose structures were elucidated as gallic acid (1), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (2), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (3), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoic acid (4) kaempferol (5), 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (6), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-benzoic acid (7) and 3β,23,29-trihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (8). Compounds 1-8 are isolated from the leaves of Liquidambar formosana for the first time.

  17. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality.

  18. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  19. The role of stress in absenteeism: cortisol responsiveness among patients on long-term sick leave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik B Jacobsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1 See whether increased or decreased variation relate to subjective reports of common somatic and psychological symptoms for a population on long-term sick leave; and (2 See if this pattern in variation is correlated with autonomic activation and psychological appraisal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 87 were referred to a 3.5-week return-to-work rehabilitation program, and had been on paid sick leave >8 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or common mental disorders. An extensive survey was completed, addressing socio-demographics, somatic and psychological complaints. In addition, a physician and a psychologist examined the participants, determining baseline heart rate, medication use and SCID-I diagnoses. During the 3.5-week program, the participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. Participants wore heart rate monitors and filled out Visual Analogue Scales during the TSST-G. RESULTS: Our participants presented a low cortisol variation, with mixed model analyses showing a maximal increase in free saliva cortisol of 26% (95% CI, 0.21-0.32. Simultaneously, the increase in heart rate and Visual Analogue Scales was substantial, indicating autonomic and psychological activation consistent with intense stress from the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings are the first description of a blunted cortisol response in a heterogeneous group of patients on long-term sick leave. The results suggest lack of cortisol reactivity as a possible biological link involved in the pathway between stress, sustained activation and long-term sick leave.

  20. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  1. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...) of FMLA leave annually to act as a caregiver for a veteran who is undergoing treatment for a serious... exigency leave provision was effective upon enactment. As to the comments regarding the treatment of leave... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 25...

  2. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... treatment for a serious injury or illness (``military caregiver leave''). Such leave can be taken to provide... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 31... 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76, RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-3 - Wages paid through an agent, fiduciary, or other person on behalf of two or more employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages paid through an agent, fiduciary, or other person on behalf of two or more employers. 31.3402(g)-3 Section 31.3402(g)-3 Internal Revenue... Source § 31.3402(g)-3 Wages paid through an agent, fiduciary, or other person on behalf of two or more...

  4. Well-Being, Involvement in Paid Work and Division of Child-Care in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M. B.; Hwang, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and…

  5. The benefits of paid employment among persons with common mental health problems: evidence for the selection and causation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan Jw; Burdorf, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of paid employment on self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, and happiness among previously unemployed persons with common mental health problems, and (ii) determine whether there are educational inequalities in these effects. Methods A quasi-experimental study was performed with a two-year follow-up period among unemployed persons with mental health problems. Eligible participants were identified at the social services departments of five cities in The Netherlands when being diagnosed with a common mental disorder, primarily depression and anxiety disorders, in the past 12 months by a physician (N=749). Employment status (defined as paid employment for ≥12 hours/week), mental health [Short Form 12 (SF-12)], physical health (SF-12), self-esteem, mastery, and happiness were measured at baseline, after 12 months and 24 months. The repeated-measurement longitudinal data were analyzed using a hybrid method, combining fixed and random effects. The regression coefficient was decomposed into between- and within-individual associations, respectively. Results The between-individuals associations showed that persons working ≥12 hours per week reported better mental health (b=26.7, SE 5.1), mastery (b=2.7, SE 0.6), self-esteem (b=5.7, SE 1.1), physical health (b=14.6, SE 5.6) and happiness (OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.3-26.4). The within-individual associations showed that entering paid employment for ≥12 hours per week resulted in better mental health (b=16.3, SE 3.4), mastery (b=1.7, SE 0.4), self-esteem (b=3.4, SE 0.7), physical health (b=9.8, SE 2.9), and happiness (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.9). Among intermediate- and high-educated persons, entering paid employment had significantly larger effect on mental health than among low-educated persons. Conclusions This study provides evidence that entering paid employment has a positive impact on self-reported health; thus work should be considered as an important

  6. Epicuticular waxes and glaucousness of Encephalartos leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osborne, R; Stevens, JF

    The epicuticular leaf waxes from four glaucous and four non-glaucous species of Encephalartos were examined by GC-mass spectrometry and SEM techniques. The four glaucous-leaved species, E. horridus, E. lehmannii, E. princeps and E. trispinosus, all occurring in xeric conditions in the Eastern Cape

  7. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  8. Neuropharmacological evaluation of Annona senegalensis leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... alkaloids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, flavonoids and glycosides; while F7 tested positive for flavonoids. These findings suggest that leaves of A. senegalensis possess anticonvulsant, central depressant and anxiolytic-like properties attributable to flavonoids. Keywords: Annona senegalensis, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, ...

  9. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. ... This mechanism is an immunological response following bacterial infection and is ... inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are mainly used in the treatment of pain and ...

  10. Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves: its chemical compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the plant exhibited low 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 615.14 μg/ml. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization of n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of T. daniellii leaves identified , thirteen and fifteen compounds, with ...

  11. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.532 Annual leave. The Job Corps... center and end on the date of his or her scheduled arrival home or at a place of employment. (b) Annual...

  12. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  13. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections,

  14. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  15. [Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L

    1991-01-01

    Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods.

  16. Cadmium variability in leaves of a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Meirvenne, M. Van; Lust, N

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Plant analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate the pollution level. However, leaf sampling is complicated because of the high variability within the crown. To investigate the variability of cadmium (Cd) in the leaves of a tree, we sampled one Salix fragilis L. at 292 locations, each with a

  17. (annonaceae) leaves-a potential antimalarial drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia species are widely available in West Africa. Xylopia parviflora (Benth) plant is used in folk medicine in the management of a number of ailments, one of these is the use of the leaves in the treatment of malaria fever for which a number of patients have reported its beneficial effects. This study was designed to ...

  18. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  19. Kinetics of Thermal Inactivation of Peroxidase and Color Degradation of African Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawire, Michael; Oey, Indrawati; Mathooko, Francis M; Njoroge, Charles K; Shitanda, Douglas; Hendrickx, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea leaves form an important part of the diet for many Kenyans, and they are normally consumed after a lengthy cooking process leading to the inactivation of peroxidase (POD) that could be used as an indicator for the potential shelf life of the vegetables. However, color degradation can simultaneously occur, leading to poor consumer acceptance of the product. The kinetics of POD in situ thermal (for thermal treatments in the range of 75 to 100 °C/120 min) inactivation showed a biphasic first-order model, with Arrhenius temperature dependence of the rate constant. The kinetic parameters using a reference temperature (Tref ) of 80 °C were determined for both the heat-labile phase (kref = 11.52 ± 0.95 × 10(-2) min(-1) and Ea of 109.67 ± 6.20 kJ/mol) and the heat-stable isoenzyme fraction (kref = 0.29 ± 0.07 × 10(-2) min(-1) and Ea of 256.93 ± 15.27 kJ/mol). Color degradation (L*, a*, and b* value) during thermal treatment was investigated, in particular as the "a*" value (the value of green color). Thermal degradation (thermal treatments between 55 and 80 °C per 90 min) of the green color of the leaves followed a fractional conversion model and the temperature dependence of the inactivation rate constant can be described using the Arrhenius law. The kinetic parameters using a reference temperature (TrefC = 70 °C) were determined as krefC = 13.53 ± 0.01 × 10(-2) min(-1) and EaC = 88.78 ± 3.21 kJ/mol. The results indicate that severe inactivation of POD (as an indicator for improved shelf life of the cooked vegetables) is accompanied by severe color degradation and that conventional cooking methods (typically 10 min/100 °C) lead to a high residual POD activity suggesting a limited shelf life of the cooked vegetables. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  1. From paid work to volunteerism during one case of natural disaster: interacting micro and macro level transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Jennifer Colleen

    2013-01-01

    To examine micro and macro influences on transitions from paid work to volunteerism. Narrative life stories from the people of Chile after a natural disaster. Personal reflection on lived experiences in work transitions and theoretical concepts in occupational transitions. Tensions at the micro and macro levels influence transitions and decisions to make significant transitions in work. Unexpected and unanticipated work transitions open the door to personal reflection and in this case an individual's sense of perceived inaction on the institutional level directed action on the individual level. Thus, confirming suggestion that a dialectical relationship of mutual influence exists between micro and macro level occupational transitions when unanticipated major life and work transitions transpire.

  2. [Labor regularization of health workers paid with funds from the Mexican System for Social Protection in Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Aguilar-Martínez, Matilde Elizabeth; Bejarano-Arias, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The process of regularization of workers paid by the Social Protection Health System of Mexico is described and analyzed. Primary and secondary data collected by the external evaluation of the Mexican System for Social Protection in Health in 2009 were used. The regularization clearly improved the labor conditions of workers contracted by the system but a broader systemic implication of regularization does not seem to be necessarily positive. It is important to consider the need to guarantee that this type of changes in the contractual conditions of workers benefit all actors, particularly the insured population.

  3. Women's Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different "reinforcer patterns," reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals' needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women's decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women's decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of recognition

  4. Timing matters: length of leave and working mothers' daily reentry regrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S; Ritter, Johannes O

    2012-11-01

    Dealing with developmental tasks in work and family domains is an important challenge for young and middle-aged adults. We investigated a transition that has evolved into a normative task for women, namely, the retransition back to paid work following maternity leave. In a diary study with 149 mothers who had just returned to work, we examined the daily experienced regrets concerning this return. In addition to personal resources (i.e., emotional stability, feeling prepared for the transition) and financial requirements needed to return to work, daily experienced family stress predicted decisional regrets. Moreover, our results suggest that leave length is related to psychological resilience in the face of day-to-day stress experiences: Late returners reported fewer regrets in general and were unaffected by daily family stress. Return-to-work regrets, in turn, were predictive of withdrawal intentions. This underlines the relevancy of the timing of the transition back to work in terms of successful development during this life phase.

  5. Well-being, involvement in paid work and division of child-care in parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M B; Hwang, C P

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and child-care. Mothers and fathers of 179 children with ID and 196 typically developing children answered mailed surveys on their involvement in paid work, child-care tasks and well-being. Only two-parent families were included. The results show main effects for gender of the parent and presence of a child with ID on involvement in paid work and well-being. Interaction effects indicate that mothers of children with ID are more affected than fathers in their participation in paid work and well-being. A positive relation between level of participation in paid work and well-being was found for both mothers and fathers. No difference in division of child-care tasks was found between families of children with ID and control families. Differences in involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with ID only explained 5% of the variance in the difference between mothers' and fathers' well-being. Families with children with ID differ from control families in that the parents are less involved in paid work and have lower levels of well-being. A positive relation between involvement in paid work and well-being was found.

  6. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  7. The Antidiabetic Potential Of Jatropha tanjorensis Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Southwest Nigeria, infusion of Jatropha tanjorensisi leaves is taken orally for the treatment of diabetic symptoms. The hypoglycemic effect of EtOH/H2O (1:1) leaf extract was evaluated in fasted and glucose-loaded rats at the doses of 1 and 2g/kg in-vivo, while three fractions of the extract were assessed for their ...

