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Sample records for length width weight

  1. Body Weight, Carapace Length and Width Relationship and Condition Factor of the Mud Crab Scylla serrata (Forskal in Mangrove Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvabhowma Chakravarty MYLA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of length-weight and width-weight of the carapace and the relative condition factor of mud crab Scylla serrata from Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andhra Pradesh, India was the subject of present study. Significant difference in both males and females was observed between carapace length-weight, carapace width-weight with a linear relationship. The regression values of both the sexes were found to be statistically significant. The regression equations calculated for length-weight were W= 0.00000178 L 3.1139 (r= 0.95 for males, W= 0.00000520 L 2.8056 (r=0.94 for females and for sexes combined it was W = 0.0000297 L 2.9891(r= 0.94. In case of carapace width-weight relationship of males, females and sexes combined the regression equations were W= 0.00000121 CW 3.0426 (r= 0.92, W= 0.00000178 CW 2.775 (r=0.93 and W = 0.00000204 CW 2.9210(r= 0.92 respectively. The male crabs showed positive allometric growth whereas female had negative allometric growth. Analysis of covariance confirmed remarkable difference between males and females in the growth pattern. The mean relative condition factor (Kn values of both males and females and of the pooled sexes ranged from 0.680 (April to 1.029 (November. A gradual raise in Kn values was observed from small- to big- sized crabs in both the sexes. Peak values were observed in 12.0-13.9 cm size group in November.

  2. Observations on the Carapace Length-Width and Carapace Width-Weight Relationships of the Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus Pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Bahraini Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rumaidh, Mohammed Juma; Yule, A. B.; Walker, G.

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the biometric relationships of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus from Bahraini waters have been undertaken in the present investigation in order to understand the growth pattern of this species in terms of carapace-width (CL-CW) and carapace width-weight (CW-Wt.) relationships, in this part of the world. From the (759) male and (1,233) female crabs that were collected from the offshore study region from October to November 1999, data have indicated that that slopes of (CL-CW) relationships are found to be similar in both genders. The average slopes for crabs in area (A) and (B) had exhibited an isometric growth with (CW) being (1.7) times (CL). The slope recorded or area (C) proved to be significantly less than (1), indicating an allometric growth with (CW) getting relatively longer in bigger crabs. As for the (CW-wt.) relationship, the total of (2,070) male and (3,005) female crabs, which were collected over a period of (14) months (i.e. March 1999-April 2000) showed that males are heavier than females at (2) cms (CW), becoming more so above (6) (CW). Male exponents varied significantly between study areas and from one month to another, unlike those for females which are found to be similar across the study areas and months, except for area (B), June 1999, where the exponent was at its lowest at (2.71). The higher of exponents of males thought most of the study period indicate their better condition over females. Both genders were found to be heavier during the Summer months, i.e. May-September. However, male and female slopes for (CW-CL) and many other exponents for (CW-Wt.) exhibited small differences which prove statistically significant. This is attributed to the large number of observations that make small differences significant, yet biological significance may be less obvious. (author)

  3. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  4. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Length-weight measurements were taken from well-preserved fish specimens from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as index of relative importance. The length-frequency analysis showed a size distribution with a ...

  5. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  6. Modeling wildland fire containment with uncertain flame length and fireline width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain Mees; David Strauss; Richard Chase

    1993-01-01

    We describe a mathematical model for the probability that a fireline succeeds in containing a fire. The probability increases as the fireline width increases, and also as the fire's flame length decreases. More interestingly, uncertainties in width and flame length affect the computed containment probabilities, and can thus indirectly affect the optimum allocation...

  7. Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild catfish Mystus bleekeri from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan. ... Linear regression analysis was used, first to compute the degree of relationship between length and weight and then among total (TL), standard (SL) and fork lengths (FL). LWR exhibited a highly ...

  8. 16 CFR 500.12 - Measurement of commodities by length and width, how expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... square foot (929 cm2) be expressed in terms of length and width in linear measure. The customary inch... of 1 square foot (929 cm2) or more, but less than 4 square feet (37.1 dm2), be expressed in terms of... (10.16 cm) or less, the declaration of net quantity shall be expressed in terms of width and length in...

  9. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  10. Relationship between width and length ratios of upper anterior teeth in young Chilean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Troncoso-Pazos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge about the size and proportion of upper anterior teeth allows dental rehabilitation taking into consideration the local parameters of a population. The aim of this research is to determine the width, length and the relationship between width and length of central incisor, lateral incisor and canine teeth in both sexes in young Chilean population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed. Study subjects included 187 dentistry students from two Chilean cities (mean age 21.35±2.7 years, 52.9% men. The teeth width and height were measured and the width/height ratio was calculated. Differences in measurements according to sex was analyzed (p<0.05; STATA v.10.0. Results: The width and height of the teeth were statistically and proportionally larger in men (p<0.05. The width/height ratio of lateral and canine incisors was significantly higher in women (p<0.05. Conclusion: In a sample of young Chileans, upper anterior teeth were longer and wider in men. However, the width/height ratio of teeth was found to be significantly higher in women.

  11. Effect of serial extraction alone on crowding: relationships between tooth width, arch length, and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, T; Matsumoto, Y; Suzuki, J; Sato, N; Oguchi, H

    1999-12-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of serial extraction alone on crowding. We also investigated the relationships between tooth width, arch length, and irregularity index. Maxillary dental casts from 32 subjects who had undergone only serial extraction were analyzed at 3 stages: before deciduous canines extraction, after first premolars extraction, and at the end of the observation period. The mean of the irregularity index decreased significantly as serial extraction proceeded and further decreased during the observation period. In cases where the width of the incisor was more than 2 standard deviations above the means for the control subjects, there was a significant correlation between tooth width of the lateral incisors and irregularity index before extraction as well as a significant correlation between the summation of tooth widths of the central and lateral incisors and irregularity index at that time. There was a significant negative correlation between arch length discrepancy and irregularity index before extraction and also a significant correlation between arch length discrepancy and correction of the irregularity index from before deciduous canines extraction to after first premolars extraction. These results suggest that tooth width and arch length discrepancy might preferentially affect the degree of anterior crowding in cases of severe crowding. There was no aggravation of the average crowding level during the observation period in the present study. The present study quantitatively suggested that serial extraction was useful for the purpose of correcting crowding in most cases.

  12. Linear intra-bone geometry dependencies of the radius: Radius length determination by maximum distal width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, S.F.; Krusche-Mandl, I.; Huf, W.; Mall, G.; Fialka, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate possible linear intra-bone geometry dependencies by determining the relation between the maximum radius length and maximum distal width in two independent populations and test for possible gender or age effects. A strong correlation can help develop more representative fracture models and osteosynthetic devices as well as aid gender and height estimation in anthropologic/forensic cases. Methods: First, maximum radius length and distal width of 100 consecutive patients, aged 20–70 years, were digitally measured on standard lower arm radiographs by two independent investigators. Second, the same measurements were performed ex vivo on a second cohort, 135 isolated, formalin fixed radii. Standard descriptive statistics as well as correlations were calculated and possible gender age influences tested for both populations separately. Results: The radiographic dataset resulted in a correlation of radius length and width of r = 0.753 (adj. R 2 = 0.563, p 2 = 0.592) and side no influence on the correlation. Radius length–width correlation for the isolated radii was r = 0.621 (adj. R 2 = 0.381, p 2 = 0.598). Conclusion: A relatively strong radius length–distal width correlation was found in two different populations, indicating that linear body proportions might not only apply to body height and axial length measurements of long bones but also to proportional dependency of bone shapes in general.

  13. CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENTRATION LENGTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GROEBNER, R.J.; MAHDAVI, M.A.; LEONARD, A.W.; OSBORNE, T.H.; WOLF, N.S.; PORTER, G.D.; STANGEBY, P.C.; BROOKS, N.H.; COLCHIN, R.J.; HEIDBRINK, W.W.; LUCE, T.C.; MCKEE, G.R.; OWEN, L.W.; WANG, G.; WHYTE, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENTRATION LENGTH. Pedestal studies in DIII-D find a good correlation between the width of the region of steep gradient in the H-mode density and the neutral penetration length. These results are obtained by comparing experimental density profiles to the predictions of an analytic model for the profile, obtained from the particle continuity equations for electrons and deuterium atoms. In its range of validity (edge temperature between 40-500 eV), the analytic model quantitatively predicts the observed decrease of the width as the pedestal density increases, the observed strong increase of the gradient of the density as the pedestal density increases and the observation that L-mode and H-mode profiles with the same pedestal density have very similar shapes. The width of the density barrier, measured from the edge of the electron temperature barrier, is the lower limit for the observed width of the temperature barrier. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling provides a dominant control for the size of the H-mode transport barrier

  14. Effect of Channel Length and Width on NBTI in Ultra Deep Sub-Micron PMOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan-Rong; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hao, Yue; Tian, Wen-Chao

    2010-03-01

    The effects of channel length and width on the degradation of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) are studied. With the channel length decreasing, the NBTI degradation increases. As the channel edges have more damage and latent damage for the process reasons, the device can be divided into three parts: the gate and source overlap region, the middle channel region, and the gate and drain overlap region. When the NBTI stress is applied, the non-uniform distribution of the generated defects in the three parts will be generated due to the inhomogeneous degradation. With the decreasing channel length, the channel edge regions will take up a larger ratio to the middle channel region and the degradation of NBTI is enhanced. The channel width also plays an important role in the degradation of NBTI. There is an inflection point during the decreasing channel width. There are two particular factors: the lower vertical electric field effect for the thicker gate oxide thickness of the shallow trench isolation (STI) edge and the STI mechanical stress effecting on the NBTI degradation. The former reduces and the latter intensifies the degradation. Under the mutual compromise of the both factors, when the effect of the STI mechanical stress starts to prevail over the lower vertical electric field effect with the channel width decreasing, the inflection point comes into being.

  15. Entry zone of iliac screw fixation to maintain proper entry width and screw length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-An; Kwak, Dai-Soon; You, Sung-Lim

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the entry zone of iliac screw fixation to maintain proper entry width and screw length. Computed tomography images of pelvic bones from 90 human cadavers were reconstructed into 3-dimensional models. In each model, a sectional image crossing the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) and consecutive sectional images up to 20 mm superiorly and inferiorly from the PSIS with 1-mm intervals aiming the AIIS were obtained. One virtual iliac screw with 10-mm diameter was introduced onto the PSIS at the middle and at the lateral and medial 1/4 points on the prominence of the posterior iliac spine. The entry width of the bony prominence and the corresponding maximal screw length available were evaluated for each entry point. The entry width was smallest on the inferior 20 mm (4.7 ± 3.0 mm) and gradually increased up to the superior 10 mm (19.1 ± 3.9 mm) sectional images. The maximal screw length was smallest on the superior 20 mm (76.7 ± 39.7 mm) and gradually increased down to the inferior 10 mm (112.3 ± 15.1 mm) sectional images. The maximal screw lengths were significantly greatest at the most medial point and smallest at the most lateral point on the superior 20- and 10-mm sectional images and at the PSIS. The iliac screw fixation entry zone to maintain proper screw length and entry width is outlined from 20 mm superiorly to 10 mm inferiorly from the PSIS and is located more medially from the prominence of the posterior iliac spine.

  16. An analysis of variance of the pubertal and midgrowth spurts for length and width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, A; Gasser, T; Molinari, L; Largo, R H

    1999-01-01

    Using data from the first Zurich Longitudinal Growth Study characteristics of the growth of six variables--bihumeral width, biiliac width, standing height, sitting height, leg height and arm length--are studied. The main interest is in differences between boys and girls, and across variables and in particular in whether there are sex differences that are specific for some variables. For each child and variable, individual velocity and acceleration curves are estimated using a kernal smoother. From these curves, parameters characterizing the midgrowth spurt (MS) and the pubertal spurt (PS) are estimated: timings, durations and intensities. The level of childhood velocity is used for characterizing early growth. These parameters are analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the statistical significance of differences between boys and girls and across variables. This necessitates some kind of standardization and two types of standardization are used here. The MS shows negligible or small differences between boys and girls, and the same is true for velocity in childhood. Differences across variables during the MS are much more pronounced: with respect to intensity, bihumeral width has an MS about six times more intense than height. The PS is later for boys (as is well known), and there are significant differences across variables: bihumeral width and sitting height are late while legs are early. With the exception of biiliac width, the duration of the PS (which has been subdivided into three phases-early, middle and late) is slightly longer for boys for all variables: boys have a longer starting phase, the middle phase is about equal in length for both boys and girls, and girls have a slightly longer late phase. Leg height and height experience a PS of short duration while bihumeral and biiliac width experience a long one and these differences are highly statistically significant. For all variables, with the exception of biiliac width

  17. Two- and three-dimensional CT measurements of urinary calculi length and width: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Mats; Thunberg, Per; Broxvall, Mathias; Geijer, Håkan

    2015-04-01

    The standard imaging procedure for a patient presenting with renal colic is unenhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT measured size has a close correlation to the estimated prognosis for spontaneous passage of a ureteral calculus. Size estimations of urinary calculi in CT images are still based on two-dimensional (2D) reformats. To develop and validate a calculus oriented three-dimensional (3D) method for measuring the length and width of urinary calculi and to compare the calculus oriented measurements of the length and width with corresponding 2D measurements obtained in axial and coronal reformats. Fifty unenhanced CT examinations demonstrating urinary calculi were included. A 3D symmetric segmentation algorithm was validated against reader size estimations. The calculus oriented size from the segmentation was then compared to the estimated size in axial and coronal 2D reformats. The validation showed 0.1 ± 0.7 mm agreement against reference measure. There was a 0.4 mm median bias for 3D estimated calculus length compared to 2D (P calculus in axial and coronal reformats becomes underestimated compared to 3D if its orientation is not aligned to the image planes. Future studies aiming to correlate calculus size with patient outcome should use a calculus oriented size estimation. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Length, width and centroid distance as measures of teams tactical performance in youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgado, Hugo; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Frencken, Wouter; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Small-sided games are commonly used in training and teaching contexts of football. However, few studies have focused on the tactical implications of this type of drills. The aim of this study is to identify how tactical collective behaviour varies with age in different small-sided game formats. We investigated the in-game field position in three different age groups of youth football players [under-9 (n=10; age = 8.5 ± 0.53), under-11 (n=10; age = 10.4 ± 0.52) and under-13 (n=10; age = 12.7 ± 0.48)], participating in two different small-sided game conditions (GK + 3 × 3 + GK and GK + 4 × 4 + GK). A team variable was created based on the players' length per width ratio (lpwratio), and a match variable was calculated as the distance between the centroid of the two teams. Results show that team variable values were influenced by the age of the players, as younger teams tend to present a higher value of lpwratio in their dispersion on the pitch. The variability of this variable also showed a decrease for teams with older players, suggesting a more consistent application of the width (stretching and creating space) and concentration (compressing into a confined area) principles of play and reflecting a higher level of collective tactical behaviour. Match variable showed a larger centroid distance for the older age groups in comparison with the younger players in the GK + 3 × 3 + GK, while all age groups demonstrated similar large centroid distances in the GK + 4 × 4 + GK game format. These results suggest that length and width ratio and centroid distance are useful measures of tactical performance in small-sided games in youth football.

  19. Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor (K constant) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Length-weight relationships and condition factors of Sparidae along the. Kenyan coast are unknown. This study investigated the length-weight relationship and condition factor of Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes, 1830, a sparid, found in. Malindi, Kenya, from June to August 2008. The length-weight coefficients ...

  20. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data Collection and Analysis. The measurements of length (cm), weight (g) and the condition factor of individual fish sampled were recorded. The relationship between length and weight of the fish was examined by simple linear regression using WINKS software. The variations in the length-weight represented by 'b' were.

  1. Length-weight relationship of Giant Oyster, Crassostrea gyphoides (Schlotheim)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Relationship between shell length and total weight, shell weight and meat weight of giant oyster, Crassostrea gryphoides revealed that the growth of these parameters is very fast and significant. It indicates the suitability of the species concerned...

  2. Length weight relationship, food and feeding habits and condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length weight relationship, food and feeding habit and condition factor of Synodontis melanoptera and Synodontis courtetti from Lower River were investigated. The results show that total length, weight and condition factor of S. melanoptera male ranged from 25.50-47.00cm, 100.00-955.00g and 0.39-1.82. Total length ...

  3. Applications of the scoliosis width-to-length ratio for guiding selection of the surgical approaches of degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuan-jie; Yang, Yong-jun; Zhou, Ji-ping; Yao, Shu-qiang; Yang, Kai; Wu, Rui; Tan, Yuan-chao

    2016-02-01

    There does not exist a comprehensive parameter for guiding selection of short or long segment fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS). The aim of our study was to investigate the applications of the width-to-length ratio in guiding selection of the surgical approaches for DLS. A retrospective analysis was performed of 142 patients with DLS who underwent operative treatments from July 2000 to January 2012. The scoliosis width-to-length ratios were measured and used as a grouping criterion of surgical approaches. The Oswestry disability index (ODI) was used to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Radiological parameters such as Cobb's angle of main curve, Cobb's angle of compensatory curve were all measured. For patients with width-to-length ratio less than 0.36, the short segment group had better short-term postoperative outcomes with regard to Cobb's angle of main curve, Cobb's angle of compensatory curve and ODI scores compared to the long segment group. However, for patients with width-to-length ratio greater than 0.36, the postoperative outcomes for the long segment group were better compared to the short segment group. The scoliosis width-to-length ratio can provide a comprehensive preoperative assessment of the severity of the DLS and guiding selection of a therapeutic treatment regimen. Further studies with a larger number of samples and longer term of follow up are warranted.

  4. The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longifilis and their reciprocal hybrids (Pisces: Clariidae) reared under ambient environmental conditions.

  5. Species abundance, length weight relationships of selected fishes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal abundance and length-weight relationships of 25 species of fish inhabiting the fresh water ecosystem of Mu river, - Fiidi-Makurdi were estimated from 441 specimens caught with different kinds of gears (set basket ... The parameters (a and b) of length -weight relationship of the form (a* Lb= VV) were estimated.

  6. Length- weight relationships, condition factor (K) and relative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationship and condition factors were estimated for Dentex congoensis and Dentex angolensis of the family sparidae trawled from Nigeria Coastal water in 2009. A total number of 534 specimens ranging from 7.2 – 3.0 cm in total length and 5.4 – 489.8 g in weight were analyzed. The lengthweight ...

  7. length-weight relationship of hepsetus odoe in lapai - agaie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Usman

    biometric relationship so that data collected from the field can be transform into appropriate indices (Ecoutin et al., 2005). Length and weight are two useful parameters used especially in fisheries assessment. This relationship known as length-weight relationship (LWR), is commonly used in the analysis of fisheries data.

  8. Length-Weight Relationship and Fecundity of Clarias Gariepinus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-Weight Relationship and Fecundity of Clarias Gariepinus in a Tropical Reservoir, Southwest, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... The linear relationship of length and weight of the C. gariepinus population showed isometric growth pattern with 'b' values being higher than 3.

  9. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-Weight relationship and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia Zillii were studiedin lake Alau and Monguno hatchery, both in Borno State of Nigeria, for a period of two weeks. A total of 98 C. gariepinus and 140. T. zillii were measured. The length-weight regression coefficient (b) for both fishes in lake Alau ...

  10. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationship and condition factor of 24 months samples of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Herklots, 1857, from the Lagos – Lekki lagoon system were estimated. The parameters a and b of the length-weight relationship were -4.72 and 2.92 for male while the corresponding female values were -4.98 and 3.01.

  11. Probabilistic linear widths of Sobolev space with Jacobi weights on [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuebo; Hu, Xiuyan

    2017-01-01

    Optimal asymptotic orders of the probabilistic linear [Formula: see text]-widths of [Formula: see text] of the weighted Sobolev space [Formula: see text] equipped with a Gaussian measure ν are established, where [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], denotes the [Formula: see text] space on [Formula: see text] with respect to the measure [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text].

  12. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men...... birth weight and adult height; for subjects with birth weight or = 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm. A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. For subjects with birth length ... adult height was 175.2 cm, increasing to 184.3 cm at birth length > 56 cm. The associations between birth length and adult height persisted after adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, and other confounders, while the associations between birth weight and adult height almost disappeared when...

  13. Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on different body weight chickens. HM Yang, W Wang, ZY Wang, J Wang, YJ Cao, YH Chen. Abstract. This experiment was conducted to compare the difference of digestibility on different body weight chickens. Twenty-seven (27) 58-week-old New Yangzhou ...

  14. Morphometric Characteristics and Length-Weight Relationship of Russian Sturgeon Juveniles Fed with Different Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cristina ANDREI(GURIENCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze some morphometric characteristics and the correlation between them for Russian sturgeon juveniles (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii reared in a recirculating aquaculture system fed at different fed with different ratio: 1% body weight (BW, 1.5% BW, 2% BW and ad libitum feeding (which was around 2.8% BW.Fish, with an average body mass around 248.194 ± 1.59 g. Following biometric measurements were made for each fish, including weight (W, total length (TL, standard length (SL, fork length (FL, maximum body depth (last depth of caudal peduncle, H; preanal distance (AD, predorsal distance (PD, length of head (C, preorbital distance (PO, length of pectoral fin (LPF, interorbital distance (ID, maximum width of head (MH, width of mouth (WM, width of the head at the level of the mouth (WHM. The obtained results showed significant differences between all morphometric measurements (p<0.05 for all the experimental variants, emphasizing that in the ad libitum feeding all morphometric measurements were significantly higher than in the other experimental variants. In order to highlight more eloquent these differences, were developed some linear regressions between the morphometric measurements and significant positive correlation (p<0.05 between dependent and independent variables were found.

  15. Effects of word width and word length on optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eTeramoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of 4 Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 3.0° and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces. Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word. Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (3, 4, and 6 character words. Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length.

  16. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length-weight relationship calculated for the species gave an average “b” value of 1.0943 which is an indication of negative allometric growth. The fish attained an average length of 44.7 cm and weight of 150.2 g. The Condition factor varied from 0.10 to 0.19 with a mean of 0.15±0.02. This result showed that the rivers ...

  17. Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lengthweight relationship of Clarias anguillaris (Fam: Claridae) in Kontagora Reservoir, Niger State, Nigeria, was studied from January, 2007 - December, 2007. The fish species was obtained using a fleet of graded gill nets comprising of nine multi filament gill nets mesh sizes. The parameters a and b of the Length ...

  18. Length-Weight Relationships Of Fishes From Anambra River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distributions of b and In a were normal and the correlation between them was negative (r = -0.864) and highly significant. STR permits conversion of standard to total length of each population. Keywords: Length-weight relationships, fishes, Anambra river. Animal Research International Vol. 1 (1) 2004: pp. 1-6 ...

  19. Length-Weight Relationships and Food Preference of Two Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight measurements were taken from well-preserved fish specimens from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as index of relative importance. The length-frequency analysis showed a size distribution with a ...

  20. Length-Weight Relationship And Condition Factor Of The Elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 791 elephant fish, Mormyrus rume specimens of various sizes were sampled from River Ose, southwestern Ngera. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of the M rume specimens were studied. Their standard lengths ranged from 15.0 to 45.0 cm. Mean standard lengthfor males, females and combined sex ...

  1. Length-weight relationship, breeding season, sex ratio, maturity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationship, breeding season, sex ratio, maturity and fecundity of the Nile catfish Synodontis schall (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) (Pisces: Mochokidae) in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia. ... The average number of eggs g-1 of ovary (preserved wet weight) ranged from 983 to 3,797 with a mean of 1,847 eggs g-1.

  2. Length-Biased Weighted Lomax Distribution: Statistical Properties and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of length-biased distribution can be employed in development of proper models for lifetime data. Length-biased distribution is a special case of the more general form known as weighted distribution. In this paper we introduce a new class of length-biased weighted Lomax distribution, (LBWLD. The statistical properties of this distribution are derived and the model parameters are estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and the observed information matrix is determined. An application to real data set is finally presented for illustration.

  3. Length-weight relationships of fishes from South African estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, TD

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available in the ?eld, measured to the nearest mm SL and weighed to the nearest 1.0g using a Bonso model 323 balance (Bonso Electronics Intl, Hong Kong). The length?weight relationships of all species collected were determined by the expression w ? alb, where w...

  4. Segregation for seed weight, pod length and days to flowering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the segregation of the F3 (early generation) and F6 (late generation) families for seed weight, pod length and days to flowering among cowpea inter-sub-specific crosses. A wide range of segregants were provided in this cross and families were highly significantly different in the ...

  5. Length-Weight Relationship And Condition Factor Of Distichodus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... males and females of other species The condition factor also demonstrated interseasonal variability in all the species. The importance of condition factor in the breeding activities o Distichodus species is discussed. Keywords: Distichodus, Length-weight relationships, Condition factor. Animal Research International Vol.

  6. Length-Weight Relationship and Growth Parameters of Grey Mullets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grey mullet populations in the rivers Pra and Volta estuaries in Ghana were studied to provide information on their length-weight relationship and growth parameters. Fish samples were collected monthly for 18 months from local fishermen using cast net, drag net and gill nets. Six species of grey mullets were identified: ...

  7. The Length-Weight Relationship, Condition Factor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples for reproductive study were preserved in ice box and were taking to the laboratory of the Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Njala University, Sierra Leone for analysis. The parameters "a" ... The r – values obtained show a strong linear relationship between the length and weight of the species.

  8. breeding season, length-weight relationship and condition factor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    biologia, Suppl. Bd. 69:411–441. 16. Shibru Tedla and Fisseha H. Meskel (1981). Introduc- tion and transplantation of freshwater fish spe- cies in Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci. 4:69–72. 17. Siddiqui, A.Q. (1977). Reproductive biology, length- weight relationship and relative condition of Ti- lapia leucostica (Trewavas) in ...

  9. Length-weight relationship, diet composition and condition factor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently food item consumed by C. laticeps was algae (85.90%) while insect part (20.12 %) had the least. Numerically, algae (37.24 %) had the highest while digested food particles (6.90%) was the least food item consumed. Keywords: Length-weight, Diet composition, Clarotes laticeps, Condition factor and ...

  10. Lengthweight relationships and condition factor of Pellonula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lengthweight relationships and condition factor of Pellonula leonensis in the lower non river, Niger delta, Nigeria. T Kingdom, ME Allison. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (4) 2007: pp. 330-334. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  11. Length-Weight relationships of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea gasar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length-weight relationships (LWRs) of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea gasar, cultured under continuous and periodic submergence in tidal ponds, for a period of seven months, February to August 2010 were determined. A total of 375 individuals each of pond A (continuous submergence) and B (periodic submergence) ...

  12. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Tilapia guineensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, T. guineensis exhibited sexual dimorphism with sex ratio of 1.2:1.0 which was significantly biased in favour of the females. The length-weight relationship showed negative allometric growth, with b= 2.01. Moreover, T. guineensis had a very high condition factor which ranged between 2.03-2.32 in both male and female ...

  13. Length-weight Relationships and Condition Factor of Tilapia zillii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length-weight relationship (LWR) and condition factor (K) of Tilapia zillii from River Orogodo was studied. A total of 569 specimens used in this study were caught with traditional fishing gears from January 2006 to December, 2007. Overall, the allometric coefficient, b of the LWR was found to be negative (b< 3) for both ...

  14. Generation of Length Distribution, Length Diagram, Fibrogram, and Statistical Characteristics by Weight of Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azzouz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.

  15. Do implant length and width matter for short dental implants (<10 mm)? A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Fu, Jia-Hui; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Suarez, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2013-12-01

    This meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials was conducted to determine the effects of dental implant length and width on implant survival rate of short (implants. An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant studies published in English from November 1998 to March 2012 was performed. Selected studies were randomized clinical trials, human clinical trials, or prospective trials with a clear aim of investigating the success or survival rate of short (implants. Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. A total of 525 short (implants were analyzed, of which 253 were 3.5 mm in diameter (48.19%), 151 were 4.0 mm (28.76%), 90 were 4.1 mm (17.14%), 21 were 4.8 mm (4%), and 10 were 5.1 mm (1.9%). All implants included in this meta-analysis had a follow-up period of 12 to 72 months. The included studies reported on the survival rate and diameter of the implants. Six of the studies used "short implants" (7 to 9 mm), and the remaining were classified as "extra-short implants" (≤ 6 mm). Five-year estimated failure rates were 1.61% and 2.92%, respectively, for extra-short and short implants (z = -3.49, P implant, the higher the failure rate (estimated failure rate = 2.36%, 95% confidence interval = 1.07% to 5.23%). Neither implant length nor width seemed to significantly affect the survival rate of short implants (<10 mm). Nonetheless, further well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY IN THE OTOLITH WIDTH AND LENGTH OF ADULT TELEOST (Beryx splendens LOWE, 1834 (FAMILY: BERCIDAE COLLECTED FROM THE ARABIAN SEA COASTS OF SULTANATE OF OMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Albusaidi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry was described for the otolith width and length of adult teleost Beryx splendens. The results showed that the level of asymmetry of the otolith width was the highest among the two asymmetry values obtained for the otolith of B. splendens. For the otolith width character, the results showed that the level of asymmetry at its highest value in fish ranging in length between 191–200 mm and in its lowest value in fish ranging in length between 121–180 mm. For the otolith length, the highest value of asymmetry is noticed in fish ranging in length between 231–244 mm and the lowest value in fish within the length of 121–190 mm. The possible cause of the asymmetry in this species has been discussed in relation to different pollutants and their presence in the area. No trend of increase in the asymmetry values with the fish length was noticed for the otolith width, but there is a weak trend of increase with the fish length in case of otolith length character.

  17. Tuning the electronic properties by width and length modifications of narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes for nanomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2012-10-01

    The distinctive characteristics of nanoparticles, resulting from properties that arise at the nano-scale, underlie their potential applications in the biomedical sector. However, the very same characteristics also result in widespread concerns about the potentially toxic effects of nanoparticles. Given the large number of nanoparticles that are being developed for possible biomedical use, there is a need to develop rapid screening methods based on in silico methods. This study illustrates the application of conceptual Density Functional Theory (DFT) to some carbon nanotubes (CNTs) optimized by means of static DFT calculations. The computational efforts are focused on the geometry of a family of packed narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed by units from four to twelve carbons evaluating the strength of the C-C bonds by means of Mayer Bond Orders (MBO). Thus, width and length are geometrical features that might be used to tune the electronic properties of the CNTs. At infinite length, partial semi-conductor characteristics are expected. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

  18. Relationships among the contact patch length and width, the tire deflection and the rolling resistance of a free-running wheel in a soil bin facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaraee, P.; Mardani, A.; Mohebbi, A.; Taghavifar, H.

    2015-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of contact patch length-rolling resistance, contact patch width-rolling resistance and tire deflection-rolling resistance at different wheel load and inflation pressure levels is presented. The experiments were planned in a randomized block design and were conducted in the controlled conditions provided by a soil bin environment utilizing a well-equipped single wheel-tester of Urmia University, Iran. The image processing technique was used for determination of the contact patch length and contact patch width. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the correlations. The highest values of contact length and width and tire deflection occurred at the highest wheel load and lowest tire inflation pressure. Contact patch width is a polynomial (order 2) function of wheel load while there is a linear relationship between tire contact length and wheel load as well as between tire deflection and wheel load. Correlations were developed for the evaluation of contact patch length-rolling resistance, contact patch width-rolling resistance and tire deflection-rolling resistance. It is concluded that the variables studied have a significant effect on rolling resistance. (Author)

  19. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with leptin

  20. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    A parabolic relationship was obtained while studying the length-weight relationship of the postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. The b value (multiplying constant) showed that in the laboratory reared penaeid prawns, length-weight relationship strictly...

  1. Effects of preservation method on length and weight of pond raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length and weight measurements of fish used for taxonomy and determination of length-weight relationship are taken from preserved specimen. This study sets out to investigate the effects of two preservatives, 70% alcohol and 10% formalin and freezing method on the length and weight of preserved specimens of tilapia ...

  2. A note on the length-weight relationship in dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Length-weight relationship in Coryphaena hippurus almost follows the cube law and the weight of the fish increases more than the square of the length. The value of 'b' was higher in males as compared to females. The equations for length-weight...

  3. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Tor putitora. M. F. C. 2.76. 2.86. 2.85. Naeem et al. (2011) b = Slope; M = Male; F = Female; C = Combined Sex. Table 3. Morphometric relationships between total length (TL), fork length (FL) and standard length (SL) in cm for Mystus bleekeri collected from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan. Sex n. Equation.

  4. Automatic landslide length and width estimation based on the geometric processing of the bounding box and the geomorphometric analysis of DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculiţǎ, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The morphology of landslides is influenced by the slide/flow of the material downslope. Usually, the distance of the movement of the material is greater than the width of the displaced material (especially for flows, but also the majority of slides); the resulting landslides have a greater length than width. In some specific geomorphologic environments (monoclinic regions, with cuesta landforms type) or as is the case for some types of landslides (translational slides, bank failures, complex landslides), for the majority of landslides, the distance of the movement of the displaced material can be smaller than its width; thus the landslides have a smaller length than width. When working with landslide inventories containing both types of landslides presented above, the analysis of the length and width of the landslides computed using usual geographic information system techniques (like bounding boxes) can be flawed. To overcome this flaw, I present an algorithm which uses both the geometry of the landslide polygon minimum oriented bounding box and a digital elevation model of the landslide topography for identifying the long vs. wide landslides. I tested the proposed algorithm for a landslide inventory which covers 131.1 km2 of the Moldavian Plateau, eastern Romania. This inventory contains 1327 landslides, of which 518 were manually classified as long and 809 as wide. In a first step, the difference in elevation of the length and width of the minimum oriented bounding box is used to separate long landslides from wide landslides (long landslides having the greatest elevation difference along the length of the bounding box). In a second step, the long landslides are checked as to whether their length is greater than the length of flow downslope (estimated with a flow-routing algorithm), in which case the landslide is classified as wide. By using this approach, the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve value for the classification of the long vs. wide

  5. Correlation between Umbilical Cord Length, Birth Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The umbilical cord and placenta have been considered to significantly contribute to the perinatal outcome. However, in our environment attempt at exploring its use has been limited due to sociocultural believes. This study aimed to identify the relationship between the umbilical cord length, newborn length and ...

  6. Length-weight relationships for fishes off the southwestern coast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationships are presented for 24 fish species representing 12 families captured monthly from February 2009 to March 2010, off the southwestern coast of Taiwan. 12 of these species are documented in fishbase, but no length-weight relationships were available. One record of maximum length was recorded.

  7. A study of the lengthweight relationship and condition factor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.1145 (March). Pseudotolithus elongatus exhibited an allometric growth. There was a positive correlation between length and weight of both sexes. P. elongatus was also in a good condition. Keywords: Fish, length–weight relationship, condition ...

  8. 6 Length-Weight Relationship and Growth.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    conversion of an equation of growth in length into an equation of growth in ... suggesting allometric growth. Except L. dumerilli, L¥ .... allometric growth. Growth parameters. Fig. 2a shows estimation of growth parameters using Wetherall's method for M. bananensis from the Volta estuary, providing estimate of L¥ as 20.5 cm ...

  9. 6. Length-Weight Relationships, Condition Factor and Fecundity of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    No relationship between egg size and carapace length was found. There was no significant difference (P > 0.01) in condition factors between the sexes. Introduction. Crab culture is yet to be developed in. Nigeria, with the vast number of crabs present in both marine and freshwater bodies (Bello-Olusoji et al., 2006).