  8. Triterpenoids from the leaves of Toona ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing; He, Hong-Ping; Li, Shi-Fei; Geng, Zhao-Liang; Fang, Xin; Di, Ying-Tong; Li, Shun-Lin; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2010-06-01

    One new limonoid, toonaciliatone A (1), and one new tirucallane-type triterpenoid, toonaciliatine A (4), along with three known compounds, methyl-3beta-acetoxy-1-oxomelic-14(15)-enate (2), perforin A (3), and cholest-14-ene-3,7,24,25-tetrol-21,23-epoxy-21-methoxy-4,4,8-trimethyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenoate) (5), were isolated from the leaves of Toona ciliata. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic methods.

  9. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  10. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  11. The academic effects of after-school paid and unpaid work among 14-year-old students in TIMSS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David; Pong, Suet-Ling

    2009-01-01

    What it means to be a 'student' varies within and between countries. Apart from the wide variety of school types and school quality that is experienced by young people, there also is, accompanying increased rates of school participation, a growing population of students who work part-time. The theoretical and actual consequences of student work have long been in dispute. This article reformulates the dispute as an empirical question that can be addressed using cross-national testing data and student background information from the Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). Drawing information from 20 countries with distinctive proportions of students who reported paid and unpaid work, this study first compares their academic achievement in each country. Next, regression analysis is used to control for students' home resources, and estimates are made of the effects of work and the differences in these effects cross-nationally. Finally, hierarchical linear models are estimated in each country so as to control for school effects, and to take into account the fact that working students may be clustered in lower-achieving schools. The results show that work after school, whether paid or unpaid, never positively affects academic achievement. However, after controlling for home resources and school effects, work negatively affects achievement only in certain countries. The article concludes with a discussion of the ways to interpret international differences in the effect of students' work.

  12. Iranian kidney market in limbo: a commentary on "The ambiguous lessons of the Iranian model of paid living kidney donation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soofi, Hojjat

    2016-06-01

    Sigrid Fry-Revere's The Kidney Sellers: A Journey of Discovery in Iran, an allegedly first-hand examination of the Iranian paid kidney donation model, has been criticized by Koplin in an essay formerly published in the Monash Bioethics Review. Koplin especially challenges Fry-Revere's claim that financially compensating kidney vendors might facilitate altruistic kidney donation. The current situation in Iran, according to Koplin, suggests that the market model has undermined altruistic donation. On this point, this commentary tries to show that healthcare policymakers in Iran no longer see the Iranian paid kidney donation model as a sustainable and ethically justifiable status quo. Briefly touching on the criticisms that have been made even by some positive commentators of the Iranian model, this commentary aims to call attention to the fact that the current dynamic within healthcare policymaking in Iran seeks primarily to decrease its reliance on the organ market instead of revising and modifying it. This complicates the plausibility of any kind of extrapolation, replication or extracting empirical support from the Iranian model to create organ markets in other countries, for example, as Fry-Revere suggests to conduct a trial of a financially incentivized kidney donation scheme in the US. The conclusion is that the Iranian healthcare system should tackle the organ shortage through increasing altruistic living and postmortem kidney donations. This might also provide, finally, a space for conducting extensive and long-term follow-up studies on well-being, satisfaction and social integration of Iranian kidney vendors.

  13. The Greek concept of egkíklios paideía and its diffusion in the Hellenistic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Spinelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the concept of egkíklios paideía, used in ancient Greece to define the children’s (paidós school term (egkíklios. The goals of the syllabus used to be, on the one hand, enabling the children to use the intellect, and, on the other hand, professional, social and human amendment. The paper uses two sources. First, the ancient philosophers. Second, other educational conceptions spread all over the Greek civilization in the Hellenistic age. Concerning the ancient philosophers, the paper analyzes a single dictum attributed to three different philosophers: Gorgias, Aristippus and Bion. The subject of the dictum is a comparison between, on the one hand, philosophy and Penelope, and, on the other hand, the other disciplines of the syllabus and Penelope’s servants. Concerning the Hellenistic diffusion, the paper deals with Filo, Quintilian and Clement of Alexandria. Regarding these writers, the paper aims to show an overturn: among the Greeks, philosophy used to be the master (the déspoina; later, it became the servant (the doulís

  14. Public expenditure costs of carers leaving employment in England, 2015/2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Linda; King, Derek; Brimblecombe, Nicola; Knapp, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In the context of global population ageing, the reconciliation of employment and unpaid caring is becoming an important social issue. The estimation of the public expenditure costs of carers leaving employment is a valuable measure that is of considerable interest to policy makers. In 2012, the Personal Social Services Research Unit estimated that the public expenditure costs of unpaid carers leaving employment in England were approximately £1.3 billion a year, based on the costs of Carer's Allowance and lost tax revenues on forgone incomes. However, this figure was known to be an underestimate partly because it did not include other key benefits that carers who have given up work to care may receive. This paper presents a new estimate of the public expenditure costs of carers leaving employment. Key sources of information are the 2009/2010 Survey of Carers in Households, 2011 Census and 2015/2016 costs data. As well as Carer's Allowance, the estimate also now includes the costs of other benefits that carers leaving work may receive, namely, Income Support and Housing Benefit. The results show that the estimated numbers of carers who have left employment because of caring have increased from approximately 315,000 to 345,000. Due mainly to the inclusion of a wider range of benefits, the public expenditure costs of carers leaving employment in England are now estimated at £2.9 billion a year. The new estimate comprises £1.7 billion in social security benefits paid to people who have left their jobs because of unpaid caring, plus another £1.2 billion in taxes forgone on this group's lost earnings. The paper concludes that, if there was greater public investment in social care, such as "replacement care" to support carers in employment, and fewer carers then left employment, public spending on benefits would be lower and revenues from taxation would be higher. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A method for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols and phytosterol esters in tobacco leaves using non aqueous reversed phase chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Naoyuki

    2014-05-02

    While numerous analytical methods for phytosterols have been reported, the similar polarity and large molecules of phytosterol esters have made the methods lengthy and complicated. For this reason, an analytical method that could completely separate phytosterol esters including the higher fatty acids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid in addition to phytosterols without preliminary separation was developed. The separation was accomplished by non-aqueous reversed phase chromatography technique using only acetone and acetonitrile. An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry detector configured at selected ion monitoring mode was hyphenated with the separation system to detect phytosterols and phytosterol esters. Twenty-four types of these were consequently separated and then identified with their authentic components. The calibration curve was drawn in the range of about 5 to 25,000 ng/mL with a regression coefficient over 0.999. The limit of detection and limit of quantification, respectively, ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 ng/mL and from 3.0 to 11.0 ng/mL. Recovery rates ranged from 80 to 120%. The quantification results were subjected to statistical analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, and were used to determine the differences in the amounts of phytosterols and phytosterol esters across tobacco leaves. The newly developed method succeeded in clarifying the whole composition of phytosterols and phytosterol esters in tobacco leaves and in explaining compositional differences across the variety of tobacco leaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. WP 22 - A panel data analysis of the effects of wages, standard hours and unionisation on paid overtime work in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan Kalwij; Gregory, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the basic wage rate, standard working hours and unionisation on paid overtime work in Britain using individual-level data from the New Earnings Survey over the period 1975-2001. For this purpose we estimate a panel data model. We show that to obtain consistent estimates it is important to allow for both the censoring of paid overtime hours at zero and for correlations between the explanatory variables and unobserved individual specific effects. The main empi...

  17. Paid staff or volunteers - does it make a difference? The impact of staffing on child outcomes for children attending community-based programmes in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mark; Sherr, Lorraine; Macedo, Ana; Hunt, Xanthe; Skeen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Globally, and in low and middle income countries (LMIC) specifically, there is a critical shortage of workers. The use of volunteers to support such care delivery systems has been examined, there is scant literature on the impact of volunteers on child outcome in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected communities. To examine the differential impact of paid versus volunteer workforce in Community Based Organisations (CBOs) providing care to children and families affected by the HIV epidemic in South Africa and Malawi on child outcomes over time. This study compared child outcomes for 989 consecutive children attending CBOs (0.7% refusal) at baseline and 854 at follow-up (86.3% response rate). Children attending CBOs with paid staff had higher self-esteem, fewer emotional/behavioural problems and less perceived stigma. Likewise, children attending CBOs with paid staff had fewer educational risks, and 20 heightened cognitive performance, and the digit-span memory test. After controlling for outcome at baseline, gender, age, HIV status, and disability, attending a CBO with paid staff remained a significant independent predictor of higher self-esteem scores, less perceived stigma, as well as fewer educational risks and better performance on the drawing test. We found no associations between CBO attendance - paid or volunteer - and children's depressive and trauma symptoms. Our findings show that in order to most optimally impact on child outcome 30 community-based workers (CBWs) should ideally be paid with trained staff. Specialised input for more severe child difficulties is needed.

  18. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts.

  19. Studies on some Pharmacognostic profiles of Cassia tora Linn. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, T K; Mandal, S C; Saha, B P; Pal, M

    2000-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment wit different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical study on different tracts of the leaves were also performed.

  20. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States (less language training) and the actual days overseas beginning on the date of departure from the.... (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15 calendar days in any calendar year may be... such military leave has been approved in advance by the cognizant Mission Director or Assistant...

  1. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  2. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of...

  3. Maternity Leave Provisions for Classroom Teachers in Larger School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Maternity leave provisions for classroom teachers in 129 school systems having enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. Tables contain information on compulsory absence prior to anticipated date of birth and earliest permissible return from maternity leaves. Brief descriptions of maternity leave practices are…

  4. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  5. 5 CFR 630.1206 - Notice of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... medical treatment, the employee shall provide notice to the agency of his or her intention to take leave... placement or planned medical treatment requires leave to begin within 30 calendar days, the employee shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of leave. 630.1206 Section 630...

  6. Antihistamine from Tragia involucrata L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagar Yadav, Sangilimuthu; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar; Jabamalai Raj, Anitha; Subban, Ravi

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic antihistamine drugs cause various adverse effects to overcome these problems with natural phytomedicine or phytoconstituents. Tragia involucrata leaves were extracted with soxhlet apparatus and fractionated with column chromatography the homogenized fractions were monitored with thin layer chromatography (TLC) and characterized by using UV-visible, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectral studies. Isolated compounds were screened their antihistamine activity on ileum preparation, bronchoconstriction and triple response on histamine-induced guinea pig. Antihistamine 5-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidin-2-one has been isolated and characterized from the leaves of Tragia involucrata L. A promising muscle relaxant, bronchorelaxant and anti-allergic effect of 5-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidin-2-one was observed in histamine-induced guinea pig and found to be 55.54±2.78% protection at the dose level of 12.5 mg/kg in bronchoconstriction effect and 49.05±2.45% protection in triple response. These findings were confirmed by in silico molecular docking also against histamine H1 receptor compared with chlorpheniramine maleate and mepyramine. This shows that the 5-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine-2-one possess good inhibitory effect on histamine-induced guinea pig. The muscle relaxant, bronchodilating and anti-allergic potency of 5-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidin-2-one has been discussed in context with its probable profile as an anti-asthmatic agent from T. involucrata L. leaves. We can conclude that isolated 5-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidin-2-one from T. involucrata L. has potent antihistamine agent on histamine-induced guinea pig.