  10. CT effective dose per dose length product using ICRP 103 weighting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Walter; Magill, Dennise; He, Wenjun

    2011-03-01

    To generate effective dose per unit dose length product (E/DLP) conversion factors incorporating ICRP Publication 103 tissue weighting factors. Effective doses for CT examinations were obtained using the IMPACT Dosimetry Calculator using all 23 dose data sets that are offered by this spreadsheet. CT examinations were simulated for scans performed along the patient long axis for each dosimetry data set using a 4 cm beam width ranging from the upper thighs to top of the head. Five basic body regions (head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis), as well as combinations of the regions (head/neck, chest/abdomen, abdomen/ pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis) and whole body CT scans were investigated. Correction factors were generated that can be applied to convert E/DLP conversion factors based on ICRP 60 data to conversion factors that are valid for ICRP 103 data (i.e., E103/E60). Use of ICRP 103 weighting factors increase effective doses for head scans by approximately 11%, for chest scans by approximately 20%, and decrease effective doses for pelvis scans by approximately 25%. Current E/DLP conversion factors are estimated to be 2.4 microSv/mGy cm for head CT examinations and range between 14 and 20 microSv/mGy cm for body CT examinations. Factors that enable patient CT doses to be adjusted to account for ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors are provided, which result in E/DLP factors that were increased in head and chest CT, reduced in pelvis CT, and showed no marked change in neck and abdomen CT.

  11. length -weight relationship and condition factor in the polyculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... The fish were fed at 3% body weight per day. (BWD) over a period of 84 days. The monoculture of ... can give information on the stock composition, age at maturity, life span, mortality, growth and production ... gain and the feeding frequency in all the treatments was twice daily. The total feed fed per day was.

  12. Seasonal variations in length - weight relationships of the grey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slope (b) and R2 obtained were within range except in the month of October and November, which were significantly (p< 0.05) lower than all other months. Keywords: Mullets, Liza falcipinnis, length–weight relationship, creek, Niger Delta International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 5(4): 334-337, 2009 ...

  13. Comparative study of intestine length, weight and digestibility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... cottonseeds depress protein digestibility and intestinal uptakes of dietary (Selle et al., 2010). Feeding slowly digestible starch can improve protein and energy utilization in broiler chickens (Weurding et al., 2003). Many researchers have indicated correlation of body weight (BW) with other parameters ...

  14. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight.We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data.Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds.Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth

  15. Core Length and Spray Width Measurements in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) M. D...behavior. To overcome the problems of multiple scattering, the near-injector region was studied using x-ray radiography at Argonne National Laboratory’s...and understand more clearly what this term means. Three methods are explored to measure core length from x-ray radiography data and are compared to

  16. Core Length and Spray Width Measurements in Shear Coaxial Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Injectors from X- ray Radiography Measurements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...behavior. To overcome the problems of multiple scattering, the near-injector region was studied using x-ray radiography at Argonne National...length” and understand more clearly what this term means. Three methods are explored to measure core length from x-ray radiography data and are

  17. Errors in Length-weight Parameters at FishBase.org

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Courtney; Simeon Cole-Fletcher; Lucas Marin-Salcedo; Ajaya Rana

    2011-01-01

    Background: FishBase.org is an on-line database of fish related data that has been cited over 1500 times in the fisheries literature. Length-weight relationships in fish traditionally employ the model, W(L) = aL^b^, where L is length and W is weight. Parameters a and b are catalogued by FishBase for a large number of sources and species. FishBase.org detects outliers in a plot of log(a) vs. b to identify dubious length-weight parameters.

  18. Monitoring dose-length product in computed tomography of the chest considering sex and body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nagahara, Kazunori; Hayakawa, Naomichi; Hanawa, Hironori; Hata, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Dose-length product (DLP) is widely used as an indicator of the radiation dose in computed tomography. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of sex and body weight in DLP-based monitoring of the radiation dose. Eight hundred computed tomographies of the chest performed using four different scanners were analysed. The DLP was compared with body weight by linear regression in men and women separately. The DLP was positively correlated with body weight, and dependence on sex and weight differed among scanners. Standard DLP values adjusted for sex and weight facilitated inter-scanner comparison of the radiation dose and its dependence on sex and weight. Adjusting the DLP for sex and weight allowed one to identify examinations with possibly excessive doses independently of weight. Monitoring the DLP in relation to sex and body weight appears to aid detailed comparison of the radiation dose among imaging protocols and scanners and daily observations to find unexpected variance. (authors)

  19. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bechere Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018 and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight.

  20. Length-weight and Length-length Relationship of Longsnouted Catfish, Plicofollis argyropleuron (Valenciennes, 1840) in the Northern Part of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Nor Aziella Mohd; Isa, Mansor Mat

    2012-01-01

    Scanty information exists pertaining to the length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) parameters of longsnouted catfish, Plicofollis argyropleuron in lotic systems throughout the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. It is vital to reveal these biological properties of P. argyropleuron in Kuala Muda and Merbok estuary for future management and to increase knowledge about this fish stocks. The fish samples were randomly collected in the estuary area of Kuala Muda and Merbok, Kedah for 10 months from March 2009 to December 2009. The values of the exponent b in the LWR equations (W = aLb) were approximately 3, indicating an isometric growth with high correlation coefficient (r2). The value of LLR (r2>0.9) indicated that they are highly significant and highly correlated. These parameters are essential for evaluating the relative condition of fish and species managements as well as their fisheries and stock assessment. PMID:24575234

  1. Width-weight relationship and condition factor of Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ucididae at tropical mangroves of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina S.L.C. Araújo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims at evaluating the carapace width vs. humid weight relationship and the condition factor of Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763, in the mangrove forests of the Ariquindá and Mamucabas rivers, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. These two close areas present similar characteristics of vegetation and substrate, but exhibit different degrees of environmental conservation: the Ariquindá River is the preserved area, considered one of the last non-polluted of Pernambuco, while the Mamucabas River suffers impacts from damming, deforestation and deposition of waste. A total of 1,298 individuals of U. cordatus were collected. Males were larger and heavier than females, what is commonly observed in Brachyura. Ucides cordatus showed allometric negative growth (p < 0.05, which is probably related to the dilatation that this species develops in the lateral of the carapace, which stores six pairs of gills. The values of b were within the limit established for aquatic organisms. Despite of the condition factor being considered an important feature to confirm the reproductive period, since it varies with cyclic activities, in the present study it was not correlated to the abundance of ovigerous females. However, it was considered a good parameter to evaluate environmental impacts, being significantly lower at the impacted area.

  2. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  3. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  4. Automatic species recognition, length measurement and weight determination, using the CatchMeter computer vision system

    OpenAIRE

    Svellingen, Cato; Totland, Bjørn; White, Darren; Øvredal, Jan Tore

    2006-01-01

    The collection of biological data on species composition and individual length and weight of specimen has always been an important part of fisheries research. Traditionally, the collected information has been recorded on paper prior to being entered into a computer for analysis. Electronic measuring boards that record length measurements, such as the FishMeter (Øvredal and Totland, 2000), have made the data collection process more efficient and reliable. In this contribution we describe a vis...

  5. Live Weight Estimation by Chest Girth, Body Length and Body Volume Formula in Minahasa Local Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Takaendengan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted in the regency of Minahasa to estimate horse live weight using its chest girth, body length and body volume formula (cylinder volume formula represented by animal chest girth and body length dimensions, particularly focused in Minahasa local horses. Data on animal live weight (LW, body length (BL, chest girth (CG and body volume were collected from 221 stallions kept by traditional household farmers. Animal body volume was calculated using cylinder volume formula with CG and BL as the components of its formula. Regression analysis was carried out for LW with all the linear body measurements. The data were classified on the basis of age. Age significantly (P0.05. Animal live weight was predicted by simple regression models using dependent variable (Y of the animal live weight and independent variable (X of the animal body measurement, either body length, chest girth, or body volume. The correlations between all pairs of measurements were highly significant (P<0.01 for all age groups. Regression analysis showed that live weight could be predicted accurately from body volume (R2= 0.92 and chest girth (R2= 0.90. Simple regression model that can be recommended to predict horse live weight based on body volume with their age groups ranging from 3 to ≥10 years old was as follow: Live weight (kg= 5.044 + 1.87088 body volume (liters. The analyses of data on horse chest girth, body length and body volume formula provided quantitative measure of body size and shape that were desirable, as they enable genetic parameters for these traits to be estimated and also included in breeding programs.

  6. Effects of dietary protein levels on length-weight relationships and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trial involving different protein levels on length–weight relationships and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus was conducted in floating hapa system. Fingerlings (average weight, 4.50± 0.01g and average length, 8.0±0.2 cm) were randomly stocked at 20 fish/1m3. Five diets with crude protein: 40.0, 42.5, 45.0, 47.5 ...

  7. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  8. Body Weight Determination from Foot Outline Length among the Iban Population in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairunnisa Bt Mohd Anas K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foot impressions form a valuable physical evidence to solve crime. Foot impression measurements provide valuable information in estimating stature, weight, gender and age in crime scene investigation. In Asian countries, many people living in rural places walk without footwear. The aim of this research is to generate regression equations to determine living body weight from foot outline length among the Iban population of Malaysia. The study involved 200 (100 males, 100 females adult Ibans, mostly living in Sarawak, a state in   Malaysia. Following the standard procedure, the foot outlines were collected followed by body weight measurements and were recorded for analysis. The collected data were analysed with PASW 20 computer software. The correlation coefficient (R between the foot outline lengths and body weight was determined for males, females and pooled sample. Based on the foot outline and body weight, 30 regression equations were generated, 10 for males, 10 for females and 10 for pooled samples/unknown gender. The correlation coefficient (R values were positive and statistically significant. It is concluded that the present investigation provided regression equations to determine body weight from foot outline anthropometry. These equations can be used to determine body weight even when partial foot impressions are available at crime scenes.   Keywords: Forensic Science, Body Weight, Foot Outline, Iban Population, Malaysia

  9. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  10. Length-weight relationships and food and feeding habits of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length-weight relationship of the commonly caught species of characids; Brycinus leuciscus, Hydrocynus vittatus, Alestes baremoze, and Brycinus macrolepidotus is provided in this study along with their percentage relative frequency of food groups. There were positive estimates for coefficient of correlation (r2) of ...

  11. Length weight relationship of Sufflamen fraenatus (Latreille, 1804) and Zenodon niger (Ruppell, 1835)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahayak, S.

    The relationship between total length and total weight in balistids is not significantly different in males and females. The common equation for both the sexes in Sufflamen fraenatus is Log W= -9.0429+2.7296 log L or W=0.000000000905 L sup(2...

  12. Length-weight relationships for 13 fish species from the Gulf of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for 13 fish species which are of economic relevance in the commercial fisheries of the Gulf of Gabes (southern Tunisia). A total of 2403 fish specimens were sampled with several fishing gears from October 2008 to September 2009. The sample size ranged from 65 ...

  13. Length-weight relationships of the pink shrimp penaeus notialis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred indigenous pink shrimps, Penaeus notialis and 19 exotic giant tiger Shrimps, P. monodon from Buguma Creek were caught in brackish water tidal ponds of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Buguma in April, May and June 2005. The length-weight relationship of both species ...

  14. Effects of climatic conditions on annual shoot length and tree-ring width of alpine dwarf pine Pinus pumila in central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Aoki, Keigo

    2015-07-01

    This study compared the effects of climatic conditions on annual shoot length (ASL) and tree-ring width (TRW) of alpine dwarf pine Pinus pumila in central Japan, by using dendrochronological techniques. Chronologies of ASL (1951-2009) and TRW (1972-2009) were standardized to remove non-climatic signals, and correlation tests were done for non-standardized observed values and standardized indices with monthly temperatures and precipitation. Monthly mean temperatures from March to October, except for July, increased during 1951‒2009; observed values and a standardized index of ASL increased during this period. For the rate of increase in ASL, the standardized index was lower than the observed values. However, these values of TRW showed no trends. The observed values and standardized index of TRW positively correlated with temperatures of the beginning of the growing season of the current year. The observed values of ASL positively correlated with temperatures during the growing season of the previous and current years. However, the standardized index of ASL positively correlated with only June temperatures of the previous and current years. The different results of ASL between observed values and standardized indices indicate that many significant correlations of observed values were attributable to increasing trends of temperature and ASL. This study suggests that standardized ASL of P. pumila tended to increase greater than TRW, that high temperatures at the beginning of the growing season increases ASL and TRW, and that analyzing observed values of ASL may overestimate the effects of temperature on ASL of P. pumila.

  15. Declines in Birth weight and Fetal Growth Independent of Gestational Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Esplin, M. Sean; Varner, Michael W.; Henry, Erick; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective Birth weight is decreasing in the US and elsewhere, even among term singletons, although trends in most maternal characteristics should contribute to increased birth weight. Some studies have attributed this decline to the simultaneous decrease in gestational length. Methods Using data from Intermountain Healthcare, where a successful initiative reduced the number of early term (37–38 week) elective deliveries, we examined trends in birth weight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) among 219,694 singleton infants born July 2000 to December 2008 at 37–41 weeks gestation. Results Over the 8.5 years, births through scheduled deliveries at 37–38 weeks decreased (9.4% to 4.4%), but overall scheduled deliveries increased (29% to 34%) and mean gestational age at birth (39.1 weeks) did not change. Mean birth weight (3410g to 3383g) and LGA (9.0% to 7.4%) both decreased, whereas SGA increased (7.5% to 8.2%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, birth weight decreased (36g; 95% CI: 31, 42), especially among infants born at 37–38 weeks (40g; 30, 49) or that had medical indications for urgent deliveries (48g; 34, 63). Odds of LGA decreased (0.84; 0.80, 0.88) and odds of SGA increased (1.14; 1.08, 1.20). Conclusion Even in a population where gestation length did not change, birth weight and fetal growth declined. Decrease in not only gestational length but in fetal growth as well is likely to be contributing to the widely observed recent decrease in birth weight. PMID:23262927

  16. Shorter Mandibular Length is Associated with a Greater Fall in AHI with Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Matthew T.; Monteith, Brian D.; Manton, David J.; Dever, Paul; Schachter, Linda M.; O'Brien, Paul E.; Dixon, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Obesity is a major risk factor towards the development of obstructive sleep apnea, while significant weight loss (both conservatively managed and surgically assisted) has a variable effect upon its severity. Differences in the effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea may be due to underlying craniofacial characteristics. Objectives: To determine whether craniofacial characteristics can predict OSA treatment response to significant weight loss. Methods: We analyzed craniofacial measurements from lateral cephalograms performed at baseline on 57 patients enrolled in a previously reported 2-year randomized clinical weight loss trial (laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery versus conservatively [dietician and very low calorie diet] treated). Group mean weight loss was ∼ 13% (mean weight loss 131 to 114 kg), with corresponding reduction in mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from 61 to 41 events/h. Computer assisted lateral cephalogram analysis was undertaken by three trained staff blinded to treatment. We analyzed lateral cephalogram and demographic data at baseline (cross-sectional) and change over two years (interventional) in 54 patients. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline cross-sectional analysis indicated no cephalometric measurement correlated significantly with baseline AHI when corrected for neck circumference. The percentage change in AHI over 2 years correlated with a shorter menton-gonion distance (i.e., mandibular body length). The % change in AHI correlated with the % weight change (R2 = 0.25, p cephalometry. Citation: Naughton MT, Monteith BD, Manton DJ, Dever P, Schachter LM, O'Brien PE, Dixon JB. Shorter mandibular length is associated with a greater fall in AHI with weight loss. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):451–456. PMID:25515279

  17. EFFECT OF MUSIC EXPOSURE ON THE WEIGHT AND BODY-LENGTH OF RAT-LITTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is related to stress reduction and increased levels of growth hormone. In rats, music exposure since prenatal period was found to increase body weight of 7-days-old litters and brain cells. Somatic growth was primarily influenced by growth hormone and supported by psycho-physic condition. The objective of this study was to analyze whether music exposure since prenatal until 35 days post-natal period could affect the weight and body-length of the rat-pups. Four pregnant Wistar rats were daily exposed to one hour classic music (Mozart every 17.30 pm since gestation period day one until the 22 litters were 35 days old. Controls were 5 pregnant rats and their 36 litters caged in a different room with no music. Weighing and measuring the body-length (the most anterior point of the nasal septum to the base of the tail were conducted at day 7, 25, and 35. Data were analyzed using Multivariate General-Linear-Modem (α = 0.05. It was revealed that the mean weight of the experimental litters was significantly higher than those of the controls either at day 7 (p = 0.00, day 25 (p = 0.012 or 35 (p = 0.006. Difference of the body-length of the experiment and control animals only significant at day 25 (p = 0.012. Conclusion: Music exposure since prenatal period has significant influences on the weight of the rat-litters aged 7, 25 and 35 days and on the body-length of the 25-days-old litters.

  18. Length-weight relationships of nine fish species from Ologe Lagoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The slope (b) values obtained for the nine fish species ranged from 2.5 to 3.2, and deferred significantly (p < 0.005) from 3, which indicates that the fish species have allometric growth. The condition factors (K) of the fish species ranged from 0.91 to 8.46. Keywords: Length-weight, Ologe Lagoon, allometric growth, condition ...

  19. Food security, maternal feeding practices and child weight-for-length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Cristina S; Roncancio, Angelica; Moramarco, Michael W; Hinojosa, Martha B; Davila, Yolanda R; Mendias, Elnora; Reifsnider, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Over consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods may contribute to childhood obesity. We hypothesized that greater than recommended servings of sugar sweetened beverages and foods, indicators of food security, and a high maternal recumbent weight-for-length are positively associated with high percentages of child overweight/obesity. This secondary data analysis consisted of a sample of 240 mother-child dyads. The original studies were designed to examine the effect of a public health nursing intervention on optimal childhood growth for low-income, minority children. Eligibility to participate included: 1) mothers self-identified as Hispanic; 2) children were 12-24 months old; and 3) children were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC); and 4) children were free of any major disease. Multivariate logistic regression examined the association between child weight, weight-for-length, maternal recumbent weight-for-length, child's eating schedule, maternal attitudes on feeding, food security, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, desserts and fatty meats. Receiving SNAP was positively associated with child weight-for-length (WL). Children whose mothers reported ever having received SNAP were 2.01 times more likely to be overweight compared to children whose mothers did not report ever having received SNAP (95% CI=1.04-3.90). Children who consumed desserts were 2.87 times more likely to be overweight compared to children who did not consume desserts (95% CI=1.19-6.88). Also, child's caloric intake was significantly associated with child WL. Children who consumed more calories were 1.00 times more likely to be overweight compared to children who consumed fewer calories (95% CI=1.00-1.00). Research on food security and children's weight has reported mixed findings. Methodological issues have been identified as contributory to the inconsistent findings. Of paramount importance to these studies is the

  20. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-11-01

    Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. design, setting, participants, and outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA.

  1. Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birks, Laura; Casas, Maribel; Garcia, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    matrix was associated with birth weight, term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery.Methods: Using individual participant data from 133,957 mother–child pairs in 13 European cohorts spanning births from 1994 through 2011, we linked maternal job titles with exposure to 10 EDC...... women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent...... across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p titles classified as exposed to bisphenol A or brominated flame...

  2. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  3. Weight-for-length, early weight-gain velocity and atopic dermatitis in infancy and at two years of age: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup; Mowinckel, Petter; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Nordhagen, Live Solveig; Kvenshagen, Bente; Hunderi, Jon Olav Gjengstø; Bradley, Maria; Thorsby, Per Medbøe; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Gjersvik, Petter

    2017-06-07

    Overweight and atopic dermatitis (AD) are major health problems in most industrialised countries, but the relationship between overweight and AD in infants and young children is unclear. We investigated if weight-for-length at birth, in infancy and at two years, as well as early weight-gain velocity, are associated with the development of AD in early life. Cohort study of infants (n = 642), all living in south-east Norway, hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis (n = 404) or recruited from the general population (n = 238), examined at mean age 5.1 months (enrolment) and at a two-year follow-up visit (n = 499; 78%) at mean age 24.6 months. Exposures were weight-for-length (g/cm) at birth, enrolment and two-year follow-up, and early weight-gain velocity (gram/month from birth to enrolment). Excessive weight-for-length was defined as weight-for-length >95 th percentile of WHO child-growth standards. Data on weight-for-length at the three time points were obtained for 435, 428 and 473 children. AD was diagnosed according to the Hanifin & Rajka criteria or from a history of physician-diagnosed AD. We performed multivariate analyses with weight-for-length at birth, at enrolment and at the two-year follow-up visit and with early weight gain velocity for the endpoint AD at each visit. In adjusted analyses, excessive weight-for-length at enrolment was associated with concurrent AD (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.23-7.50) and with AD at two years (OR 2.40; 1.11-5.17). In infants without AD, weight-for-length at enrolment increased the risk of AD at two years, with OR being 1.02 (95% CI 1.00-1.04) per increased gram/cm. AD at two years was not associated with concurrent excessive weight-for-length, nor was AD at any time associated with weight-for-length at birth or with early weight-gain velocity. The results suggest that overweight in infancy may contribute to the development of AD in early life, highlighting the need for child health-care professionals to address potential

  4. Comparative study of freshwater crayfish, Cherax spp. (crustaceae: decapoda: parastacidae) from Papua, Indonesia based on length-weight analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidah, H.; Abinawanto, Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    The freshwater crayfish is one of the most important fish species as the protein resources. Lake and rivers are the habitat of crayfish in Papua. Morphological characters of crayfish, such as color, total body lengths (L) and body weight (W) were influenced by the habitat. The purpose of the study, therefore, was to compare the total body length and body weight as well as the unique color of crayfish from Uter lake (Atinjo district), Seremuk river (Haha village), Baliem river (Pike village; Hubukiak district, Jayawijaya), and Baliem river (Wesaput village; Wesaput district). Length-weight (body length; LB versus wet weight; WWT) relationships were determined for male and female crayfish (Cherax spp.) The length-weight relationships of total individuals was W = 0,022215.L3,159. This regression differed significantly (R2 = 97.5 %) between locations. Both males and females exhibited positive allometric growth as statistical difference was observed in the mean of the wet weight and body length between males and females. Besides, Canonical function was subjected to determine population distribution based on length-weight data.

  5. Applying fuzzy logic to estimate the parameters of the length-weight relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Bitar

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated three mathematical procedures to estimate the parameters of the relationship between weight and length for Cichla monoculus: least squares ordinary regression on log-transformed data, non-linear estimation using raw data and a mix of multivariate analysis and fuzzy logic. Our goal was to find an alternative approach that considers the uncertainties inherent to this biological model. We found that non-linear estimation generated more consistent estimates than least squares regression. Our results also indicate that it is possible to find consistent estimates of the parameters directly from the centers of mass of each cluster. However, the most important result is the intervals obtained with the fuzzy inference system.

  6. Applying fuzzy logic to estimate the parameters of the length-weight relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, S D; Campos, C P; Freitas, C E C

    2016-05-03

    We evaluated three mathematical procedures to estimate the parameters of the relationship between weight and length for Cichla monoculus: least squares ordinary regression on log-transformed data, non-linear estimation using raw data and a mix of multivariate analysis and fuzzy logic. Our goal was to find an alternative approach that considers the uncertainties inherent to this biological model. We found that non-linear estimation generated more consistent estimates than least squares regression. Our results also indicate that it is possible to find consistent estimates of the parameters directly from the centers of mass of each cluster. However, the most important result is the intervals obtained with the fuzzy inference system.

  7. The length-weight relationships of three sharks and five batoids in the Lebanese marine waters, eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Lteif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationships were estimated for 8 elasmobranchs (3 sharks and 5 batoids in the Lebanese marine waters, eastern Mediterranean. The values of parameter b ranged between 1.752 ± 0.4508 and 3.337 ± 0.2321. Sex influenced the length-weight relationships for the shark Centrophorus uyato (Rafinesque 1801 and the batoid Torpedo marmorata (Risso 1810. These relationships should be used only with the observed length ranges.

  8. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128...

  9. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Renán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae. Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to determine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b, standard error (SE b and coefficients of determination (R2 were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers’ juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers’ b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was t-tested (t-Student to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3, which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b between Snappers’ juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers’ juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit.

  10. Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 from Two Different Culture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine and compare the proximate composition and length weight relationship of C. gariepinus from two culture systems (earthen and concrete ponds. The fish samples were collected from three fish farms with same cultural condition in different areas of Obio-akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Result on the length- weight relationship revealed that C.gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a total length of 15.50- 49.00cm with a mean of 32.71cm and weight of 150-625g, while total length of C. gariepinus reared in the earthen pond ranged from 19.90-58.0cm with a mean of 39.8cm and weight of 195-825g. The T- test shows that the total length of earthen pond were significantly higher than the concrete tank and the weight in the earthen pond was significantly higher than the concrete tank. Parameters of proximate composition analysed were moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and fiber from the fish flesh. Protein content showed a significantly higher in the earthen ponds than the concrete tanks. Ash contents varied from 1.5±1.66-7.4±0.67% in the concrete tanks and were significantly higher than the earthen ponds which ranged from 3.1±0.94-4.5±2.11%. Lipid was significantly higher in earthen ponds than concrete tanks. Generally, the two culture systems have a significant influence on length–weight relationship and nutritional value of C. gariepinus. However, C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a heavier body weight than earthen pond and also C. gariepinus reared in earthen pond had highest nutritive values than the concrete tank.

  11. Estimation of Live Weight From Linear Body Measurements of Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty and fifty-five cattle under extensive management system were used during rainy and dry season, respectively. Traits measured were live weight, head length, head width, body length, height at wither, heart girth, width of hind quarter, loin girth and length of hindquarter. The data obtained were classified ±SE subjected ...

  12. [Exclusive breastfeeding in <6mo is associated to a better weight for length in households with food insecurity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of exclusive breastfeeding in ENSANUT 2012 (n = 4 022). Breastfeeding indicators from WHO-2008 were calculated. We estimated the effect modifier EBF<6mo of the relationship between FI and weight length (Z W/L) and length for age (Z L/A) Z score. The EBF<6mo was lower in households (hh) with moderate and severe FI than in those with food security (FS) or mild FI hh. Only EBF<6mo infants from hh with moderate and severe FI showed greater Z W/L (0.44) than those without EBF<6mo (p= 0.038, one-tailed). Score Z W/L of infants from hh FS did not vary according to EBF<6mo. EBF<6mo in Mexican infants is associated with better weight for length in households with moderate and severe FI. Breastfeeding promotion, protection and support must be targeted mainly at the most vulnerable, food insecure families.

  13. Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bjørke-Jenssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6 µmol/L compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2 µmol/L, p = 0.003. Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13–15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study.

  14. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Chen Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2 with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age.

  15. Effects of Diagnosis by Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis on Weight and Length in the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel H; Heltshe, Sonya L; Borowitz, Drucy; Gelfond, Daniel; Kloster, Margaret; Heubi, James E; Stalvey, Michael; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2017-06-01

    Since the implementation of universal newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF), the timing and magnitude of growth deficiency or its association with correlates of disease among infants with CF who underwent NBS has not been well described. To examine incremental weight gain, linear growth, and clinical features in the first year of life among infants with CF who underwent NBS. The Baby Observational and Nutrition Study (BONUS), a multicenter, longitudinal, observational cohort study, was conducted during regular CF clinic visits in the first 12 months of life at 28 US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation-accredited Care Centers from January 7, 2012, through May 31, 2015. Participants included 231 infants younger than 3.5 months who underwent NBS and had confirmed CF, with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks, birth weight of at least 2.5 kg, and toleration of full oral feeds. Of these, 222 infants (96.1%) had follow-up beyond 6 months of age and 215 (93.1%) completed 12 months of follow-up. Cystic fibrosis. Attained weight and length for age and World Health Organization normative z scores at ages 1 to 6 and 8, 10, and 12 months (defined a priori). Of the 231 infants enrolled, 110 infants (47.6%) were female and 121 (52.4%) were male, with a mean (SD) age of 2.58 (0.69) months. BONUS infants had lower than mean birth weights (mean z score, -0.15; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.04) and higher birth lengths (mean z score, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.62). They achieved normal weight by 12 months, a significant improvement over a prescreening cohort of newborns with CF from 20 years before the contemporary cohort (mean z score increase, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77). However, length was lower than the mean at 12 months (mean z score, -0.56; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.42). Only 30 infants (13.6%) were at less than the 10th percentile of weight for age, whereas 53 (23.9%) were at less than the 10th percentile of length for age at more than half their visits. Male sex, pancreatic insufficiency

  16. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  17. Effect of overweight and obesity on weight loss and length of stay in patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Sisse; Rasmussen, Ditlev; Novovic, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the association between admission weight, weight loss, and length of stay (LOS) in patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis. Methods We classified the admission body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to ... as overweight, and ≥30 kg/m2 as obesity. The Nutritional Risk Screening score-2002 was calculated to identify patients at risk for undernutrition. Results We included 38 patients (61% men, 68% with infected necrosis; 40% normal weight; 60% overweight/obesity). Four patients (11%) required treatment at the semi...... (46%) achieved ≥70% coverage. The percentage weight loss was different (P obesity (14%). There was no difference between groups regarding percentage of energy or protein coverage. Patients with overweight/obesity had a longer hospital...

  18. Percentiles of the run-length distribution of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) median chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. L.; Chong, Z. L.; Khoo, M. B. C.; Teoh, W. L.; Teh, S. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Quality control is crucial in a wide variety of fields, as it can help to satisfy customers’ needs and requirements by enhancing and improving the products and services to a superior quality level. The EWMA median chart was proposed as a useful alternative to the EWMA \\bar{X} chart because the median-type chart is robust against contamination, outliers or small deviation from the normality assumption compared to the traditional \\bar{X}-type chart. To provide a complete understanding of the run-length distribution, the percentiles of the run-length distribution should be investigated rather than depending solely on the average run length (ARL) performance measure. This is because interpretation depending on the ARL alone can be misleading, as the process mean shifts change according to the skewness and shape of the run-length distribution, varying from almost symmetric when the magnitude of the mean shift is large, to highly right-skewed when the process is in-control (IC) or slightly out-of-control (OOC). Before computing the percentiles of the run-length distribution, optimal parameters of the EWMA median chart will be obtained by minimizing the OOC ARL, while retaining the IC ARL at a desired value.

  19. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of seven fish species of Totkabon River (southern Caspian Sea basin, Guilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaher Zamani Faradonbeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationship and condition factor were investigated in seven fish species, including Barbus cyri, Capoeta gracilis, Alburnoides eichwaldi, Acanthalbarnus microlepis, Ponticola cyrius, Cobitis keyvani and Oxynemacheilus bergianus from Totkabon River. A total of 570 specimens ranging from 25.90 to 146.97 mm in total length and 0.1 to 260.3 g in total weight were collected. Based on the results, growth coefficient values “b” ranged from 2.429 (A. microlpis to 3.71 (C. keyvani. All length-weight relationships were significant (P<0.05, with r2 greater than 0.856. The four species viz. A. microlepis, C. gracilis, P. cyrius and C. keyvani showed allometric (b<3

  20. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated using samples from Cochin backwater. Statistical tests support the view that the length-weight exponent of these species may be species...

  2. Effect of overweight and obesity on weight loss and length of stay in patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysgaard, Sisse; Rasmussen, Ditlev; Novovic, Srdan; Schmidt, Palle N; Gluud, Lise L

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between admission weight, weight loss, and length of stay (LOS) in patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis. We classified the admission body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to overweight, and ≥30 kg/m 2 as obesity. The Nutritional Risk Screening score-2002 was calculated to identify patients at risk for undernutrition. We included 38 patients (61% men, 68% with infected necrosis; 40% normal weight; 60% overweight/obesity). Four patients (11%) required treatment at the semi-intensive care unit, 11 (29%) developed pneumonia, and 10 (26%) developed septicemia. One patient died due to respiratory failure and hemorrhage. The remaining patients were discharged after a median of 49 d (36-64 d). During admission, 14 patients (38%) achieved an energy-protein intake of at least 75% and 17 (46%) achieved ≥70% coverage. The percentage weight loss was different (P overweight (9%), and obesity (14%). There was no difference between groups regarding percentage of energy or protein coverage. Patients with overweight/obesity had a longer hospital LOS (P = 0.016). In univariable regression analysis, overweight, obesity, energy, and protein coverage predicted weight loss. LOS did not predict weight loss. In multivariable regression analysis, overweight and obesity were the only remaining significant predictors of weight loss. Patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis are at considerable risk for undernutrition. A BMI >25 kg/m 2 predicts greater weight loss and longer LOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  4. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  5. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae from a reservoir in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Schwarz da Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 is a freshwater prawn occurring in rivers and reservoirs of Central and South America. Given its broad geographical distribution, the species shows great intraspecific morphological, reproductive, physiological and ecological plasticity. Furthermore, it also stands out for its economic importance, especially in the states of North (Pará and Amapá and Northeast Brazil. Despite the wide geographic distribution and economic importance of M. amazonicum, the biology of this species is poorly known, particularly in Northeast Brazil. We analyzed the length-weight relationships and condition factor of males and females of M. amazonicum. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2008 to August 2009 at the Pedra do Cavalo Reservoir, city of Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu, State of Bahia. All specimens were sexed, measured and weighted. After that, length-weight relationships and the allometric (K and relative (Kr condition factors were calculated. Altogether 2,974 specimens were analyzed, 334 of which were males (11% and 2,640 were females (89%. Females were larger and heavier than males. Males and females showed isometric and negative allometric growth, respectively. Monthly variations in the condition factor were similar for both sexes, and correlated strongly with rainfall regime and temperature in the region. Such variations are not correlated with the reproductive cycle of the species, but are probably correlated with food availability and somatic growth.

  6. Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Overweight and Obese Mothers on Infant Weight-for-Length Percentile at 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Hui; Leff, Michelle; Rhee, Kyung E

    Breastfeeding is associated with decreased risk of childhood obesity. However, there is a strong correlation between maternal weight status and childhood obesity, and it is unclear whether or not breastfeeding among overweight mothers could mitigate this risk. Our goal was to examine whether or not exclusive breastfeeding (compared to formula feeding) among overweight and obese mothers is associated with lower weight-for-length (W/L) percentile at 1 year. Data from the Infant Feeding Practices II study were used. Infants who were preterm or underweight at 1 year, and mothers who were underweight before pregnancy, were excluded from analysis. There was a significant interaction between exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months and maternal prepregnancy weight status (normal weight, overweight, obese) on infant W/L percentile at 1 year. Stratified linear mixed-effects growth modeling controlling for covariates was created to test the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and infant W/L percentile within each maternal weight category. A total of 915 subjects met inclusion criteria. Normal weight and obese mothers who exclusively breastfed for 4 months had infants with a smaller rate of increase in W/L percentile during the first year compared with those who used formula. Infants of overweight and obese mothers who exclusively breastfed for 4 months had lower W/L percentile at 1 year than those who used formula. Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months among normal weight and obese mothers resulted in less increase in W/L percentiles in the first year. Obese mothers often have a difficult time initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Concerted efforts are needed to support this population with breastfeeding.

  7. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2017-09-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  8. An Assessment of Weight-Length Relationships for Muskellunge,Northern Pike, and Chain Pickerel In Carlander's Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Daviscourt, Joshua; Huertas, Joshua; Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Carlander's Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology (1969) contains life history data from many species of freshwater fish found in North America. It has been cited over 1200 times and used to produce standard-weight curves for some species. Recent work (Cole-Fletcher et al. 2011) suggests Carlander (1969) contains numerous errors in listed weight-length equations. This paper assesses the weight-length relationships listed in Carlander for muskellunge, northern pike, and chain pickerel by comp...

  9. Weight, Length, and Body Mass Index Growth of Children Under 2 Years of Age With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gabriela Serrano; Marques, Ilza Lazarini; de Barros, Suely Prietto; Arena, Eliane Petean; de Souza, Luiz

    2016-05-01

    To study the growth of length-for-age (L/A), weight-for-age (W/A), and body mass index (BMI) of children with cleft lip and palate receiving a normal diet; to establish specific growth curves for children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CLP/ICP) who had not undergone palatoplasty and for children with isolated cleft lip (ICL); and to assess if CLP/ICP growth differed from ICL growth and if CLP/ICP and ICL growth differed from growth for typical children. Prospective and cross-sectional study. Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Weight and length of 381 children with cleft lip and palate and who were younger than 2 years were recorded and used to calculate W/A, L/A, and BMI growth curves. The 2006 World Health Organization growth charts were used as a reference for typical children. All children received a normal diet for age. Children with CLP/ICP had median W/A and BMI growth curves below growth curves for typical children but showed spontaneous recovery starting at approximately 5 months of age, even with nonoperated cleft palate. Children with ICL had growth similar to that of typical children. Children with CLP/ICP, who initially had W/A and BMI values less than those of the ICL group, had W/A and BMI equal to or higher than the ICL group after 9 months of age. Children with CLP/ICP had impaired W/A and BMI growth with spontaneous recovery starting early in childhood. This study established specific W/A, BMI, and L/A growth curves for children with cleft lip and palate.