  7. Antioxidant activities of Barringtonia racemosa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Syafizan, R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Proximate analysis of Barringtonia racemosa (putat leaves was carried out and total phenolic content (TPC was measured using total phenolic assay, also known as the Folin Ciocalteu (FC assay. Antioxidant activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay; the free radical scavenging capacity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH assay. Proximate analysis showed that the leaves contained 70.52% moisture, 0.96% ash, 2.54% protein, 0.26% fat, 1.38% crude fiber, and 25.71% carbohydrates. The TPC amount exhibited by the methanolic extract was 1585.20±25.54 mg GAE/100 g sample, which was higher compared with the aqueous plant extract with 1314.12±66.19 mg GAE/100 g (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 difference in terms of the flavonoid content was observed between the extracts obtained by methanolic and aqueous extraction. Total condensed tannin content showed significant (p<0.05 difference between the methanolic and the aqueous extracts, which were 33.11±0.61 mg CE/100 g and 13.38±0.87 mg CE/100 g, respectively. Methanolic extract of Barringtonia racemosa leaves showed a higher DPPH scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. FRAP value for the methanolic extract of the sample was higher than the aqueous extract, with a significant difference (p<0.05. Results of this study will provide a platform for the future paradigm of these potential natural sources of antioxidants in food and nutraceutical applications.

  8. Negotiating the boundary between paid and unpaid hospice workers: a qualitative study of how hospice volunteers understand their work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-Richards, Sarah E; Arthur, Antony

    2012-12-01

    To explore the nurse-volunteer relationship in a day hospice. Underpinned by an interpretive approach, face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 day hospice volunteers. The nature and dynamics of the relationship between nursing staff and volunteers within the day hospice were characterized by increasing formality and changes in the division of labor, which challenged smooth working relationships. Volunteers see their role as becoming increasingly formalized partly as a response to increasing administrative demands on hospice nurses. The willingness of volunteers to take on new roles is variable. For volunteers to feel secure and valued and working relationships to remain strong, the process of how boundaries between paid and unpaid workers are negotiated needs to be transparent.

  9. Flavones from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Daniel F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavones, 5 -hydroxy -7,5' -dimethoxy -3',4' -methylenedioxyflavone and 5 -hydroxy -7,3',5' -trimethoxy -4' -(3,3 -dimethylallyloxy flavone, as well as three known flavones: 5,6,7,3',4',5' -hexamethoxyflavone, 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4' -trimethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone and 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4',5' -tetramethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone were isolated from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data.

  10. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz

    2005-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylopyranoside. The...

  11. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz; HASAN, Aurangzeb

    2014-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylo...

  12. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  13. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15...... Danish men and 8 employers, shows that many men’s ideas about fatherhood and family responsibility tend to revolve around such aspects as close contact and involvement with children. However, it seems that men do not acknowledge fully the significance of gender for their decisions concerning the child...

  14. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A.K.; Rai, S.P.; Datta, A.K.; Das, C.R.; Ghosh, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  15. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  16. What Firms Leave Multi-Stakeholder Initiatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Larsen, Mathias Lund; Gwozdz, Wencke

    This study analyzes which firms leave multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) for corporate social responsibility. Based on an analysis of all active and delisted participants from the UN Global Compact between 2000 and 2015 (n= 15,853), we find that SMEs are more likely to be delisted than larger...... and publicly-listed firms; that early adopters face a higher risk of being delisted; and that the presence of a local network in a country reduces the likelihood of being delisted. We theorize that MSIs face a participant self-selection bias over time and that local networks enable legitimacy spillover effects...

  17. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an estimate of the treatment schedule of such appointments; (7) If an employee requests leave on an... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave). 825.310 Section 825.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...

  18. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  19. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  1. Enhancing Water Evaporation with Floating Synthetic Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, Jonathan; Vieitez, Joshua; Berrier, Austin; Roseveare, Matthew; Shi, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    When a wetted nanoporous medium is exposed to a subsaturated ambient environment, the water menisci assume a concave curvature to achieve a negative pressure. This negative water pressure is required to balance the mismatch in water activity across the water-air interface to achieve local equilibrium. Here, we show that the diffusive evaporation rate of water can be greatly modulated by floating a nanoporous synthetic leaf at the water's free interface. For high ambient humidities, adding the leaf serves to enhance the evaporation rate, presumably by virtue of the menisci enhancing the effective liquid-vapor surface area. For low humidities, the menisci cannot achieve a local equilibrium and retreat partway into the leaf, which increases the local humidity directly above the menisci. In light of these two effects, we find the surprising result that leaves exposed to an ambient humidity of 90 percent can evaporate water at the same rate as leaves exposed to only 50 percent humidity. These findings have implications for using synthetic trees to enhance steam generation or water harvesting. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1653631).

  2. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  3. Effectiveness of a Minimal Intervention for Stress-related mental disorders with Sick leave (MISS; study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial in general practice [ISRCTN43779641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Marwijk Harm WJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aims of this paper are to describe the setting and design of a Minimal Intervention in general practice for Stress-related mental disorders in patients on Sick leave (MISS, as well as to ascertain the study complies with the requirements for a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT. The potential adverse consequences of sick leave due to Stress-related Mental Disorders (SMDs are extensive, but often not recognised. Since most people having SMDs with sick leave consult their general practitioner (GP at an early stage, a tailored intervention given by GPs is justified. We provide a detailed description of the MISS; that is more accurate assessment, education, advice and monitoring to treat SMDs in patients on sick leave. Our hypothesis is that the MISS will be more effective compared to the usual care, in reducing days of sick leave of these patients. Methods The design is a pragmatic RCT. Randomisation is at the level of GPs. They received the MISS-training versus no training, in order to compare the MISS vs. usual care at patient level. Enrolment of patients took place after screening in the source population, that comprised 20–60 year old primary care attendees. Inclusion criteria were: moderately elevated distress levels, having a paid job and sick leave for no longer than three months. There is a one year follow up. The primary outcome measure is lasting full return to work. Reduction of SMD- symptoms is one of the secondary outcome measures. Forty-six GPs and 433 patients agreed to participate. Discussion In our study design, attention is given to the practical application of the requirements for a pragmatic trial. The results of this cluster RCT will add to the evidence about treatment options in general practice for SMDs in patients on sick leave, and might contribute to a new and appropriate guideline. These results will be available at the end of 2006.

  4. 59 - 62 lawan paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    crops) release some phytotoxins into soil which adversely affect the germination and yield of crops. (Kaletha et al., 1996; Kumar et al., 2006). Such type of tree crop interactions called phytochemical ecology/ecological biochemistry. Eucalyptus species belongs to the family. Myraceae, mostly found in tropical regions and is a.

  5. 59 - 62 lawan paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Accepted: May, 2011. ISSN 2006 - 6996. EFFECTS OF ALLELOCHEMICALS OF SOME EUCALYPTUS SPECIES ON. GERMINATION AND RADICLE GROWTH OF ..... Oyun, M. B. (2006): Allelopathic potentialities of Gliricidia sepium and Acacia auriculiformis on the germination and seedling vigour of maize (Zea mays L.).

  6. 48 - 51 Falaki paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    increasing consumption and demand for wheat in. Nigeria was largely due to increase and expansion in bread and pasta industries, and for the manufacture of crackers, noodles etc. Presently, domestic wheat demand in the country is far more than local production; consequently 90-95% of wheat consumed is imported ...

  7. 26 - 31 Bello paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    (Psidium guajava) and bush mango (Irvingia gabonnensis) fruits were studied. Catechol at concentration of 20 mM was used as a ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of PPO. Fruits were sliced horizontally into ... suspension was centrifuged at 10000rpm for 30 minutes at 40C, and the homogenate contained the.

  8. 56 - 58 Jimoh paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    of these elements in beverages, water, food, plant and soil is thus of outmost importance and is currently the subject of studies by various reasearchers (Saud and AL-Oud,2003; WHO,1998a,b). The objective of this work was to determine the mineral composition of different sorghum cultivars. MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  9. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  10. Effects of preventive versus "on-demand" nutritional support on paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status during PEG-interferon-containing treatment for hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Ellen J; van Meer, Suzanne; van Hoek, Bart; van Soest, Hanneke; van Nieuwkerk, Karin M J; Arends, Joop E; Siersema, Peter D; van Erpecum, Karel J

    2016-04-01

    Deterioration of nutritional status during PEG-interferon containing therapy for chronic hepatitis C can be ameliorated by preventive nutritional support. We aimed to explore whether such support also affects paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status. In this prospective randomized controlled trial (J Hepatol 2012;57:1069-75), 53 patients with chronic hepatitis C had been allocated to "on demand" support (n=26: nutritional intervention if weight loss>5%) or preventive support (n=27: regular dietary advice plus energy- and protein-rich evening snack) during PEG-interferon-containing therapy. Paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status were evaluated at baseline, after 24 and (if applicable) after 48 weeks of treatment. At baseline, 46% of patients performed paid labour and 62% performed some kind of physical exercise. Furthermore, most patients were able to carry out normal activity with only minor symptoms of disease (mean Karnofsky performance score: 94). Decreases of paid labour productivity (-21% vs. -70%, P=0.003), physical exercise activity (-43% vs. -87%, P=0.005) and Karnofsky performance scores (-12% vs. -24%, Pnutritional support were even more pronounced after 48 weeks. Preventive nutritional support markedly ameliorates decreases of paid labour productivity, physical exercise and performance status during PEG-interferon-containing treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght of mater......We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  12. Housework, paid work and psychiatric symptoms Trabalho doméstico, trabalho assalariado e sintomas psiquiátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S Santana

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that work burden, the simultaneous engagement in paid work and unpaid family housework, is a potential risk factor for psychiatric symptoms among women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 460 women randomly selected from a poor area of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Women between 18 to 70 years old, who reported having a paid occupation or were involved in unpaid domestic activities for their families, were eligible. Work burden-related variables were defined as: a double work shift, i.e., simultaneous engagement in a paid job plus unpaid housework; and b daily working time. Psychiatric symptoms were collected through a validated questionnaire, the QMPA. RESULTS: Positive, statistically significant associations between high (>7 symptoms QMPA scores and either double work shift (prevalence ratio -- PR=2.04, 95% confidence interval -- CI: 1.16, 2.29 or more than 10 hours of daily work time (PR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.96, 3.43 were found after adjustment for age, marital status and number of pre-school children. CONCLUSIONS: Major correlates of high QMPA scores are work burden variables. Being married or having pre-school children are also associated with high QMPA scores only when associated with work burden.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a hipótese de que a dupla carga de trabalho é um fator de risco potencial para sintomas psiquiátricos em mulheres. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 460 mulheres aleatoriamente selecionadas de uma área pobre da cidade de Salvador, BA, Brasil. Foram selecionadas mulheres entre 18 e 70 anos de idade, que referiram ter ocupação paga ou estar envolvidas com trabalho doméstico não remunerado para as suas famílias. A sobrecarga de trabalho foi analisada como: a dupla jornada de trabalho, i.e., envolvimento simultâneo em trabalho pago e trabalho não pago para a família; e b duração da jornada diária total de trabalho. Os sintomas psiquiátricos foram registrados

  13. THE JOY SAD TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita de Nobrega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study was established with the purpose of reflecting on the Sorrowful Joy Leave the Country, ie relate the phenomenon of migration toward Venezuelans abroad, especially destined to the United States. Regarding the research methodology used was qualitative in nature and implemented the method was phenomenological, which took into account the views of some Venezuelans who are abroad. Among the most important findings: that migration in the world is not a new phenomenon , however , migration in Venezuela began slowly in the eighties , but over time has grown significantly , the people who migrate do so in search of better pay and conditions for quality of life. In addition to the above, hundreds of Venezuelans have gone abroad without the possibility of return in the short or medium term the country, contributing to the deterioration of economic development in Venezuela.