  10. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP, SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND ANNUAL CPUE’s OF ALBACORE IN EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Albacore (Thunnus alalunga, Bonnaterre, 1788 is one of the tropical tuna species in the Eastern Indian Ocean incidentally caught by the Indonesian tuna longliner. Scientific observer series data during the period of 2005 – 2012 showed that the catches were geographically distributed within the area bordered by 5 – 350 S and 75 – 1300 E. High CPUE mainly occurred in sub area between 250 and 350 S. Some biological observations indicated that immature albacore specimens were mainly recorded in areas of south of 250 S while mature albacore were concentrated in the area between 100 S and 250 S. Lengthweight measurements for pooled male and female was W= 0.00008FL2.7271. The hook-rates from onboard observation showed that increasing rates occurred during 2009 to 2012. The annual landing showed that that highest occurred in 2008 and the lowest in 2011 with overall tend to decrease until 2011 and increased slightly in 2012. Series number of length frequency measurements (2005 - 2012 showed that the albacore were caught within the range of 40 – 135 cm FL and there was a tendency that the average size decreased gradually from 103 cmFL (2005 to 84 cmFL (2012. As a preliminary finding these estimates contribute as important element for consideration in the national and regional tuna fisheries management in the area.

  11. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma

  12. New Finnish growth references for children and adolescents aged 0 to 20 years: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kesseli, Kari; Dunkel, Leo

    2011-05-01

    Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height, and defined body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal data of 73,659 healthy subjects aged 0-20 years (born 1983-2008) were collected from providers in the primary health care setting. Growth references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). BMI percentile curves passing through BMIs 30, 25, 18.5, 17, and 16 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years were calculated to define limits for obesity, overweight, and various grades of thinness. Increased length/height-for-age was seen in virtually all age-groups when compared to previous Finnish growth data from 1959 to 1971. Adult height was increased by 1.9 cm in girls and 1.8 cm in boys. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2.8 cm in girls and 5.6 cm in boys. Median weight-for-length/height had not increased. New Finnish references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were constructed and should be implemented to monitor growth of children in Finland.

  13. High Flow Nasal Cannula Use Is Associated with Increased Morbidity and Length of Hospitalization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Dalal K.; Kornhauser, Michael; Greenspan, Jay S.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Aghai, Zubair H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in extremely low birth weight infants managed on high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Study design This is aretrospective data analysis from the Alere Neonatal Database for infants born between January 2008 and July 2013, weighing ≤ 1000 g at birth, and received HFNC or CPAP. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared between the infants who received CPAP and HFNC, or HFNC ± CPAP. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to control for the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. Results A total of 2487 infants met the inclusion criteria (941 CPAP group, 333 HFNC group, and 1546 HFNC ± CPAP group). The primary outcome of BPD or death was significantly higher in the HFNC group (56.8%) compared with the CPAP group (50.4%, P < .05). Similarly, adjusted odds of developing BPD or death was greater in the HFNC ± CPAP group compared with the CPAP group (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.035–1.137, P = .001). The number of ventilator days, postnatal steroid use, days to room air, days to initiate or reach full oral feeds, and length of hospitalization were significantly higher in the HFNC and HFNC ± CPAP groups compared with the CPAP group. Conclusions In this retrospective study, use of HFNC in extremely low birth weight infants is associated with a higher risk of death or BPD, increased respiratory morbidities, delayed oral feeding, and prolonged hospitalization. A large clinical trial is needed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of HFNC in preterm infants. PMID:27004673

  14. Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body measurement of white bornu goats reared under semi-intensive system in a southern Nigeria ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... Parameters measured include distance between eyes, ear length, ear width and length, tail, and body weight.

  15. Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Preterm Infants: A EuroHOPE Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Numerato

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to compare health outcomes and hospital care use of very low birth weight (VLBW, and very preterm (VLGA infants in seven European countries. Analysis was performed on linkable patient-level registry data from seven European countries between 2006 and 2008 (Finland, Hungary, Italy (the Province of Rome, the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Mortality and length of stay (LoS were adjusted for differences in gestational age (GA, sex, intrauterine growth, Apgar score at five minutes, parity and multiple births. The analysis included 16,087 infants. Both the 30-day and one-year adjusted mortality rates were lowest in the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden and Norway and Scotland and highest in Hungary and the Netherlands. For survivors, the adjusted average LoS during the first year of life ranged from 56 days in the Netherlands and Scotland to 81 days in Hungary. There were large differences between European countries in mortality rates and LoS in VLBW and VLGA infants. Substantial data linkage problems were observed in most countries due to inadequate identification procedures at birth, which limit data validity and should be addressed by policy makers across Europe.

  16. Weight-length relationship, condition factor and blood parameters of farmed Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Cichlidae in central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    Full Text Available Farming of native carnivore fish species has drawn attention due to their promising use in aquaculture. Among these species, tucunaré of the genus Cichla stand out, them being of high economical interest for sport fishing and Amazon's industry of ornamental fish. The present study describes the weight-length relationship (WLR, relative condition factor (Kn, red blood cell parameters, thrombocytes and leukocytes count of Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821, farmed in central Amazon. Fish that underwent food training during fingerling culture received extruded ration containing 45% of crude protein during fattening, and had Kn with values from 0.925-1.199, which indicated good health condition during the culture. The equation obtained from the WLR was W = 0.0073Lt3.1435, indicating an isometric growth, which is the desirable for fish of fish farm. Red blood cell counts, total thrombocyte and leukocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, concentration of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils had intra-specific variation. A significant (p<0.001 positive correlation of the red blood cells number with the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit was found. These are the first sets of blood parameters for C. temensis and could be used as reference for comparison in further studies to evaluate the health status of this fish in different environments, because assessment of these parameters may be used as quick tool for diagnosing diseases, stress and malnutrition.

  17. WEIGHT-LENGTH RATIO AND CONDITION FACTOR OF PESCADA BRANCA (Plagioscion squamosissimus, HECKEL 1840 COMMERCIALISED IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SANTARÉM, PARÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericleya Mota Marinho Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishing is one of the most important economic activities in the Amazon region. In the Lower Amazon, the species Plagioscion squamosissimus commonly known as pescada branca is one of the main commercial species. The objective of this study was to determine the weight-length relationship and the condition factor of “pescada branca” landed at the Fish Market in Santarém-PA. Data was gathered from August 2014 to July 2015 in the Fish Market. The sample had 352 individuals of the species studied. The mean length and mean weight of the individuals analyzed corresponded to 26,83 ± 2.64 cm and 234,87 ± 77, 60 g, respectively. These values generated two equations, namely Wt = 0,0382*Lt2,648 and Wt= 0,1424 *Lt 2,235 for the length-weight relationship for females and males, respectively. The value of b of length-weight ratio was < 3, thus the growth of species can be considered negative allometric for both genders. The annual variation of the condition factor suggests that fat accumulation occurs in the period of drought / flood. This estimation is of great use for the management of the pescada branca stocks and can provide subsidies for decision-making administratos, in order to promote the conservation and rational use of the fishery resource. Keywords: fishing landings; biological estimates; fisheries management.

  18. Weight, length and head circumference standards based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks 25 to 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, M; Høst, A; Kamper, J

    1997-01-01

    Growth standards of birth weight, birth length and birth head circumference were constructed based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks twenty-five to forty-three. Study populations were residents of the municipality of Odense for later gestational ages and reside...

  19. Ileal transposition surgery produces ileal length-dependent changes in food intake, body weight, gut hormones and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower

  20. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis captured in ecosystem mangrove of Bagan Asahan, Tanjungbalai, Asahan, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, A.; Riza, N.; Raza'i, T. S.

    2018-02-01

    White Shrimp Penaeus merguiensis was commonly found in Mangrove Ecosystem of Bagan Asahan Village. The purpose of this research are to determine length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis around ecosystem mangrove waters in Bagan Asahan Village. This research was conducted for 3 month in Maret until Mei 2017 with determination of research station used purposive sampling method. The shrimp samples were taken by shrimp trawl. The result showed that 98 shrimp which consists of 58 males and 40 female. The carapace length of female shrimp between 6,05 - 22,125 mm and total weight ranged from 0,12 - 6,95 g. Male shrimp had carapace length between 7.125 - 18.25 mm and total weigth ranged from 0.14 - 3.82 g. Female and male white shrimp had different growth pattern. Female shrimp had b = 2.984 included in negaive allometric and male shrimps with b = 3.187 included in positive allometric. The value of correlation coefficients was more than 90% for both male and female showed very strong relation between length carapace and body weight. The value of shrimp condition factor ranged from 0.570 - 1.773 and included to flat (thin) body shrimp.

  1. The silver nanowires synthesized using different molecule weight of polyvinyl pyrrolidone for controlling diameter and length by one-pot polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaidi, E-mail: junaidi.1982@fmipa.unila.ac.id [Departement of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Departement of Physics, Lampung University, Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Suharyadi, E.; Harsojo [Departement of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Hui, H.; Wu, L. Y. L., E-mail: ylwu@simtech.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2016-06-17

    In this paper, we report our investigation on the effect of the molecular weight and molar ratio of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) for controlling diameter and length of the silver nanowires synthesized with a high-aspect-ratio. The silver nanowires synthesized by one-pot polyol method at a constant temperature oil bath of 130°C. Different molecule weights of PVP, i.e. 55 K, 360 K, and 1300 K were used combined with different molar ratios of [PVP:Ag]. The UV–vis spectrophotometry and Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were employed to characterize the silver nanowires. The results show that the molecular weight and molar ratio of [PVP:Ag] are very important for controlling growth and properties of the silver nanowires. The diameter and length of silver nanowires are obtained 80 to 140 nm and 30 to 70 µm, respectively. The higher molecular weight of PVP, the greater diameter and length of silver nanowires.

  2. The silver nanowires synthesized using different molecule weight of polyvinyl pyrrolidone for controlling diameter and length by one-pot polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidi; Triyana, K.; Suharyadi, E.; Harsojo; Hui, H.; Wu, L. Y. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our investigation on the effect of the molecular weight and molar ratio of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) for controlling diameter and length of the silver nanowires synthesized with a high-aspect-ratio. The silver nanowires synthesized by one-pot polyol method at a constant temperature oil bath of 130°C. Different molecule weights of PVP, i.e. 55 K, 360 K, and 1300 K were used combined with different molar ratios of [PVP:Ag]. The UV–vis spectrophotometry and Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were employed to characterize the silver nanowires. The results show that the molecular weight and molar ratio of [PVP:Ag] are very important for controlling growth and properties of the silver nanowires. The diameter and length of silver nanowires are obtained 80 to 140 nm and 30 to 70 µm, respectively. The higher molecular weight of PVP, the greater diameter and length of silver nanowires.

  3. [Length, body weight and sex of the golden Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae), of the littoral of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J V; Beltrán-Pimienta, R

    2001-01-01

    Dolphin fish population data were recorded from landings in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja Califonia Sur, Mexico, in 1997. Of 3,211 organisms, only 2,812 produced complete biometric data. The maximal length and weight were 192 cm and 30 kg. The three sampling sites and the climatic periods also were associated with different size (P < 0.05). The covariate analysis of weight and length relationships indicated significative differences (P < 0.05) for total data and by sex. Condition factor was higher throughout the study period in Mazatlán, and the variation was higher, in the spring. The sexual ratio was in Mazatlán constant, while there were more males in Nayarit in the fall and the spring and in Los Cabos in the spring. There may be population differences, between the central mexican Pacific Coast and the Peninsula of Baja data.

  4. Correlation-Aware Heuristics for Evaluating the Distribution of the Longest Path Length of a DAG with Random Weights

    OpenAIRE

    Canon, Louis-Claude; Jeannot, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Coping with uncertainties when scheduling task graphs on parallel machines requires to perform non-trivial evaluations. When considering that each computation and communication duration is a random variable, evaluating the distribution of the critical path length of such graphs involves computing maximums and sums of possibly de- pendent random variables. The discrete version of this evaluation problem is known to be #P- hard. Here, we propose two heuristics, CorLCA an...

  5. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Serum Levels of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate Could Reflect Distinct Aspects of Longevity in Japanese Centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Aoki MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length and serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S were assessed in association with nutrition and performance status (PS in Japanese centenarians. Twenty-three centenarians (five men, 18 women were classified according to their PS 1 (nearly fully ambulatory, n = 2, 2 (in bed less than 50% of daytime, n = 10, 3 (in bed greater than 50%, n = 6, and 4 (completely bedridden, n = 5. Leukocyte telomere length was determined by the hybridization protection assay, and the adiponectin and DHEA-S levels were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Among variables of PS, body mass index (BMI, albumin, adiponectin, DHEA-S, and telomere length, there were significant correlations between PS and albumin ( r = −.694, p < .01, between telomere length and BMI ( r = .522, p < .05, between adiponectin and BMI ( r = −.574, p < .01, and between DHEA-S and albumin ( r = .530, p < .01. When excluding two cancer-bearing centenarians with short telomere, telomere length significantly correlated with PS ( r = −.632, p < .01. It was indicated that the short leukocyte telomere was associated with poor PS and cancer development and that the adiponectin or DHEA-S was associated with adiposity or nutritional status. Despite a small number of subjects, these biomarkers seemed to reflect distinct aspects of longevity in Japanese centenarians.

  6. [Effectiveness of the application of therapeutic touch on weight, complications, and length of hospital stay in preterm newborns attended in a neonatal unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Rosales, Rosario; Albar Marín, M Jesús; Tena García, Beatriz; Ruíz Pérez, M Teresa; Garzón Real, M Josefa; Rosado Poveda, M Asunción; González Caro, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of therapeutic touch on weight, the presence of postnatal complications, and length of hospital stay in preterm newborns, as well as on parental satisfaction with the care provided. We performed an experimental study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Virgen Macarena University Hospital in Seville (Spain). Seventy eight premature neonates were randomly assigned to one of the comparison groups (39 in the control group and 39 in the experimental group). The outcome variables of weight, length of hospital stay, the presence of complications, and parental satisfaction were evaluated. Control variables related to maternal socio-demographic and clinic characteristics were also measured. The intervention was based on the application of therapeutic touch. The mean weight in grams was 1,867.80 (SD=149.72) in the experimental group and 1,860 (SD=181.92) in the control group (t=0.148; p=0.883). Length of hospital stay was 16.82 (SD=6.47) in the experimental group and 20.30 (SD=8.04) in the control group (t=2.100; p=0.039). Complications developed in 5.3% of the premature neonates in the experimental group and in 20% of those in the control group (chi(2)=3.78; p=0.049). The odds ratio for developing complications was 1.673 (CI 1.089-2.571). The application of therapeutic touch reduces the length of hospital stay and the presence of complications. Nevertheless, further research in larger samples is required.

  7. Upright MRI measurement of mechanical axis and frontal plane alignment as a new technique: a comparative study with weight bearing full length radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liodakis, Emmanouil; Kenawey, Mohamed; Doxastaki, Iosifina; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl; Hankemeier, Stefan [Medical School Hannover, Department of Trauma Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the practicality, accuracy, and reliability of upright MR imaging as a new radiation-free technique for the measurement of mechanical axis. We used upright MRI in 15 consecutive patients (30 limbs, 44.7 {+-} 20.6 years old) to measure mechanical axis deviation (MAD), hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, leg length, and all remaining angles of the frontal plane alignment according to Paley (mLPFA, mLDTA, mMPTA, mLDTA, JLCA). The measurements were compared to weight bearing full length radiographs, which are considered to be the standard of reference for planning corrective surgery. FDA-approved medical planning software (MediCAD) was used for the above measurements. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility using mean absolute differences was also calculated for both methods. The correlation coefficient between angles determined with upright MRI and weight bearing full length radiographs was high for mLPFA, mLDTA, mMPTA, mLDTA, and the HKA angle (r > 0.70). Mean interobserver and intraobserver agreements for upright MRI were also very high (r > 0.89). The leg length and the MAD were significantly underestimated by MRI (-3.2 {+-} 2.2 cm, p < 0.001 and -6.2 {+-} 4.4 mm, p = 0.006, respectively). With the exception of underestimation of leg length and MAD, upright MR imaging measurements of the frontal plane angles are precise and produce reliable, reproducible results. (orig.)

  8. Body Composition Explains Greater Variance in Weight-for-Length Z-scores than Mid-Upper Arm Circumference during Infancy - A Secondary Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Admassu, Bitiya; Kæstel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Traditionally, weight-for-length/height z-score (WLZ) was used to assess wasting (a mortality risk factor) in children 0-59 months. A recent consultation reached a majority position that mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a better mortality predictor than WLZ in children 6-59 months. In addition, MUAC collected at the ages of 6-14 weeks has shown to identify infants more likely to die before reaching one year. To understand which body compartment is most affected by undernutrition, associations between anthropometric indicators and body composition data have been studied in children aged 6-59 months. To our knowledge, no such study has been done in children aged 0-6 months. We aimed to study these associations. Methods: Weight, length, MUAC, and lean and fat mass (LM and FM, respectively) obtained by air-displacement plethysmography of infants aged 0-6 months were obtained from an Ethiopian birth cohort study. The data, originally used to construct body composition reference data, measured infants at birth, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 months of age. A complete set of measurements available for 2506 out of a total of 2777 child measurements (563/598, 403/436, 414/444, 413/446, 368/415, and 345/441 in each age, respectively) was used for this analys, E-mail: is. Weight and length data were transformed to sex-and age-specific weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) values using the 2006 WHO growth standards. To remove the confounding positive association between LM or FM and length, we calculated sex- and age-specific standardised residuals values obtained from regressing LM or FM on length, separately by sex and age of measurement. The associations between MUAC, WLZ, length, and body composition residuals were assessed using correlation analysis. We used regression analysis to assess the independent contribution of body composition residuals to MUAC and WLZ. All analyses were done separately by age. Results: MUAC was strongly and positively correlated

  9. Beam-width spreading of vortex beams in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jinhong; Duan, Meiling

    2018-01-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expression for the beam-width spreading of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams in free space are derived, and used to study the influence of beam parameters on the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams. With the increment of the propagation distance, the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams will increase; the bigger the topological charge, spatial correlation length, wavelength and waist width are, the smaller the beam-width spreading is.

  10. Weight and see: Line bisection in neglect reliably measures the allocation of attention, but not the perception of length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert D; Ietswaart, Magdalena; Milner, A David

    2017-11-01

    Line bisection has long been a routine test for unilateral neglect, along with a range of tests requiring cancellation, copying or drawing. However, several studies have reported that line bisection, as classically administered, correlates relatively poorly with the other tests of neglect, to the extent that some authors have questioned its status as a valid test of neglect. In this article, we re-examine this issue, employing a novel method for administering and analysing line bisection proposed by McIntosh et al. (2005). We report that the measure of attentional bias yielded by this new method (EWB) correlates significantly more highly with cancellation, copying and drawing measures than the classical line bisection error measure in a sample of 50 right-brain damaged patients. Furthermore when EWB was combined with a second measure that emerges from the new analysis (EWS), even higher correlations were obtained. A Principal Components Analysis found that EWB loaded highly on a major factor representing neglect asymmetry, while EWS loaded on a second factor which we propose may measure overall attentional investment. Finally, we found that tests of horizontal length and size perception were related poorly to other measures of neglect in our group. We conclude that this novel approach to interpreting line bisection behaviour provides a promising way forward for understanding the nature of neglect. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  12. Growth references for 0-19 year-old Norwegian children for length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Roelants, Mathieu; Nordal, Eirin; Furevik, Liv; Eide, Geir Egil; Moster, Dag; Hauspie, Roland; Bjerknes, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Previous growth references for Norwegian children were based on measurements from the 1970s and 1980s. New reference data, collected through the Bergen Growth Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, are presented as LMS values. A cross-sectional sample of children aged 0-19 years in stratified randomized design measured in 2003-2006 as a part of the Bergen Growth Study (n = 7291) and birth data of children born in 1999-2003 from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (n = 12 576) was used to estimate the new references by the means of the LMS method. Measurement reliability was assessed by test-rest studies. New references were constructed for length/height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference. Length/height and weight for children aged 0-4 years were similar to previous Norwegian references, but mean height increased up to a maximum of 3.4 cm in boys and 2.5 cm in girls during the pubertal years. Mean height was similar to (or slightly higher) in comparison with other recent European references. Reliability of the measurements compared well with published estimates. Because of the observed secular trends in growth, it is advised to use the new references, which have been endorsed by the Norwegian Department of Health.

  13. The total body length and body weight examination among gabus Sentani fish population, Oxyeleotris heterodon, Weber 1907 (Pisces: Eleotridae) of Sentani lake, Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyani, E. D.; Abinawanto, Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    The gabus Sentani fish lived in the Sentani Lake, Papua, since million years ago. Nowadays, the population of those species is getting extinct because of the overexploitation, whereas the culture effort of this species has not been developed, yet. The purpose of the study was to examine the total body length and body weight collected from some villages surrounding Sentani Lake such as Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village. The body weight average of gabus fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 373.53 g, 426.86 g, and 118.34 g respectively. While the total body length average of gabus Sentani fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 279.30 mm, 223.30 mm and 222.06 mm, respectively. The growth model was W = 0.021067L3.086 with R2 value was 35.8 %, and r value was 0.598. Gabus Sentani fish, Oxyeleotris heterodon (Weber 1907) exhibited positive allometric (b > 3).

  14. Age, growth and length-weight relationship of the white skate, Rostroraja alba (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyans: Rajidae, from the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Kadri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the length distribution, sex ratio, length-weight relationship, age and growth of Rostroraja alba in the Gulf of Gabes. Methods: This study estimated age and growth of the white skate, Rostroraja alba by counting vertebral band pairs from 112 specimens taken by commercial fisheries during 2006-2009 from the Gulf of Gabes (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Results: This is the first and only known information in regards to the age and growth of this species in Tunisia. Vertebra diameter was strongly correlated with total length and age, which were expressed by linear or cubic regression equations. The oldest female in this study was 35 years and 160 cm, whereas the oldest male was 32 years and 150 cm. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were TL∞=(202.26±3.40 cm, K=(0.040±0.038/year and t0=(1.84±0.01 10 -1 /year for females and TL∞=(198.60±3.61 cm, K=(0.060±0.076/year and t0=(1.28±0.04/year for males. Conclusions: This study would be an effective tool for fishery biologists, managers and conservationists to initiate management strategies and regulations for the sustainable conservation of the remaining stocks of this species in the Gulf of Gabes (Southern Tunisia ecosystem

  15. [Effects of glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, nosocomial sepsis and length of hospital stay in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober-Olesińska, Krystyna; Kornacka, Maria Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    Parenteral feeding is the basic way of nutrition in the first day of life in infants with very low birth weight. Due to its instability glutamine is not included in aminoacid solutions used for parenteral nutrition. Meanwhile glutamine is an important aminoacid, which plays a major role in the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the immunological system. The aim of our study was to estimate if glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition in neonates with the very low birth weight can decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis -- NEC (> 1 degree according to the Bell criteria), nosocomial sepsis, and shorten the total length of hospitalization. Prospective, randomized study included 55 neonates born between 26 and 32 weeks of gestation, with birth weight range of 580 g to 1250 g. On the third day of life patients were randomized into 2 groups. Each group was fed with a different aminoacid solution. Group 1 consisted of patients who received a standard aminoacid solution with an addition of glutamine dipeptide (20% of total amount of aminoacids). Group 2 (acknowledged as the control group) including 30 patients received a standard aminoacid solution. Glutamine and glutaminic acid levels were checked in the cord blood, and on the 3rd and 14th day of life. Venous samples were taken at 8 a.m. and were estimated using HPLC. The Ethics Committee of the Warsaw Medical University had approved the research. In group 1 nosocomial sepsis had occurred in 7/25 neonates, and in the control group in 11/30; NEC was diagnosed in none of the 25 neonates in group 1 and in 5/30 of the control group; the total length of hospitalization in group 1 was 75 days (median 70) versus 73 in the control group (median 70). The lowest glutamine concentration was noted in cord blood samples, and increased on the third day of life in both groups. There were a statistically significant difference among the levels of glutamine concentration between the cord sample and the

  16. Genetic Mutations, Birth Lengths, Weights and Head Circumferences of Children with IGF-I Receptor Defects. Comparison with other Congenital Defects in the GH/IGF-I axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essakow, Jenna Lee; Lauterpacht, Aharon; Lilos, Pearl; Kauli, Rivka; Laron, Zvi

    2016-09-01

    In recent years more and more genetic defects along the GHRH-GH-IGF-I axis have been reported. Mutations of the IGF-I receptor (R) are a rare abnormality of whom only the heterozygote progenies survive. To summarize, from the literature, data on birth length, weight and head circumference of neonates with IGF-I-R mutations, and to correlate the data with that of other types of mutations in the GH/IGF-I axis. Sixty seven neonates from 24 published articles were included and forty seven different mutations of the IGF-I (R) located on chromosome 15 have been identified. Mean (±SD) birth length (BL), available for 26, (10 M, 16F) neonates with a gestational age of 34-41weeks, was 44.2±4cm; one was premature (30cm at 31 weeks). There was a significant correlation between birth length and gestational age (GA) r=0.71 (p>.001). Mean birth weight (BW) of 41 neonates (18M, 23F) was 2388±743gr. Two premature neonates weighed 650gr and 950gr respectively. The BW correlated significantly with gestational age, (males: r=0.68; p=0.007, females: r=0.49; p=0.024). The BMI of 25 neonates ranged from 6 to 13. In 22 records marked microcephaly was ascertained or stated. Nine of 16 mothers were short (133 -148cm), m±SD = 150.5±7.3cm. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  17. The decay width of stringy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob; Weissman, Dorin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we further develop a string model of hadrons by computing their strong decay widths and comparing them to experiment. The main decay mechanism is that of a string splitting into two strings. The corresponding total decay width behaves as Γ = π/2 ATL where T and L are the tension and length of the string and A is a dimensionless universal constant. We show that this result holds for a bosonic string not only in the critical dimension. The partial width of a given decay mode is given by Γi / Γ =Φi exp ⁡ (- 2 πCmsep2 / T) where Φi is a phase space factor, msep is the mass of the "quark" and "antiquark" created at the splitting point, and C is a dimensionless coefficient close to unity. Based on the spectra of hadrons we observe that their (modified) Regge trajectories are characterized by a negative intercept. This implies a repulsive Casimir force that gives the string a "zero point length". We fit the theoretical decay width to experimental data for mesons on the trajectories of ρ, ω, π, η, K*, ϕ, D, and Ds*, and of the baryons N, Δ, Λ, and Σ. We examine both the linearity in L and the exponential suppression factor. The linearity was found to agree with the data well for mesons but less for baryons. The extracted coefficient for mesons A = 0.095 ± 0.015 is indeed quite universal. The exponential suppression was applied to both strong and radiative decays. We discuss the relation with string fragmentation and jet formation. We extract the quark-diquark structure of baryons from their decays. A stringy mechanism for Zweig suppressed decays of quarkonia is proposed and is shown to reproduce the decay width of ϒ states. The dependence of the width on spin and flavor symmetry is discussed. We further apply this model to the decays of glueballs and exotic hadrons.

  18. [Are there Sex Differences Regarding Ski Length to Height Ratio, Ski Length to Weight Ratio, Sidecut Radius and Ski Boot Sole Abrasion among ACL Injured Male and Female Skiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Markus; Ruedl, Gerhard; Tecklenburg, Katja; Helle, Kenneth; Schranz, Alois; Burtscher, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Introduction  Female skiers suffer from knee injuries twice as much as male skiers, and the risk of an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is three times greater among females compared to males. The sex-specific ACL injury risk depends on internal (e. g. age, skiing skills, fitness level) and external (e. g. slope and weather conditions, ski equipment) factors. However, it is not clear whether male and female recreational skiers with an ACL injury differ regarding the sidecut radius and ski boot sole abrasion. Method  This questionnaire-based study was conducted in the winter seasons 2014/15 and 2015/16. During those periods, data of ACL-injured skiers were collected at an Austrian ski clinic. The questionnaire included information about demographics, skiing skills, type of fall, binding release, and injury diagnosis. Furthermore, the ski length and sidecut radius were notated from the ski, and abrasion of ski boot sole was measured at the toe and heel piece of the ski boot using a caliper. Results  In total 164 ACL-injured skiers (67 % females) with a mean age of 41.7 ± 11.5 years were recorded. Males used significantly longer skies compared to females (168.3 ± 6.6 vs. 157.5 ± 5.9 cm, p ski length to height ratio (94.0 ± 3.4 vs. 94.1 ± 3.3 %) showed no significant difference between the two sexes. The ski length to weight ratio was significantly different between females and males (2.5 ± 0.3 vs. 2.0 ± 0.2 cm/kg). The sidecut radius (13.5 ± 1.4 vs. 15.6 ± 2.6 m, p ski boot soles, neither at the toe piece (5.4 ± 1.2 vs. 5.5 ± 1.1 mm) nor at the heel piece (6.0 ± 1.7 vs. 6.0 ± 1.6 mm) between females and males. For both sexes the most common type of fall was the forward fall with body rotation (approximately 59 %). Failure of binding release was significantly more often reported by females compared to males (86 vs. 44 %, p ski length to weight ratio, and the

  19. Length-weight relationship and condition factor in giant harpiosquillid Mantis shrimp, Harpiosquilla raphidea (Crustacea: Stomatopoda in Banten Bay waters, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugi Mulyono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationship of Harpiosquilla raphidea from Banten Bay waters was studied from 146 males and 186 females ranging from 38 to 354 and from 37 to 348 mm, respectively. The following equations were obtained Ln W = 5.164 + 2.478 Ln X (for males, Ln W = 5.333 + 2.596 Ln X (for females and Ln W = 5.264 + 2.549 Ln X, Ln X (pooled. The ‘b’ values (2.5497 found not near to 3 indicating allometric growth being matched up with the cube law. The ANCOVA indicated not much variation between the ‘b’ values for males and females. In general, the growth rate of the mantis shrimp H. raphidea almost the same or not much different from other mantis shrimp species of the order Stomatopoda.

  20. Width, Length, and Height Conceptions of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya

    2018-01-01

    Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…

  1. A trade-off between length and width in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2016), s. 1-14 ISSN 1557-2862 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : proof complexity * resolution * trade-off Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http:// toc .nada.kth.se/articles/v012a005/index.html

  2. High-resolution T2-weighted MR imaging of the inner ear using a long echo-train-length 3D fast spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Fukatsu, H.; Ishigaki, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Aoki, I.; Miyazaki, M.; Takai, H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of a long echo-train-length 3D fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) sequence in visualizing the inner ear structures. Ten normal ears and 50 patient ears were imaged on a 1.5T MR unit using a head coil. Axial high-resolution T2-weighted images of the inner ear and the internal auditory canal (IAC) were obtained in 15 min. In normal ears the reliability of the visualization for the inner ear structures was evaluated on original images and the targeted maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the labyrinth. In ten normal ears, 3D surface display (3D) images were also created and compared with MIP images. On the original images the cochlear aqueduct, the vessels in the vicinity of the IAC, and more than three branches of the cranial nerves were visualized in the IAC in all the ears. The visibility of the endolympathic duct was 80%. On the MIP images the visibility of the three semicircular canals, anterior and posterior ampulla, and of more than two turns of the cochlea was 100%. The MIP images and 3D images were almost comparable. The visibility of the endolymphatic duct was 80% in normal ears and 0% in the affected ears of the patients with Meniere's disease (p<0.001). In one patient ear a small intracanalicular tumor was depicted clearly. In conclusion, the long echo train length T2-weighted 3D-FSE sequence enables the detailed visualization of the tiny structures of the inner ear and the IAC within a clinically acceptable scan time. Furthermore, obtaining a high contrast between the soft/bony tissue and the cerebrospinal/endolymph/perilymph fluid would be of significant value in the diagnosis of the pathologic conditions around the labyrinth and the IAC. (orig.)

  3. Age, growth and length-weight relationship of the rough skate, Raja radula (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyans: Rajidae, from the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Kadri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the length distribution, sex ratio, length-weight relationship, age and growth of Raja radula in the Gulf of Gabes. Methods: The age and growth characteristic of the rough skate (Raja radula inhabiting in the Gulf of Gabes (Central Mediterranean Sea was determined. A total of 1 250 specimens were sampled. According to the marginal increment band its growth was annual. Results: The growth parameters were derived by using the von-Bertalanffy method and were separately evaluated as follows: TL∞=97.2 cm, K= 0.15 y -1 , to= 0.35, and W∞= 5.28 kg, and TL∞= 76.4 cm, K = 0.22 y -1 , to= 0.16, and W∞= 3.77 kg, for females and males respetively. The maximum age was 12 years for females and 10 years for males. Conclusions: Results from this research will provide a starting point to develop a management plan for the rough skate in the Gulf of Gabes. Further investigations are necessary to quantify the impact of the existing regulations on the population dynamics and recruitment patterns of this species in the region.

  4. Weight-for-length trajectories in the first year of life in children of mothers with eating disorders in a large Norwegian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Eliana M; Von Holle, Ann; Zerwas, Stephanie; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Hamer, Robert M; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-05-01

    To describe weight-for-length (WFL) trajectories in the children (birth-12 months) of mothers with and without eating disorders. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We categorized women (N = 57,185) based on diagnosis prior to and during pregnancy: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype, binge eating disorder, or no eating disorder. The primary analysis included a shape invariant model fitted with nonlinear mixed effects to compare growth rates across eating disorder subtypes. The children of mothers reporting any eating disorder had a lower WFL growth rate from birth to 12 months than the children of mothers without eating disorders, even after adjusting for relative birth weight and some confounders known to affect growth. In this cohort, child WFL was related to maternal eating disorder status before and/or during pregnancy. These differences in growth trajectories warrant further study of long-term health outcomes and, if replicated, tailoring counseling to mothers with eating disorders during pregnancy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Length-weight relationships for 36 freshwater fish species from two tropical reservoirs: Ayamé I and Buyo, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Tah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the successful management of small scale fisheries requires the use of biometric data collected in the field, in order to transform them into suitable indicators. The present study describes the lengthweight relationships for 36 freshwater fish species from two tropical reservoirs Ayame I and Buyo, in Côte d’Ivoire. The main objective of the study was to provide a length weight key for a wide range of freshwater fish species from these tropical reservoirs exploited by the inland fisheries. The samplings were carried out at Buyo from July 1997 to August 1998, and from August 2004 to July 2005 in Ayame I. Fish specimens were collected from catches of artisanal fisheries using gill-nets, cast-nets, beach seines and bamboo traps. After landings, samples were identified, total weight for each specimen was recorded to the nearest gram and standard length was measured to the nearest millimetre. A total of 12 724 individuals belonging to 15 families and 24 genera were obtained in this study. The results indicated that the family with the highest number of species was Cichlidae with eight species. Six families were recorded with only one species per family. The value of the exponent b in the length weight relationships (W=aLb ranged from 2.173 for Marcusenius furcidens to 3.472 for Polypterus endlicheri and the median of b was 2.756. The modal value of the exponent b equal to 2.70 indicates that most of the fish species in Ayame I and Buyo Reservoirs have negative allometric growth. The length weight parameters of the three species, Lates niloticus, Synodontis koensis and S. punctifer are described for the first time in these regions. The present length-weight key for 36 freshwater fish species could be used as a valuable tool for fishery managers, in order to improve the inland fisheries statistics largely based on hydropower reservoirs in Côte d’Ivoire.Hoy en día, el manejo exitoso de pesquerías a pequeña escala requiere el uso de

  6. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    He was interested to know how `large' is the set of numbers x for which the series is convergent. Here large refers to its length. But his set is not in the class ♢. Here is another problem discussed by Borel. Consider .... have an infinite collection of pairs of new shoes and want to choose one shoe from each pair. We have an ...