  14. Xyloglucan from the leaves of Hymenaea courbaril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, A P; Vargas-Rechia, C G; Reicher, F

    2001-10-01

    A fucosylated xyloglucan was isolated from the leaves of Hymenaea courbaril by alkaline extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The isolated polysaccharide showed Glc:Xyl:Gal:Fuc in molar ratio of 8:5:2.5:1 and (D)(25) +40.5 degrees. Composition and linkage analyses, supported by NMR spectroscopic measurements, showed that the polysaccharide has a glucan backbone which is highly substituted at O-6 with D-xylopyranose residues, about a half of which are substituted at O-2 by D-galactopyranosyl units. Some of the galactose residues are further substituted by L-fucopyranose at O-2. The M(r), as determined by HPSEC, was 49,500.

  15. Phytochemical study of Juglans regia L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindl, Sebastian; Kraus, Birgit; Heilmann, Jörg

    2017-12-01

    A methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves was fractioned by various chromatographic techniques yielding a total of 40 metabolites belonging to megastigmane, tetralone, phenylpropanoid, neolignane and juglone glycosides. Ten unknown megastigmane glucoside derivatives (juglanionosides A-K, 1-10) and six unknown tetralone glucoside derivatives (juglanosides J-O, 11-16) together with 24 known compounds - among them 16 described for the first time in Juglans - were isolated. As characteristic structural feature, the previously undescribed compounds showed acylation of the sugar units with sinapic, ferulic, coumaric, benzoic or salicylic acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HRESIMS as well as CD spectroscopy. Absolute stereochemistry was revealed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and comparison of CD and polarimetric data to literature values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  17. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, A. A. M.

    2004-02-01

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  18. Take It, Leave It, Fold It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the volume sets the tone for a reading experience of Federman's works. Since the early 60s, Raymond Federman has been one of the most important American writers. In his highly experimental fictions, in works that bear such titles as Take It or Leave It, Double or Nothing......, and The Twofold Vibrations, he has explored cultural and personal memory, invented intricate narrative strategies, and above all has given readers an experience that exceeds the ordinary. Creating situations that make one really think and really laugh is a tall order for any writer. But Federman did it. He is one...... consolidated, but also vis-à-vis the kind of literary history that allows readers to come close to writers and thus engage in a 'communal' act of writing themselves. Put it differently, we read Federman to write about him as he writes about us through his own experiences....

  19. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  20. Migrant women’s employment in paid reproductive work through the crisis: the case of Italy (2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Di Bartolomeo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paid reproductive work, especially in the case of cleaning and home-care for elderly people, is an important sector for foreign women in Italy. For this reason, since the beginning of the current economic crisis, scholars have wondered about the impact of the recession on migrant domestic workers. They have looked particularly at possible competition with Italian women entering the sector for lack of better alternatives. Our paper takes this discussion a step further by assessing the overall changes affecting migrant women in the Italian labour market, 2007-2012. We will look at how their position has been transformed, by taking both an ethnic perspective, in relation to Italian women, and a gender perspective, in relation to migrant men. By way of a conclusion, the argument will be made that there is a substantial lack of competition between Italian and foreign women in the care and domestic sector due to differences in their earnings, hours of work and activities.

  1. Comparison of compensation paid scientists and engineers in research and development. DOE national survey of compensation. 1977 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-03-01

    This study compares the characteristics and compensation of DOE contractor-operated laboratories with those reported in the ''1977 National Survey of Compensation Paid Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development Activities''. The report forms and procedures used in the National Survey were used by DOE Laboratories for their participation in the National Survey. The data are as of September 1, 1977, for educational institutions and August 1, 1977, for all other participants. Total survey representation decreased again this year, and industry participation continued to lead Survey representation. The number of scientists and engineers in the survey decreased by 2,206 employees; 5,243 of this decrease occurred in Federal Labs, while employment at DOE Labs increased 1,843. Characteristics such as salary levels, degree levels, maturity, etc., of DOE laboratories are compared with National Survey patterns. In addition to statistical data for 1977, significant differences from last year's Survey are presented for comparative analysis. 20 figures, 16 tables. (RWR)

  2. Relationship between price paid for off-trade alcohol, alcohol consumption and income in England: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mike J; Parry, Alexander M H; Weston, Adam R W; Seretis, Dionysis; Zauter-Tutt, Maria; Hussain, Abrar; Mostajabi, Pardis; Sanatinia, Rahil; North, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the potential impact of an increase in the minimum price per unit of alcohol to 50 pence ($0.78), we examined drinking patterns and household incomes of people who purchase alcohol in England at above and below this price. Cross-sectional survey of 515 members of the public in seven towns and cities in the south of England. The primary outcome was whether the participant had purchased alcohol at price paid per unit of alcohol was 53.1 pence (range 16.4-297.0 pence). Those buying alcohol at price. The odds ratio (OR) of a person on low income with high-risk drinking purchasing alcohol at price was 0.51 (95% CI = 0.30-0.87) compared with all other participants. These data suggest that an increase in the minimum price of alcohol to 50 pence price per unit is only likely to disproportionately affect people on low incomes if their alcohol consumption is excessive.

  3. Developing Social Capital In ‘Learning Borderlands’: Has the Federal Government's budget delivered for low-paid Australian workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree Keating

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget confirmed generous funding for language, literacy and numeracy programs as well as skills recognition and training for older workers as part of a strategy to upgrade workforce skills. In considering possible responses to the announcement, many Australian adult education theorists and practitioners weighed up the contexts in which such programs could build the resources and increase the options of vulnerable workers. One such group of workers, retrenched factory workers, have benefitted from participation in union-run, integrated post-retrenchment programs, which have incorporated access to language, literacy and numeracy as well as vocational education and training programs. Such programs can build on the existing social capital amongst close-knit groups of workers as they develop the confidence to transform their work identities. This article draws on results from a study with a group of retrenched textile workers who accessed broad-based post-retrenchment support and subsequently participated in a high number of vocational education and training (VET courses before finding ongoing employment. The study suggests that VET participation plays a limited role in broadening the employment opportunities for retrenched factory workers who move into low-paid occupations. Whilst VET participation alongside other factors supported entry into some occupations, it played no role in supporting most workers in their transitions into non-manufacturing jobs.

  4. The influence of psychiatric morbidity on return to paid work after stroke in younger adults: the Auckland Regional Community Stroke (ARCOS) Study, 2002 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozier, Nick; Hackett, Maree L; Parag, Varsha; Anderson, Craig S

    2008-05-01

    Few data exist on the determinants of return to paid work after stroke, yet participation in employment is vital to a person's mental well-being and role in society. This study aimed to determine the frequency and determinants of return to work, in particular the effect of early psychiatric morbidity, in a population-based study of stroke survivors. The third Auckland Regional Community Stroke (ARCOS) study was a prospective, population-based, stroke incidence study undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand during 2002 to 2003. After a baseline assessment early after stroke, data were collected on all survivors at 1 and 6 months follow-up. Multiple variable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of return to paid work. Data are reported with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 1423 patients registered with first-ever strokes, there were 210 previously in paid employment who survived to 6 months, of whom 155 (74%) completed the GHQ-28 and 112 (53%) had returned to paid work. Among those cognitively competent, psychiatric morbidity at 28 days was a strong independent predictor of not returning to work (Odds Ratio 0.39; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.80). Non-New Zealand European ethnicity (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.91), prior part-time, as opposed to full-time, employment 0.36 (0.15 to 0.89), and not being functionally independent soon after the stroke 0.28 (0.13 to 0.59) were the other independent age- and gender-adjusted predictors of not successfully returning to paid work. About half of previously employed people return to paid employment after stroke, with psychiatric morbidity and physical disability being independent, yet potentially treatable, determinants of this outcome. Appropriate management of both emotional and physical sequelae would appear necessary for optimizing recovery and return to work in younger adults after stroke.

  5. Consequences Paternity Leave on Allocation of Childcare and Domestic Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Balsas, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    One of the main objectives of parental leave policies aimed exclusively at fathers is to promote gender equality in the productive and reproductive spheres. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use of paternity leave fosters greater involvement of fathers in the division of tasks within the reproductive sphere, specifi cally child care and housework. Based on data from the survey, “Social use of parental leave in Spain, 2012”, we have created multivariate models u...

  6. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  7. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  8. Responce of leaves of three plant species to aluminium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water culture experiments were undertaken for 14 days to examine the effect of increasing aluminum level (0, 10, 20 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O on growth of sunflower, red pepper and radish leaves. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by curling or rolling of young leaves, marginal and veinal chlorosis, dark green leaves as soon as purpling of margins and veins of leaves. Reduction of leaf size and increased stomata density were observed with increasing Al concentration. Additionally, length of stomata cells decreased after Al-treatment.

  9. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  10. Organization of nursing care in three Nordic countries: relationships between nurses' workload, level of involvement in direct patient care, job satisfaction, and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Smeds Alenius, Lisa; Runesdotter, Sara; Ensio, Anneli; Jylhä, Virpi; Kinnunen, Juha; Strømseng Sjetne, Ingeborg; Tvedt, Christine; Wiberg Tjønnfjord, Maria; Tishelman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Health care systems in Finland, Norway and Sweden share many similarities, e.g. full-coverage and tax-financed, with predominately public sector hospitals. Despite similarities, there are differences in the working situations for RNs within these Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between RNs' patient workload and level of involvement in direct patient care, their job satisfaction and intention to leave in these countries. A workforce survey was conducted through RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The survey included 118 items derived from validated instruments or tested in prior research. Responses from 1133 RNs at 32 Finnish hospitals, 3752 RNs at 35 Norwegian hospitals, and 11 015 RNs at 71 Swedish hospitals comprise the database, which was analyzed using logistic and odds ratio regressions analyses. We found statistically significant differences in RNs' level of involvement in direct patient care (p involvement in direct patient care and intention to leave in Sweden, and more satisfaction among RNs in roles with more direct patient care (OR = 1.16, 1.02 ≤ CI95% ≤ 1.32). Nearly half the Finnish sample report intention to leave, with significantly lower levels in Norway and Sweden (p job satisfaction and intention to leave to some degree in all countries, i.e. greater patient workload, less job satisfaction and greater intention to leave. This study suggests that more attention paid to patient mix, workload and role of RNs in patient care might potentially diminish intention to leave and increase job satisfaction in these Nordic countries.

  11. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmieke van Os-Medendorp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD. The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40 or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96 may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  12. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  13. Cytotoxic limonoids from Trichilia americana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kai-Long; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xiao-Nian; Guo, Juan; Hu, Hua-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Fen; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Xu, You-Kai

    2015-10-01

    Ten cedrelone limonoids were isolated from the leaves of Trichilia americana. These compounds include americanolides A-D (1-4), 1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (5), 1α-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (6), 1α-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrohirtin (7), 1α-methoxy-1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (8), 11β-hydroxy-12α-propanoyloxycedrelone (9), and 1α,11β-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrocedrelone (10), as well as two previously reported compounds, deacetylhirtin (11) and hirtin (12). Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic studies, and the assignment of the absolute configuration of americanolide A (1) was supported by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The cytotoxic activities of all isolated compounds were also evaluated against five human tumour cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480) using an MTS assay. Compounds 11 and 12 showed significant cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 μM, and compounds 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 exhibited potent or selective cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 39.6 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The anticancer effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam, S.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Malaysia. Ocimum tenuiflorum L., (O. tenuiflorum commonly known as ruku in Malaysia, is usually cultivated as a garden ornamental plant because of its small purplish and some yellowish flower. The specific objective of this research is to investigate the anticancer of O. tenuiflorum against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and human fibroblast cell line (HS-27. In addition, another objective is to determine the mineral and heavy metal determination of O. tenuiflorum. O. tenuiflorum exhibited anticancer activity against MCF-7 (a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line. The viability of MCF-7 cells decreased significantly after treatment with various concentrations of methanolic plant extracts (25 and 100 μg/mL, as shown via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The crude extracts show the lower IC50 (less than 100 μg/mL value against the cancer cell lines and show no effect on HS-27. The high content of calcium in the leaves of O. tenuiflorum may play a role in decreasing the risk of certain cancer. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb and As detected in O. tenuiflorum are safe for consumption.

  15. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  16. Género, trabajos y salud en España Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Artazcoz

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan las diferencias y desigualdades de género existentes en España en el trabajo remunerado y en el doméstico, se analizan el impacto de ambos tipos de trabajo en la salud y se describen las principales estrategias políticas de la Unión Europea (UE y España para alcanzar la igualdad de género en el trabajo. En España la tasa de actividad femenina es significativamente más baja que en otros países de la UE. En el mercado laboral existe una segregación horizontal -hombres y mujeres trabajan en distintos sectores- y vertical -ellos ocupan los puestos de categoría superior-, causa de las diferencias de género en las condiciones de empleo y en la exposición a riesgos laborales. La precariedad laboral es significativamente más alta en las mujeres (un 19% de paro en las mujeres frente a un 9% en los hombres, así como la contratación temporal. Ellos están más expuestos a riesgos físicos y padecen más accidentes laborales; ellas lo están más a riesgos psicosociales, sobre todo las trabajadoras manuales. Las mujeres continúan asumiendo la mayor parte del trabajo del hogar, aun estando ocupadas, lo que es causa de efectos negativos en su salud. La UE ha establecido entre sus prioridades aumentar el empleo femenino, lo que significa que en el período 2000-2010 España debe crear 3 millones de puestos para las mujeres y facilitar la conciliación de la vida laboral y familiar. Avanzar hacia la igualdad de género en el trabajo requiere políticas de empleo decididas que garanticen la igualdad de oportunidades para ambos sexos en el empleo, así como la corresponsabilidad de los hombres en las tareas del hogar. En España, además, es urgente incrementar significativamente los recursos públicos para el cuidado de los niños y otras personas dependientes del hogar.The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on

  17. Within-couple specialisation in paid work: A long-term pattern? A dual trajectory approach to linking lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Laura Antonia

    2015-06-01

    Research on the division of labour has mainly focussed on transitions between individuals' labour market states during the first years of parenthood. A common conclusion has been that couples specialize--women in unpaid and men in paid work--either due to gender ideologies or a comparative advantage in the labour market. But what happens later in life? The German Socio-Economic Panel now provides researchers with a continuous measure of working hours across decades of couples' lives, enabling a dual trajectory analysis to explore couples' long-term specialisation patterns. I focus on the career trajectories of West German couples, and specifically, due to the relatively low institutional and normative support for female employment during its members' early years, on the 1956-65 female birth cohort. Even in this setting and with a conservative estimate, a surprisingly small number of couples--only a fifth--adopt full specialisation in later life. A sizable proportion--a third--moves into dual full-time employment. This trend is even more common among highly educated couples: half of those couples move into dual full-time employment. I find that highly educated women are not only less likely to permanently specialise but also more likely to try working full-time, possibly because their partners' comparative advantages are lower. But despite high opportunity costs, 45% of highly educated parents never try to pursue a dual career either because of a satiation of material wants or because of low societal support for maternal employment. The latter phenomenon is further underscored by the finding that many couples' increase in working hours occurs only when a youngest child is a teenager. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 42 CFR 137.100 - May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a compact or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Interest Or Other Income on Transfers § 137.100 May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a compact...

  19. 38 CFR 8.15 - Provision for paid-up insurance; other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... right to dividends. The insured may at any time surrender the paid-up policy for its cash value or... insurance; other than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5-year level premium term policies. 8... than 5-year level premium term or limited convertible 5-year level premium term policies. If a National...

  20. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  1. 26 CFR 1.217-2 - Deduction for moving expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenses set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of section 217(b)(1) attributable to the taxpayer alone... attributable to property sold, purchased, or leased by the taxpayer alone, the same type of expenses paid or... (for example, recent high school or college graduates), or individuals who are reentering the labor...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1272 - Refund or recomputation of overpayments which are not adjustable-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund or recomputation of overpayments which are not adjustable-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1272 Section 404.1272 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... the appropriate Federal Reserve bank or branch (see § 404.1262), and no adjustment in the amount of...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1263 - When fractional part of a cent may be disregarded-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When fractional part of a cent may be disregarded-for wages paid prior to 1987. 404.1263 Section 404.1263 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... contributions to a Federal Reserve bank or branch, a State may disregard a fractional part of a cent unless it...

  4. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock to fund future growth. Y pays $5,000,000 in professional fees for investment banking services... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an... transactions. 1.263(a)-5 Section 1.263(a)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. 26 CFR 48.6416(c)-1 - Credit for tax paid on tires or, prior to January 1, 1984, inner tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(a) on the sale (before April 1, 1983) of the automobile truck. If the tires or inner tubes sold on... allowable against the tax imposed on the sale of the automobile truck. (c) Tires or tubes manufactured by... credit against tax on sale of taxable article. If tax has been paid under section 4071 on the sale, or...

  6. Antitumour Activity of Methanolic Extract of Plumeria alba L. Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate Plumeria alba leaves for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) bearing Swiss albino mice. Method: The antitumour activity of the methanolic extract of Plumeria alba leaves (MPA) was evaluated against EAC and DLA using in-vitro cytotoxic and ...

  7. Some Pharmacological Studies Of Aqueous Extract Of Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was set out to identify the pharmacological basis for the laxative effect of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla as well as identify its other pharmacological properties: Material/ Methods: Effect of aqueous extract of the leaves was tested on isolated guinea pig ileum and isolated pregnant rat uterus using organ bath ...

  8. Effect of dietary incorporation of Vernonia colorata (Willd) leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of 5 and 10% dietary incorporation of leaves of Vernonia colorata on serum triacyglycerol, cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) was studied in albino rats. Processed and unprocessed leaves of Vernonia colorata (PVC and UPVC) ...

  9. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    .../whd/america2.htm . For additional information on submitting comments and the rulemaking process, see... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which extends the availability of FMLA leave to... addition, the proposal includes changes concerning the calculation of leave; reorganization of certain...

  10. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  11. Pharmacognostic Investigation of the Leaves and Stems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some pharmacognostical investigations were carried out on the leaves and stems of Viburnum erubescens Wall.ex DC to record parameters for identifying and differentiating various species of Viburnum. Methods: The research specimens were authenticated and preserved both in fresh and dry forms. The leaves ...

  12. The impact of Morus alba leaves extract on neurotransmitters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... nor-adrenaline, serotonin, histamine, dopamine, and gamma amino butyric acid). Furthermore, Morus alba leaves leaf extract display hypoglycemic effect, diminish DNA damage and apoptosis of brain cells of diabetic rats. In conclusion ,our results suggest that The protective effect of Morus alba leaves extract could be ...

  13. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  14. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term...

  15. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  16. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. The Proximate analysis showed the percentage moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate of the leaves ...

  17. Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Gee

    2003-12-01

    leaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than among persons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of the individualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups in Canada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on the topic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions.

  18. Carbon isotopic composition of fossil leaves from the Early ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of fossil leaves from the Bhuj Formation, western India was carried out to infer the prevailing environmental conditions. Compression fossil leaves such as Pachypteris indica, Otozamite kachchhensis, Brachyphyllum royii and Dictyozamites sp. were recovered from three sedimentary ...

  19. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 630.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE... table: Home Leave-Earning Table [Days earned] Months of service abroad Earning rate (days for each 12... 9 4 12 15 10 5 (b) When an employee moves between different home leave-earning rates during a month...

  20. Evaluation of Mineral and Amino Acid Composition of Leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the mineral and amino acid composition of the leave of Ocimum gratissimum. The mineral composition showed major minerals such as Na, K, Ca and Mg should essential and non-essential amino acids. The amino acids compared favorably with FAO reference protein. The leave were ...

  1. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves of Secamone afzelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    *n = 5; †n = 20. Numerical data of the leaves of S. afzelii. The moisture content of S. afzelii which falls within the Pharmacopoeial limit, the ash values as well as the amount of constituents which are extractable by methanol and water under specified conditions are presented in. Table 3. Table 3: Numerical data of leaves of.

  2. Isolation of flavonoids from mulberry ( Morus alba L.) leaves with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flavonoids are major active constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and possess various pharmacological activities. In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation of total flavonoids (TFs) in mulberry leaves extracts by macroporous resins were studied systematically, and the column ...

  3. Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana in rats. Georgette Nyah Njike, Pierre Watcho, Télesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi. Abstract. The hypoglycaemic properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Bersama engleriana were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats in ...

  4. Perceptions of the use of indigenous leaves as packaging materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although alternative food packaging materials are available, Ghanaians still use leaves to package some ready-to-eat cornmeal products. This study examines the perceptions of a representative community sample of 70 producers, 40 sellers and 120 consumers of ready-to-eat leaves-packaged cornmeal products in ...

  5. Distribution of the Endophytic Fungi in Apple Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminudin Afandhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi have roles to protect the plant from herbivorous insects and diseases, and to support the absorption process of nutrients needed by plants for photosynthesis. Related to the important role of endophytic fungi, research was aimed to identify fungal endophytes associated with young, mature and old leaves on apple and to evaluate the effect of leaf ages on the abundance and diversity of endophytic fungi. The research was conducted in Biological Control Laboratory, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya from May to September 2016. Apple leaves sampling was done diagonally, and taken from nine apple trees. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, 38 isolates were identified. In the old apple leaves, it obtained 17 isolates that consisted of 5 genera, mature leaves obtained 14 isolates consisted of 6 genera, and young leaves 7 isolates obtained consists of 2 genera. The mature leaves have highest abundance and diversity of endophytic fungi compared to young and old leaves. Endophytic fungi apple leaf dominated by Aspergillus. Mature and young leaves were different from old one based on Bray-Curtis similarity.

  6. Nutritional composition of Corchorus olitorius leaves | Idirs | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate and mineral composition of Corchorus olitorius leaves collected from a farm site at Barkin-Saleh in Minna town, Niger State, Nigeria, were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The results of proximate composition showed that the leaves contained 18.38±0.32% ash, 12.54±0.10% crude ...

  7. A comparison between Acqcia and Combretum leaves vtiltzed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various studies on the food preferences of giraffe indicate that the leaves of the Acacia and Combretum species are the most important food items selected. The present study was aimed at comparing the chemical composition of the leaves and explain- ing the utilization of both these plant groups by giraffe. The.