  7. Phase width reduction project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.; Xie, Z.Q.; McMahan, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the phase width reduction project, 1993--96, was to reduce the phase width of the 88-Inch Cyclotron beam on target from 5--10 ns to 1--2 ns for certain experiments, such as Gammasphere, which use time-of-flight identification. Since reducing the phase width also reduces beam intensity, tuning should be done to also optimize the transmission. The Multi-turn Collimator slits in the cyclotron center region were used to collimate the early turns radially, thus reducing the phase width from about 5 ns to 1--2 ns FWHM for a Gammasphere beam. The effect of the slits on phase width was verified with a Fast Faraday Cup and with particle and gamma-ray detectors in the external beamline

  8. New population-based references for birth weight, length, and head circumference in singletons and twins from 23 to 43 gestation weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Saari, Antti; Gissler, Mika; Dunkel, Leo

    2013-09-01

    Birth size curves are needed for clinical and epidemiological purposes. We constructed birth weight (BW), length (BL), and head circumference (BHC) references, assessed effects of twinness and parity, and defined cut-off points for small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. Birth register data of all 753,036 infants born in 1996-2008 in Finland were cleaned to create references reflecting optimal intrauterine growth. The final data included 533,666 singletons and 15,033 twins (median gestation weeks (gws) 40.0 and 37.1, respectively, 41.6% primiparous). Sex-specific BW, BL, and BHC references were constructed from 23 to 43 gws separately for singletons and twins born to primiparous or multiparous mothers. GAMLSS method was used for modelling. In singletons from 36 gws onwards, increased BW and BL were observed in comparison to previous reference from 1979-1983. Twins diverged from singletons from 30 gws onwards. At 37.0 gws, mean BW was 400 g lower and mean BL 1.2 cm shorter than in singletons. From 30 gws onwards, birth size was larger in infants of multiparous than primiparous mothers. Population-based birth size references are available for the evaluation of birth size. Accounting for plurality and parity improves the accuracy of birth size evaluation.

  9. Birth body length, birth body weight and birth head circumference in neonates born in a single centre between 2011 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, Beata; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Kubik, Paweł; Milde, Katarzyna; Gmyrek, Leszek; Pęsko, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Access to updated and accurate standards for local populations is important for the interpretation of body measurements in neonates and may have an impact on the doctor's recommendations for monitoring early childhood development. to present individual mean values for the most prevalent body measurements (i.e. birth body length (BBL), birth body weight (BBW) and birth head circumference (BHC)) in neonates and compare them to the duration of pregnancy. The measurements (BBL, BBW and BHC) were collected and analyzed from over 27,000 neonates born in a single center. All women with single pregnancies with gestation ranging from 33 to 42 weeks were included in the study. Mean values and statistically significant standard deviation values from population standards of BBL, BBW, and BHC were evaluated for neonates that were born between the 33rd and 42nd week of gestation. Analysis was conducted for the lower limit (10th percentile), average (50th percentile) and upper limit (90th percentile). This was the first time in Polish literature when population standards were presented for three body meas-urements of neonates. With the size of the cohort, these standards can be successfully implemented into routine clinical practice, especially for screening children with body size deficits.

  10. A deterministic width function model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Puente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.

  11. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marková

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  12. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women consume caffeine daily. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal caffeine intake from different sources and (a) gestational length, particularly the risk for spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD), and (b) birth weight (BW) and the baby being small for gestational age (SGA). Methods This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 59,123 women with uncomplicated pregnancies giving birth to a live singleton were identified. Caffeine intake from different sources was self-reported at gestational weeks 17, 22 and 30. Spontaneous PTD was defined as spontaneous onset of delivery between 22+0 and 36+6 weeks (n = 1,451). As there is no consensus, SGA was defined according to ultrasound-based (Marsal, n = 856), population-based (Skjaerven, n = 4,503) and customized (Gardosi, n = 4,733) growth curves. Results The main caffeine source was coffee, but tea and chocolate were the main sources in women with low caffeine intake. Median pre-pregnancy caffeine intake was 126 mg/day (IQR 40 to 254), 44 mg/day (13 to 104) at gestational week 17 and 62 mg/day (21 to 130) at gestational week 30. Coffee caffeine, but not caffeine from other sources, was associated with prolonged gestation (8 h/100 mg/day, P caffeine was associated with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake from different sources, measured repeatedly during pregnancy, was associated with lower BW (Marsal-28 g, Skjaerven-25 g, Gardosi-21 g per 100 mg/day additional total caffeine for a baby with expected BW 3,600 g, P Caffeine intake of 200 to 300 mg/day increased the odds for SGA (OR Marsal 1.62, Skjaerven 1.44, Gardosi 1.27, P caffeine, consumption was associated with marginally increased gestational length but not with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake was consistently associated with decreased BW and increased odds of SGA. The association was strengthened by concordant results for

  13. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    OpenAIRE

    J. Marková; M. Holický

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceabi...

  14. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  15. Effects of alcohol on length and weight of young of the year ide Idus idus (L. and roach Rutilus rutilus (L. Effects of alcohol on length and weight of young of the year ide Idus idus (L. and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cala Plutarco

    1971-09-01

    standards de corrección no son generalmente usuales. Los factores de corrección habrán de ser determinados para cada estudio tomando en cuenta el estado original y el tamano del pez, tipo y concentración iónica del preservativoy el tiempo que el pez es almacenado en él. Así, el factor decorrección puede ser diferente, por ejemplo, inclusive para la misma especie, para quienes consideren el factor rigor mortis y para aquellos que no lo consideren.Changes in length were recorded by sequential measurements of fish killed and stored in 80% ethanol. Young-of-the-year ide shrank to 96% (sample A and to 98% (sample B of original length in less than 24 hours (Table 1, and subsequently the smaller fry, shrank to about 95% while the larger ones showed no further change.  Young-of-the-year roach shrank to 94% (sample A and to 98% (samples B and C of original length in less than 24 hours (Table 2 Subsequently the smaller fry (sample A shrank to about 93%, those in sample B shrank to about 97%, while the larger ones (sample C showed no further change.  The proportionate changes in weight among fishes of different sizes varied very little. Young-of-the-year ide and roach (Table 1 and 2 diminished to about 80% of their original weigth in less than two days. Further changes with time were considered insignificant, except in sample A in Table 2.The apparent different loss of weight in ide (sample A, Table 1 and in roach (sample A, Table 2 could be due to SOme systematic error during measurements, because the age and length of the fish of the two samples were more or less the same.  Changes in length and weight were recorded during anaesthesia and after the death of fishes kept in water and without it. It was concluded that, for fish under anaesthesia, weight must be observed as soon as voluntary movement ceases in order to approximate the live weight. Prolongedanaesthesia (although respiratory movement may continue and death affect osmoregulation. Fish kept in freshwater after

  16. Correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal width of central upper incisor in Buginese tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahruddin Thalib

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Various types of anatomical landmarks of the face should match its proportions with the size of the teeth which is the interalar width, intercomissural width, interpupillary width, Intercanthal width, and byzigomatic width. Some of face landmarks can be used as a guide in the selection of anterior teeth in complete denture, especially if the pre extraction record such as radiography image, extracted teeth, model study, the remaining teeth, face shape, and the shape of the curved jaw have been lost. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisivus centralis width in a group of Buginese tribe. Ninety nine Buginese tribe subjects aged 17-25 were selected. The interalar width, intercommisural width, and mesiodistal incisor centralis teeth were measured using caliper about three times for accuracy and precision. Mean of interalar width and mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in males more width than females (p0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width was 0.030, -0.246, 0,225 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. : The degree of correlation between intercommisural width against  mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in Buginese tribe was 0,054, 0,013, 0,153 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width was 0.301 and 0.356 in Buginese tribe and males (p0.05. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width  directly proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width  inversely proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in males and directly

  17. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Line Width Recovery after Vectorization of Engineering Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramblička Matúš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vectorization is the conversion process of a raster image representation into a vector representation. The contemporary commercial vectorization software applications do not provide sufficiently high quality outputs for such images as do mechanical engineering drawings. Line width preservation is one of the problems. There are applications which need to know the line width after vectorization because this line attribute carries the important semantic information for the next 3D model generation. This article describes the algorithm that is able to recover line width of individual lines in the vectorized engineering drawings. Two approaches are proposed, one examines the line width at three points, whereas the second uses a variable number of points depending on the line length. The algorithm is tested on real mechanical engineering drawings.

  19. Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Laura Delbue Bernardi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing obesity is starting to occur among Brazilians. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (SINASC in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. The newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. Percentiles ( 85 and Z-scores ( +1 were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by WHO (2006. The log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (Z were used. The statistical significance level used was 5%. RESULTS: The predominant social level was class C. The median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between P15 and P85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. Children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. Children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.

  20. Femoral Intercondylar Notch (ICN) width in Nigerians: Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is suggested that the difference could be the result of dominant use of one foot over the other or to occupational habit. This needs further investigation. The Femoral Intercondylar Notch (ICN) width is not related to Femur length as no relationship was found to exist between the two (p > 0.05). We conclude that since ...

  1. Genetic parameters for weight gain and body measurements for Nile tilapias by random regression modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Müller Conti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to estimate the genetic parameters for weight gain and body measurements in the GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain of Nile tilapia by random regression models. Several orders of Legendre polynomials were tested for random effects and modeled with 1, 3, 6 and 9 classes of residual variance. For the effects of permanent environmental and family, third-order polynomials were adjusted in all traits, as well as for the genetic effects of weight, weight gain, length and width. For genetic effects of height and head, fourth-order polynomials were required. To gain weight, height and head, the best model was one that considered the homogenous residual variance; however for width and weight, heterogeneous variance with 3 and 9 age classes was required, respectively. The highest heritability for weight was 0.34 at 240–311 days, and for weight gain it was 0.69 at 311 days. For head and length, the highest heritability was around 270 days at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. The highest heritability found for length was 0.20 at 254 days, 0.2 at 254 days for height, and for width the heritability was 0.54 at 311 days. Since the largest heritabilities were found for weight gain and width at 311 days, selection at these ages, based on these traits, would lead to greater genetic gains. Genetic correlations were higher between adjacent ages and, in general, selections at ages of less than 200 days did not lead to genetic gain correlated with traits at 300 days. The exception was for width, because high correlations were obtained between final and initial ages and the heritability was median in the majority of the period. Thus, selection based on the width at any age would lead to satisfactory genetic gain in this trait at the end of the growing season.

  2. Artificially extended photoperiod administered to pre-partum mares via blue light to a single eye: Observations on gestation length, foal birth weight and foal hair coat at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Margaret B; Walsh, Caroline M; Duff, Noelle; McCrarren, Conor; Prendergast, Ralph L; Murphy, Barbara A

    2017-09-15

    In seasonally breeding animals, photoperiod perception is crucial for timing of important physiological events. In the horse, long day photoperiod influences the onset of ovulation and cyclicity, shedding of the heavier winter coat and the timing of parturition. In this compilation of studies, conducted across three breeding seasons and two countries, the impact of artificially extended day length was investigated on gestation length, foal birth weight and foal hair coat at birth. The light therapy was administered to pre-partum mares via mobile head worn masks which provided short wavelength blue light to a single eye. In Study 1, reductions in gestation lengths were observed following administration of artificially extended day length (124.8 ± 15.11 days) in the final months of pregnancy to a group of Thoroughbred mares compared to controls (P coat condition of foals at birth with respect to hair weight (P < 0.0001) and hair length (P < 0.0001) compared to controls (0.34 ± 0.20 μg vs 0.59 ± 0.12 μg and 1.93 ± 0.56 cm vs 2.56 ± 0.32 cm, respectively). Collectively, these studies serve to highlight the influential role of the circa-annual changes in photoperiod length on the pre-partum mare for normal foetal development during the natural breeding season. It also emphasizes the potential that exists to improve breeding efficiency parameters by artificially simulating this important environmental cue in the latter stages of gestation against the backdrop of an economically driven early breeding season. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Q-angle, Pelvic width, and Intercondylar notch width

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    , higher graduation rate, improved self-esteem and body image, increased bone mass, cardiovascular function and weight control1. Over the last twenty years, women soccer has experienced tremendous improvement and growth with a series ...

  4. Ocupación materna, duración de la gestación y bajo peso al nacimiento Maternal occupation, pregnancy length and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ronda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la relación de la ocupación materna durante el embarazo con el bajo peso en los recién nacidos y con los partos pretérmino. Método: La muestra consistió en 1.341.686 nacimientos pretérmino y 1.217.897 con bajo peso, en España (1996-2000, con información válida sobre ocupación materna procedente del Registro Nacional de Nacimientos. La ocupación materna fue la variable principal codificada por grupos de ocupación (CNO-79, y las de resultados fueron el bajo peso (Objective: To assess the association between maternal occupation during pregnancy with the presence of low birth weight and preterm delivery. Method: The sample consisted of 1,341,686 preterm infants and 1,217,897 low birth weight infants in Spain (1996-2000 with valid information on maternal occupation from the National Registry of Births. Maternal occupation was the main exposure variable coded according to groups of occupation (CNO-79 and outcomes were low birth weight (<2500g and preterm birth (<37 weeks. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated through the maximum verisimilitude method. Results: The highest prevalence of preterm infants was found in mothers working in agriculture (10.8% and the lowest in professional women (6.6%. The highest prevalence of low birth weight was observed in the women working in the services sector (3.5% and manual workers in industry and construction (3.4% while the lowest prevalence was found in professional women (2.5%. Women working in agriculture had a higher risk of preterm birth than professional women (aOR=1.68; 95%CI: 1.57-1.80. The risk of low birth weight was higher in women working in the service sector (aOR=1.36; 95%CI: 1.30-1.42, housewives (aOR=1.30; 95%CI: 1.28-1.38, agricultural laborers (aOR=1.29; 95%CI: 1.14-1.44 and manual workers in industry and construction (aOR=1.29; 95%CI: 1.21-1.36. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that belonging to certain

  5. Analysis of edge stability for models of heat flux width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Makowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detailed measurements of the ne, Te, and Ti profiles in the vicinity of the separatrix of ELMing H-mode discharges have been used to examine plasma stability at the extreme edge of the plasma and assess stability dependent models of the heat flux width. The results are strongly contrary to the critical gradient model, which posits that a ballooning instability determines a gradient scale length related to the heat flux width. The results of this analysis are not sensitive to the choice of location to evaluate stability. Significantly, it is also found that the results are completely consistent with the heuristic drift model for the heat flux width. Here the edge pressure gradient scales with plasma density and is proportional to the pressure gradient inferred from the equilibrium in accordance with the predictions of that theory.

  6. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  7. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  8. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-09-22

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients.

  9. Length/weight relationship and condition factor of Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1877 and M. brasiliense (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in two locations in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Gazzi Taddei

    Full Text Available Abstract This study describes the weight vs. carapace length relationship and provides the total and monthly condition factor values for populations of Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1977 and M. brasiliense (Heller, 1868 occurring in southeastern Brazil. The biological characteristics were compared and related to the climatic environmental factors between the two areas. Our investigation sampled M. jelskii from the Barra Mansa Dam, Mendonça, SP, a semilotic environment with greater resilience than the Talhadinho Stream, Talhado, SP, a lotic environment where specimens of M. brasiliense were captured. Individuals were classified according to sex and measured at the carapace length (CL and weighed (WE. The relationship WE/CL was analyzed by dispersion diagrams of the empirical points, which were set to the power function (WE = a.CL b . Values of the mean condition factor were compared monthly. In total, 1493 individuals of M. jelskii and 843 individuals of M. brasiliense were captured. Analyses of the constant allometry revealed that both sexes of M. jelskii, as well as females of M. brasiliense grow proportionately more in size than weight. The results concerning the morphometric aspects studied in both species suggest an association with the reproductive processes.

  10. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  11. Similarity of Stream Width Distributions Across Headwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Barefoot, E. A.; Tashie, A.; Butman, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology and abundance of streams control the rates of hydraulic and biogeochemical exchange between streams, groundwater, and the atmosphere. In large river systems, studies have used remote sensing to quantify river morphology, and have found that the relationship between river width and abundance is fractal, such that narrow rivers are proportionally more common than wider rivers. However, in headwater systems (stream order 1-3), where many biogeochemical reactions are most rapid, the relationship between stream width and abundance is unknown, reducing the certainty of biogeochemical flux estimates. To constrain this uncertainty, we surveyed two components of stream morphology (wetted stream width and length) in seven physiographically contrasting stream networks in Kings Creek in Konza Prarie, KS; Sagehen Creek in the N. Sierra Nevada Mtns., CA; Elder Creek in Angelo Coast Range Preserve, CA; Caribou Creek in the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed, AK; V40 Stream, NZ; Blue Duck Creek, NZ; Stony Creek in Duke Forest, NC. To assess temporal variations, we also surveyed stream geometry in a subcatchment of Stony Creek six times over a range of moderate streamflow conditions (discharge less than 90 percentile of gauge record). Here we show a strikingly consistent gamma statistical distribution of stream width in all surveys and a characteristic most abundant stream width of 32±7 cm independent of flow conditions or basin size. This consistency is remarkable given the substantial physical diversity among the studied catchments. We propose a model that invokes network topology theory and downstream hydraulic geometry to show that, as active drainage networks expand and contract in response to changes in streamflow, the most abundant stream width remains approximately static. This framework can be used to better extrapolate stream size and abundance from large rivers to small headwater streams, with significant impact on understanding of the hydraulic

  12. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  13. Detonation cell widths in hydrogen-air-diluent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper I report on the influence of steam and carbon dioxide on the detonability of hydrogen-air mixtures. Data were obtained on the detonation cell width in a heated detonation tube that is 0.43 m in diameter and 13.1 m long. The detonation cell widths were correlated using a characteristic length calculated from a chemical kinetic model. The addition of either diluent to a hydrogen-air mixture increased the cell width for all equivalence ratios. For equal diluent concentrations, however, carbon dioxide not only yielded larger increases in the cell width than steam, but its efficacy relative to steam was predicted to increase with increasing concentration. The range of detonable hydrogen concentrations in a hydrogen-air mixture initially at 1 atm pressure was found to be between 11.6 percent and 74.9 percent for mixtures at 20 degree C and 9.4 percent and 76.9 percent for mixtures at 100 degree C. The detonation limit was between 38.8 percent and 40.5 percent steam for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixture initially at 100 degree C and 1 atm. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Hai Nguyen; Khanh, Dung Khu Thi; Thu, Ha Le Thi; Thomas, Emma G; Lee, Katherine J; Russell, Fiona M

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW) and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age. An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8) were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared. 485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-0.99), and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92-0.96). The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤ 7.4 cm for foot length; ≤ 30.4 cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0 cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements) but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm). All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure that the application of these measures is reliable

  15. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Nguyen Thi

    Full Text Available The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age.An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8 were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared.485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-0.99, and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92-0.96. The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤ 7.4 cm for foot length; ≤ 30.4 cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0 cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm.All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure that the application of these measures is

  16. Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  17. A niche width model of optimal specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.P.; Ó Nualláin, Breanndán

    2000-01-01

    Niche width theory, a part of organizational ecology, predicts whether “specialist” or “generalist” forms of organizations have higher “fitness,” in a continually changing environment. To this end, niche width theory uses a mathematical model borrowed from biology. In this paper, we first loosen the

  18. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  19. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Width. 29.1085 Section 29.1085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep. Width...

  1. Effect of castration age on weight and size of some muscles in Piemontese male cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biagini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pre- and post-pubertal castration on muscle weight and measurements has been studied in 3 groups of Piemontese male cattle (EC - early castrated, LC - late castrated, IM - intact reared in the same environmental conditions and slaughtered at about 18 month of age, at about 550 kg of l.w., and at the same commercial fattening degree. At side commercial dissection all separated muscles or meat cuts were weighted, and on the most regular ones (regular roll, shoulder clod – “copertina”, blade filet, strip loin, tenderloin, and eye round linear measures were recorded and then some conformation ratios (weight/length, length/width, and length/circumference were calculated. Data were analysed by GLM ANCOVA procedure, correcting data on side weight to avoid bias due to differences in carcass weight. Differences were found in meat weight, heavier in IM than in LC and EC (P<0.05, and fat weight, heavier in LC and EC than IM (P<0.01. Only the blade filet weight/length and length/circumference ratios were higher in EC than LC and IM (P<0.05 and in IM than EC (P<0.05 respectively, showing the poor effect of sexual neutralisation on weight and size of the considered muscles.

  2. The SOL width and the MHD interchange instability in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pogutse, O. [Kurchatov institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Instabilities in the SOL plasma can strongly influence the SOL plasma behaviour and in particular the SOL width. The SOL stability analysis shows that there exists a critical ratio of the thermal energy and the magnetic energy. If the SOL beta is greater than this critical value, the magnetic field cannot prevent the plasma displacement and a strong MHD instability in the SOL occurs. In the opposite case only slower resistive instabilities can develop. A theoretical investigation of the SOL plasma stability is presented for JET single-null and double-null divertor configurations. The dependence of the stability threshold on the SOL beta and on the sheath resistance is established. Applying a simple mixing length argument gives the scaling of the SOL width. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Catch Composition, Abundance and Length- Weight Relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loading Salter digital balance for small fish (<2.0 kg) or on a hanging Salter ... white- spotted grouper,. Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus, was numerically the most abundant (15.6%) in the catch followed by Cephalopholis boenak. (13%) and E. fasciatus ... Vanga, the commonly landed species were the white-spotted grouper,.

  4. Biologic width dimensions--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julia C; Sahrmann, Philipp; Weiger, Roland; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Walter, Clemens

    2013-05-01

    Consideration of the biologic width in restorative dentistry seems to be important for maintaining periodontal health. To evaluate the dimensions of the biologic width in humans. A systematic literature search was performed for publications published by 28 September 2012 using five different electronic databases; this search was complemented by a manual search. Two reviewers conducted the study selection, data collection, and validity assessment. The PRISMA criteria were applied. From 615 titles identified by the search strategy, 14 publications were included and six were suitable for meta-analyses. Included studies were published from the years 1924 to 2012. They differed with regard to measurements of the biologic width. Mean values of the biologic width obtained from two meta-analyses ranged from 2.15 to 2.30 mm, but large intra- and inter-individual variances (subject sample range: 0.2 - 6.73 mm) were observed. The tooth type and site, the presence of a restoration and periodontal diseases/surgery affected the dimensions of the biologic width. Pronounced heterogeneity among studies regarding methods and outcome measures exists. No universal dimension of the biologic width appears to exist. Establishment of periodontal health is suggested prior to the assessment of the biologic width within reconstructive dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Genetic analysis of a red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) population undergoing three generations of selection for increased body weight at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhar; Thoa, Ngo Phu; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis was performed on 10,919 data records collected over three generations from the selection programme for increased body weight at harvest in red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). They were offspring of 224 sires and 226 dams (50 sires and 60 dams per generation, on average). Linear mixed models were used to analyse body traits (weight, length, width and depth), whereas threshold generalised models assuming probit distribution were employed to examine genetic inheritance of survival rate, sexual maturity and body colour. The estimates of heritability for traits studied (body weight, standard length, body width, body depth, body colour, early sexual maturation and survival) across statistical models were moderate to high (0.13-0.45). Genetic correlations among body traits and survival were high and positive (0.68-0.96). Body length and width exhibited negative genetic correlations with body colour (- 0.47 to - 0.25). Sexual maturity was genetically correlated positively with measurements of body traits (weight and length). Direct and correlated genetic responses to selection were measured as estimated breeding values in each generation and expressed in genetic standard deviation units (σ G ). The cumulative improvement achieved for harvest body weight was 1.72 σ G after three generations or 12.5% per generation when the gain was expressed as a percentage of the base population. Selection for improved body weight also resulted in correlated increase in other body traits (length, width and depth) and survival rate (ranging from 0.25 to 0.81 genetic standard deviation units). Avoidance of black spot parent matings also improved the overall red colour of the selected population. It is concluded that the selective breeding programme for red tilapia has succeeded in achieving significant genetic improvement for a range of commercially important traits in this species, and the large genetic variation in body colour and survival also shows that

  6. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... for gestational age has, however, not been addressed. METHODS: The influence of weight for gestational age (percentage deviation from expected mean), gestational age, birth weight, and early diet on kidney growth was studied in 178 children born pre- or postmature and/or small or large for gestational age......, comparing them to 717 mature children, birth weight appropriate for gestational age. Kidney size was determined by bilateral ultrasonography measuring length, width and depth, using the equation of an ellipsoid for volume calculation. The examinations were performed at 0, 3, and 18 months of age together...

  7. Estimation of Length and Order of Polynomial-based Filter Implemented in the Form of Farrow Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vukotic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital polynomial-based interpolation filters implemented using the Farrow structure are used in Digital Signal Processing (DSP to calculate the signal between its discrete samples. The two basic design parameters for these filters are number of polynomial-segments defining the finite length of impulse response, and order of polynomials in each polynomial segment. The complexity of the implementation structure and the frequency domain performance depend on these two parameters. This contribution presents estimation formulae for length and polynomial order of polynomial-based filters for various types of requirements including attenuation in stopband, width of transitions band, deviation in passband, weighting in passband/stopband.

  8. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.G.; Amidei, D.; Antos, J.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Areti, H.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azfar, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bao, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bartalini, P.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Benton, D.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Bhatti, A.; Biery, K.; Binkley, M.; Bird, F.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.E.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bokhari, W.; Bolognesi, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boswell, C.; Boulos, T.; Brandenburg, G.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Cammerata, J.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chikamatsu, T.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Contreras, M.; Conway, J.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Daniels, T.; DeJongh, F.; Delchamps, S.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Donati, S.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Engels, E. Jr.; Eno, S.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Fan, Q.; Farhat, B.; Fiori, I.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Frautschi, M.; Freeman, J.; Friedman, J.; Frisch, H.; Fry, A.; Fuess, T.A.; Fukui, Y.; Funaki, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Galeotti, S.; Gallinaro, M.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Gordon, A.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grewal, A.; Grieco, G.; Groer, L.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Hamilton, R.; Handler, R.; Hans, R.M.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Heinrich, J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hoelscher, A.

    1995-01-01

    This Letter describes a direct measurement of the W boson decay width, Γ(W), using the high-mass tail of the transverse mass spectrum of W→eν decays recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We find Γ(W)=2.11±0.28(stat) ± 0.16(syst) GeV and compare this direct measurement with indirect means of obtaining the width

  9. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Yemen; Gulf of Aden and Red Sea (Al Sakaff and Esseen, 1999). FL. 8.0-69.5. 0.0204. 2.975. Mixed. New Caledonia; lagoon (Letourneur et al., 1998). 0.0173. 3.010. Mixed. Kuwait (Mathews and Samuel, 1991) health and sex (Bagenal and Tesch, 1978;. Froese, 2006) all of which were not considered for.

  10. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B; Panda, N; Pradhan, C R; Mallik, B K; Majhi, B; Rout, S S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6(th) to 20(th) week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1(st) to 6(th) week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

  11. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  12. The decay width of stringy hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Sonnenschein

    2018-02-01

    We fit the theoretical decay width to experimental data for mesons on the trajectories of ρ, ω, π, η, K⁎, ϕ, D, and Ds⁎, and of the baryons N, Δ, Λ, and Σ. We examine both the linearity in L and the exponential suppression factor. The linearity was found to agree with the data well for mesons but less for baryons. The extracted coefficient for mesons A=0.095±0.015 is indeed quite universal. The exponential suppression was applied to both strong and radiative decays. We discuss the relation with string fragmentation and jet formation. We extract the quark–diquark structure of baryons from their decays. A stringy mechanism for Zweig suppressed decays of quarkonia is proposed and is shown to reproduce the decay width of ϒ states. The dependence of the width on spin and flavor symmetry is discussed. We further apply this model to the decays of glueballs and exotic hadrons.

  13. Relative Width and Height of Handwritten Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizega Rika, Joseba

    2018-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the height of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the height of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Alliances and Bisection Width for Planar Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Revsbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    An alliance in a graph is a set of vertices (allies) such that each vertex in the alliance has at least as many allies (counting the vertex itself) as non-allies in its neighborhood of the graph. We show that any planar graph with minimum degree at least 4 can be split into two alliances...... in polynomial time. We base this on a proof of an upper bound of n on the bisection width for 4-connected planar graphs with an odd number of vertices. This improves a recently published n + 1 upper bound on the bisection width of planar graphs without separating triangles and supports the folklore conjecture...... that a general upper bound of n exists for the bisection width of planar graphs....

  15. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of wide-band electronic tunability and moderate free-running line width makes the Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) a perfect on-chip local oscillator for integrated submillimeter-wave SIS receivers. The possibility of FFO phase locking at all frequencies of interest has...... to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape have been successfully implemented in order to avoid the superfine resonant structure with voltage...... spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...

  16. Temperature dependence of giant dipole resonance width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model extended to finite temperature within the framework of the thermo field dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ d own of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 12S n and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that the width Γ d own increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones existing in the literature

  17. Effect of allowed grazing time, inert rumen bulk and length of starvation before grazing on the weight, composition and dermentative end-products of the rumen contents of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilibroste, P.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, van J.; Togt, van der P.L.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of length of the allowed grazing time (Experiment 1), length of starvation time and placement in the rumen of inert bulk material before grazing (Experiment 2) on liquid and particulate rumen pool sizes, composition and fermentability was investigated. In Experiment 1, four lengths of

  18. Radiative width of molecular-cluster states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Gai, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular states are characterized by enhanced electromagnetic deexcitations of many different multipolarities. The expected enhancement of E1, E2, and E3 transitions is examined by deriving molecular sum rules for radiative deexcitation widths and via a dimensionality approach. The enhancement of the E1 transitions is the most striking

  19. Wireline equalization using pulse-width modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-High-speed data links over copper cables can be effectively equalized using pulse-width modulation (PWM) pre-emphasis. This provides an alternative to the usual 2-tap FIR filters. The use of PWM pre-emphasis allows a channel loss at the Nyquist frequency of ~30dB, compared to ~20dB for a

  20. Comparison of Arch Width Changes Following Orthodontic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-21

    Nov 21, 2015 ... they found optimal results are achieved when individual arch forms are maintained.[15]. This retrospective study used digital measurements of orthodontic models (1) to evaluate arch width changes in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances whose initial ovoid arch form was maintained following.

  1. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  2. Exotic meson decay widths using lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, M. S.; Fiebig, H. R.

    2006-01-01

    A decay width calculation for a hybrid exotic meson h, with J PC =1 -+ , is presented for the channel h→πa 1 . This quenched lattice QCD simulation employs Luescher's finite box method. Operators coupling to the h and πa 1 states are used at various levels of smearing and fuzzing, and at four quark masses. Eigenvalues of the corresponding correlation matrices yield energy spectra that determine scattering phase shifts for a discrete set of relative πa 1 momenta. Although the phase shift data is sparse, fits to a Breit-Wigner model are attempted, resulting in a decay width of about 60 MeV when averaged over two lattice sizes having a lattice spacing of 0.07 fm

  3. Analysis of reduced widths and size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.C.; Ram Raj; Nath, N.

    1977-01-01

    Recent data on S-wave neutron reduced widths for a large number of nuclei have been analysed nucleus-wise and the calculations for the degree of freedom of the associated (chi) 2 -distribution have been made using the Porter and Thomas procedure. It is noted that a number of nuclei can be fitted by a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom one, while there are few which are identified to follow a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom two and even more than two. The present analysis thus contradicts the usual presumption according to which the degree of freedom is taken to be always unity. An analytical attempt has also been made to ascertain the suitability of the data on reduced widths to be used for the analysis. These considerations are likely to modify the neutron cross-section evaluations. (author)

  4. Palindromic widths of nilpotent and wreath products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This result was gen- eralized by Bardakov and Tolstykh [8] who proved that almost all free products have infinite palindromic width; the only exception is given by ..... Next, let X0 ⊆ X and Y0 ⊆ Y be sets of representatives of elements of ¯X and. ¯Y respectively. Let ¯g ∈ ¯Gn be the homomorphic image of g ∈ Gn, then ¯g =.

  5. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H 2 gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10 4 in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter η = (P beam /F rev )·(dF rev /dP beam ). These two measurement techniques are described in this report

  6. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H{sub 2} gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 4} in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter {eta} = (P{sub beam}/F{sub rev}){center_dot}(dF{sub rev}/dP{sub beam}). These two measurement techniques are described in this report.

  7. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate distinct changes in otolith increment width observed in demersal juveniles...... by comparison with laboratory-reared individuals, and to investigate the factors determining variation in these increments. The different increment-width patterns were identified with a method based on the widths of consecutive increments. Otolith increment widths of juvenile cod were found to be highly...... on otolith growth rates of juvenile cod reared in the laboratory under different conditions. In this model, otolith growth rate was expressed as a function of rearing temperature and fish dry weight. Otolith growth of the field samples was calculated using ambient temperatures obtained from a 3D...

  8. Width and partial widths of unstable particles in the light of the Nielsen identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, P.A.; Sirlin, A.; Kniehl, B.A.; Hamburg Univ.

    2001-09-01

    Fundamental properties of unstable particles, including mass, width, and partial widths, are examined on the basis of the Nielsen identities (NI) that describe the gauge dependence of Green functions. In particular, we prove that the pole residues and associated definitions of branching ratios and partial widths are gauge independent to all orders. A simpler, previously discussed definition of branching ratios and partial widths is found to be gauge independent through next-to-next-to-leading order. It is then explained how it may be modified in order to extend the gauge independence to all orders. We also show that the physical scattering amplitude is the most general combination of self-energy, vertex, and box contributions that is gauge independent for arbitrary s, discuss the analytical properties of the NI functions, and exhibit explicitly their one-loop expressions in the Z-γ sector of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  9. Length, width and centroid distance as measures of teams tactical performance in youth football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folgado, Hugo; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Frencken, Wouter; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Small-sided games are commonly used in training and teaching contexts of football. However, few studies have focused on the tactical implications of this type of drills. The aim of this study is to identify how tactical collective behaviour varies with age in different small-sided game formats. We

  10. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  11. Reliability of permanent mandibular first molars and incisors widths as predictor for the width of permanent mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mittar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Preventive measures are necessary to prevent a potential irregularity from progressing into a more severe malocclusion. The determination of the tooth size-arch length discrepancy in mixed dentition requires an accurate prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: For the study, 200 subjects in the age group of 16-25 years were selected from various colleges of M. M. University. The mesiodistal width of permanent mandibular incisors, first molars, canines and premolars of both arches were measured on the subject cast using an electronic digital caliper. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between mesiodistal tooth widths of males and females. Linear regression equation was determined to predict the sum of mandibular and maxillary permanent canines and premolars using mandibular first molars plus the four mandibular incisors as predictors. Results: There was no significant difference between the actual and predicted width of sum of permanent canines and premolars using regression equations. The predicted widths of both arches using Tanaka and Johnston equations showed significant differences. Determined regression equations for males were accurate in male samples and determined regression equation for females were accurate in female samples for both arches.

  12. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...... increases considerably at voltages above the boundary voltage because of the abrupt increase of the internal damping due to Josephson self-coupling. The influence of FFO parameters, in particular the differential resistances associated both with the bias current and with the applied magnetic field...

  13. Weight and morphometric growth of different strains of tilapia (Oreochromis sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bezerra Allaman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphometric growth and weight gain of strains of tilapia (Thai, Red, UFLA and Commercial by nonlinear models. Initially, 500 male fingerlings of each strain, at 85 (Red and UFLA and 86 (Thai and Commercial days of age, were stocked separately in raceways with 56 m³. Twenty fish of each strain were randomly sampled, weighed and measured monthly. Five nonlinear models (Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and exponential were tested, choosing one that best fit to the data. The variables studied were: weight, standard length (SL, head length (HL, height 1 (H1, height 2 (H2, height 3 (H3, first distance (D1, second distance (D2, first width (W1, second width (W2 and third width (W3. The exponential model had the best fit to weight and morphometric data, with the exception of W2, in which the best fitted model was von Bertalanffy. The convergence of the exponential model to data indicates that the cultivation period studied was not enough for the strains to reach maturity weight. The UFLA strain presented the lowest value for parameter "a" (initial weight estimate, 8.71 g, and the highest for parameter k (specific growth rate, 0.0127, when compared with other evaluated strains. However, the highest k of UFLA was not enough to overcome the final weight observed for the Commercial strain (603.1 g, which was higher than all other strains. Regarding the morphometric measurements, the UFLA strain also had the highest k for the variables SL, HL, HH, H1, H2, H3 and D2, and similar k to Commercial and Thai strains for the variables D1 and W3 respectively. The strains differ as to weight gain and morphometric growth.

  14. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Laryngeal Air Column Width Difference as a New Predictor for Postextubation Stridor in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amrousy, Doaa; Elkashlan, Mohamed; Elshmaa, Nagat; Ragab, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of ultrasound-guided laryngeal air column width difference in predicting postextubation stridor in children. Prospective observational study. Single, tertiary care pediatric hospital. This study was carried out at PICU and surgical ICU, Tanta University Hospital on 400 ventilated children between January 2015 and May 2017. Patients who received mechanical ventilation and met criteria for a weaning trial were included. Laryngeal ultrasound and cuff leak test. Ultrasound-guided laryngeal air column width and cuff leak test were measured before extubation. Laryngeal air column width is the width of air between the vocal cords seen by laryngeal ultrasonography. Laryngeal air column width difference is the width difference of air column passed through vocal cords with the balloon cuff inflated and deflated. Three-hundred fifty six patients (89%) had no postextubation stridor, whereas 44 patients (11%) developed postextubation stridor. Postextubation stridor was associated with younger age, less weight, female gender, prolonged duration of intubation, and ICU stay (p column width difference and cuff leak test showed significant decrease (p column width difference at cutoff point of less than 0.8 mm gave a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 86%, and accuracy of 91%, whereas cuff leak test at less than 11% yielded a sensitivity of (61%), specificity of (53%), and accuracy of (59%) for predicting postextubation stridor. Laryngeal air column width difference measurement may serve as a simple reliable noninvasive method for predicting postextubation stridor in children.

  16. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-09-01

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  17. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  18. Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon

    2017-01-01

    The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor...

  19. GAP WIDTH STUDY IN LASER BUTT-WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser...

  20. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  1. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  2. Narrow-width mechanism of a=5 Ξ-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai-Fuse, I.; Akaishi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Narrow-width mechanism of ≡ 5 H is discussed by calculating conversion widths to all its possible decay channels. Since the conversion processes have small reaction Q values, the three- and four- body decays are strongly suppressed owing to small phase volumes available. Decay widths to the two-body channels are significantly reduced by the distortion of emitted-particle waves. This mechanism brings about a narrow width of ≡ 5 H. The total width is estimated to be 0.87 MeV, in which the largest contribution comes from the decay into the Λ 4 H * +Λ channel. (author)

  3. Aphanizomenon gracile increases in width in the presence of Daphnia. A defence mechanism against grazing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawek Cerbin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous cyanobacteria are frequently consumed by grazers like Daphnia, which can break filaments and make them more readily available to filter-feeders. However, various defence mechanisms against grazing have also been observed in cyanobacteria. Data concerning changes in the morphology of filamentous algae, especially their width in the presence of a grazer, are scarce. Field studies of filament morphology of cyanobacteria relate their changes to nutrient availability and temperature. Moreover, filament morphology displays significant differences in filament length and width among seasons. We hypothesised that the morphological changes in filament observed in the field – especially their width – could be a defence mechanism that is induced by the presence of a grazer, such as Daphnia. Thus, two experiments were conducted in order to test the influence of Daphnia (direct grazing and infochemicals together in the first experiment and the chemicals it released (grazing excluded, only chemicals present in the second experiment on Aphanizomenon gracile’s morphology, in controlled laboratory conditions. Aphanizomenon filaments became significantly shorter and thicker in both experiments. However, Daphnia’s grazing combined with excreted chemicals had stronger effect than chemicals alone. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the shortening and thickening of filaments in the presence of Daphnia infochemicals. It seems that the Aphanizomenon filaments in the presence of Daphnia switch their growing mode and invest more heavily in width than length. Our results support the hypothesis that Daphnia is at least partly responsible for the changes in filament width observed in the field. This could be a strategy that helps Aphanizomenon to withstand grazer’s pressure during early stages of a bloom.

  4. Mechanical properties of rubberwood oriented strand lumber (OSL: The effect of strand length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strand length on mechanical properties (tension, compression and bending of oriented strand lumber (OSL made of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. was reported. Three strand lengths of 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm with 1 mm thickness and 15 mm width were used. The strands were mixed with 5% pMDI glue (weight basis in a tumble mixer. The OSL specimens were formed by hot pressing process of unidirectionally aligned strands. Average specific gravity and moisture content were 0.76 and 8.34%, respectively. Tension and compression tests were carried out for directions both parallel and perpendicular to grain while bending test was performed only in parallel direction. Ultimate stresses and moduli of elasticity were examined from the stress-strain curves. It was found that for the parallel-to-grain direction, the longer strand OSL gave higher strength. The role of the strand length did not appear for the direction normal to the grain. The relationship between the mechanical properties of OSL and strand length was well described by the modified Hankinson formula.

  5. Recent Advances in Global Measurement and Application of River Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Among variables relevant to river form and discharge that can be observed from space, river width is perhaps the simplest to measure. Width can be extracted directly from optical or radar imagery, and application of remotely sensed widths to problems in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and ecology dates back more than two decades. Despite this long heritage, until very recently remotely sensed width measurements have largely been made on an ad-hoc basis for individual studies over relatively small regions. Global studies that required river widths have largely relied on estimates from downstream hydraulic geometry relationships with basin area, which inevitably simplify width variability and may, in practice, underestimate the fraction of wide rivers and the total river surface area in many basins. Over the last two years, multiple new regional- and global-scale, satellite-derived river width datasets have been developed that have substantially improved our global understanding of river form. These datasets include the Global Width Database for Large Rivers (GWD-LR), which provides width measurements for rivers wider than ~180 m, and all rivers wider than ~300 m, based on the SRTM water mask and the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL), which provides measurements for rivers as narrow as 30 m and all rivers wider than ~100 m. Several regional-scale datasets have also been developed. These datasets will facilitate improvements to regional and global scale hydrodynamic models, will provide more robust information on global river surface area for gas flux studies, and constitute novel information on global patterns of fluvial geomorphology. These datasets represent the beginning, not the end, of global river width measurements, however, as in the future multitemporal width measurements can be combined with recently developed algorithms to estimate river discharge for many rivers, globally.

  6. The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.

  7. A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker Khubab; Umair Muhammad; Maqsood Muhammad; Nawab Yasir; Ahmad Sheraz; Rasheed Abher; Ashraf Munir; Basit Abdul

    2015-01-01

    A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving pa...

  8. A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Khubab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.

  9. Short Necklace States, Logarithm Transmission Fluctuation and Localization Length

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xunya; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the widely-existing short necklace states in random systems. It is found that their peak width and relative height in lnT spectra keep almost constant when the system length increases, which is explained by the coupled-resonator theory with intrinsic parameters. This property makes them special in contribution of lnT fluctuation. Further, short necklace states can help us to deeply understand the physical meaning of localization length and the delocalized effectin localized reg...

  10. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  11. The normal width of the adult hip joint: The relationship to age, sex, and obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrund, H.; Bloom, R.; Mogle, P.

    1983-01-01

    The articular cartilage thickness of the weight-bearing segment of the hip joint, in standard pelvic radiography, of 240 male and female subjects between the ages of 45-84 years was measured in a random sample of a Jerusalem population. The average value was approximately 4.0 mm and no sex or age difference was found. There was no correlation either between joint width and body build as estimated by the weight to height ratio. It is thus concluded that a narrow joint space should not be expected either in elderly or obese subjects other than as a concomitant finding of arthritic change. (orig.)

  12. Determination of normal maxillary transverse dimension by using intercanine width and interpalatal first molar width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Alka M; Pillai, Jayasankar P; Patel, Kinjal D

    2016-01-01

    Malocclusion in the vertical and sagittal planes is easy to observe whereas it is difficult to diagnose malocclusion in the transverse plane. There are yet no criteria defining a normal transverse occlusion. The aim of this study was to identify a ratio that defines a normal transverse occlusion. This was a retrospective study. A total sample of 151 maxillary dental models (M = 55, F = 96) in the age range of 12-16 years were randomly selected, with 73 models in control group and 78 in the study group. All the models were mixed up and given to an operator for the measurement of intercanine width (ICW) and inter-palatal molar width (IPMW). The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Chi-square test was performed to test the statistical significance difference between the groups at p ≤ 0.05. Nearly 98.60% of normal arches were found to have an IPMW to ICW ratio of 1:1 ± 0.05. On further analysis, it was found that when IPMW ≥37.45 mm, then the case may be considered to have normal arches, and if the ratio between IPMW to ICW is 1.15:1 ± 0.05 or more and IPMW is dimension.

  13. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  14. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  15. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resonance width. GDR is defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the GDR lineshape and is related to various damping mechanisms of the collective motion inside nuclear matter. The damping of giant collective vibration inside the nuclear medium occurs either due to escape of resonance energy by means ...

  16. A STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR OBTAINING THE CONTROLLED WOVEN FABRIC WIDTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqsood, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing

  17. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The present work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted ...

  18. Difference of CBD width on US vs. ERCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Olga R; Suissa, Alain; Khamaysi, Iyad; Koren, Dorit; Gaitini, Diana

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between US and ERCP in the measurement of common bile duct (CBD) width after application of Compound and Harmonic imaging on ultrasound. We prospectively evaluated the CBD width as measured on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and ultrasonography (US), applying Compound and Harmonic US techniques, on 100 patients. Furthermore, we retrospectively re-examined US and ERCP images of 48 patients who underwent ERCP and US during the same hospitalization period. The average difference in measurements by US compared to ERCP was 2.3 mm (P CBD width. There was a good correlation between ERCP and US measurements of CBD width (r = 0.73 for all patients and r = 0.88 for patients with intact gallbladder, P CBD width on US and ERCP of about 2 mm. The application of Compound and Harmonic techniques in the prospective study probably enabled a more accurate sonographic measurement.

  19. Precision determination of the strong interaction shift and width in pionic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D.F.; Covita, D.D.S.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Indelicato, P.; Jensen, T.; Bigot, E.O. Le; Trassinelli, M.; Simons, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The new pionic hydrogen experiment at PSI aims at an improvement in the determination of the strong interaction ground state shift and width of the pionic hydrogen atom. High precision x-ray crystal spectroscopy is used to extract isospin separated scattering lengths with accuracies on the percent level. Compared to previous efforts, the energy resolution and statistics could be improved considerably and the background is much reduced. The response function of the Johann-type crystal spectrometer has been determined with a novel method with unprecedented accuracy. The inherent difficulties of the exotic atom's method result, from the fact that the formation of a sufficient amount of pionic hydrogen atoms requires a hydrogen target pressure of several bar at least. For the extraction of a strong interaction shift, an extrapolation method to vacuum conditions proved to be successful. This contribution mostly discusses the strategy to extract a result for the strong interaction width from the data.(author)

  20. Super-radiance and the widths of neutron resonances in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N

    2012-01-01

    In the 1950s the possibility of forming a 'super-radiant' (SR) state in a gas of atoms confined to a volume of a size smaller than the wave length of radiation was suggested by Dicke. During the years this mechanism was applied to many phenomena in many different fields. Here it is used in the discussion of the statistics of resonance widths in a many-body system with open decay channels. Depending on the strength of the coupling to the continuum such systems show deviations from the Porter-Thomas distribution. In the limit of very strong coupling this leads to super-radiance. The results presented are important for the understanding of recent experimental data concerning the widths distribution of neutron resonances in nuclei.

  1. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  2. Relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Length-weight relationship of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. dos Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier, 1830 na Baia de Sepetiba (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro foi determinada. Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com o conhecimento sobre a morfometria desta espécie na baía e fornecer bases para comparações com outros ambientes. Os peixes foram coletados em programas de amostragens de arrasto de praia (juvenis e arrasto de fundo (adultos entre outubro de 1998 e setembro de 1999. A equação encontrada foi W = 0,000006 L3,1368 para machos e W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 para fêmeas. Alometria positiva foi encontrada para machos e fêmeas e a proporção sexual foi de 1:1. Os altos valores para o coeficiente alométrico indicam alto investimento no crescimento, que pode ser devido ao pequeno tamanho relativo dos espécimes da população analisada, ou ser um mecanismo para suportar as condições de estresse nesta área.The lenght-weight relationship of Orthopristis rubber (Cuvier, 1830 in the Sepetiba Bay (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro was determined. It aims to contribute to morphometrics knowledge of this species in a semi-closed coastal area and to supply basis for comparisons with others environment. Fishes were collected by beach seine (juveniles and otter trawl (adults from October 1998 to September 1999. The equation found was W = 0,000006 L3,1368 for males and W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 for females. Positive allometry was found for both sexes and sex rate was 1:1. The comparatively high values for allometric coefficient indicate high investment in growth, which can be due to relatively small size of the examined fish populations, or a mechanism to overcome stress conditions in the area.

  3. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  4. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  5. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, sho...

  6. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  7. Influence of pulse width and detuning on coherent phonon generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Shikano, Yutaka; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the coherent phonon generation mechanism by irradiation of an ultrashort pulse with a simple two-level model. Our derived formulation shows that both impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) and impulsive absorption (IA) simultaneously occur, and phonon wave packets are generated in the electronic ground and excited states by ISRS and IA, respectively. We identify the dominant process from the amplitude of the phonon oscillation. For short pulse widths, ISRS is very small and becomes larger as the pulse width increases. We also show that the initial phase is dependent on the pulse width and the detuning.

  8. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  9. The effect of scattering interference term on the practical width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins do Amaral, C.; Martinez, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The practical width Γ p has an important application in the characterization of the resonance type for the calculation of neutron average cross sections. Previous treatments ignore the interference term χζ,x for the Doppler broadening function in the practical width calculation. In the present paper, a rational approximation for the χζ,x function is derived, using a modified asymptotic Pade method. A new approximation for Γ p is obtained. The results which are presented here provide evidence that the practical width as a function of temperature varies considerably with the inclusion of the interference term χζ,x

  10. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y; Ishii, Satoshi; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kildishev, Alexander V

    2015-04-20

    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogenization, we calculate the resonant eigenmodes of the finite-width cladding layers, and find agreement with the resonant features in the dispersion of the cladded waveguides. We show that at the resonant widths, the propagating modes of the waveguides are coupled to the cladding eigenmodes and hence, are strongly absorbed. By avoiding the resonant widths in the design of the actual waveguides, the strong absorption can be eliminated.

  11. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm 3 ). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m 2 /kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  12. Multi-machine scaling of the main SOL parallel heat flux width in tokamak limiter plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jan; Pitts, R.A.; Adámek, Jiří; Arnoux, G.; Bak, J.-G.; Brezinsek, S.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Goldston, R.J.; Gunn, J. P.; Havlíček, Josef; Hong, S.-H.; Janky, Filip; LaBombard, B.; Marsen, S.; Maddaluno, G.; Nie, L.; Pericoli, V.; Popov, Tsv.; Pánek, Radomír; Rudakov, D.; Seidl, Jakub; Seo, D.S.; Shimada, M.; Silva, C.; Stangeby, P.C.; Viola, B.; Vondráček, Petr; Wang, H.; Xu, G.S.; Xu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 7 (2016), č. článku 074005. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * ITER * SOL decay length * SOL width * scaling Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/7/074005

  13. Multi-machine scaling of the main SOL parallel heat flux width in tokamak limiter plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jan; Pitts, R.A.; Adámek, Jiří; Arnoux, G.; Bak, J.-G.; Brezinsek, S.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Goldston, R.J.; Gunn, J. P.; Havlíček, Josef; Hong, S.-H.; Janky, Filip; LaBombard, B.; Marsen, S.; Maddaluno, G.; Nie, L.; Pericoli, V.; Popov, Tsv.; Pánek, Radomír; Rudakov, D.; Seidl, Jakub; Seo, D.S.; Shimada, M.; Silva, C.; Stangeby, P.C.; Viola, B.; Vondráček, Petr; Wang, H.; Xu, G.S.; Xu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 7 (2016), č. článku 074005. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * ITER * SOL decay length * SOL width * scaling Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/7/074005

  14. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  15. Relationship between width of greater trochanters and width of iliac wings in tronchanteric bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viradia, Neal K; Berger, Alex A; Dahners, Laurence E

    2011-09-01

    Trochanteric bursitis is a common disorder that is characterized by inflammation of the bursa, superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur, leading to pain in the lateral hip, and often occurs because of acute trauma or repetitive friction involving the iliotibial band, the greater trochanter, and the bursa. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that the increased incidence of bursitis may be the result of the increased prominence of the trochanter in relation to the wings of the iliac crest. Distances between the outermost edges of trochanters and iliac wings were measured in 202 patients from the University of North Carolina Health Care System-101 without a known diagnosis and 101 with a clinical diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. To determine significance, t tests for nonpaired data were used. Mean (SD) difference between trochanter and iliac wing widths was 28 (20) mm in the group diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and 17 (18) mm in the control group. The difference between the groups in this regard was significant (Pbursitis group and 1.05 (.06) in the control group. The difference between these groups was significant (Pbursitis.

  16. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    attention in previous studies. In this paper we report on finding for syrphids, spiders and carabids, three taxonomic groups with different mobility, all important for conservation biological control. For all groups we found an effect of buffer zone width on their density. A buffer width of 6m......Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little...... was the narrowest that consistently promoted a higher abundance or activity of arthropods within the field area (outside the hedge bottom). However, a further increase in buffer width always increased the abundance and activity of arthropods a little more....

  17. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF WEANING WEIGHT, YEARLING WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY DIMENSION OF BALI CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Supriyantono; L. Hakim; S. Suyadi; I. Ismudiono

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the genetic improving of production traits selected of Bali cattle. Four hundred and twenty eight data of weaning weight, yearling weight and body weight gain were used to estimate genetic improvement for those traits. One hundred and seven data of body dimension (body weight, chest circumference, body length and withers height) at 24 months old were used to estimate genetic improving for those traits. The estimation of genetic and environmental varianc...

  18. Estimating the Spectral Width of a Narrowband Optical Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Skov Jensen, A.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector.......Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector....

  19. SM Higgs decay branching ratios and total Higgs width

    CERN Multimedia

    Daniel Denegri

    2001-01-01

    Upper: Higgs decay ratios as a function of Higgs mass. The largest branching ratio is not necessarily the most usefull one. The most usefull ones are gamma gamma bbar ZZ and WW as in those modes latter signal to background ratios can be achieved. Lower: Total Higgs decay width versus Higgs mass. At low masses the natural width is extremely small, thus observability depends on instrumental resolution primarily.

  20. Study of partial width fluctuations for 232Th radiative capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Hazoni, Y.; Michaudon, A.; Paya, D.

    1962-01-01

    The partial widths of radiative capture at the excited level at 1 MeV in 233 Th were measured. This measurement was achieved on 7 neutron resonances of 232 Th from 20 to 175 eV. The normalization methods used for deducing these widths are described. The most probable value of the number of degrees of freedom is found to be 4 and the probability that ν ≤ 1 is found to be 16 per cent. (authors) [fr

  1. Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs

  2. Quantum numbers and decay widths of the psi (3684)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luth, V.; Boyarski, A.M.; Lynch, H.L.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Feldman, G.J.; Fryberger, D.; Hanson, G.; Hartill, D.L.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Luke, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Tanenbaum, W.; Vannucci, F.; Abrams, G.S.; Chinowsky, W.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Kadyk, J.A.; Litke, A.M.; Lulu, B.A.; Pierre, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Wiss, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Cross sections for e + e - →hadrons, e + e - , and μ + μ - near 3684 MeV are presented. The psi(3684) resonance is established as having the assignment J/sup PC/=1 -- . The mass is 3684+-5 MeV. The partial width for decay to electrons is GAMMA/sube/=2.1+-0.3 keV and the total width is GAMMA=228+-56 keV

  3. Correlations for reduced-width amplitudes in 49V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the relative sign of inelastic proton-channel amplitudes permits the determination of amplitude correlations. Data were obtained for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. Although the reduced widths in each channel followed a Porter-Thomas distribution, large amplitude correlations were observed. The results are compared with the reduced-width--amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter. This is the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter distribution

  4. Comprehensive intermaxillary tooth width proportion of Bangkok residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Manopatanakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper occlusion depends on the correct width ratio between upper and lower teeth, known as Bolton's ratio. In fact, this ratio can be calculated for each pair of teeth from the central incisor to the first permanent molar. This set of ratios, known as comprehensive cumulative percentage ratios (CPRs, can be used not only to determine which tooth or teeth have a tooth width discrepancy, but can also enable the partial graphical analysis of tooth width discrepancy when there is agenesis of certain permanent teeth. Although CPRs have been calculated for Caucasians, tooth width is known to vary depending on racial origin. Therefore, a test of differences between racial groups should be carried out. If these ratios of the Caucasians and Bangkokians are significantly different, the ratio of the Bangkokians is recommended. The objective of this study was to measure tooth size disproportion for Thai patients and to calculate a corresponding set of CPRs. Thirty-seven pairs of dental models were made from a group of Bangkok residents with normal occlusion. Mesiodistal tooth width was measured for each model. The intra- and inter-examiner measurement errors were ascertained as insignificant (p > 0.05. CPRs were then calculated and compared to those derived from other studies. Ten of thirteen CPRs were significantly different from corresponding values derived from Caucasians. We conclude that tooth width ratios vary between different racial groups, and therefore that these should be calculated specifically for each patient racial group.

  5. Stieltjes-moment-theory technique for calculating resonance width's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A.U.

    1978-12-01

    A recently developed method for calculating the widths of atomic and molecular resonances is reviewed. The method is based on the golden-rule definition of the resonance width, GAMMA(E). The method uses only square-integrable, L 2 , basis functions to describe both the resonant and the non-resonant parts of the scattering wave function. It employs Stieltjes-moment-theory techniques to extract a continuous approximation for the width discrete representation of the background continuum. Its implementation requires only existing atomic and molecular structure codes. Many-electron effects, such as correlation and polarization, are easily incorporated into the calculation of the width via configuration interaction techniques. Once the width, GAMMA(E), has been determined, the energy shift can be computed by a straightforward evaluation of the required principal-value integral. The main disadvantage of the method is that it provides only the total width of a resonance which decays into more than one channel in a multichannel problem. A review of the various aspects of the theory is given first, and then representative results that have been obtained with this method for several atomic and molecular resonances are discussed. 28 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  6. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  7. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  8. Synthetic Control over Quantum Well Width Distribution and Carrier Migration in Low-Dimensional Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, Andrew H; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Tan, Hairen; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H

    2018-02-28

    Metal halide perovskites have achieved photovoltaic efficiencies exceeding 22%, but their widespread use is hindered by their instability in the presence of water and oxygen. To bolster stability, researchers have developed low-dimensional perovskites wherein bulky organic ligands terminate the perovskite lattice, forming quantum wells (QWs) that are protected by the organic layers. In thin films, the width of these QWs exhibits a distribution that results in a spread of bandgaps in the material arising due to varying degrees of quantum confinement across the population. Means to achieve refined control over this QW width distribution, and to examine and understand its influence on photovoltaic performance, are therefore of intense interest. Here we show that moving to the ligand allylammonium enables a narrower distribution of QW widths, creating a flattened energy landscape that leads to ×1.4 and ×1.9 longer diffusion lengths for electrons and holes, respectively. We attribute this to reduced ultrafast shallow hole trapping that originates from the most strongly confined QWs. We observe an increased PCE of 14.4% for allylammonium-based perovskite QW photovoltaics, compared to 11-12% PCEs obtained for analogous devices using phenethylammonium and butylammonium ligands. We then optimize the devices using mixed-cation strategies, achieving 16.5% PCE for allylammonium devices. The devices retain 90% of their initial PCEs after >650 h when stored under ambient atmospheric conditions.

  9. Combined influence of implant diameter and alveolar ridge width on crestal bone stress: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wonjae; Jang, Yoon-Je; Kyung, Hee-Moon

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the combined influence of implant diameter and alveolar ridge width on crestal bone stress. ITI solid-screw implants, 10 mm in length and 3.3, 4.1, and 4.8 mm in diameter, and the alveolar bone were modeled using axisymmetric finite elements. Four different alveolar ridge geometries were selected for each implant: 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-mm-wide ridges for the 3.3-mm implants; 6-, 7-, 8-, and 9-mm-wide ridges for the 4.1-mm implants; and 7-, 8-, 9-, and 10-mm-wide ridges for the 4.8-mm implants. A nonaxial oblique load of 100 N was applied at 30 degrees to the implant axis. Regression analysis was used to avoid ambiguity when estimating the peak stress occurring at the coronal contact point between the implant and the crestal bone, ie, the singularity point. Peak stresses were dependent on both implant diameter and alveolar ridge width. Substantially lower stresses were recorded around the implants placed in narrower ridges. A regression analysis may be used to quantify the peak stress at the singularity point. An implant with a diameter that is at least half the ridge width is recommended to reduce the stress concentration in the crestal bone.

  10. A novel length back-calculation approach accounting for ontogenetic changes in the fish length - otolith size relationship during the early life of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenther, Claudia C.; Temming, Axel; Baumann, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    An individual-based length back-calculation method was developed for juvenile Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus), accounting for ontogenetic changes in the relationship between fish length and otolith length. In sprat, metamorphosis from larvae to juveniles is characterized by the coincidence of low...... length growth, strong growth in body height, and maximal otolith growth. Consequently, the method identifies a point of metamorphosis for an individual as the otolith radius at maximum increment widths. By incorporating this information in our back-calculation method, estimated length growth...

  11. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Out of the 320 male sheep examined, 87(27.2%) were infected, while 9(19.1%) of the 47 females examined were infected (Table 2). Infection varied from one abattoir to another. Age related distribution of P. cervi is shown in Table 3. Out of 356 adult sheep (>2yrs) examined, 35. Full Length Research Article. 12 ...

  12. The effects of different pot length and growing media on seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine appropriate pot length and growing medium for Crimean Juniper seedlings (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.), which will be used for afforestation of extreme areas. For this purpose, polyethylene pots of 11 cm width and 20, 25 and 30 cm lengths were used. As growing medium, 13 different ...

  13. Pulse Width Affects Scalp Sensation of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Luber, Bruce; Westin, Gregory G; Lisanby, Sarah H

    Scalp sensation and pain comprise the most common side effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which can reduce tolerability and complicate experimental blinding. We explored whether changing the width of single TMS pulses affects the quality and tolerability of the resultant somatic sensation. Using a controllable pulse parameter TMS device with a figure-8 coil, single monophasic magnetic pulses inducing electric field with initial phase width of 30, 60, and 120 µs were delivered in 23 healthy volunteers. Resting motor threshold of the right first dorsal interosseus was determined for each pulse width, as reported previously. Subsequently, pulses were delivered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at each of the three pulse widths at two amplitudes (100% and 120% of the pulse-width-specific motor threshold), with 20 repetitions per condition delivered in random order. After each pulse, subjects rated 0-to-10 visual analog scales for Discomfort, Sharpness, and Strength of the sensation. Briefer TMS pulses with amplitude normalized to the motor threshold were perceived as slightly more uncomfortable than longer pulses (with an average 0.89 point increase on the Discomfort scale for pulse width of 30 µs compared to 120 µs). The sensation of the briefer pulses was felt to be substantially sharper (2.95 points increase for 30 µs compared to 120 µs pulse width), but not stronger than longer pulses. As expected, higher amplitude pulses increased the perceived discomfort and strength, and, to a lesser degree the perceived sharpness. Our findings contradict a previously published hypothesis that briefer TMS pulses are more tolerable. We discovered that the opposite is true, which merits further study as a means of enhancing tolerability in the context of repetitive TMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oriented particleboard made from tali bamboo (Gigantochloa Apus): effect of particle length on physical and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswanto, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Strength properties are one of the problems of particleboard. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of particle length on physical and mechanical properties oriented particleboard (OPB). The variation particle length size in this experiment namely 3, 5, and 7 cm. The width and thickness size of all bamboo particles were 1 and 0.1 cm respectively. 12% mixed resin of UF and MDI (70/30 %w/w) used for binding. Board size fabricated in 25 by 25 cm2 with thickness and density target of 1 cm and 0.75 gcm-3. The OPB layers for face and back layers aligned perpendicular to the core layer. The weight ratio of the face-to-core-to-back layers were set at 1:2:1. Mat was pressed at 160 °C under 30 kgcm-2 as the pressure for 10 minutes. The results showed that 7 cm length particle produced of the best strength and dimensional stability. The increase of particle length resulted in increasing of strength properties. Over all the parameters of physical and mechanical properties fulfill requirements of JIS A 5908 (2003) excepted of thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity.

  15. Using step width to compare locomotor biomechanics between extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs and modern obligate bipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, P J; Clemente, C J; Weems, R E; Graham, D F; Lamas, L P; Hutchinson, J R; Rubenson, J; Wilson, R S; Hocknull, S A; Barrett, R S; Lloyd, D G

    2017-07-01

    How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs locomoted is a subject of considerable interest, as is the manner in which it evolved on the line leading to birds. Fossil footprints provide the most direct evidence for answering these questions. In this study, step width-the mediolateral (transverse) distance between successive footfalls-was investigated with respect to speed (stride length) in non-avian theropod trackways of Late Triassic age. Comparable kinematic data were also collected for humans and 11 species of ground-dwelling birds. Permutation tests of the slope on a plot of step width against stride length showed that step width decreased continuously with increasing speed in the extinct theropods ( p < 0.001), as well as the five tallest bird species studied ( p < 0.01). Humans, by contrast, showed an abrupt decrease in step width at the walk-run transition. In the modern bipeds, these patterns reflect the use of either a discontinuous locomotor repertoire, characterized by distinct gaits (humans), or a continuous locomotor repertoire, where walking smoothly transitions into running (birds). The non-avian theropods are consequently inferred to have had a continuous locomotor repertoire, possibly including grounded running. Thus, features that characterize avian terrestrial locomotion had begun to evolve early in theropod history. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Body weight measurements and correlation relationship in Savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.

  17. Measuring river from the cloud - River width algorithm development on Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.; Donchyts, G.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers are some of the most dynamic features of the terrestrial land surface. They help distribute freshwater, nutrients, sediment, and they are also responsible for some of the greatest natural hazards. Despite their importance, our understanding of river behavior is limited at the global scale, in part because we do not have a river observational dataset that spans both time and space. Remote sensing data represent a rich, largely untapped resource for observing river dynamics. In particular, publicly accessible archives of satellite optical imagery, which date back to the 1970s, can be used to study the planview morphodynamics of rivers at the global scale. Here we present an image processing algorithm developed using the Google Earth Engine cloud-based platform, that can automatically extracts river centerlines and widths from Landsat 5, 7, and 8 scenes at 30 m resolution. Our algorithm makes use of the latest monthly global surface water history dataset and an existing Global River Width from Landsat (GRWL) dataset to efficiently extract river masks from each Landsat scene. Then a combination of distance transform and skeletonization techniques are used to extract river centerlines. Finally, our algorithm calculates wetted river width at each centerline pixel perpendicular to its local centerline direction. We validated this algorithm using in situ data estimated from 16 USGS gauge stations (N=1781). We find that 92% of the width differences are within 60 m (i.e. the minimum length of 2 Landsat pixels). Leveraging Earth Engine's infrastructure of collocated data and processing power, our goal is to use this algorithm to reconstruct the morphodynamic history of rivers globally by processing over 100,000 Landsat 5 scenes, covering from 1984 to 2013.

  18. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Aml Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Red cell distribution width (RDW) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008). It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7%) than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238). RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in diabetic patients than healthy subjects and is particularly higher in uncontrolled glycemia. None of the studied hypoglycemic agents showed a significant effect on RDW. Diabetic hypertensive patients receiving

  19. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aml Mohamed Nada Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods: This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results: Red cell distribution width (RDW was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008. It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7% than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035. Mean platelet volume (MPV was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238. RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion: RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in

  20. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We used data from >200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered...... (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied was not associated with adverse birth outcomes. Being employed as a nurse was associated with lower risk SGA infants (ORadj 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) whereas food industry workers had an increased...... risk of preterm delivery (ORadj 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-2.02). There was little evidence for heterogeneity between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, overall, employment during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in the risk of preterm birth and that work in certain occupations may affect...

  1. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of selected finfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were: Alestopetersius smykalai ( LogW = 0.0143 + 2.58LogL), Awaous lateristriga (LogW = 0.0143 + 2.58LogL), Auchenoglanis occidentalis (LogW = 0.0375 + 2.88LogL), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Log W = 0.0536 + 2.97Log L), Awaous lateristriga (LogW = 0.0732 + 3.01Log L), Bostrychus africanus (LogW = 0.763 ...

  2. Catch Composition, Abundance and Length-Weight Relationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly higher numbers of groupers were landed during the southeast monsoon (n = 616) compared to the northeast monsoon (n = 184) season (χ2 = 125.812, df = 1, p <0.001). Of the three sites studied, more species were recorded at Shimoni (n = 36) compared to the Msambweni and Vanga sites (14 and 8 species, ...

  3. abundance, length-weight relationship and breeding season of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous efforts made to study the biology of the. African catfish in Lake Tana focused mainly on the southern gulf of the lake. Recently, an exploratory fishery program was conducted for two years to assess the status of the 'large-sized' and currently commercially important fish species all around the lake (including the ...

  4. Age, sex ratio, length-weight relationships and reproductive biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exper Computer

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Sun et al., 2002, De Martini et al., 2007). In the. Mediterranean Sea, MLS has been restricted at 90 cm in. Spain and 120 cm in Morocco (ICCAT, 2011a). However, minimum catch-at-size data have been reported as 51 cm for the Aegean Sea (De Metrio, 1995); 53 cm for the northern Ionian Sea (De Metrio, ...

  5. effects of hatching egg weight and length of storage period

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metinpetek

    Long egg storage periods affect the pH of the albumen due to loss of carbon dioxide (Dawes, 1975), which is important in maintaining embryonic viability, and result in decreased hatchability (Kirk et al., 1980;. Deeming, 2000; Heier & Jarp 2001). Eggs incubated on the day of lay produced heavier chicks than eggs stored for ...

  6. The Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor (K constant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The condition factor varied from 0.91 - 2.84 ± 0.07. Regression coefficients obtained were indicative of positive allometric growths. Specimen of D. marocannus examined can be said to have been in good condition and healthy therefore can be used for estimation of its population dynamics and fish stock assessment.

  7. Species composition, length-weight relationship and condition factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (b=3.75), Mugil cephalus (b=3.02) and Atherina formis (b=3.46) exhibited positive allometry growth while Pseudotolithus elongatus (b=2.55), Eleotris africana (b=2.79), Sardinella maderemsis (b=2.04), Periophthalmus barbarous (b=2.77), Microchirus poscanion had negative allometry growth.

  8. Abundance, length-weight relationship and condition factors of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most abundant fish species recorded in Ogbomoso reservoir are O. niloticus, C. nigrodigitatus, S. galilaeus, S. mystus with percentage abundance of 24.8%, 23.9%, 18.2% and 13.3% respectively. The values of b in C. nigrodigitatus, C. gariepinus, P. obscura and O. niloticus showed a positive allometric growth pattern.