  8. Nutritional, antinutritional and phytochemical status of okra leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The okra leaves showed a predominance of carbohydrates, fibers and proteins that were not significantly affected by process, being also considered source of calcium, magnesium and potassium. Extracts obtained from bleached, cooked, lyophilized leaves and from 30% fraction, buffer showed the presence of lectin.

  9. 5 CFR 550.1207 - Recrediting annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recredit to the employee an amount of annual leave equal to the days or hours of work (including holidays... agency must recredit an amount of annual leave equal to the days or hours of work (including holidays... Section 550.1207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY...

  10. Isolation of flavonoids from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... notable biological activities. Nowadays, the traditional separation methods about the flavonoids of mulberry leaves used so far were limited to simple techniques such as extraction and precipitation leading to low recoveries. Hence a more efficient and simple purification method for TFs in mulberry leaves is.

  11. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  12. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  13. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  14. Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Febrilliant Susanto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: C. inophyllum leaves may be used as a good source of fiber. It was found that C. inophyllum leaves have the potential as herbal drugs due to their phytochemical content. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.

  15. Ethnic differences in leaving home: timing and pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Mulder, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of leaving home for youth from migrant families in the Netherlands are examined using individual administrative data on the 1977 and 1983 birth cohorts for the period 1999-2004. A competing-risks approach is applied to distinguish leaving home for union formation, to live independently,

  16. Ethnic differences in leaving home : Timing and pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Mulder, Clara H.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of leaving home for youth from migrant families in the Netherlands are examined using individual administrative data on the 1977 and 1983 birth cohorts for the period 1999–2004. A competing-risks approach is applied to distinguish leaving home for union formation, to live independently,

  17. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  18. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transition must take place in such a way that the employees retain the full benefit of 12 weeks of leave... during which use of the leave entitlement is measured. This method may conflict with the method chosen by... otherwise scheduled and expected to work during the holiday. Similarly, if for some reason the employer's...

  19. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  20. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration (mg kg-1 dry weight) of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in onion leaves samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 16 samples each of onion leaves freshly harvested were collected from the exposed and control sites for analysis. The trace metal (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) levels in the onion ...

  1. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aikay Shaikh

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild. (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table.

  2. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table salt) water with the ...

  3. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  4. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  5. Evaluation of nutrient contents of Gmelina arborea leaves as animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of chemical and mineral composition different forms of Gmelina arborea (GA) leaves was investigated. Experiment 1 involve the determination of the chemical composition, mineral and anti-nutrient of green, yellow and brown leaves of GA. In experiment 2, a free choice intake study was carried out using fifteen ...

  6. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  7. Alkaline protease from senesced leaves of invasive weed Lantana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... food and other biotechnology industries. Endoproteases were also isolated from alfalfa, oat and barley senesced leaves which are involved in the process of protein degradation during foliar senescence (Nieri et al., 1998;. Miller and Huffaker, 1981; Drivdahl and Thimann, 1977,. 1978). Senescing leaves ...

  8. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  9. Phytochemical And Ethnobotanical Evaluation Of The Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    . Mensah et al. (2008) showed that the leaves or roots of T. triangulare are either employed singly or in combination with other medicinal herbs as diuretics in gastrointestinal disorder. The leaves are also used in the treatment of ailments such ...

  10. Nutritional, antinutritional and phytochemical status of okra leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedro

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... mical compounds of okra leaves are scarce. In this sense, in order to introduce the market a new plant product, a study on the nutritional quality and presence of phytochemical compounds in okra leaves (Abelmoschus esculentus) subjected to different treatments was carried out, aiming its use for human ...

  11. Antioxidant activity of longan (Dimocarpus longan) barks and leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    TPC) expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) achieved by FC method in the leaves and barks were 132.47 and 140 mg/g dry weight, respectively. The results show that the TPC in mature longan barks and leaves were ...

  12. 5 CFR 630.401 - Granting sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section, an agency must grant sick leave to an employee when he or she— (1) Receives medical, dental, or..., dental, or optical examination or treatment; or (ii) Provides care for a family member with a serious... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting sick leave. 630.401 Section 630...

  13. Influence of Moringa oleifera leaves on atherogenic lipids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study evaluated mineral composition of “Togolese ecotype” of Moringa oleifera leaves and its effect on anthropometric parameters, atherogenic lipids and glycaemia during nutritional recovery in HIV negative and HIV positive malnourished patients after daily use of the leaves powder. Methodology and ...

  14. Extracellular freezing in leaves of freezing-sensitive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Edward N; Pearce, Roger S

    2002-03-01

    Low-temperature scanning-electron microscopy was used to study the freezing of leaves of five species that have no resistance to freezing: bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). In the leaves of the four dicotyledonous species, ice was extracellular and the cells of all tissues were collapsed. In contrast, in maize leaves ice was extracellular in the mesophyll, and these cells were collapsed, but the epidermal and bundle-sheath cells apparently retained their original shapes and volume. It is concluded that the leaves of the freezing-sensitive dicotyledonous species tested were killed by cellular dehydration induced by extracellular freezing, and not by intracellular freezing. Freezing injury in maize leaves apparently resulted from a combination of freezing-induced cellular dehydration of some cells and intracellular ice formation in epidermal and bundle-sheath cells.

  15. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  16. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  17. Gravitropism in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Eriko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2006-02-01

    In higher plants, stems and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. However, current knowledge on the graviresponse of leaves is lacking. In this study, we analyzed the positioning and movement of rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under light and dark conditions. We found that the radial positioning of rosette leaves was not affected by the direction of gravity under continuous white light. In contrast, when plants were shifted to darkness, the leaves moved upwards, suggesting negative gravitropism. Analysis of the phosphoglucomutase and shoot gravitropism 2-1 mutants revealed that the sedimenting amyloplasts in the leaf petiole are important for gravity perception, as is the case in stems and roots. In addition, our detailed physiological analyses revealed a unique feature of leaf movement after the shift to darkness, i.e. movement could be divided into negative gravitropism and nastic movement. The orientation of rosette leaves is ascribed to a combination of these movements.

  18. Sulfolipid in mulberry leaves and faeces of silkworm larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1975-01-01

    Sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride (sulfolipid) were separated by chromatography on a ECTEOLA cellulose column from the extracts of mulberry leaves and faeces of silkworm larvae. Lipid from the leaves which had been labeled with 35 S-sulfuric acid for 24 hours separated to five 35 S containing fractions on column chromatography. Most of the 35 S in the lipid fraction was recovered as sulfolipid. No appreciable amounts of 35 S, however, were recognized as sulfolipid in the extract of the faeces of silkworm larvae which were fed 35 S-containing mulberry leaves. These results suggest that silkworm larvae actively dissimilate sulfolipid, which is the most abundant among the sulfur containing lipids in mulberry leaves. When 35 S labeled sulfolipid which was recovered from the extract of mulberry leaves was fed to the larvae, 35 S was not incorporated into the cell constituent of the larvae and 35 S of sulfolipid was entirely excreted. (auth.)

  19. A study of the morphoanatomical characters of the leaves of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Antônio Cotta Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to species of Chamaecrista sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, especially regarding anatomical studies. When only vegetative material is available, the identification of such species may be difficult. Additionally, vegetative material of some species of C. sect. Apoucouita may be even harder to identify because they can resemble species of Inga Mill. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. The present study focused on recognizing morphoanatomical characters of leaves that are taxonomically useful for the species of C. sect. Apoucouita by employing standard anatomical techniques. The arrangement of the vascular system in the petiole/rachis, dorsiventral mesophyll, mucilage idioblasts in the epidermis of leaflets and hypostomatic leaves were some of the characters shared by all species studied. Length of the petiole, position and type of extrafloral nectaries, leaflet venation, presence and type of papillae on the epidermis of the leaflet blades and sclereids in the mesophyll were some of the characters useful in the distinction of taxa. The vascular arrangement of the petiole/rachis is a promising character in the distinction of species of C. sect. Apoucouita and Inga. Based on morphoanatomical data, the taxonomic revision of some species and varieties ascribed to C. sect. Apoucouita is suggested.

  20. IN VITRO CALLOGENESIS FROM CEDRELA FISSILIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Menezes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cedrela fissilis is a species native to Brazil which offers great economic value for its high quality wood as well as medicinal importance by contain therapeutic properties. Seeds were used for in vitro establishment which form submitted to four asseptic treatments that varied in relation to the time of immersion in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The seeds were inoculated in the culture medium Vacin & Went, supplemented with sucrose 20 g/L and 7 g/L agar. To 56 days of cultivation were removed leaves of seedlings obtained in vitro and inoculated in Vacin&Went culture medium with different combinations of growth regulators for callus induction being T1 (control; T2: 2,5 mM ANA e 2,5 mM BAP; T3: 2,5 mM ANA e 5,0 mM BAP; T4: 5,0 mM ANA e 2,5 mM BAP. The percentage of germinated seeds was approximately 10% and the aseptic treatment showed lower percentage of contamination (78% differed from other treatments was T4 where the seeds remained submerged during 100 minutes in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. About the calogênese treatment with combinations of 2,5 µM ANA and 2,5 µM BAP proved to be the most efficient for callus induction, differing from the others reaching 84% calogênicos of percentage 56 days of in vitro cultivation. T1 with absence of growth regulators was the only one to present the formation of roots 26%.

  1. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  2. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator...

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  4. [The relationship between casual paid work, the use of psychoactive substances and school problems among upper secondary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Tabak, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The issue of casual work is rarely mentioned in Poland in the studies of adolescent health and its determinants. The article includes a preliminary analysis of the links among work, psychoactive substance abuse and school problems in older adolescents. The examined data relate to the age-homogenous group of 989 upper secondary-school students surveyed in 2011.The questions were derived from the Polish version of the CHIP-AE (Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition) questionnaire. Cigarette smoking, mild and strong alcoholic drinks consumption and marihuana use were analysed with regard to the preceding month. A combined index - a scale of psychoactive substance use (SUSP) was calculated from the perspective of the entire life. The other index - a scale of the intensity of school problems (SNPS) was built around four questions about the occurrence of such problems within the preceding month. Within the examined group, 27.2% of the surveyed admitted to working outside their household. One in five worked for more than 10 hours a week. Working adolescents significantly more often used psychoactive substances than their non-working peers. The risk of a significant threat from psychoactive substances rose twofold in the comparison of working and non-working youth - OR=1.99 [95% CI(OR): 1,44-2,74]. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the risk of intensified school problems (SNPS) - OR=2.25 [95% CI(OR): 1,64-3,08].Working more than 10 hours a week results both risk factors rising to 2.34 and 2.70 respectively. Over threefold rise in the frequency of neglecting work or its bad performance was identified (OR=3.19; [95% CI(OR): 1,90-5,36]), when comparing the adolescents with the smallest and the biggest intensity of school. problems in the working group. Upper secondary school students undertaking paid work outside their household are in the risk group for psychoactive substance use and school problems. It is advisable to conduct deeper research on the

  5. MARKETING RESEARCHES OF THE POPULATIONS HEALTH STATE AS A FACTOR OF DEMAND FORMATION IN THE MARKET OF PAID MEDICAL SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Hrechanyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of health of the population is one of the most important indicators of the well-being of the nation. Important directions of health care reform are optimization of management, rational distribution of limited financial resources, efficient use of material resources, introduction of health insurance, restructuring of treatment and preventive care to the people. Marketing of medical services market is one of the most complex types of marketing. Because it is medical services that are connected with the protection and maintenance of the most important values ​​of a person - life and health. The market for medical services is a combination of socio-economic relations in the healthcare sector. The most important components of the analysis of any market, including the market of medical services, are marketing research, which is a systematic collection, processing, analysis of data and information in order to formulate proposals for effective activities on it. In the field of public health, marketing can be defined as a complex process of planning, economic substantiation and management of the process of provision of medical services, the formation of a pricing policy of the medical-preventive process, ensuring effective communication with patients. The purpose of the study is to identify the health of the population and determine the demand factors for paid health services and their demand. The main task set before market research on the health of the population is the formation and provision of benefits to consumers that meet their needs for qualified medical care and quality of life. The research methods used in the work are based on probabilistic, stratified, quota, representative samples for the entire population of Ivano-Frankivsk and Ivano-Frankivsk region. The obtained results allow us to give a realistic assessment of the main trends and allow us to assess the potential of socio-economic adaptation of the population in the

  6. Optimization and Characterization of Cinnamon Leaves (Cinnamomum burmannii) Oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Prasetyawan, P.; Utami, R.; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Sanjaya, A. P.

    2017-04-01

    This research aimed to determine the optimum yield condition on cinnamon leaves oleoresin production at various temperature and contact time during maceration and to find out the characteristics of cinnamon leaves oleoresin such as active compound, cinnamon leaves oil content, and solvent residue levels at optimum yield. This research used the variations of extraction temperature (70, 75 and 80°C) and extraction time (4, 5 and 6 h). Based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the equation of cinnamon leaves oleoresin sample optimization as follow: Y = 13 - 1.0167X1- 0.2833X2- 0.6833X12- 0.5833X22- 0.3250 X1X2. The optimum yield of cinnamon leaves oleoresin (13.3790%) was obtained at 77.754°C for 4.9185 h. The characteristics of cinnamon leaves oleoresin that showed the optimum yield were 59.56% eugenol level, 9.50% cinnamon leaves oil content and 22700 ppm solvent residue level.

  7. Mineral content of young leaves of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Camotti Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is largely used to produce drinks to human consume. In Spring the plants develop tender young leaves that could represent a new market niche in the yerba-mate industry; this period is called as ”pressafrinha” in this study. This study aimed to analyze the total and hydro soluble nutritional values of young leaves collected in the Spring season and its nutritional potential for human consumption. To represent the ”pressafrinha” young leaves, the collected vegetal material was limited to the third terminal bud. The total and hydro soluble chemical analysis of leaves in the provenances Cascavel (progeny 174, Ivaí (progeny 6, Barão de Cotegipe (progenies 68 and 69 included the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The content of elements in the beverage obtained from the infusion of young leaves of yerba mate in the recommended daily intake ranges from 0.5% to 11.5% and was in the following order: Cu > Mn > K > P > Mg > Fe > Zn > Ca > Na. Progenies and morphotypes of yerba mate showed little variation in the total nutrient content and did not differ in the content of soluble nutrients evaluated in young leaves. The extract obtained from young leaves of yerba mate presents potential to be used for human consumption.

  8. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [ 14 C]-sucrose during steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [ 14 C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [ 14 C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14 CO 2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  9. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 deg. C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D eff are obtained between 1.744 x 10 -9 and 4.992 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10 -9 and 6.172 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D eff , the value of E a is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves

  10. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antiinflammatory evaluation of leaves of Plumeria acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, UK; Gomathi, P; Selvan, V Thamil

    2006-01-01

    Backround Plumeria acuminata belonging to the family Apocynaceae is commonly known as 'perungalli' in Tamil and is widely distributed throughout the Southern parts of India. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. The plant material is widely used as a purgative, remedy for diarrhoea and cure for itch. The milky juice is employed for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism. The bark has been reported to be useful in hard tumors, diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of leaves of Plumeria acuminata on carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw oedema models. Methods Acute and chronic inflammation models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g were used. In acute model carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin models were used to induce inflammation in rat hind paw and cotton pellet-induced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. In each model four groups of six animals were used. In all the models Group I served as control (0.9% normal saline, 5 mlkg-1 b.w) and group IV as standard (Indomethacin 10 mgkg-1 b.w). Group II and III received extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mgkg-1 b.w respectively. Results The methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental animal models. The extract (500 mgkg-1 b.w) exhibited maximum antiinflammatory effect i.e., 30.51, 47.06, 34.48 and 32.50% (P < 0.001) at the end of 3 h with carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin respectively. Administration of MEPA (500 mgkg-1 b.w) and indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 b.w) significantly reduced the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet method at a rate of 45.06 and 51.57% respectively. The effect

  12. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  13. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in

  14. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    Family and Medical Leave Inclusion Act (S. 846, S. 857, and H.R. 1751) would allow an employee to take FMLA leave to care for an adult child, sibling...Industries with below-average percentages of employees who may have been eligible for leave were Wholesale and Retail Trade (53.1%), Professional and...10,804 4,298 100.0% 71.5% 28.5% 10.6% 13.5% 6.9% Wholesale and retail trade 20,413 10,835 9,577 100.0% 53.1% 46.9% 14.3% 13.5% 15.4% Transportation and

  15. Leave-two-out stability of ontology learning algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianzhang; Yu, Xiao; Zhu, Linli; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Ontology is a semantic analysis and calculation model, which has been applied to many subjects. Ontology similarity calculation and ontology mapping are employed as machine learning approaches. The purpose of this paper is to study the leave-two-out stability of ontology learning algorithm. Several leave-two-out stabilities are defined in ontology learning setting and the relationship among these stabilities are presented. Furthermore, the results manifested reveal that leave-two-out stability is a sufficient and necessary condition for ontology learning algorithm.

  16. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  17. [Studies on phenolic constituents from leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-ming; Wang, Jin-ping; Du, Li-jun

    2006-08-01

    To study the phenolic constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectroscopic methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. 7 compounds, ananasate (1), 1-O-caffeoylglycerol (2), 1-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (3), caffeic acid (4), p-coumaric acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6) and daucosterol (7), were isolated from the leaves of pineapple. 1 was a new compound, and others were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  18. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the...

  19. Who paid taxes in XVIIth century Castile? The incidence of the taxes levied upon wine in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The hegemony of indirect taxation was one of the main hallmarks of the Castilian fiscal system during the Early Modern Period. It is commonly acknowledged that the burden of such taxation fell squarely upon the consumers and the aim of this essay is to analyze who really paid the taxes collected upon wine in XVIIth century Madrid. First part shows how the growing fiscal burden collected upon wine caused the development of a massive fraud which harmed the members of the publicans’ guild and the Crown and City Treasuries, benefiting all those who could sell wine in the black market. Second part indicates that in spite of the continuous introduction of taxes on wine in Madrid during the century the consumption levels of this beverage (in «per capita» terms experienced a rather moderate fall. It could be argued that thanks to the development of fraud the city consumers could buy cheap wine in the black market, but the evidence offered here suggests that this was not the case. In fact, the wine sold in the black market was only 5-10% cheaper than that sold legally by the members of the publicans’ guild. As showed in third part, the prices of the wine sold both in the legal and black markets in XVIIth century Madrid rose always well

  20. Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A qualitative exploration of nurses leaving nursing practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junhong; Rodgers, Sheila; Melia, Kath M

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports a theoretical understanding of nurses leaving nursing practice by exploring the processes of decision-making by registered nurses in China on exiting clinical care. The loss of nurses through their voluntarily leaving nursing practice has not attracted much attention in China. There is a lack of an effective way to understand and communicate nursing workforce mobility in China and worldwide. This qualitative study draws on the constant comparative method following a grounded theory approach. In-depth interviews with 19 nurses who had left nursing practice were theoretically sampled from one provincial capital city in China during August 2009-March 2010. The core category 'Mismatching Expectations: Individual vs. Organizational' emerged from leavers' accounts of their leaving. By illuminating the interrelationship between the core category and the main category 'Individual Perception of Power,' four nursing behaviour patterns were identified: (1) Voluntary leaving; (2) Passive staying; (3) Adaptive staying and (4) Active staying.

  2. In vivo Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivohypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive oxygen species in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Etah Etah Nkanu, Sikirullai Olatunde Jeje, Daniel Ewa Ikpi, Gabriel Otu Ujong ...

  3. Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on acetaminophen - induced liver toxicity in albino rats. Samy Abdelfatah Abdel Azim, Mohamed Taha Abdelrahem, Mostafa Mohamed Said, Alshaimaa Khattab ...

  4. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves of terminalia macroptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) is used for stomach ailments and skin diseases. Macroscopical, microscopical and quantitative evaluation of the leaves, whole and powdered was carried out. Microscopic features include the following parenchyma cells, stomata (anisocytic, anomocytic, actionocytic), ...

  5. Gravity effects on wind-induced flutter of leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, Nickalaus; Kopperstad, Karsten; Solano, Tomas; Shoele, Kourosh; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Wind-Induced flutter of leaves depends on both wind velocity and the gravity. To study the gravitational effects on the oscillatory behavior of leaves in the wind, a wind tunnel that can be tilted about the center of the test section is created. This unique rotation capability allows systematic investigation of gravitational effects on the fluttering response of leaves. The flow-induced vibration will be studied for three different leaves at several different tilting angles including the wind travels horizontally, vertically downward and vertically upward. In each situation, the long axis of a leaf is placed parallel to the wind direction and its response is studied at different flow speed. Oscillation of the leaf is recorded via high-speed camera at each of setup, and the effect of the gravity on stabilizing or destabilizing the fluttering response is investigated. Summer REU student at Florida State University.

  6. Phytochemical and nutrient compositions of the leaves of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    western Nigeria. The leaf is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems and also for the preparation of local soups. The phytochemical and nutrient compositions of its leaves were investigated using established analytical procedures.

  7. Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Mistletoe Leaves from Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscum album) growing on three different trees: avocado pear (Persea Americana), African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and kola (Kola nitida) was undertaken. Fresh mistletoe leaves were obtained from the three different trees and thoroughly ...

  8. Consequences Paternity Leave on Allocation of Childcare and Domestic Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of parental leave policies aimed exclusively at fathers is to promote gender equality in the productive and reproductive spheres. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use of paternity leave fosters greater involvement of fathers in the division of tasks within the reproductive sphere, specifi cally child care and housework. Based on data from the survey, ?Social use of parental leave in Spain, 2012?, we have created multivariate models using ordinary least squares regression. The sample used in the analysis consists of 600 fathers who have had at least one child since 2007. The results suggest that paternity leave does encourage greater involvement by fathers in childcare, but the effect is limited, as it is only found for fathers after the birth of their fi rst child.

  9. Effect Of Green Leaves And Germination And Boiling Treatments Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigonella foenum graecum L.) were commercial, Giza 2 and Giza 30 and fenugreek green leaves and raw, boiled and germinated commercial sweet lupin seeds (lupinus termis forssk L.) were analyzed for its chemical composition, alkaloids and ...

  10. Family and medical leave. Office of Personnel Management. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-08

    The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to ensure that both employees' and agencies' rights are protected and their responsibilities fulfilled.

  11. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  12. The potentials of henna ( Lawsonia inamis L .) leaves extracts as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawsonia inamis L.) leaves adopted as alternative counter stain in Gram staining reactions were studied. Different extracts were formulated into various staining solutions of different concentrations. The solutions were modified with hydrogen ...