  9. Experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation inside double pipe heat exchanger equipped with reduced width twisted tapes inserts using polymeric nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbehian, Mohammad; Maddah, Heydar; Mohammadiun, Hamid; Alizadeh, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we report a further enhancement in heat transfer coefficients of base fluid in combination with structural modifications of tape inserts. Polyvinyl Alcohol and TiO2 with mean diameter of 15 nm were chosen as base fluid and nano-particles, respectively. The experiments are carried out in plain tube with four longitudinal internal fins and reduced width twisted tape (RWTT) inserts of twist ratio varying form 2-5 and width of 12-16. Experiments are undertaken to determine heat transfer coefficients and friction factor of TiO2/PVA nanofluid up to 2.0 % volume concentration at an average temperature of 30 °C. The investigations are undertaken in the Reynolds number range of 800-30,000 for flow in tubes and with tapes of different width length ratios. The experiments was verified with well-known correlations. The average Nusselt number and friction factor in the tube fitted with the full-length twisted tapes at y/w = 3.0, and 5.0, are respectively 50-130, and 30-95 % higher than those in the plain tube; 90-220 and 100-270 % when the working fluid is nanofluid, respectively. For the reduced width twisted tapes, the heat transfer rate is decreased with decreasing tapes width. The average Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with the RWTT of 16, 14 and 12 are respectively, 210-390, 190-320 and 170-290 % of that in the plain tube. With the similar trend mentioned above, RWTT with higher width length yield higher thermal enhancement factor in comparison with smaller width. The use of RWTT led to the highest thermal performance factor up to 1.75. Maximum thermal performance factor which was obtained belonged to twists with twist ratio of 2 and width of 16 with φ = 0.5 % and Reynolds number range of 800-30,000.

  10. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  11. Prediction of Mesiodistal Width of Unerupted Lateral Incisors, Canines and Premolars in Orthodontic Patients in Early Mixed Dentition Period

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Toodehzaeim; Alireza Haerian; Ali Alesaeidi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Proper diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion are superior to treatment. Discrepancy between arch length and tooth size in mixed dentition period is a condition requiring timely diagnosis. Estimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted teeth according to the size of erupted ones can lead to earlier diagnosis of malocclusion. On the other hand, the best timing for serial extractions is before the eruption of lateral incisors. The aim of this study was to present prediction formula...

  12. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  13. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Utility of barium studies for patients with recurrent weight gain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Levine, M.S.; Rubesin, S.E.; Williams, N.N.; Dumon, K.; Raper, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the utility of barium studies for detecting abnormalities responsible for recurrent weight gain after gastric bypass surgery. Methods: A computerized search identified 42 patients who had undergone barium studies for recurrent weight gain after gastric bypass and 42 controls. The images were reviewed to determine the frequency of staple-line breakdown and measure the length/width of the pouch and gastrojejunal anastomosis. A large pouch exceeded 6 cm in length or 5 cm in width and a wide anastomosis exceeded 2 cm. Records were reviewed for the amount of recurrent weight gain and subsequent weight loss after additional treatment. Results: Staple-line breakdown was present in 6/42 patients (14%) with recurrent weight gain. When measurements were obtained, 13/35 patients (37%) with recurrent weight gain had a large pouch, three (9%) had a wide anastomosis, and four (11%) had both, whereas 22/42 controls (52%) had a large pouch, one (2%) had a wide anastomosis, and two (5%) had both. Ten patients (24%) with recurrent weight gain underwent staple-line repair (n = 3) or pouch/anastomosis revision (n = 7). These 10 patients had a mean weight loss of 38.1 lbs versus a mean loss of 8.6 lbs in 19 patients managed medically. Conclusion: Only 14% of patients with recurrent weight gain after gastric bypass had staple-line breakdown, whereas 57% had a large pouch, wide anastomosis, or both. Not all patients with abnormal anatomy had recurrent weight gain, but those who did were more likely to benefit from surgical intervention than from medical management. - Highlights: • Only 14% of patients with recurrent weight gain after gastric bypass had GGFs. • The majority of patients with recurrent weight gain had a large pouch/wide GJA. • Many patients without recurrent weight gain also had a large pouch/wide GJA. • Those with weight gain and a large pouch/wide GJA are likely to benefit from surgery

  15. Length of excitable knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucher, Fabian; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present extensive numerical simulations of an excitable medium to study the long-term dynamics of knotted vortex strings for all torus knots up to crossing number 11. We demonstrate that FitzHugh-Nagumo evolution preserves the knot topology for all the examples presented, thereby providing a field theory approach to the study of knots. Furthermore, the evolution yields a well-defined minimal length for each knot that is comparable to the ropelength of ideal knots. We highlight the role of the medium boundary in stabilizing the length of the knot and discuss the implications beyond torus knots. We also show that there is not a unique attractor within a given knot topology.

  16. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  18. Laser ion source with long pulse width for RHIC-EBIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new heavy ion-projector for RHIC and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Laser Ion Source (LIS) with solenoid can supply many kinds of ion from solid targets and is suitable for long pulse length with low current as ion provider for RHIC-EBIS. In order to understand a plasma behavior for fringe field of solenoid, we measure current, pulse width and total ion charges by a new ion probe. The experimental result indicates that the solenoid confines the laser ablation plasma transversely. Laser ion source needs long pulse length with limited current as primary ion provider for RHIC-EBIS. New ion probe can measure current distribution for the radial positions along z axis. The beam pulse length is not effected by magnetic field strength. However, the currents and charges decay with the distance from the end of solenoid. These results indicate that solenoid field has important role for plasma confinement not longitudinally but transversely and solenoid is able to have long pulse length with sufficient total ion charges. Moreover, the results are useful for a design of the extraction system for RHIC-EBIS.

  19. Modelling the widths of fission observables in GEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt K.-H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The widths of the mass distributions of the different fission channels are traced back to the probability distributions of the corresponding quantum oscillators that are coupled to the heat bath, which is formed by the intrinsic degrees of freedom of the fissioning system under the influence of pairing correlations and shell effects. Following conclusion from stochastic calculations of Adeev and Pashkevich, an early freezing due to dynamical effects is assumed. It is shown that the mass width of the fission channels in low-energy fission is strongly influenced by the zero-point motion of the corresponding quantum oscillator. The observed variation of the mass widths of the asymmetric fission channels with excitation energy is attributed to the energy-dependent properties of the heat bath and not to the population of excited states of the corresponding quantum oscillator.

  20. Form factors and radiation widths of the giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    Simple analytic relations for the form factors of inelastic electron scattering in the Born approximation and radiation widths of the isovector and isoscalar giant multipole resonances are derived. The dynamic relationship between the volume and surface density vibrations were taken into account in this calculation. The form factors in the Born approximation were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data in the region of small transferred momenta. The radiation widths of isoscalar multipole resonances increase when the number of nucleons increase as A 1/3 , and for isovector resonances this dependence has the form f(A)A 1/3 , where f(A) is a slowly increasing function of A. Radiation widths well fit the experimental data

  1. Fast and Robust Nanocellulose Width Estimation Using Turbidimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Michiko; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Shinichiro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Isogai, Akira; Endo, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The dimensions of nanocelluloses are important factors in controlling their material properties. The present study reports a fast and robust method for estimating the widths of individual nanocellulose particles based on the turbidities of their water dispersions. Seven types of nanocellulose, including short and rigid cellulose nanocrystals and long and flexible cellulose nanofibers, are prepared via different processes. Their widths are calculated from the respective turbidity plots of their water dispersions, based on the theory of light scattering by thin and long particles. The turbidity-derived widths of the seven nanocelluloses range from 2 to 10 nm, and show good correlations with the thicknesses of nanocellulose particles spread on flat mica surfaces determined using atomic force microscopy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Fontes de erros na mensuração do comprimento e peso de larvas de peixes - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.393 Origins of sample mistakes in the measure of the length and weight of fish larvae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nilvan Ferreira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos com larvas de peixes, sejam de cultivo ou ecológicos invariavelmente empregam o comprimento e o peso como parâmetros. Assim sendo, este experimento foi realizado com larvas de Lophiosilurus alexandri pacamã objetivando determinar algumas fontes de erros amostrais na medição do tamanho e do peso de larvas de peixes. Avaliou-se cinco possíveis fontes de erros. O primeiro foi o erro na medida dos comprimentos total e padrão, devido a acuidade de medição de dois observadores. O segundo, foi o erro na medida dos comprimentos total e padrão, devido ao encolhimento proporcionado pelo fixador formalina a 10%. O terceiro foi o erro devido a duas formas de secagem das larvas na obtenção da biomassa. O quarto experimento foi sobre a influência do tamanho e do agrupamento das larvas na obtenção de pesos. Por fim, o quinto teste observou a alteração da biomassa devido ao tempo de permanência das larvas na balança. Pôde-se verificar a importância de se determinar e cumprir um protocolo de amostagem para medições de larvas de peixes. Por apresentarem tamanho e peso reduzidos, uma pequena variação na condição da mensuração, pode alterar substancialmente o resultado, pois alterações significativas foram verificadas para os testes acima referidos.Experiments in the cultivation or ecological with fish larvae, invariably use the length and weight with parameters. Therefore, this experiment was accomplished with larvae of Lophiosilurus alexandri pacamã aiming at to determine some sources of mistakes sampling in the measurement of the size and of the weight of fish larvae. It was evaluated five possible sources of mistakes then. The first was the mistake in the measure of the lengths total and standard, due sharpness of two observers' measurement. The second the mistake in the measure of the lengths total and standard, due to the proportionate shrink for the fixative formomalin to 10%. The third party was the mistake due two

  3. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    Bioconversion Of Cassava Starch To Ethanol. BIOCONVERSION OF CASSAVA STARCH TO ... Keywords: A. niger, S. cerevisiae, Fermentation, Ethanol, Cell dry weight, Residual sugar. INTRODUCTION ..... The efficiency of starch conversion to ethanol was enhanced by optimization of the culture conditions. This is obvious ...

  4. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping It Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ... or "program". It's about lifestyle changes in daily eating and exercise habits. Success Stories They did it. So can you! ...

  5. Total Space in Resolution Is at Least Width Squared

    OpenAIRE

    Bonacina, Ilario

    2016-01-01

    Given an unsatisfiable k-CNF formula phi we consider two complexity measures in Resolution: width and total space. The width is the minimal W such that there exists a Resolution refutation of phi with clauses of at most W literals. The total space is the minimal size T of a memory used to write down a Resolution refutation of phi where the size of the memory is measured as the total number of literals it can contain. We prove that T = Omega((W - k)^2).

  6. Statistical analysis of s-wave neutron reduced widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandita Anita; Agrawal, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    The fluctuations of the s-wave neutron reduced widths for many nuclei have been analyzed with emphasis on recent measurements by a statistical procedure which is based on the method of maximum likelihood. It is shown that the s-wave neutron reduced widths of nuclei follow single channel Porter Thomas distribution (x 2 -distribution with degree of freedom ν = 1) for most of the cases. However there are apparent deviations from ν = 1 and possible explanation and significance of this deviation is given. These considerations are likely to modify the evaluation of neutron cross section. (author)

  7. Efficient algorithms for estimating the width of nearly normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerlof, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Typical physics data samples often conform to Gaussian distributions with admixtures of more slowly varying backgrounds. Under such circumstances the standard deviation is known to be a poor statistical measure of distribution width. As an alternative, the performance of Gini's mean difference is compared with the standard deviation and the mean deviation. Variants which sum over subsets of all possible pairs are shown to have statistical efficiencies comparable to the mean difference and mean deviation but do not require extensive data storage or a priori knowledge of the sample mean. These statistics are reasonable candidates for monitoring the distribution width of a real time data stream. (orig.)

  8. Short cervical length dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Anju; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. With research efforts, the rate of PTB decreased to 11.4% in 2013. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL) screening predicts PTB. In asymptomatic singletons without prior spontaneous PTB (sPTB), TVU CL screening should be done. If the cervix is 20 mm or less, vaginal progesterone is indicated. In asymptomatic singletons with prior sPTB, serial CL screening is indicated. In multiple gestations, routine cervical screening is not indicated. In symptomatic women with preterm labor, TVU CL screening and fetal fibronectin testing is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  10. Primary length standard adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.

  11. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  12. Crack width analysis of steel fibers reinforced concrete beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šahinagić-Isović Merima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced concrete in recent years has grown from experimental material to a practical usable material, due to its positive properties such as increased tensile strength, bending strength, toughness etc. However, still there are many unanswered questions that are the subject of many research. In this paper results and analysis of crack width of concrete beams with steel fibres are presented. This analysis considers influence of steel fibre addition on the crack width of reinforced concrete beams (dimensions 15/28/300 cm loaded up to fracture during short-term ultimate static load with one unloading cycle. Concrete beams were made of two types of concrete: ordinary strength concrete (OSC - C30/37 and high strength concrete (HSC - C60/70, with and without 0.45% of steel fibres. The results indicate that there is a significant influence of fibre addition on crack width, especially for ordinary concrete. At the end, empirical calculations of the concrete elements' crack width with steel fibres according to the recommendations of RILEM and ACI building code are given.

  13. Prediction of concentrated flow width in ephemeral gully channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtergaele, J.; Poesen, J.; Sidorchuk, A.; Torri, D.

    2002-07-01

    Empirical prediction equations of the form W = aQb have been reported for rills and rivers, but not for ephemeral gullies. In this study six experimental data sets are used to establish a relationship between channel width (W, m) and flow discharge (Q, m3 s-1) for ephemeral gullies formed on cropland. The resulting regression equation (W = 2·51 Q0·412; R2 = 0·72; n = 67) predicts observed channel width reasonably well. Owing to logistic limitations related to the respective experimental set ups, only relatively small runoff discharges (i.e. Q channel width was attributed to a calculated peak runoff discharge on sealed cropland, the application field of the regression equation was extended towards larger discharges (i.e. 5 × 10channels revealed that the discharge exponent (distribution over the wetted perimeter between rills, gullies and rivers, (ii) a decrease in probability of a channel formed in soil material with uniform erosion resistance from rills over gullies to rivers and (iii) a decrease in average surface slope from rills over gullies to rivers.channel width equation for concentrated flow on cropland. For the frozen soils the equation

  14. Echo width of foam supports used in scattering measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Solodukhov, V. V.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretically and experimentally determined echo widths of dielectric cylinders having circular, triangular, and quadratic cross sections have been compared. The cylinders were made of foam material having a relative dielectric constant of about 1.035. The purpose of the investigation was to find...

  15. Joint space width in dysplasia of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, K

    2005-01-01

    . Neither subjects with dysplasia nor controls had radiological signs of ongoing degenerative disease at admission. The primary radiological discriminator of degeneration of the hip was a change in the minimum joint space width over time. There were no significant differences between these with dysplasia...

  16. Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a utility interfaced pulse-width modulation of solar-fed voltage source single phase full bridge inverter. The proposed system has to do with the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy; boosting the dc power; inversion of the dc to ac and then synchronization of the inverter output with the utility, ...

  17. Frequency width of open channels in multiple scattering media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.; Goorden, S.A.; Mosk, Allard

    2016-01-01

    We report optical measurements of the spectral width of open transmission channels in a three-dimensional diffusive medium. The light transmission through a sample is enhanced by efficiently coupling to open transmission channels using repeated digital optical phase conjugation. The spectral

  18. Writer identification using directional ink-trace width measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, A. A.; Smit, J.; Bulacu, M. L.; Schomaker, L. R. B.

    As suggested by modern paleography, the width of ink traces is a powerful source of information for off-line writer identification, particularly if combined with its direction. Such measurements can be computed using simple, fast and accurate methods based on pixel contours, the combination of which

  19. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little...

  20. Prototyping of automotive components with variable width and depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathna, B.; Rolfe, B.; Harrasser, J.; Sedlmaier, A.; Ge, Rui; Pan, L.; Weiss, M.

    2017-09-01

    Roll forming enables the manufacturing of longitudinal components from materials that combine high strength with limited formability and is increasingly used in the automotive industry for the manufacture of structural and crash components. An extension of conventional roll forming is the Flexible Roll Forming (FRF) process where the rolls are no longer fixed in space but are free to move which enables the forming of components with variable cross section over the length of the part. Even though FRF components have high weight saving potential the technology has found only limited application in the automotive industry. A new flexible forming facility has recently been developed that enables proof of concept studies and the production of FRF prototypes before a full FRF line is built; this may lead to a wider uptake of the FRF technology in the automotive industry. In this process, the pre-cut blank is placed between two clamps and the whole set up moves back and forth; a forming roll that is mounted on a servo-controlled platform with six degrees of freedom forms the pre-cut blank to the desired shape. In this study an initial forming concept for the flexible roll forming of an automotive component with variable height is developed using COPRA® FEA RF. This is followed by performing experimental prototyping studies on the new concept forming facility. Using the optical strain measurement system Autogrid Compact, material deformation, part shape and wrinkling severity are analysed for some forming passes and compared with the numerical results. The results show that the numerical model gives a good representation of material behaviour and that with increasing forming severity wrinkling issues need to be overcome in the process.

  1. Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning was performed with a 3.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the supine position. The ultrasonographic appearance of the kidneys we measured was normal. The maximum length of each kidney was measured. The renal length was correlated with somatic parameters including age, body height and weight. Regression ...

  2. Hipertensão Arterial Experimental e Prenhez em Ratas: Repercussões sobre o Peso, Comprimento e Órgãos dos Recém-nascidos Experimental Arterial Hypertension and Pregnancy in Rats: Repercussion Regarding Body Weight Gain, Body Length and Organs of Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Dias

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar as repercussões da hipertensão arterial sobre o peso e comprimento corpóreo e sobre o peso do fígado e do cérebro de recém-nascidos (RN. Métodos: foram utilizadas 82 ratas virgens da raça Wistar em idade de reprodução. Após a indução da hipertensão arterial experimental (modelo Goldblatt I: 1 rim - 1 clipe as ratas foram sorteadas para compor os quatro grandes grupos experimentais (controle (C, manipulação (M, nefrectomia (N e hipertensão (H. A seguir, as ratas foram distribuídas por sorteio em 8 subgrupos, sendo quatro grupos prenhes e quatro grupos não-prenhes. Após acasalamento dos quatro grupos prenhes, obtivemos com o nascimento dos recém-nascidos os seguintes grupos: RN-C, RN-M, RN-N e RN-H, respectivamente controle, manipulação, nefrectomia e hipertensão. Resultados: quanto ao peso e comprimento corpóreo dos recém-nascidos observamos que os grupos RN-N e RN-H apresentaram os menores pesos ( = 3,64 ± 0,50 e ou = 3,37 ± 0,44, respectivamente e comprimentos ( = 3,89 ± 0,36 e ou = 3,68 ± 0,32, respectivamente em relação ao seus controles ( = 5,40 ± 0,51 e ou = 4,95 ± 0,23, respectivamente. Quanto ao peso do fígado os RN-H apresentaram os menores pesos ( = 0,22 ± 0,03 em relação a todos os demais grupos em estudo, e quanto ao peso do encéfalo os RN-N e RN-H apresentaram os menores pesos ( = 0,16 ± 0,01 e ou = 0,16 ± 0,05, respectivamente em relação aos seus controles ( = 0,22 ± 0,04. Conclusão: a hipertensão arterial determinou redução no peso corpóreo, no comprimento, no peso do fígado e no peso do encéfalo dos recém-nascidos.Purpose: to study the repercussion of arterial hypertension regarding body weight gain and body length, as well as liver and brain weight of offspring. Methods: a total of 82 animals in reproductive age were used. They were randomly assigned to 4 different groups (control, handled, nephrectomized and hypertensive. Renal hypertension was produced by a

  3. Influence of MLC leaf width on biologically adapted IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedal, Jan; Soevik, Aaste; Malinen, Eirik (Dept. of Medical Physics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)), E-mail: jan.rodal@radiumhospitalet.no

    2010-10-15

    Introduction. High resolution beam delivery may be required for optimal biology-guided adaptive therapy. In this work, we have studied the influence of multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths on the treatment outcome following adapted IMRT of a hypoxic tumour. Material and methods. Dynamic contrast enhanced MR images of a dog with a spontaneous tumour in the nasal region were used to create a tentative hypoxia map following a previously published procedure. The hypoxia map was used as a basis for generating compartmental gross tumour volumes, which were utilised as planning structures in biologically adapted IMRT. Three different MLCs were employed in inverse treatment planning, with leaf widths of 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The number of treatment beams and the degree of step-and-shoot beam modulation were varied. By optimising the tumour control probability (TCP) function, optimal compartmental doses were derived and used as target doses in the inverse planning. Resulting IMRT dose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were exported and analysed, giving estimates of TCP and compartmental equivalent uniform doses (EUDs). The impact of patient setup accuracy was simulated. Results. The MLC with the smallest leaf width (2.5 mm) consistently gave the highest TCPs and compartmental EUDs, assuming no setup error. The difference between this MLC and the 5 mm MLC was rather small, while the MLC with 10 mm leaf width gave considerably lower TCPs. When including random and systematic setup errors, errors larger than 5 mm gave only small differences between the MLC types. For setup errors larger than 7 mm no differences were found between non-uniform and uniform dose distributions. Conclusions. Biologically adapted radiotherapy may require MLCs with leaf widths smaller than 10 mm. However, for a high probability of cure it is crucial that accurate patient setup is ensured.

  4. Modeling of dislocation channel width evolution in irradiated metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter J.; Benensky, Kelsa M.; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2018-02-01

    Defect-free dislocation channel formation has been reported to promote plastic instability during tensile testing via localized plastic flow, leading to a distinct loss of ductility and strain hardening in many low-temperature irradiated materials. In order to study the underlying mechanisms governing dislocation channel width and formation, the channel formation process is modeled via a simple stochastic dislocation-jog process dependent upon grain size, defect cluster density, and defect size. Dislocations traverse a field of defect clusters and jog stochastically upon defect interaction, forming channels of low defect-density. Based upon prior molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and in-situ experimental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, each dislocation encounter with a dislocation loop or stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) is assumed to cause complete absorption of the defect cluster, prompting the dislocation to jog up or down by a distance equal to half the defect cluster diameter. Channels are predicted to form rapidly and are comparable to reported TEM measurements for many materials. Predicted channel widths are found to be most strongly dependent on mean defect size and correlated well with a power law dependence on defect diameter and density, and distance from the dislocation source. Due to the dependence of modeled channel width on defect diameter and density, maximum channel width is predicted to slowly increase as accumulated dose increases. The relatively weak predicted dependence of channel formation width with distance, in accordance with a diffusion analogy, implies that after only a few microns from the source, most channels observed via TEM analyses may not appear to vary with distance because of limitations in the field-of-view to a few microns. Further, examinations of the effect of the so-called "source-broadening" mechanism of channel formation showed that its effect is simply to add a minimum thickness to the channel

  5. Anogenital distance and penile width measurements in The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES): methods and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Grady, Richard; Redmon, J B; Ivicek, Kristy; Barrett, Emily; Janssen, Sarah; Nguyen, Ruby; Swan, Shanna H

    2015-04-01

    Anogenital distance (AGD) is an androgen responsive anatomic measurement that may have significant utility in clinical and epidemiological research studies. We describe development of standardized measurement methods and predictors of AGD outcomes. We examined infants born to 758 participants in The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES cohort) in four clinical centers in 2011-2013. We developed and implemented a detailed training protocol that incorporated multiple quality control (QC) measures. In males, we measured anoscrotal distance (AGDAS), anopenile distance (AGDAP), and penile width (PW) and in females, anofourchette distance (AGDAF,) and anoclitoral distance (AGDAC). A single examiner obtained three repetitions of all measurements, and a second examiner obtained independent measurements for 14% of infants. We used the intra-rater ICC to assess within-examiner variability and the inter-rater ICC to assess between-examiner variability. We used multivariable linear regression to examine predictors of AGD outcomes including: gestational age at birth, birth weight, gestational age, several measures of body size, race, maternal age, and study center. In the full TIDES cohort, including 758 mothers and children, significant predictors of AGD and PW included: age at exam, gestational age at birth, weight-for-length Z-score, maternal age and study center. In 371 males, the mean (SD) AGDAS, AGDAP, and PW were 24.7 (4.5), 49.6 (5.9), and 10.8 (1.3) mm, respectively. In 387 females, the mean (SD) AGDAF and AGDAC were 16.0 (3.2) mm and 36.7 (3.8) mm, respectively. The intra-examiner ICC and inter-examiner ICC averaged over all subjects and examiners were between 0.89-0.92 and 0.69-0.84 respectively. Our study confirms that with appropriate training and quality control measures, AGD and PW measurements can be performed reliably and accurately in male and female infants. In order for reliable interpretation, these measurements should be adjusted for

  6. Quantifying the forcing effect of channel width variations on free bars: Morphodynamic modeling based on characteristic dissipative Galerkin scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Chun; Shao, Yun-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Chen

    2011-09-01

    The forcing effect of channel width variations on free bars is investigated in this study using a two-dimensional depth-averaged morphodynamic model. The novel feature of the model is the incorporation of a characteristic dissipative Galerkin (CDG) upwinding scheme in the bed evolution module. A correction for the secondary flows induced by streamline curvature is also included, allowing for simulations of bar growth and migration in channels with width variations beyond the small-amplitude regimes. The model is tested against a variety of experimental data ranging from purely forced and free bars to coexisting bed forms in the variable-width channel. The CDG scheme effectively dissipates local bed oscillations, thus sustains numerical stabilities. The results show that the global effect of width variations on bar height is invariably suppressive. Such effect increases with the dimensionless amplitude AC and wave number λC of width variations. For small AC, λC has little effects on bar height; for AC beyond small amplitudes, however, the suppressing effect depends on both AC and λC. The suppressing effect on bar length increases also with both AC and λC, but is much weaker than that on bar height. The global effect of width variations on bar celerity can be suppressive or enhancive, depending on the combination of AC and λC. For smaller λC, the effect on bar celerity is enhancive; for larger λC, bar celerity tends to increase at small AC but decreases for AC beyond small amplitudes. We present herein an unprecedented data set verifying the theoretical prediction on celerity enhancement. Full suppression of bar growth above the theoretically predicted threshold AC was not observed, regardless of the adopted amplitude of initial bed perturbation A. The global effects of width variations on free bars can be quantified using a forcing factor FC that integrates the effects of AC and λC. The suppressing effects on bar height and length are both proportional to FC

  7. Responses of Tswana goats to various lengths of water deprivation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Medicago sativa hay. Feed intake per kg metabolic weight was inversely related to water intake. Body weight gains decreased with longer watering intervals, .... Table 2 Composition of experimental diet (60% Cenchrus ciliaris, 40% Medicago sativa) Tswana goats subject to varying lengths of water deprivation. Components.

  8. Acid Diffusion Length in Line-and-Space Resist Patterns Fabricated by Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2013-07-01

    Acids generated upon exposure to radiation induce the polarity change of the polymer through catalytic chain reactions in chemically amplified resists. With the reduction of feature size, the acid diffusion length increasingly becomes an important issue. In this study, we investigated the acid diffusion length in line-and-space patterns fabricated using a small field exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and the EIDEC standard resist to clarify the acid diffusion length in a state-of-the-art resist. The acid diffusion length depended on the nominal line width and exposure dose. Upon exposure to EUV radiation with an exposure dose of 16 mJ cm-2, the acid diffusion length (three-dimensional) in a line-and-space pattern with 21 nm nominal line width was 9.5 nm.

  9. Length-weight regressions of the microcrustacean species from a tropical floodplain Regressões peso-comprimento das espécies de microcrustáceos em uma planície de inundação tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study presents length-weight regressions adjusted for the most representative microcrustacean species and young stages of copepods from tropical lakes, together with a comparison of these results with estimates from the literature for tropical and temperate regions; METHODS: Samples were taken from six isolated lakes, in summer and winter, using a motorized pump and plankton net. The dry weight of each size class (for cladocerans or developmental stage (for copepods was measured using an electronic microbalance; RESULTS: Adjusted regressions were significant. We observed a trend of under-estimating the weights of smaller species and overestimating those of larger species, when using regressions obtained from temperate regions; CONCLUSION: We must be cautious about using pooled regressions from the literature, preferring models of similar species, or weighing the organisms and building new models.OBJETIVO: Este estudo apresenta as regressões peso-comprimento elaboradas para as espécies mais representativas de microcrustáceos e formas jovens de copépodes em lagos tropicais, bem como a comparação desses resultados com as estimativas da literatura para as regiões tropical e temperada; MÉTODOS: As amostragens foram realizadas em seis lagoas isoladas, no verão e no inverno, usando moto-bomba e rede de plâncton. O peso seco de cada classe de tamanho (para cladóceros e estágio de desenvolvimento (copépodes foi medido em microbalança eletrônica; RESULTADOS: As regressões ajustadas foram significativas. Observamos uma tendência em subestimar o peso das espécies de menor porte e superestimar as espécies de maior porte, quando se utiliza regressões peso-comprimento obtidas para a região de clima temperado; CONCLUSÃO: Devemos ter cautela no uso de regressões peso-comprimento existentes na literatura, preferindo modelos para as mesmas espécies, ou pesar os organismos e construir os próprios modelos.

  10. Simple discretization method for autoionization widths. III. Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macas, A.; Martn, F.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1987-01-01

    We apply a new method to calculate widths of two-electron Feshbach resonances, which was described in detail and applied to atomic systems in preceding articles (this issue), to molecular and quasimolecular autoionizing states. For simplicity in the programming effort, we restrict our calculations to the small-R region where one-centered expansions are sufficiently accurate to describe the wave functions. As test cases, positions and widths for the H 2 , He 2 /sup 2+/, HeH + , and LiHe/sup 3+/ resonances of lowest energy are computed for R<0.6 a.u. The advantage of using block-diagonalization techniques to define diabatic resonant states instead of generalizing the Feshbach formalism is pointed out

  11. A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Troy [Univ. of College, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01

    A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb-1 is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 ± 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 ± 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.

  12. Determination of the width of the top quark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Ćwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S

    2011-01-14

    We extract the total width of the top quark, Γ(t), from the partial decay width Γ(t → Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top-quark production and from the branching fraction B(t → Wb) measured in tt events using up to 2.3  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron pp Collider. The result is Γ(t) = 1.99(-0.55)(+0.69)  GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of τ(t) = (3.3(-0.9)(+1.3)) × 10(-25)   s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V(tb')| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  13. Statistical analysis of P-wave neutron reduced widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.C.; Agrawal, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The fluctuations of the p-wave neutron reduced widths for fifty one nuclei have been analyzed with emphasis on recent measurements by a statistical procedure which is based on the method of maximum likelihood. It is shown that the p-wave neutron reduced widths of even-even nuclei fallow single channel Porter Thomas distribution (χ 2 -distribution with degree of freedom ν=1) for most of the cases where there are no intermediate structure. It is emphasized that the distribution in nuclei other than even-even may differ from a χ 2 -distribution with one degree of freedom. Possible explanation and significance of this deviation from ν=1 is given. (author)

  14. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  15. Numerical Solution of the Modified Equal Width Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydi Battal Gazi Karakoç

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solution of the modified equal width wave equation is obtained by using lumped Galerkin method based on cubic B-spline finite element method. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the numerical conserved laws 2 and ∞ error norms. The numerical results are found in good agreement with exact solution. A linear stability analysis of the scheme is also investigated.

  16. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.

    1991-01-01

    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  17. Synchronization Technique for Random Switching Frequency Pulse-Width Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Apinan Aurasopon; Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a synchronized random switching frequency pulse width modulation (SRSFPWM). In this technique, the clock signal is used to control the random noise frequency which is produced by the feedback voltage of a hysteresis circuit. These make the triangular carrier frequency equaling to the random noise frequency in each switching period with the symmetrical positive and negative slopes of triangular carrier. Therefore, there is no error voltage in PWM signal. The PSpice simulate...

  18. Penning ionization widths by Fano-algebraic diagrammatic construction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Renjie; Narevicius, Edvardas; Averbukh, Vitali

    2018-03-01

    We present an ab initio theory and computational method for Penning ionization widths. Our method is based on the Fano theory of resonances, algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for many-electron systems, and Stieltjes imaging procedure. It includes an extension of the Fano-ADC scheme [V. Averbukh and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 204107 (2005)] to triplet excited states. Penning ionization widths of various He*-H2 states are calculated as a function of the distance R between He* and H2. We analyze the asymptotic (large-R) dependences of the Penning widths in the region where the well-established electron transfer mechanism of the decay is suppressed by the multipole- and/or spin-forbidden energy transfer. The R-12 and R-8 power laws are derived for the asymptotes of the Penning widths of the singlet and triplet excited states of He*(1s2s1,3S), respectively. We show that the electron transfer mechanism dominates Penning ionization of He*(1s2s 3S)-H2 up until the He*-H2 separation is large enough for the radiative decay of He* to become the dominant channel. The same mechanism also dominates the ionization of He*(1s2s 1S)-H2 when R < 5 Å. We estimate that the regime of energy transfer in the He*-H2 Penning ionization cannot be reached by approaching zero collisional temperature. However, the multipole-forbidden energy transfer mechanism can become important for Penning ionization in doped helium droplets.

  19. Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)

  20. Balance (perceived and actual) and preferred stance width during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, John; Hsiao, Katherine T; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2008-05-01

    Pregnant women often remark that their balance degrades during pregnancy; however, it appears that no studies have documented the gravida's perception of her balance nor measured direction-specific changes in balance throughout pregnancy or after delivery. Thirty women, fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant controls, were tested monthly and through 6-month postpartum. For each session, perceived degradation in sense of balance, laboratory-based balance measures, stance width, and the number of falls since the previous session were recorded. Laboratory-based balance measures, quantified by direction-specific measures of postural sway, were computed from ten 30s quiet-standing trials on a stationary force platform. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t-tests, and Pearson correlations were use to examine group and time effects. For the pregnant group, perceived balance degradation and stance width were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Both increased during pregnancy (P r > 0.72) and also decreased significantly between the third trimester and postpartum (P pregnancy, but increased after delivery. Contrary to recent work suggesting fall rates of 25%, only 13% of our subjects (n = 2) fell during pregnancy. Perceived degradation in balance during pregnancy was strongly related to increasing postural sway instability in the anterior-posterior direction. Lateral stability was maintained during pregnancy and likely accomplished by increasing stance width.

  1. Measurement of the mass and width of the W boson

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2006-01-01

    The mass and width of the W boson are measured using e+e- -> W+W- events from the data sample collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 170 GeV and 209 GeV. The mass (mw) and width (gw) are determined using direct reconstruction of the kinematics of W+W- -> qqbarlv and W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. When combined with previous OPAL measurements using W+W- -> lvlv events and the dependence on mw of the WW production cross-section at threshold, the results are determined to be mw = 80.415 +- 0.042 +- 0.030 +- 0.009 GeV gw = 1.996 +- 0.096 +- 0.102 +- 0.003 GeV where the first error is statistical, the second systematic and the third due to uncertainties in the value of the LEP beam energy. By measuring mw with several different jet algorithms in the qqbarqqbar channel, a limit is also obtained on possible final-state interactions due to colour reconnection effects in W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. The consistency of the results for the W mass and width with those inferred from other ele...

  2. Stark widths regularities within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trklja, Nora; Tapalaga, Irinel; Dojčinović, Ivan P.; Purić, Jagoš

    2018-02-01

    Stark widths within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence have been studied. This is a unique approach that includes both neutrals and ions. Two levels of problem are considered: if the required atomic parameters are known, Stark widths can be calculated by some of the known methods (in present paper modified semiempirical formula has been used), but if there is a lack of parameters, regularities enable determination of Stark broadening data. In the framework of regularity research, Stark broadening dependence on environmental conditions and certain atomic parameters has been investigated. The aim of this work is to give a simple model, with minimum of required parameters, which can be used for calculation of Stark broadening data for any chosen transitions within sodium like emitters. Obtained relations were used for predictions of Stark widths for transitions that have not been measured or calculated yet. This system enables fast data processing by using of proposed theoretical model and it provides quality control and verification of obtained results.