  13. An Analysis of Sabbatical Leaves for Navy Surface Warfare Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yardley, Roland J; Thie, Harry J; Brancato, Kevin; Abbott, Megan

    2004-01-01

    ... or to attend to other personal needs. In response to these retention concerns, the Navy is considering several programs that allow greater accommodation of the personal needs of its SWOs, particularly through the increased use of sabbatical leaves...

  14. Psoralen And Bergapten From The Leaves Of Ficus iteophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Ficus iteophylla gave 2 furanocoumarins; Psoralen and Bergapten. Their structure was elucidated using spectroscopic technique. Key words: Ficus iteophylla, Moraceae, Psoralen and Bergapten Nig. J. Nat. Prod. and Med. Vol.8 2004: 66 ...

  15. Utilization of Cassava Leaves as a Vegetable in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objectives of this study were to determine cassava species from which leaves are harvested as vegetable and identify leaf preparation methods, consumption rate, price variation, storability and perception of post-harvest losses.

  16. Meaningful work and secondary school teachers' intention to leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role fit, job enrichment, supervisor relationships, co-worker relationships, psychological meaningfulness of work and intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey was used. The participants were 502 secondary school teachers in Namibia.

  17. Efficacy of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. leaves extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. leaves extracts against some atmospheric fungi. M Afzal, FS Mehdi, FM Abbasi, H Ahmad, R Masood, J Alam, G Jan, M Islam, NU Amin, A Majid, M Fiaz, AH Shah ...

  18. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (PFortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  19. Paid employment and common mental disorders in 50-64-year olds: analysis of three cross-sectional nationally representative survey samples in 1993, 2000 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, G; Di Gessa, G; Corna, L M; Glaser, K; Stewart, R

    2017-08-24

    Associations between employment status and mental health are well recognised, but evidence is sparse on the relationship between paid employment and mental health in the years running up to statutory retirement ages using robust mental health measures. In addition, there has been no investigation into the stability over time in this relationship: an important consideration if survey findings are used to inform future policy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50-64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period. Data were analysed from the British National Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity of 1993, 2000 and 2007. Paid employment status was the primary exposure of interest and CMD the primary outcome - both ascertained identically in all three surveys (CMD from the revised Clinical Interview Schedule). Multivariable logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment across all survey years; however, this association was only present for non-employment related to poor health as an outcome and was not apparent in those citing other reasons for non-employment. Odds ratios for the association between non-employment due to ill health and CMD were 3.05 in 1993, 3.56 in 2000, and 2.80 in 2007, after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, social class, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking status, recent physical health consultation and activities of daily living impairment. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment for health reasons, but was not associated with non-employment for other reasons. Associations had been relatively stable in strength from 1993 to 2007 in those three cross-sectional nationally representative samples.

  20. Is being in paid work beyond state pension age beneficial for health? Evidence from England using a life-course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gessa, Giorgio; Corna, Laurie M; Platts, Loretta G; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Sacker, Amanda; Price, Debora; Glaser, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Given the current policy emphasis in many Western societies on extending working lives, we investigated the health effects of being in paid work beyond state pension age (SPA). Until now, work has largely focused on the health of those who exit the labour force early. Our data come from waves 2-4 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, including the life history interview at wave 3. Using logistic and linear regression models, we assessed the longitudinal associations between being in paid work beyond SPA and 3 measures of health (depression, a latent measure of somatic health and sleep disturbance) among men aged 65-74 and women aged 60-69. Our analyses controlled for baseline health and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as for work histories and health in adulthood and childhood. Approximately a quarter of women and 15% of men were in paid work beyond SPA. Descriptive bivariate analyses suggested that men and women in paid work were more likely to report better health at follow-up. However, once baseline socioeconomic characteristics as well as adulthood and baseline health and labour market histories were accounted for, the health benefits of working beyond SPA were no longer significant. Potential health benefits of working beyond SPA need to be considered in the light of the fact that those who report good health and are more socioeconomically advantaged are more likely to be working beyond SPA to begin with. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Veiksniai, įtakojantys PAID klausimyne atsispindintį 1 tipo cukriniu diabetu sergančių pacientų patiriamo distreso lygį

    OpenAIRE

    Petraitytė, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Author: Karolina Petraitytė Title: Factors influencing the level of diabetes related distress measured by PAID questionnaire in patients with type 1 diabetes. Aim: To evaluate factors that have influence on diabetes related emotional distress in young (18 – 25 years old) patients with type 1 diabetes. Objectives: 1. To distinguish the gender differences in diabetes related emotional distress level in patients with type 1 diabetes. 2. To identify a relationship between diabetes...

  2. Uudised : Urmas Alenderile pühendatud festival Paides. Heiki Mätlik kirjutab Bachist. Ungari muusika Balti misjonikeskuses. Hans van Manen lavastas Pärti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    25. nov. Paides toimuvast U. Alenderi loomingule pühendatud muusikafestival-konkursist Alenderfest "Südame hääl". Ilmus H. Mätliku kolmeosaline traktaat Bachi lautomuusika interpretatsioonist ja arranzheerimisest kitarrile. 20. okt. Balti misjonikeskuses toimuvast ungari pärimusmuusikakontserdist. H. van Manen kasutab uue lühiballettide kava "Tantsu laureaadid" lavastuses A. Pärdi teost "Spiegel im Spiegel"

  3. Collection of apoplastic fluids from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    The leaf apoplast comprises the extracellular continuum outside cell membranes. A broad range of processes take place in the apoplast, including intercellular signaling, metabolite transport, and plant-microbe interactions. To study these processes, it is essential to analyze the metabolite conte...... in apoplastic fluids. Due to the fragile nature of leaf tissues, it is a challenge to obtain apoplastic fluids from leaves. Here, methods to collect apoplastic washing fluid and guttation fluid from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves are described....

  4. Antipyretic Activity of Peperomia pellucida Leaves in Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN, Alam; RAHMAN, Moizur; ISLAM, Shariful

    2014-01-01

    Antipyretic effects of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) HBK (Fam. Piperaceae) were investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of P. pellucida at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the...

  5. Women?s Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. ...

  6. Pharmacognostical Studies On Leaves And Stem Of Cocculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total ash values, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were found to be 2.20 %, 0.40 %, 0.60 % and 5.2 %,0.60 %, 1.50 % w/w for leaves and stem respectively. The loss on drying was found to be 1.21 % and 1.30 % w/w for the leaves and stem respectively. The leaf constants such as stomatal index (6.50), vein islet ...

  7. Identifying the important factors associated with teaching sex education to people with intellectual disability: A cross-sectional survey among paid care staff†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Dilana; Kok, Gerjo; Stoffelen, Joke M. T.; Van Doorn, Paulien; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sex education programs have been developed with paid care staff as sex educators. However, no information is available about whether these programs are being delivered. Method The aim of this study was to investigate whether paid care staff working in an organisation specialised in the care of people with mild to moderate intellectual disability teach sex education or not. An online questionnaire was therefore constructed to assess the important factors associated with teaching sex education. Results Of the 163 staff members who completed the questionnaire, 39% provided sex education. Results show that it was mainly provided reactively. The main factor was the perceived social norm towards teaching sex education. Conclusions If we want paid care staff to teach sex education reactively, then we need to focus on changing the perceived social norm. However, if we want them to teach sex education proactively, a new needs assessment should be conducted in order to identify the important factors to motivate and enable them to provide sex education.

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Stevia leaves extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, Iryna; Stavinskaya, Oksana; Kazakova, Olga; Fesenko, Tetiana; Brychka, Sergey

    2018-02-01

    Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) were prepared using different types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry; total phenol content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau method. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to be the main groups of phenol antioxidants available in the Stevia leaves, with the amount of these compounds in the extract being dependent on the type of raw material. The reducing properties of phenol compounds identified in the extracts were characterized using quantum chemical method; flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to have similar redox parameters. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) colloids were synthesized using three Stevia extracts; AgNPs size distribution were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. All the extracts revealed significant activity in AgNPs synthesis; the nanoparticles of predominantly spherical shape with the average sizes of 16-25 nm were formed. The reducing properties of the extracts were found to correlate with total phenol content; the activity of extracts from the leaves of plants grown ex situ and from callus culture in Ag+ ions reduction was similar to each other and exceeded the activity of extract from the leaves of plants grown in vitro.

  9. Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, D L; Grange, R I

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state (14)CO(2) labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period (r = 0.934) and with nocturnal leaf respiration (r = 0.954). Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined.

  10. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  11. Experiences of occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcsi, Lisa; Curtin, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Returning to work after maternity leave can be a challenging, anxious and fraught experience for women, and has been portrayed in the literature as a generally negative experience. Interestingly, although occupational therapists were predominantly women, no research was found focussing on their experiences of returning to work after maternity leave. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into occupational therapists' experiences of returning to work following maternity leave. Principles of interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to explore the individual experiences of six Australian occupational therapists returning to work after a period of maternity leave. Individual semi-structured interviews lasting up to 90 minutes were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed. Two major themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: compromise and feeling valued. The experience of returning to work was a process of compromise in which women found strategies to cope with their changing roles and demands, to find a balance between home and work life. The women wanted to feel valued by their managers and co-workers, as this enabled them to feel comfortable and confident with some of the compromises they made. Occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave will make compromises so that they can balance their home and work life. Occupational therapists value managers and co-workers who understand the compromises women make when returning to work following maternity leave and who create a supportive workplace that acknowledges and values their contribution. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  12. Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, D.L.; Grange, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period and with nocturnal leaf respiration. Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined

  13. The nutritional value of leaves of selected berry species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Biel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although the medicinal properties of berry fruit are well known, there is relatively little information available concerning the applications of other parts of berry plants. Thus, in this study we determined the nutritional value of the leaves of selected berry species and their possible application in health promoting diets. The levels of nutrients, and macro- and microelements in the leaves of four species collected from allotment gardens in the city of Szczecin, Poland (53°26′17″ N, 14°32′32″ E; altitude 7 m a.s.l. were identified: raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L., chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L., and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.. Sea buckthorn leaves were the richest source of protein, raspberry leaves had the highest levels of lipids, and the leaves of all four species studied were a rich source of crude fibre and dietary fibre fractions. Desirable Ca:P and Na:K ratios indicated their potential as a good source of minerals essential to bone formation and the treatment of hypertension. Sea buckthorn leaves contained high but also safe Fe levels (within recommended WHO limits and, therefore, may become an alternative rich source of this element.

  14. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs') specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Focus-group study. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32-65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed.

  15. Why do general medical patients have a lengthy wait in the emergency department before admission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nin-Chieh Hsu

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Complex comorbidities and terminal conditions with DNR consent were associated with the prolonged ED stay for general medical patients. The hospital manager should pay attention to general medical patients with multiple comorbidities as well as those who require palliative care.

  16. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population. PMID:27493995

  17. Closing the Door Behind You: How the United States Army Conducts Logistical Withdrawals after Lengthy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    AirLand Battle doctrine. It remains an active Field Manual. FM 100-9 details the steps to regenerate combat power after extensive attrition by enemy...peace talks in Paris . After a heavy bombing campaign against North Vietnam forced a resumption of negotiations, the United States agreed to a cease-fire...march to Baghdad, hindered mobility throughout urban areas and stability operations. CJTF-7 leaders saw that additional forces would be required to

  18. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-08-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population.

  19. Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

    2008-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa.

  20. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.