  3. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs

  4. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs

  5. Analysis Of The Effect Of Flow Channel Width On The Performance Of PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was analysed the effect of different channel width on performance of PEM fuel cell. Current density were measured on the single cells of parallel flow fields that has 25 cm² active layer, using three different kinds of channel width. The cell width and the channel height remain constant.The results show that increasing the channel width while the cell width remains constant decreases the current density.

  6. Influence of ocular features and incision width on surgically induced astigmatism after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wen; Su, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yao-Lin

    2015-02-01

    To identify factors associated with surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) following phacoemulsification. Six hundred five eyes underwent phacoemulsification with a 2.2-mm (the 2.2-mm group, n = 248) or 2.75-mm (the 2.75-mm group, n = 357) superior limbal incision. Preoperative axial length, anterior chamber depth, corneal curvature, and intra-ocular pressure were measured. Corneal curvature and intraocular pressure were measured at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively. SIA, corneal flattening, and torque were calculated using the Alpins method. The effect of preoperative corneal astigmatism meridian on SIA was also examined. Differences in SIA between the 2.2- and 2.75-mm groups were explored, and correlations between SIA and preoperative corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, axial length, age, and intraocular pressure were analyzed. SIA, corneal flattening, and torque were smaller in the 2.2-mm group than in the 2.75-mm group at 1 week (P = .003, .006, and .014, respectively), but not statistically different thereafter. Higher preoperative corneal astigmatism, older age, and shallower anterior chamber depth were associated with greater SIA in both groups. The effect of astigmatism meridian on SIA was more noticeable in the 2.75-mm group. Shorter axial length and lower intraocular pressures were associated with greater SIA in the 2.75-mm group but not in the 2.2-mm group. Reducing limbal incision width and considering patient age, the meridian and magnitude of corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, axial length, and intraocular pressure, and adjusting the flattening component of SIA input for toric intraocular lens power calculation could potentially improve the astigmatism control in refractive lens surgery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  8. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  9. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  10. Physiologic quality of sweet maize seeds according to thickness and width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Zucareli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet maize seeds present lower physiologic quality, when compared to regular maize seeds, due to the influence of several features, such as the seed size and shape. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the seed physiologic quality of two sweet maize cultivars (BR-401 and BR-402, separately classified according to thickness, by using slotted screen sieves (8/64" x 3/4, 9/64" x 3/4, 10/64" x 3/4, 11/64" x 3/4, 12/64" x 3/4 and 13/64" x 3/4, and width, with round screen sieves (17/64", 18/64", 19/64", 20/64", 21/64" and 22/64". For each cultivar, sorted lots were compared with the unrated batch, following a completely randomized design, in a 2x7 factorial scheme, with four replications. The biometric parameters evaluated were sieve retention, 100 seeds weight and water content. The physiologic quality was determined according to the first counting, germination, cold test, accelerated aging, electric conductivity and seedling emergence in the field. The classification with sieves improved the physiologic quality of sweet maize seeds. Seeds with intermediate thickness, for both cultivars, generally presented greater vigor. Concerning width, larger seeds, for the BR-401 cultivar, and intermediate seeds, for the BR-402 cultivar, showed better physiologic quality.

  11. Prediction of Mesiodistal Width of Unerupted Lateral Incisors, Canines and Premolars in Orthodontic Patients in Early Mixed Dentition Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Haerian, Alireza; Alesaeidi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Proper diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion are superior to treatment. Discrepancy between arch length and tooth size in mixed dentition period is a condition requiring timely diagnosis. Estimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted teeth according to the size of erupted ones can lead to earlier diagnosis of malocclusion. On the other hand, the best timing for serial extractions is before the eruption of lateral incisors. The aim of this study was to present prediction formulas for mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population based on the width of erupted permanent mandibular central incisors and maxillary first molars. A total of 120 dental models (60 males, 60 females) of orthodontic patients between 11-25 years were evaluated in Yazd city. The measurements were made by a digital caliper on the widest mesiodistal width of teeth at the interproximal contacts. Data were analyzed to calculate the prediction equation. The prediction equation in the upper jaw was y=0.57x+10.82 for males, y=0.7x+6.37 for females and y=0.64x+8.46 for both sexes. The equation for the lower jaw was y=0.76x+2.86 for males, y=0.74x+3.53 for females and y=0.77x+2.7 for both sexes. The prediction equations suggested in this study can predict the mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population in early mixed dentition period without taking radiographs.

  12. Prediction of Mesiodistal Width of Unerupted Lateral Incisors, Canines and Premolars in Orthodontic Patients in Early Mixed Dentition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Toodehzaeim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Proper diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion are superior to treatment. Discrepancy between arch length and tooth size in mixed dentition period is a condition requiring timely diagnosis. Estimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted teeth according to the size of erupted ones can lead to earlier diagnosis of malocclusion. On the other hand, the best timing for serial extractions is before the eruption of lateral incisors. The aim of this study was to present prediction formulas for mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population based on the width of erupted permanent mandibular central incisors and maxillary first molars.Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dental models (60 males, 60 females of orthodontic patients between 11-25 years were evaluated in Yazd city. The measurements were made by a digital caliper on the widest mesiodistal width of teeth at the interproximal contacts. Data were analyzed to calculate the prediction equation.Results: The prediction equation in the upper jaw was y=0.57x+10.82 for males, y=0.7x+6.37 for females and y=0.64x+8.46 for both sexes. The equation for the lower jaw was y=0.76x+2.86 for males, y=0.74x+3.53 for females and y=0.77x+2.7 for both sexes.Conclusions: The prediction equations suggested in this study can predict the mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population in early mixed dentition period without taking radiographs.Keywords: Dentition, Mixed; Dentition, Permanent; Tooth, Unerupted

  13. The Effect of Deck Width Addition Toward Stability of Cable Stayed Bridge: Case Study of Siak Sri Indrapura Bridge, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An aeroelastic interaction always take places in long-span bridge, i.e. the dynamic relationship between wind forces (aerodynamic and bridge structural motion (dynamics. Wind forces may lead to serviceability and safety problems, and may even cause instability of the whole bridge structure due to the flexibility nature of long span bridge structures.The slimer girder plate will make the structure more unstable as can be seen from the occurrence of lateral deformation. This paper presents the results analysis of cable stayed bridge that has total span of 640 m, two planes configuration of harp-typed hanger cable, the A shape pylons span along 320 m (main span,and side span of 160m. Structural analysis was conducted to determine the optimum ratio between width and spans of cable stayed bridge. The bridge was modeled with various width of 7 to 22 m. Structural modelling was conducted using SAP2000 software to analyze the structural stability of cable stayed bridge under wind load at speed of 35 m/s.The influence of wind loads to the cable stayed bridge stability can be seen based on the bridge deck deformation at the Y-axis (U2, in which for the width of the bridge deck of 7 m, 8 m, 9 m and 10 m, the deformation of U2 are 0.26 m; 0.17 m; 0.12 m and 0.10 m, respectively. Meanwhile, for bridge’s width of 11-22 m, the value of U2 axis deformation is relatively constant between 0.08 m to 0.07 m. This finding suggests that the ratio between width and length of bridge greatly affect the stability of the cable stayed bridge. Cable-stayed bridge, especially for concrete bridge, with two plain system having optimum ratio of width and length show no sign of an aerodynamic instability when fulfills the requirements of B ≥ L / 3.

  14. Influence of Gate Dielectrics, Electrodes and Channel Width on OFET Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyana, V. P.; Stephania, A. M.; Shiju, K.; Predeep, P.

    2015-06-01

    Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFET) possess wide applications in large area electronics owing to their attractive features like easy fabrication process, light weight, flexibility, cost effectiveness etc. But instability, high operational voltages and low carrier mobility act as inhibitors to commercialization of OFETs and various approaches were tried on a regular basis so as to make it viable. In this work, Poly 3-hexylthiophene-2,5diyl (P3HT) based OFETs with bottom-contact top-gate configuration using Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as gate dielectrics, aluminium and copper as source-drain electrodes are investigated. An effort is made to compare the effect of these dielectric materials and electrodes on the performance of OFET. Also, an attempt has been made to optimize the channel width of the device. These devices are characterised with mobility (μ), threshold voltage (VT), on-off ratio (Ion/Ioff) and their comparative analysis is reported.

  15. Prediction of the Length of Upcoming Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, Bharati; Kakad, Amar; Ramesh, Durbha Sai

    2017-12-01

    The forecast of solar cycle (SC) characteristics is crucial particularly for several space-based missions. In the present study, we propose a new model for predicting the length of the SC. The model uses the information of the width of an autocorrelation function that is derived from the daily sunspot data for each SC. We tested the model on Versions 1 and 2 of the daily international sunspot number data for SCs 10 - 24. We found that the autocorrelation width Aw n of SC n during the second half of its ascending phase correlates well with the modified length that is defined as T_{cy}^{n+2} - Tan. Here T_{cy}^{n+2} and T_{ a}n are the length and ascent time of SCs n+2 and n, respectively. The estimated correlation coefficient between the model parameters is 0.93 (0.91) for Version 1 (Version 2) sunspot series. The standard errors in the observed and predicted lengths of the SCs for Version 1 and Version 2 data are 0.38 and 0.44 years, respectively. The advantage of the proposed model is that the predictions of the length of the upcoming two SCs ( i.e., n+1, n+2) are readily available at the time of the peak of SC n. The present model gives a forecast of 11.01, 10.52, and 11.91 years (11.01, 12.20, and 11.68 years) for the length of SCs 24, 25, and 26, respectively, for Version 1 (Version 2).

  16. Estimating Length of Stay by Patient Type in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry C; Bennett, Mihoko V; Schulman, Joseph; Gould, Jeffrey B; Profit, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    Objective Develop length of stay prediction models for neonatal intensive care unit patients. Study Design We used data from 2008 to 2010 to construct length of stay models for neonates admitted within 1 day of age to neonatal intensive care units and surviving to discharge home. Results Our sample included 23,551 patients. Median length of stay was 79 days when birth weight was g. Risk factors for longer length of stay varied by weight. Units with shorter length of stay for one weight group had shorter lengths of stay for other groups. Conclusion Risk models for comparative assessments of length of stay need to appropriately account for weight, particularly considering the cutoff of 1,500 g. Refining prediction may benefit counseling of families and health care systems to efficiently allocate resources. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haofei; Wang, Changtao; Du, Chunlei; Luo, Xiangang; Dong, Xiaochun; Gao, Hongtao

    2005-09-05

    A novel method is proposed to manipulate beam by modulating light phase through a metallic film with arrayed nano-slits, which have constant depth but variant widths. The slits transport electro-magnetic energy in the form of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in nanometric waveguides and provide desired phase retardations of beam manipulating with variant phase propagation constant. Numerical simulation of an illustrative lens design example is performed through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and shows agreement with theory analysis result. In addition, extraordinary optical transmission of SPPs through sub-wavelength metallic slits is observed in the simulation and helps to improve elements' energy using factor.

  18. Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J

    2010-06-11

    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  19. Bernstein width of a class of functions of finite smoothness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. N.

    1999-04-01

    A weak asymptotic formula is obtained for the Bernstein n-width in the space L_q(I^d) of the class F_p^{l,\\omega }(I^d) of functions on the cube I^d such that their generalized partial derivatives up to order l belong to L_p(I^d) and the moduli of continuity in the space L_p(I^d) of all their derivatives of order l are majorized by a fixed modulus of continuity \\omega.

  20. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results.

  1. Energy detection UWB system based on pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new energy detection ultra-wideband system based on pulse width modulation is proposed. The bit error rate (BER performance of this new system is slightly worst than that of a pulse position modulation (PPM system in additive white Gaussian noise channels. In multipath channels, this system does not suffer from cross-modulation interference as PPM, so it can achieve better BER performance than PPM when cross-modulation interference occurs. In addition, when synchronisation errors occur, this system is more robust than PPM.

  2. Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2008-01-01

    This book studies switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) in great detail. This type of converter changes an unregulated DC voltage into a high-frequency pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage controlled by varying the duty cycle, then changes the PWM AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage at a high efficiency by rectification and filtering. Used to supply electronic circuits, this converter saves energy and space in the overall system. With concept-orientated explanations, this book offers state-of-the-art SMPS technology and promotes an understanding of the principle operations of PWM converters,

  3. Crack widths in concrete with fibers and main reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frede; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Brincker, Rune

    2015-01-01

    of the analytical model is to assume that the response of the structure can be described by the cracking response located within a fracture band. The model follows ideas previously used by other researchers in order to describe the fracture mechanics of concrete beams. These ideas are extended in this model to take...... relation is taken into account according to the crack width profile. Pullout of the main reinforcement is taken into account by assuming development of zones around the crack with constant friction stresses. In order to evaluate the capability of the model to produce reliable results, results are compared...

  4. New insights on dyke width and upward velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taisne, B.; Jaupart, C.; Tait, S.

    2012-04-01

    Striking observations have been made that challenge our understanding of magma migration through the Earth's crust. How may a volatile rich magma stall at shallow depth as a growing crypto-dome such as during the 1980 Mount Saint Helens eruption? How can we explain the width of the 2005 mega-dyke intrusion in Afar, that attained more than 8 meters with a very small amount of magma emitted at the surface? We show that changes in the geometry and the dynamics of the propagation can be attributed to density variations in the host rocks, to solidification, to volatile exsolution and expansion or to changes in the input flux of magma at depth. We focus on the relationship between dyke width and ascent rate. Shallow levels are commonly made of low density rocks or volcanic deposits with strong impact on dyke ascent. The dynamics and width of the upper part of the dyke (the nose region) are determined by a local buoyancy balance, independently of the total buoyancy of the magma column between source and tip. In such conditions, the dyke swells and slows down and, in some cases, may not breach the surface. Using laboratory experiments we show that solidification of the magma may lead to a regime of intermittent propagation, even with constant physical conditions at the source. Interestingly the time between two steps can be related to the input flux at the source region. With volatile-bearing magmas, dyke propagation proceeds in two markedly different ways depending on whether or not fragmentation occurs. With no fragmentation, magma expansion leads to acceleration and thinning of the dyke. With fragmentation, the sharp drop of head loss that occurs in gas-rich fragmented material generates large internal overpressure and swelling of the nose region, leading to deceleration of the dyke. All the above effects lead to rapid and large changes of ascent rate. Large variations of magma flux at the source would be required to have similar impacts on dyke propagation. In an

  5. Superconducting magnet for gyrotron tube with 4 mm wave length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuewu; Pu Men; Chen Jian; Liu Jianmin; Shi Qingju

    1988-03-01

    In this paper a superconducting magnet for gyrotron tube with 4mm wave length is described. It can provide a uniform magnetic field (B 0 ) of 3T in resonant cavity area. Its uniform area width is 6 cm and uniformity is better than ±0.16%. The uniform magnetic field can also to be adjusted into a gradient field and ΔB/B 0 ≥8.5%. The uniform area width of magnetic field (B k ) in the cathode area is 4 cm. Its uniformity is ±(1.0∼1.8)%. B k /B 0 can be adjusted in the region of 1/6∼1/15. The magnet is energized by four power sources. As optimum form of the magnetic field has been adjusted, the magnet can operate closely. The magnet will coordinate with the gyrotron tube to do ECRH physical experiment on the HL-1 Tokamak

  6. Introducing an R-package for calculating channel width and other basic metrics for irregular river polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golly, Antonius; Turowski, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The width of fluvial streams and channel beds is an important metric for a large number of hydraulic, geomorphic and ecologic applications. For example, for a given discharge the local channel width determines the water flow velocity and thus the sediment transport capacity of a reach. Since streams often have irregular shapes with uneven channel banks, the channel width strongly varies along the channel. Although, the geometry of streams or their beds can be measured easily in the field (e.g. with a Total Station or GPS) or from maps or aerial images in a GIS, the width of the stream cannot be identified objectively without further data processing, since the results are more or less irregular polygons with sometimes bended shapes. An objective quantification of the channel width and other metrics requires automated algorithms that are applicable over a range of channel shapes and spatial scales. Here, we present a lightweight software suite with a small number of functions that process 2D or 3D geometrical data of channels or channel beds. The software, written as an R-package, accepts various text data formats and can be configured through five parameters. It creates interactive overview plots (if desired) and produces three basic channel metrics: the centerline, the channel width along the centerline and the slope along the centerline. The centerline is an optimized line that minimizes the distances to both channel banks. This centerline gives also a measure for the real length and slope of the channel. From this centerline perpendicular transects are generated which allow for the calculation of the channel width where they intersect with the channel banks. Briefly, we present an example and demonstrate the importance of these metrics in a use case of a steep stream, the Erlenbach stream in Switzerland. We were motivated to develop and publish the algorithm in an open-source framework, since only proprietary solutions were available at that time. The software is

  7. Measurement of the Higgs decay width in the diphoton channel

    CERN Document Server

    Adolfsson, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    In this note, a projected measurement of the Higgs decay width ($\\Gamma_{H}$) is presented, based on interference in the diphoton channel. Two different hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis A assumes that the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ cross-section is proportional to $\\Gamma_{H}^{-1}$, whereas hypothesis B assumes that this cross-section is constant and instead uses the overall change in $m_{\\gamma\\gamma}$ line shape. Events were simulated using Sherpa 2.1, and were used to produce test statistics in order to obtain a 95 % confidence limit of $\\Gamma_{H}$. The standard model width was tested using Asimov data sets, which were validated using pseudo-experiments for the integrated luminosities of Run 1, Run 2 and HL-LHC. The obtained limits are significantly improved with respect to previous studies, but further validations of the test are required. The expected limits for 300 fb$^{-1}$ are $1.19\\times\\Gamma_{H\\,SM}$ for hypothesis A and $24\\times\\Gamma_{H\\,SM}$ for hypothesis B.

  8. Baryon Masses and Hadronic Decay Widths with Explicit Pionic Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R. A.; Plessas, W.; Schweiger, W.; Canton, L.

    2017-01-01

    We report results from studies of baryon ground and resonant states by taking explicit mesonic degrees of freedom into account. We are following a relativistic coupled-channels approach relying on a Poincaré-invariant mass operator in matrix form. Generally, it corresponds to a bare particle that is coupled to a number of further mesonic channels. Here we present results, where the bare particle is either a bare nucleon or a bare Delta coupled to pion–nucleon and pion–Delta channels, respectively. For the pion–baryon vertices we employ coupling constants and form factors from different models in the literature. From the mass-operator eigenvalue equation we obtain the pion-dressing effects on the nucleon mass as well as the mass and pion-decay width of the Delta. The dressed masses become smaller than the bare ones, and a finite width of the Delta is naturally generated. The results are relevant for the construction of constituent-quark models for baryons, which have so far not included explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, but have rather relied on three-quark configurations only. (author)

  9. Direct top-quark width measurement at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T

    2010-12-03

    We present a measurement of the top-quark width in the lepton+jets decay channel of tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of the hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths (Γ(t)) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale (Δ(JES)) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where Δ(JES) is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γ(t) quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c(2), which are consistent with the standard model prediction.

  10. Tooth width predictions in a sample of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I; Seedat, A K; Hlongwa, P

    2007-07-01

    Space analysis during the mixed dentition requires prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent canines and premolars and prediction tables and equations may be used for this purpose. The Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations, which were derived from a North American White sample, is one example which is widely used. This prediction equation may be inapplicable to other race groups due to racial tooth size variability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to derive prediction equations that would be applicable to Black South African subjects. One hundred and ten pre-treatment study casts of Black South African subjects were analysed from the Department of Orthodontics' records at the University of Limpopo. The sample was equally divided by gender with all subjects having Class I molar relationship and relatively well aligned teeth. The mesiodistal widths of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were measured with a digital vernier calliper and compared with the measurements predicted with the Tanaka and Johnston equations. The relationship between the measured and predicted values were analysed by correlation and regression analyses. The results indicated that the Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations were not fully applicable to the Black South African sample. The equations tended to underpredict the male sample, while slight overprediction was observed in the female sample. Therefore, new equations were formulated and proposed that would be accurate for Black subjects.

  11. Determination of the width of the top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Nijmegen U.

    2010-09-01

    We extract the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t {yields} Wb) measured in t{bar t} events using up to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The result is {Lambda}{sub t} = 1.99{sub -0.55}{sup +0.69} GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.3{sub -0.9}{sup +1.3}) x 10{sup -25} s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b{prime} quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V{sub tb{prime}}| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  12. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...... which, in the general parametric case, corresponds to finding suitable parameter valuations such that one system can approximately simulate another. Although the distance considers a potentially infinite set of transition sequences we demonstrate that there exists an upper bound on the length...

  13. Investigation of Pitch and Jaw Width to Decrease Delivery Time of Helical Tomotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, Monica; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Gibbons, John P.; Lee, Tae Kyu; Rosen, Isaac I.; Fields, Robert S.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy plans using a combination of pitch and jaw width settings were developed for 3 patients previously treated for head and neck cancer. Three jaw widths (5, 2.5, and 1 cm) and 4 pitches (0.86, 0.43, 0.287, and 0.215) were used with a (maximum) modulation factor setting of 4. Twelve plans were generated for each patient using an identical optimization procedure (e.g., number of iterations, objective weights, and penalties, etc.), based on recommendations from TomoTherapy (Madison, WI). The plans were compared using isodose plots, dose volume histograms, dose homogeneity indexes, conformity indexes, radiobiological models, and treatment times. Smaller pitches and jaw widths showed better target dose homogeneity and sparing of normal tissue, as expected. However, the treatment time increased inversely proportional to the jaw width, resulting in delivery times of 24 ± 1.9 min for the 1-cm jaw width. Although treatment plans produced with the 2.5-cm jaw were dosimetrically superior to plans produced with the 5-cm jaw, subsequent calculations of tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities suggest that these differences may not be radiobiologically meaningful. Because treatment plans produced with the 5-cm jaw can be delivered in approximately half the time of plans produced with the 2.5-cm jaw (5.1 ± 0.6 min vs. 9.5 ± 1.1 min), use of the 5-cm jaw in routine treatment planning may be a viable approach to decreasing treatment delivery times from helical tomotherapy units.

  14. Requirements to gap widths and clamping for CO2 laser butt welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Juhl, Thomas Winther

    1999-01-01

    In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent is inver......In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent...

  15. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  16. Scaling of localization length of a quasi 1D system with longitudinal boundary roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhijit Kar Gupta; Sen, A.K.

    1994-08-01

    We introduce irregularities on one of the longitudinal boundaries of a quasi 1D strip which has no bulk disorder. We calculate the localization length of such a system within the scope of tight-binding formalism and see how it behaves with the roughness introduced on the boundary and with the strip-width. We find that localization length scales with a composite one parameter. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  17. Relação peso-comprimento e fator de condição de Salminus hilarii Valenciennes 1850 (Osteichthyes, Characidae em um trecho da bacia do rio Sorocaba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil = Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Salminus hilarii Valenciennes 1850 (Osteichthyes, Characidae in a section of the Sorocaba river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aparecido Villares Junior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados a relação peso-comprimento e o fator de condição deSalminus hilarii, em um trecho da parte baixa da bacia do rio Sorocaba, Estado de São Paulo. Machos, fêmeas e imaturos apresentaram diferentes relações peso-comprimento, assim como variações sazonais de condição que estão possivelmente relacionadas às alterações naintensidade da atividade alimentar e ao período reprodutivo.The length-weight relationship and condition factor of Salminus hilarii were analyzed in a section of the lower part of the Sorocaba river basin, São Paulo State. By studying male, female and immature individuals separately, different length-weight patterns were found for each. The same happened when distinct seasonal variations of the relationships were compared, related to feeding alterations and to thereproductive period of the species.

  18. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  19. Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

  20. Pulse Width-Dependent Effects of Intestinal Electrical Stimulation for Obesity: Role of Gastrointestinal Motility and Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiying; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this experiment were to study therapeutic potential of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) for obesity, its mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility and hormones, and role of pulse width in diet-induced obese rats. In a 4-week study, rats equipped with one pair of electrodes at the duodenum were assigned to receive either a sham or IES of varied pulse widths in a sequential way. Food intake was measured daily and body weight measured weekly. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Solid gastric emptying (GE) and small bowel transit (SIT) tests were performed at the end of the experiment. The results of the study were as follows: (1) Daily food intake, not affected by IES of 0.3 ms, was pulse width-dependently reduced by 1.9 g with 1 ms and by 5.7 g with 3 ms. Accordingly, body weight was pulse width-dependently reduced by 2.4 g with 1 ms and by 12.8 g with 3 ms compared to a gain of 5.6 g in sham. (2) GLP-1 level was elevated by both 0.3 and 3 ms at 15 min, but was elevated only with 3 ms at 60 min. (3) GE was delayed to 52.3 % by IES of 3 ms but not 0.3 ms, compared to that at 64.4 % with sham IES. (4) Compared to the geometric center of 7.0 with sham IES, SIT was accelerated by 3 ms to 7.8 but not by 0.3 ms. IES pulse width-dependently reduces food intake and body weight, attributed to the delay of gastric emptying and the acceleration of small bowel transit, as well as the enhancement of GLP-1 secretion.

  1. Channel-width dependent pressure-driven flow characteristics of shale gas in nanopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the flow characteristics of shale gas especially in nanopores is extremely important for the exploitation. Here, we perform molecular dynamics (MD simulations to investigate the hydrodynamics of methane in nanometre-sized slit pores. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD, the static properties including density distribution and self-diffusion coefficient of the confined methane are firstly analyzed. For a 6 nm slit pore, it is found that methane molecules in the adsorbed layer diffuse more slowly than those in the bulk. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD, the pressure-driven flow behavior of methane in nanopores is investigated. The results show that velocity profiles manifest an obvious dependence on the pore width and they translate from parabolic flow to plug flow when the width is decreased. In relatively large pores (6 – 10 nm, the parabolic flow can be described by the Navier-Stokes (NS equation with appropriate boundary conditions because of its slip flow characteristic. Based on this equation, corresponding parameters such as viscosity and slip length are determined. Whereas, in small pores (∼ 2 nm, the velocity profile in the center exhibits a uniform tendency (plug flow and that near the wall displays a linear increase due to the enhanced mechanism of surface diffusion. Furthermore, the profile is analyzed and fitted by a piecewise function. Under this condition, surface diffusion is found to be the root of this anomalous flow characteristic, which can be negligible in large pores. The essential tendency of our simulation results may be significant for revealing flow mechanisms at nanoscale and estimating the production accurately.

  2. Ethnic difference of the anterior chamber area and volume and its association with angle width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Qi, Meng; He, Mingguang; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Shan

    2012-05-31

    To compare the anterior chamber area/volume (ACA/ACV) and their relationship with the drainage angle between adult Caucasians and Chinese. Study groups were comprised of four age- and sex-matched cohorts: American Caucasians, American Chinese, southern mainland Chinese, and northern mainland Chinese. All subjects were consecutively recruited from general ophthalmology clinics except for southern mainland Chinese participants who were drawn from an ongoing population-based study. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) images were obtained under dark conditions. Customized software was used to analyze structural indices including ACA/ACV, angle opening distance (AOD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), lens vault (LV), corneal arc depth (CAD), iris thickness (IT), iris curvature (ICurv), and iris area (IArea). Data from 121, 124, 121, and 120 participants were obtained of American Caucasians, American Chinese, and southern and northern mainland Chinese, respectively. After multiple linear regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter (PD), and axial length (AL), ACA/ACV was positively associated with ACD, ACW, CAD, and corneal radius of curvature (CR) but negatively related with ICurv and IArea. Ethnic Chinese had significantly smaller ACA (β = -0.18, P = 0.022) and ACV (β = -3.9, P = 0.001) than Caucasians. ACV contributes the most to AOD variation for both Chinese (standardized regression coefficient [SRC] = 0.47, P ACV independent of ACD, ACW, ICurv, IArea, PD, CR, and AL. ACA/ACV is the most prominent contributor to angle width variation for both Chinese and Caucasians in this study.

  3. Free-edge delamination - Laminate width and loading conditions effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    The width and loading conditions effects on free-edge stress fields in composite laminates are investigated using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. This analysis includes a special free-edge region refinement or superelement with progressive substructuring (mesh refinement) and finite thickness interply layers. The different loading conditions include in-plane and out-of-plane bending, combined axial tension and in-plane shear, twisting, uniform temperature and uniform moisture. Results obtained indicate that: axial tension causes the smallest magnitude of interlaminar free edge stress compared to other loading conditions; free-edge delamination data obtained from laboratory specimens cannot be scaled to structural components; and composite structural components are not likely to delaminate.

  4. Measurement of inner wall limiter SOL widths in KSTAR tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Bak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrape-off layer (SOL widths λq are presented from the KSTAR tokamak using fast reciprocating Langmuir probe assembly (FRLPA measurements at the outboard mid-plane (OMP and the infra-Red (IR thermography at inboard limiter tiles in moderately elongated (κ = 1.45 – 1.55 L-mode inner wall-limited (IWL plasmas under experimental conditions such as BT = 2.0 T, PNBI = 1.4 – 1.5 MW, line averaged densities 2.5 – 5.1 × 1019 m−3 and plasma current Ip = 0.4 − 0.7 MA. There is clear evidence for a double exponential structure in q||(r from the FRLPA such that, for example at Ip = 0.6 MA, a narrow feature, λq,near (=3.5 mm is found close to the LFCS, followed by a broader width, λq,main (=57.0 mm. Double exponential profiles (λq,near = 1.5 – 2.8 mm, λq,main = 17.0 – 35.0 mm can be also observed in the IR heat flux mapped to the OMP throughout the range of Ip investigated. In addition, analysis of SOL turbulence statistics obtained with the FRLPA shows high relative fluctuation levels and positively skewed distributions in electron temperature and ion particle flux across the SOL, with both properties increasing for longer distance from the LCFS, as often previously observed in the tokamaks. Interestingly, the fluctuation character expressed in terms of spectral distributions remains unchanged in passing from the narrow to the broad SOL heat flux channel.

  5. Variable Width Riparian Model Enhances Landscape and Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, S. A.; Spencer, L.

    2017-12-01

    Riparian areas are ecotones that represent about 1% of USFS administered landscape and contribute to numerous valuable ecosystem functions such as wildlife habitat, stream water quality and flows, bank stability and protection against erosion, and values related to diversity, aesthetics and recreation. Riparian zones capture the transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with specific vegetation and soil characteristics which provide critical values/functions and are very responsive to changes in land management activities and uses. Two staff areas at the US Forest Service have coordinated on a two phase project to support the National Forests in their planning revision efforts and to address rangeland riparian business needs at the Forest Plan and Allotment Management Plan levels. The first part of the project will include a national fine scale (USGS HUC-12 digits watersheds) inventory of riparian areas on National Forest Service lands in western United States with riparian land cover, utilizing GIS capabilities and open source geospatial data. The second part of the project will include the application of riparian land cover change and assessment based on selected indicators to assess and monitor riparian areas on annual/5-year cycle basis.This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional nature of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process. The results suggest that incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning can improve riparian protection and restoration. The application of Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) approach can provide the agency Watershed Condition Framework (WCF) with observed riparian area condition on an annual basis and on multiple scales. The use of this model to map moderate to low gradient systems of sufficient width in conjunction with an understanding of the influence of distinctive landscape

  6. Too much or too little step width variability is associated with a fall history in older persons who walk at or near normal gait speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Anne B

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased gait speed and increased stride time, stride length, double support time, and stance time variability have consistently been associated with falling whereas step width variability has not been strongly related to falls. The purpose was to examine the linear and nonlinear associations between gait variability and fall history in older persons and to examine the influence of gait speed. Methods Gait characteristics and fall history were obtained in 503 older adults (mean age = 79; 61% female participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study who could ambulate independently. Gait characteristics were recorded from two trials on a 4 meter computerized walkway at the subject's self-selected walking speed. Gait variability was calculated as the coefficient of variation. The presence of a fall in the past 12 months was determined by interview. The nonlinear association between gait variability and fall history was examined using a simple three level classification derived from the distribution of the data and from literature based cut-points. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between step width variability (extreme or moderate and fall history stratifying by gait speed (1.0 m/s and controlling for age and gender. Results Step length, stance time, and step time variability did not differ with respect to fall history (p > .33. Individuals with extreme step width variability (either low or high step width variability were more likely to report a fall in the past year than individuals with moderate step width variability. In individuals who walked ≥ 1.0 m/s (n = 281, after controlling for age, gender, and gait speed, compared to individuals with moderate step width variability individuals with either low or high step width variability were more likely to have fallen in the past year (OR and 95% CI 4.38 [1.79–10.72]. The association between step width variability and fall history was not

  7. Learning by random walks in the weight space of the Ising perceptron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2010-01-01

    Several variants of a stochastic local search process for constructing the synaptic weights of an Ising perceptron are studied. In this process, binary patterns are sequentially presented to the Ising perceptron and are then learned as the synaptic weight configuration is modified through a chain of single- or double-weight flips within the compatible weight configuration space of the earlier learned patterns. This process is able to reach a storage capacity of α≈0.63 for pattern length N = 101 and α≈0.41 for N = 1001. If in addition a relearning process is exploited, the learning performance is further improved to a storage capacity of α≈0.80 for N = 101 and α≈0.42 for N = 1001. We found that, for a given learning task, the solutions constructed by the random walk learning process are separated by a typical Hamming distance, which decreases with the constraint density α of the learning task; at a fixed value of α, the width of the Hamming distance distribution decreases with N

  8. Weight gain and morphometric growth of genetically improved tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain and morphometric growth of the genetically improved tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum are evaluated. Current assay was carried out on the Fish Farm Experimental Station of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, in the municipality of Santo Antonio de Leverger - MT Brazil. Seven fish families from the breeding program and a control group (not genetically improved were evaluated. All animals were individually identified with a transmitter-responder label (transponder. Weight gain, overall and standard length, head size, height, width and body perimeter were measured. A completely randomized design was used and comparisons among families and the control group were carried out by Dunnett test at 5% significance level. The genetically improved fish families showed a 14.8% higher weight gain when compared to that of control group. Five out of seven families showed greater weight gain when compared to control group, with the best family exhibiting a 24.8% higher rate. Four families had higher growth in all evaluated morphometric characteristics when compared to control group. Only one family did not differ in any of the evaluated characteristics with regard to the control group.

  9. Some novel power-conversion schemes employing pulse-width modulated high-frequency links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, S.

    1984-01-01

    Static power conversion schemes employing Pulse-Width Modulated high-frequency (HF) links, are investigated. The employment of HF links in power conversion schemes results in substantial size, weight, and cost reduction of the power converter isolation transfer and reactive components. Therefore, in applications where density is of prime importance the employment of HF links is the natural choice. The following power conversion schemes employing an HF link are investigated: (1) a voltage source DC to AC inverter consisting of an HF link and a DC to AC inverter stage: its main advantage over conventional inverter configurations is the drastic size and weight reduction of the magnetic components; (2) a three-phase Current Source DC to AC inverter consisting of an HF link and a DC to AC inverter stage: the current source is created by the HF link stage which together with a high frequency transformer provides isolation between the source and the load; (3) an AC to DC converter consisting of an HF link stage: the proposed power conversion scheme employs an AC to AC cyclo-converter as an HF link which together with a high frequency isolation transfer provides isolation between the source and the load; and (4) a bilateral HF link power converter: the proposed power conversion scheme incorporates a battery charger into an inverter by using the existing power circuit components.

  10. Preliminary models of 3-D oceanic plateau subduction: influence of the width ratio between plateau and slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrial, P.; Billen, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    Subduction is driven by the negative buoyancy of the slab, which depends on both the temperature and composition of the lithospheric plate. Before subduction, the oceanic crust and underlying harzburgite layer have positive buoyancy. As a result an oceanic plateau or an over-thickened oceanic crust introduces an excess of buoyancy and decreases proportionally the driving forces. Previous 2-D numerical models have shown that an oceanic plateau subduction, associated to a young plate (30 My), can modify the slab behavior during the subduction (Arrial & Billen, in review). In a kinematically-driven model (convergence rate of 5 cm/yr), a partially eclogitized plateau can lead to a flat slab. However, eclogitization limits the depth extent of buoyant material and all plateaus eventually subduct regardless of thickness or width. In contrast, in dynamic models, oceanic plateau subduction does not lead to slab flattening, but we observe a decrease in the convergence rate proportional to the plateau geometry, and slab detachment and cessation of subduction for large plateaus. Extrapolation of the 2-D results to 3-D geometry predicts that sufficient slab buoyancy is available to sustain subduction for narrow plateaus with slab widths 6-7 times the plateau width (depending on plateau thickness and length). Here we show the preliminary results for 3-D models of oceanic plateau subduction investigating how the width ratio between the plateau and the slab affect subduction dynamics. We have modified the code CitcomS to introduce an eclogitization reaction and a composition dependent viscosity. Using particles the code track the three main compositions: basalt, harzburgite and lherzolite. The basalt/eclogite reaction is modeled as a progressive increasing of basaltic density. Furthermore, in order to maintain a free subduction and slab retreat, we impose a weaker viscosity for the basaltic composition.

  11. Experimental study of heating scheme effect on the inner divertor power footprint widths in EAST lower single null discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, G. Z.; Xu, J. C.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. J.; Liu, J. B.; Zhang, H.; Liu, S. C.; Chen, L.; Yan, N.; Feng, W.; Liu, H.; Xia, T. Y.; Zhang, B.; Shao, L. M.; Ming, T. F.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Gao, X.; Wang, L.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive work of the effects of plasma current and heating schemes on divertor power footprint widths is carried out in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The divertor power footprint widths, i.e., the scrape-off layer heat flux decay length λ q and the heat spreading S, are crucial physical and engineering parameters for fusion reactors. Strong inverse scaling of λ q and S with plasma current have been demonstrated for both neutral beam (NB) and lower hybrid wave (LHW) heated L-mode and H-mode plasmas at the inner divertor target. For plasmas heated by the combination of the two kinds of auxiliary heating schemes (NB and LHW), the divertor power widths tend to be larger in plasmas with higher ratio of LHW power. Comparison between experimental heat flux profiles at outer mid-plane (OMP) and divertor target for NB heated and LHW heated L-mode plasmas reveals that the magnetic topology changes induced by LHW may be the main reason to the wider divertor power widths in LHW heated discharges. The effect of heating schemes on divertor peak heat flux has also been investigated, and it is found that LHW heated discharges tend to have a lower divertor peak heat flux compared with NB heated discharges under similar input power. All these findings seem to suggest that plasmas with LHW auxiliary heating scheme are better heat exhaust scenarios for fusion reactors and should be the priorities for the design of next-step fusion reactors like China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor.

  12. Association analysis of genomic loci important for grain weight control in elite common wheat varieties cultivated with variable water and fertiliser supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpu Zhang

    Full Text Available Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and markedly influenced by the environment. Here, by genome-wide association analysis with a panel of 94 elite common wheat varieties, 37 loci were found significantly associated with thousand-grain weight (TGW in one or more environments differing in water and fertiliser levels. Five loci were stably associated with TGW under all 12 environments examined. Their elite alleles had positive effects on TGW. Four, two, three, and two loci were consistently associated with TGW in the irrigated and fertilised (IF, rainfed (RF, reduced nitrogen (RN, and reduced phosphorus (RP environments. The elite alleles of the IF-specific loci enhanced TGW under well-resourced conditions, whereas those of the RF-, RN-, or RP-specific loci conferred tolerance to the TGW decrease when irrigation, nitrogen, or phosphorus were reduced. Moreover, the elite alleles of the environment-independent and -specific loci often acted additively to enhance TGW. Four additional loci were found associated with TGW in specific locations, one of which was shown to contribute to the TGW difference between two experimental sites. Further analysis of 14 associated loci revealed that nine affected both grain length and width, whereas the remaining loci influenced either grain length or width, indicating that these loci control grain weight by regulating kernel size. Finally, the elite allele of Xpsp3152 frequently co-segregated with the larger grain haplotype of TaGW2-6A, suggesting probable genetic and functional linkages between Xpsp3152 and GW2 that are important for grain weight control in cereal plants. Our study provides new knowledge on TGW control in elite common wheat lines, which may aid the improvement of wheat grain weight trait in further research.

  13. Correlation Between the Posterior Mandibular Width and the Lingual Gap Caused by Symphyseal Fractures Using a Virtual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte, Christian; Carmona, Andrea; González, Edgardo; Vargas, Ilich; Lopetegui, Francisco; Rojas, Erick

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to determine the dimensional impact, on the occlusal and articular level, of the gap produced in the lingual plate from symphyseal fractures, correlated with the dimensional change in the posterior mandibular width. We performed an observational experimental study based on 30 computed tomography scans of patients treated by the Maxillofacial Surgery Service, Hospital Clínico Mutual de Seguridad, Santiago, Chile, between 2012 and 2016. The inclusion criteria were jaws without evidence of fractures or pathology, with an absence of orthodontic appliances, and with complete dentition to the first mandibular molar. By use of Digital Dental Service 3-dimensional planning software (DDS-Pro; Digital Dental Service, London, UK), a vertical mandibular fracture was made, leaving lingual gaps of 1, 2, and 3 mm, and the dimensional changes were recorded with regard to the posterior facial width. The mandibular height did not vary with regard to the lingual gap; the mandibular length was inversely proportional to the lingual gap; and the intermolar, intergonial, and intercondylar distances were directly proportional to increases in the lingual gap. The larger the lingual gap, the shorter the mandibular length and the larger the mandibular transverse dimensions. Special attention must be paid to the occlusal and articular level. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    expected impact whereas other diseases elicited a wider breadth of impact. This was particularly apparent with respect to calving trauma, lameness and musculoskeletal injury, all of which could be redefined using gradients of severity or accounting for sequelae. These disability weight distributions serve as an initial step in the development of the disease-adjusted lactation (DALact) metric. They will be used to assess the time lost due to dynamic phases of dairy cow diseases and injuries. Prioritizing health interventions based on time expands the discussion of animal health to view profits and losses in light of the quality and length of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of parallel heat transport in the relation between upstream scrape-off layer widths and target heat flux width in H-mode plasmas of NSTX.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J W; Boedo, J A; Maingi, R; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2009-01-05

    The physics of parallel heat transport was tested in the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) plasma of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000) and S. M. Kaye, et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, S168 (2005)] tokamak by comparing the upstream electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) profiles measured by the mid-plane reciprocating probe to the heat flux (q{sub {perpendicular}}) profile at the divertor plate measured by an infrared (IR) camera. It is found that electron conduction explains the near SOL width data reasonably well while the far SOL, which is in the sheath limited regime, requires an ion heat flux profile broader than the electron one to be consistent with the experimental data. The measured plasma parameters indicate that the SOL energy transport should be in the conduction-limited regime for R-R{sub sep} (radial distance from the separatrix location) < 2-3 cm. The SOL energy transport should transition to the sheath-limited regime for R-R{sub sep} > 2-3cm. The T{sub e}, n{sub e}, and q{sub {perpendicular}} profiles are better described by an offset exponential function instead of a simple exponential. The conventional relation between mid plane electron temperature decay length ({lambda}{sub Te}) and target heat flux decay length ({lambda}{sub q}) is {lambda}{sub Te} = 7/2{lambda}{sub q}, whereas the newly-derived relation, assuming offset exponential functional forms, implies {lambda}{sub Te} = (2-2.5){lambda}{sub q}. The measured values of {lambda}{sub Te}/{lambda}{sub q} differ from the new prediction by 25-30%. The measured {lambda}{sub q} values in the far SOL (R-R{sub sep} > 2-3cm) are 9-10cm, while the expected values are 2.7 < {lambda}{sub q} < 4.9 cm (for sheath-limited regime). We propose that the ion heat flux profile is substantially broader than the electron heat flux profile as an explanation for this discrepancy in the far SOL.

  16. First Metatarsal Head and Medial Eminence Widths with and Without Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Robin C; Nagesh, Darshan; Park, Hannah K; Grady, John

    2016-09-02

    Resection of the medial eminence in hallux valgus surgery is common. True hypertrophy of the medial eminence in hallux valgus is debated. No studies have compared metatarsal head width in patients with hallux valgus and control patients. We reviewed 43 radiographs with hallux valgus and 27 without hallux valgus. We measured medial eminence width, first metatarsal head width, and first metatarsal shaft width in patients with and without radiographic hallux valgus. Medial eminence width was 1.12 mm larger in patients with hallux valgus (P hallux valgus (P hallux valgus. However, frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal likely accounts for this difference.

  17. Monodisperse N‐Doped Graphene Nanoribbons Reaching 7.7 Nanometers in Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortizo‐Lacalle, Diego; Mora‐Fuentes, Juan P.; Strutyński, Karol; Saeki, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The properties of graphene nanoribbons are highly dependent on structural variables such as width, length, edge structure, and heteroatom doping. Therefore, atomic precision over all these variables is necessary for establishing their fundamental properties and exploring their potential applications. An iterative approach is presented that assembles a small and carefully designed molecular building block into monodisperse N‐doped graphene nanoribbons with different lengths. To showcase this approach, the synthesis and characterisation of a series of nanoribbons constituted of 10, 20 and 30 conjugated linearly‐fused rings (2.9, 5.3, and 7.7 nm in length, respectively) is presented. PMID:29193535

  18. Maxillary arch width and buccal corridor changes with Damon and conventional brackets: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Corey; Kim, Sohyon Michelle; Burnheimer, John

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Damon self-ligating and conventional bracket systems on buccal corridor widths and areas. A retrospective sample of consecutively treated patients using either conventional (CG, n  =  45) or Damon self-ligating (SL, n  =  39) brackets was analyzed to determine any differences in buccal corridor widths and areas both within and between groups. Pretreatment and posttreatment frontal photographs were transferred to Photoshop CC, standardized using intercanthal width, and linear and area measurements were performed with tools in Photoshop CC. Ratios were then calculated for statistical analysis. Relationships between arch widths and buccal corridors were also examined. There were no significant differences in the posttreatment intercanine or intermolar widths either within or between the CG and SL groups. There were no significant differences in any buccal corridor width or area measurement either within or between the CG and SL groups. There were strong correlations with the intercanine width and the corresponding buccal corridor smile width measurements. There was an inverse correlation with the buccal corridor area in relation to the canine and the total smile width. It is likely that posttreatment increases in arch width can be seen in patients treated with either a conventional bracket system or the Damon system. It is highly unlikely that there is any significant difference in buccal corridor width or area in patients treated with the Damon self-ligating system or a conventional bracket system.

  19. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quevedo García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. The results allowed to obtain regression equations for estimating the leaf area and the limbo dry weight. Using the lineal models LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW and LA= b1+ b2LLL + b3LLW a leaf area equation was determined. Alternative models to calculate limbo dry weight were evaluated LLDW = -b1+ b2 LLFW and LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. The best equations found with an R2 of 0.99 were LA = 1.572 + 0.65169(LLL x LLW, LA=-23.106+2.8064LLW + 3.6761LLL and LLDW = -0.002+0.401(LLFW.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para determinar las variables que estimaran el área del limbo foliar y el peso seco del limbo de durazno Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Se seleccionaron cincuenta hojas con 2,5 meses de edad, fueron medidos: ancho del limbo, longitud del limbo, longitud del peciolo, longitud hoja, diámetro peciolo, peso fresco del limbo, peso fresco del peciolo, peso fresco de la hoja, peso seco del limbo, peso seco peciolo, peso seco de la hoja, longitud /ancho limbo, longitud del peciolo/longitud del limbo, área foliar del limbo. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron obtener ecuaciones de regresión para estimar el área foliar del limbo y el peso seco del limbo. Se halló una ecuación para la determinación del área foliar del limbo con los modelos lineales LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW y LA= b1 + b2LLL + b3LLW. También se evaluaron modelos alternativas para calcular el peso seco del limbo, LLDW = -b1+ b2LLFW y LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. Las mejores ecuaciones

  20. Width of gene expression profile drives alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wegmann

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing generates an enormous amount of functional and proteomic diversity in metazoan organisms. This process is probably central to the macromolecular and cellular complexity of higher eukaryotes. While most studies have focused on the molecular mechanism triggering and controlling alternative splicing, as well as on its incidence in different species, its maintenance and evolution within populations has been little investigated. Here, we propose to address these questions by comparing the structural characteristics as well as the functional and transcriptional profiles of genes with monomorphic or polymorphic splicing, referred to as MS and PS genes, respectively. We find that MS and PS genes differ particularly in the number of tissues and cell types where they are expressed.We find a striking deficit of PS genes on the sex chromosomes, particularly on the Y chromosome where it is shown not to be due to the observed lower breadth of expression of genes on that chromosome. The development of a simple model of evolution of cis-regulated alternative splicing leads to predictions in agreement with these observations. It further predicts the conditions for the emergence and the maintenance of cis-regulated alternative splicing, which are both favored by the tissue specific expression of splicing variants. We finally propose that the width of the gene expression profile is an essential factor for the acquisition of new transcript isoforms that could later be maintained by a new form of balancing selection.

  1. Research of narrow pulse width, high repetition rate, high output power fiber lasers for deep space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-feng; Li, Hong-zuo; Wang, Yan; Hao, Zi-qiang; Xiao, Dong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    As human beings expand the research in unknown areas constantly, the deep space exploration has become a hot research topic all over the world. According to the long distance and large amount of information transmission characteristics of deep space exploration, the space laser communication is the preferred mode because it has the advantages of concentrated energy, good security, and large information capacity and interference immunity. In a variety of laser source, fibre-optical pulse laser has become an important communication source in deep space laser communication system because of its small size, light weight and large power. For fiber lasers, to solve the contradiction between the high repetition rate and the peak value power is an important scientific problem. General Q technology is difficult to obtain a shorter pulse widths, This paper presents a DFB semiconductor laser integrated with Electro-absorption modulator to realize the narrow pulse width, high repetition rate of the seed source, and then using a two-cascaded high gain fiber amplifier as amplification mean, to realize the fibre-optical pulse laser with pulse width 3ns, pulse frequency 200kHz and peak power 1kW. According to the space laser atmospheric transmission window, the wavelength selects for 1.06um. It is adopted that full fibre technology to make seed source and amplification, pumping source and amplification of free-space coupled into fiber-coupled way. It can overcome that fibre lasers are vulnerable to changes in external conditions such as vibration, temperature drift and other factors affect, improving long-term stability. The fiber lasers can be modulated by PPM mode, to realize high rate modulation, because of its peak power, high transmission rate, narrow pulse width, high frequency stability, all technical indexes meet the requirements of the exploration of deep space communication technology.

  2. Teasing Foggy Memories out of Pines on the California Channel Islands Using Tree-Ring Width and Stable Isotope Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. P.; Still, C. J.; Fischer, D. T.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2006-12-01

    The coast of California is home to many rare, endemic conifers and other plants that are not well adapted to the Mediterranean climate that prevails across most of the state. It has long been suggested that coastal pines survived the early-Pleistocene transition to a warmer and drier environment because they benefit from frequent fog and low stratus clouds that provide much needed water inputs and shading during the rainless summer. Here, we report evidence for the importance of this summer cloudiness to Torrey pines (Pinus torreyana) growing on Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Park. We developed a tree-ring width chronology and quantified the relative importance of winter/spring precipitation and summer fog by comparing ring widths to nearby rainfall records and airport cloud-ceiling height data. While winter/spring precipitation explains most of the variation in annual tree-ring width (R2 = 0.592), the frequency of summertime fog correlated significantly and positively with annual ring width for 52 years of available fog data when the effect of winter/spring precipitation was removed (R2 = 0.118). The correlation between fog frequency and ring width decreased sharply when the range of possible cloud-ceiling heights deviated from the habitat range of the Torrey pine stand, emphasizing the importance of direct cloud immersion to these pines. In addition, the relationship between fog frequency and ring width was strongest in the 26 years that had enough winter/spring rainfall to maintain above-average soil moisture throughout the dry summer months (R2 = 0.312). This suggests that Torrey pines have an adaptive growing season length and that summer fog-water inputs are supplemental but not substantial enough to sustain tree growth independently. It may also be suggested that when summer growth does occur, the frequency of summer fog and stratus may govern growing season length. This made a "fog signal" difficult to detect in the stable isotope (carbon and

  3. development of oscillating classifiers for forage chop length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1987-09-01

    Sep 1, 1987 ... size is defined. The size of the particles are reported in terms of geometric mean length and geometric standard deviation by weight. The particle size determined is used to evaluate forage harvesting machine and to define forage characteristics with regards to animal feeding trials. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  4. Interaction between corrosion crack width and steel loss in RC beams corroded under load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malumbela, Goitseone; Alexander, Mark; Moyo, Pilate

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results and discussions on an experimental study conducted to relate the rate of widening of corrosion cracks with the pattern of corrosion cracks as well as the level of steel corrosion for RC beams (153 x 254 x 3000 mm) that were corroded whilst subjected to varying levels of sustained loads. Steel corrosion was limited to the tensile reinforcement and to a length of 700 mm at the centre of the beams. The rate of widening of corrosion cracks as well as strains on uncracked faces of RC beams was constantly monitored during the corrosion process, along the corrosion region and along other potential cracking faces of beams using a demec gauge. The distribution of the gravimetric mass loss of steel along the corrosion region was measured at the end of the corrosion process. The results obtained showed that: the rate of widening of each corrosion crack is dependent on the overall pattern of the cracks whilst the rate of corrosion is independent of the pattern of corrosion cracks. A mass loss of steel of 1% was found to induce a corrosion crack width of about 0.04 mm.

  5. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES...... circumference in response to weight loss intervention were not significantly different between FTO genotypes. Sensitivity analyses indicated that differential changes in body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference by FTO genotype did not differ by intervention type, intervention length, ethnicity......, sample size, sex, and baseline body mass index and age category. CONCLUSIONS: We have observed that carriage of the FTO minor allele was not associated with differential change in adiposity after weight loss interventions. These findings show that individuals carrying the minor allele respond equally...

  6. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF TUBULAR LENGTH FROM THIN VERTICAL SECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle V Clausen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study tubular structures are represented by stem villous arteries of the human placenta. The architecture of the vascular tree in the human placenta makes it appropriate to use vertical histological sections. Describing tubules, estimates of total length and diameter are informative. The aim of the study was to derive a new stereological estimator of the total length of circular tubules observed in thin vertical sections. Design: Dual perfusion fixed human placentas. Systematic, uniformly random sampling of vertical sections. Five-μm-sections were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and the vertical axis was identified in all sections. A test system with cycloid test lines was used. Since tubular surface area is proportional to length and diameter, S ∝ πdL, surface-weightening is equivalent to diameter×lengthweightening. As each diameter (extra weight is known, one may eliminate the diameter-weightening by computing the harmonic mean diameter, which is thus the correct, length-weighted mean tubular diameter, dL = d hS . Surface area is estimated in the ordinary way from vertical sections, and with unbiased and robust estimates of S and dL respectively, total length may be estimated L = S / πdhs Conclusion: A new stereological estimator of total length of a circular tubular structure observed in thin vertical sections is presented.

  7. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  8. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  9. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  10. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  11. Alveolar bone width preservation after decoronation of ankylosed anterior incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaul; Schwarz-Arad, Dvorah; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the alteration of alveolar ridge dimensions after decoronation procedures in children and adolescents at least 1 year after surgery. Twelve children who underwent decoronation of ankylosed maxillary anterior incisors with at least 1 year after surgery follow-up were recalled for reevaluation. All decoronations were performed when the ankylosed teeth were submerged 1-1.5 mm. During the recall appointment, impressions of the upper arch were obtained. The bucco-palatal alveolar dimensions of the decoronated teeth were measured on the cast at the mid-mesiodistal distance from the missing tooth and were compared with the distance from the contralateral healthy incisor. Overall, 12 children (9 male and 3 female) were reevaluated up to 82 months after decoronation (mean, 49.58 ± 24 months). The mean age of the patients at the time of trauma was 9.83 ± 2.8 years. The average bucco-palatal dimension of the alveolar ridge at the mid-decoronation area was 9 ± 1 mm compared with 10.17 ± 0.9 mm at the contralateral homologous tooth (difference of 1.67 ± 1.12, P = .004). The findings show a positive statistical correlation between the duration of the follow-up period and the bucco-palatal dimension of the alveolar ridge (P = .027). Although decoronation of ankylosed young permanent incisors resulted in a decrease in the bucco-palatal dimension with time, it did not prevent additional alveolar growth that occurs with age in a developing child and thus may help maintain the alveolar bone ridge width, height, and continuity and assist in future rehabilitation with less invasive ridge augmentation procedures required for implant placement. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Errors when shock waves interact due to numerical shock width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, R.

    1993-03-04

    A simple test problem proposed by Noh, a strong shock reflecting from a rigid wall, demonstrates a generic problem with numerical shock capturing algorithms at boundaries that Noh called ``excess wall heating.`` We show that the same type of numerical error occurs in general when shock waves interact. The underlying cause is the non-uniform convergence to the hyperbolic solution of the inviscid limit of the solution to the PDEs with viscosity. The error can be understood from an analysis of the asymptotic solution. For a propagating shock, there is a difference in the total energy of the parabolic wave relative to the hyperbolic shock. Moreover, the relative energy depends on the strength of the shock. The error when shock waves interact is due to the difference in the relative energies between the incoming and outgoing shock waves. It is analogous to a phase shift in a scattering matrix. A conservative differencing scheme correctly describes the Hugoniot jump conditions for a steady propagating shock. Therefore, the error from the asymptotics occurs in the transient when the waves interact. The entropy error that occurs in the interaction region remains localized but does not dissipate. A scaling argument shows that as the viscosity coefficient goes to zero, the error shrinks in spatial extend but is constant in magnitude. Noh`s problem of the reflection of a shock from a rigid wall is equivalent to the symmetric impact of two shock waves of the opposite family. The asymptotic argument shows that the same type of numerical error would occur when the shocks are of unequal strength. Thus, Noh`s problem is indicative of a numerical error that occurs when shocks interact due to the numerical shock width.

  13. Errors when shock waves interact due to numerical shock width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, R.

    1993-03-04

    A simple test problem proposed by Noh, a strong shock reflecting from a rigid wall, demonstrates a generic problem with numerical shock capturing algorithms at boundaries that Noh called excess wall heating.'' We show that the same type of numerical error occurs in general when shock waves interact. The underlying cause is the non-uniform convergence to the hyperbolic solution of the inviscid limit of the solution to the PDEs with viscosity. The error can be understood from an analysis of the asymptotic solution. For a propagating shock, there is a difference in the total energy of the parabolic wave relative to the hyperbolic shock. Moreover, the relative energy depends on the strength of the shock. The error when shock waves interact is due to the difference in the relative energies between the incoming and outgoing shock waves. It is analogous to a phase shift in a scattering matrix. A conservative differencing scheme correctly describes the Hugoniot jump conditions for a steady propagating shock. Therefore, the error from the asymptotics occurs in the transient when the waves interact. The entropy error that occurs in the interaction region remains localized but does not dissipate. A scaling argument shows that as the viscosity coefficient goes to zero, the error shrinks in spatial extend but is constant in magnitude. Noh's problem of the reflection of a shock from a rigid wall is equivalent to the symmetric impact of two shock waves of the opposite family. The asymptotic argument shows that the same type of numerical error would occur when the shocks are of unequal strength. Thus, Noh's problem is indicative of a numerical error that occurs when shocks interact due to the numerical shock width.

  14. Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M. [Vanderbilt Free-Electron-Laser Center, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.

  15. Weight-loss medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescription weight loss drugs; Diabetes - weight loss drugs; Obesity - weight loss drugs; Overweight - weight loss drugs ... Several weight-loss medicines are available. About 5 to 10 pounds (2 to 4.5 kilograms) can be lost by ...

  16. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  17. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  18. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  19. Determinants of gap length in esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula and the impact of gap length on outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muffazzal Rassiwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed at identifying factors which may affect the gap length in cases of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA-TEF and whether gap length plays any role in determining the outcome. Materials and Methods: All consecutive cases of EA-TEF were included and different patient parameters were recorded. Plain radiographs with a nasogastric tube in the upper esophagus were taken. Patients were grouped into T1-T2; T2-T3; T3-T4; and T4 depending on the thoracic vertebral level of the arrest of the tube. During surgery, the gap length between the pouches was measured using a Vernier caliper and the patients were grouped into A, B, and C (gap length >2.1 cm; >1-≤2 cm and ≤1 cm. The operative gap groups were compared with the radiography groups and the other recorded parameters. Results: Total numbers of cases were 69. Birth weight was found to be significantly lower in Group A (mean = 2.14 kg as compared to Group B (mean = 2.38 kg and Group C patients (mean = 2.49 kg (P = 0.016. The radiographic groups compared favorably with the intraoperative gap length groups (P < 0.001. The need for postoperative ventilation (70.83% in Group A vs. 36.84% in Group C, P = 0.032 and mortality (62.5%, 26.9% and 15.8% in Group A, B, and C, respectively, P = 0.003 co-related significantly with the gap length. Conclusion: Birth weight had a direct reciprocal relationship with the gap length. Radiographic assessment correlated with intraoperative gap length. Higher gap length was associated with increased need for postoperative ventilation and poor outcome.

  20. Continuous measurements of water surface height and width along a 6.5km river reach for discharge algorithm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuozzolo, S.; Durand, M. T.; Pavelsky, T.; Pentecost, J.

    2015-12-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite will provide measurements of river width and water surface elevation and slope along continuous swaths of world rivers. Understanding water surface slope and width dynamics in river reaches is important for both developing and validating discharge algorithms to be used on future SWOT data. We collected water surface elevation and river width data along a 6.5km stretch of the Olentangy River in Columbus, Ohio from October to December 2014. Continuous measurements of water surface height were supplemented with periodical river width measurements at twenty sites along the study reach. The water surface slope of the entire reach ranged from during 41.58 cm/km at baseflow to 45.31 cm/km after a storm event. The study reach was also broken into sub-reaches roughly 1km in length to study smaller scale slope dynamics. The furthest upstream sub-reaches are characterized by free-flowing riffle-pool sequences, while the furthest downstream sub-reaches were directly affected by two low-head dams. In the sub-reaches immediately upstream of each dam, baseflow slope is as low as 2 cm/km, while the furthest upstream free-flowing sub-reach has a baseflow slope of 100 cm/km. During high flow events the backwater effect of the dams was observed to propagate upstream: sub-reaches impounded by the dams had increased water surface slopes, while free flowing sub-reaches had decreased water surface slopes. During the largest observed flow event, a stage change of 0.40 m affected sub-reach slopes by as much as 30 cm/km. Further analysis will examine height-width relationships within the study reach and relate cross-sectional flow area to river stage. These relationships can be used in conjunction with slope data to estimate discharge using a modified Manning's equation, and are a core component of discharge algorithms being developed for the SWOT mission.

  1. Efeito da suplementação de vitamina C e vitamina E na dieta, sobre a ocorrência de ectoparasitas, desempenho e sobrevivência em larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. durante a reversão sexual The effect of vitamins C and E on diet of nile tilapia larvae's (Oreochromis niloticus L., on the octo parasite occurrence, survival, weight and length, during sexual reversion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maehana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da vitamina C e vitamina E na dieta, sobre a ocorrência de ectoparasitas, sobrevivência, peso e comprimento em larvas de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes, Cichlidae durante reversão sexual. Larvas com peso médio de 0,01 g e 10 mm de comprimento total foram submetidas a 4 tratamentos: T1= sem adição de vitaminas, T2= 1000 mg de vitamina C, T3= 300 mg de vitamina E e T4= 1000 mg de vitamina C e 300 mg de vitamina E por kg de ração. No início à ocorrência de ectoparasitas diagnosticada foi de 100% (90% Trichodina sp. e 10% infecção mista (Trichodina sp. + monogenético. Ao final do experimento encontrou-se uma diminuição significativa quanto à ocorrência de Trichodina sp. no tratamento com vitamina E (T3 em relação ao sem vitamina (T1. Quanto ao peso e aos comprimentos total e padrão, houve um aumento significativo no tratamento com vitamina E (T3 em relação aos demais. Para sobrevivência o melhor resultado foi no tratamento com vitamina C (T2. Conclui-se, então, que a suplementação de vitamina C na ração foi benéfica em relação à sobrevivência e que a vitamina E possui efeito direto sobre os parâmetros relacionados ao desenvolvimento corpóreo (peso e comprimento, como também sobre a ocorrência de Trichodinas spp.em larvas de tilápia do Nilo, durante o processo de reversão.The effect of the vitamin C and vitamin E in the diet was evaluated on the ectoparasite occurrence, survival, weight and length in Nile tilapia larvae, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes, Cichlidae, during sexual reversion. Larvae with medium weight of 0,01 g and 10 mm of total length were submitted to four treatments: T1 = without addition of vitamins, T2 = 1000 mg of vitamin C, T3 = 300 mg of vitamin E and T4 = 1000 mg of vitamin C and 300 mg of vitamin E per kg of treat. In the beginning, the occurrence of diagnosed ectoparasite was of 100% (90,0% Trichodina and 10,0% mixed infection. At the

  2. Umbilical cord length in singleton gestations: a Finnish population-based retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, L; Keski-Nisula, L; Harju, M; Räisänen, S; Georgiadis, S; Hannila, M-L; Heinonen, S

    2014-04-01

    Many complications of pregnancy and delivery are associated with umbilical cord length. It is important to examine the variation in length, in order to identify normal and abnormal conditions. Moreover, the factors influencing cord growth and development are not precisely known. The main objectives were to provide updated reference charts for umbilical cord length in singleton pregnancies and to evaluate potential factors affecting cord length. Birth register data of 47,284 singleton pregnant women delivering in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland was collected prospectively. Gender-specific centile charts for cord length from 22 to 44 gestational weeks were obtained using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). Gestational, fetal, and maternal factors were studied for their potential influence on cord length with single variable analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Cord length increased according to gestational age, while the growth decelerated post-term. Birth weight, placental weight, pregravid maternal body mass index, parity, and maternal age correlated to cord length. Gestational diabetes and previous miscarriages were associated with longer cords, while female gender and placental abruption were associated with shorter cords. Girls had shorter cords throughout gestation although there was substantial variation in length in both genders. Cord length associated significantly with birth weight, placental weight, and gestational age. Significantly shorter cords were found in women with placental abruption. This important finding requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclic codes of length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    [X]/〈X2m. − 1〉 are given. Cyclic codes of length 2m over the finite field Fq, of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained. Keywords.

  4. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  6. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Shipp TD, Bromley B, Mascola M, Benacerraf B. Variation in fetal femur length with respect to maternal race. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:141‑4. 25. Deter RL, Harrist RB, Birnholz JC, Hadlock FP. Quantitative Obstetrical. Ultrasonography. New York: Wiley; 1986. 26. Yeh MN, Bracero L, Reilly KB, Murtha L, ...

  7. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  8. Climate reconstructions from tree-ring widths for the last 850 years in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ingo; Knorr, Antje; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Slowinski, Michal; Helle, Gerhard; Simard, Sonia; Scharnweber, Tobias; Buras, Allan; Beck, Wolfgang; Wilmking, Martin; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current debate over global change, and they are the major part of the palaeo data base used for the IPCC report. However, long temperature reconstructions derived from temperate lowland trees growing well within their distributional limits in central Europe are not part of the IPCC report, which is an essential gap in the international data base. It appears that dendroclimatological analysis at temperate lowland sites was so far difficult to perform mainly for three reasons: diffuse climate-growth relationships, the lack of long chronologies due to absence of sufficient numbers of long-living trees and the potential loss of low-frequency signals due to the short length of the sample segments. We present two robust multi-centennial reconstructions of winter temperatures and summer precipitation based on pine and oak tree-ring widths chronologies from northern Poland, where so far no long tree-ring based reconstructions were available. We compared the new records with global, hemispherical and regional reconstructions, and found good agreement with some of them. In comparison, the winter temperature of our reconstruction, however, did not indicate any modern warming nor did the summer precipitation reconstruction suggest any modern 20th century changes. In a second step, we measured cell structures and developed chronologies of parameters such as cell wall thickness and cell lumen area. We used our new method (Liang et al. 2013a,b) applying confocal laser scanning microscopy to increment core surfaces for efficient histometric analyses. We focused on samples covering the last century because meteorological data necessary for calibration studies were available for direct comparisons. It was demonstrated that the correlations with climate were strong and different from those found for tree-ring widths (e.g., N-Poland oak-vessel-lumen-area-chronology with previous September-to-December mean

  9. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Morton, F. Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical “cue”). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans. PMID:24705247

  10. Normal standards for kidney length as measured with US in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Hedlund, G.L.; Pierson, W.P.; Null, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to develop normal standards for kidney length in premature infants, the authors measured kidney length by US imaging in 39 (to date) premature infants less than 72 hours old and without known renal disease. Kidney length was compared with four different parameters of body size, including gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and body surface area. Similar standards have been generated previously for normal renal length as measured by US imaging in full-term infants and older children. These standards have proven utility in cases of congenital and acquired disorders that abnormally increase or decrease renal size. Scatter plots of kidney length versus body weight and kidney length versus body surface area conformed well to a logarithmic distribution, with a high correlation coefficient and close-fitting 95% confidence limits (SEE = 2.05)

  11. Statistical distribution of partial widths in the microscopic theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Ogloblin, S.G.

    1978-01-01

    Using the microscopic theory of nuclear reaction the distribution function of neutron reduced partial widths is obtained. It is shown that the distribution of reduced partial widths of a radiative transition is of the same form. The distribution obtained differs from the Porter-Thomas law for neutron widths only in the presence of intermediate structures. It is noteworthy that the presence of an intermediate structure leads to a greater dispersion

  12. Comparison of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements from standing CT and fixed flexion radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Neil A; Frick, Eric; Duryea, Jeffrey; Nevitt, Michael C; Niu, Jingbo; Torner, James C; Felson, David T; Anderson, Donald D

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the relationship between medial tibiofemoral joint space width measured on fixed-flexion radiographs and the three-dimensional joint space width distribution on low-dose, standing CT (SCT) imaging. At the 84-month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, 20 participants were recruited. A commercial SCT scanner for the foot and ankle was modified to image knees while standing. Medial tibiofemoral joint space width was assessed on radiographs at fixed locations from 15% to 30% of compartment width using validated software and on SCT by mapping the distances between three-dimensional subchondral bone surfaces. Individual joint space width values from radiographs were compared with three-dimensional joint space width values from corresponding sagittal plane locations using paired t-tests and correlation coefficients. For the four medial-most tibiofemoral locations, radiographic joint space width values exceeded the minimal joint space width on SCT by a mean of 2.0 mm and were approximately equal to the 61st percentile value of the joint space width distribution at each respective sagittal-plane location. Correlation coefficients at these locations were 0.91-0.97 and the offsets between joint space width values from radiographs and SCT measurements were consistent. There were greater offsets and variability in the offsets between modalities closer to the tibial spine. Joint space width measurements on fixed-flexion radiographs are highly correlated with three-dimensional joint space width from SCT. In addition to avoiding bony overlap obscuring the joint, a limitation of radiographs, the current study supports a role for SCT in the evaluation of tibiofemoral OA. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1388-1395, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of width and width uniformity of near-field electrospinning printed micro and sub-micrometer lines based on optical image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Libo; Xia, Yong; Hebibul, Rahman; Wang, Jiuhong; Zhou, Xiangyang; Hu, Yingjie; Li, Zhikang; Luo, Guoxi; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study using image processing to investigate width and width uniformity of sub-micrometer polyethylene oxide (PEO) lines fabricated by near-filed electrospinning (NFES) technique. An adaptive thresholding method was developed to determine the optimal gray values to accurately extract profiles of printed lines from original optical images. And it was proved with good feasibility. The mechanism of the proposed thresholding method was believed to take advantage of statistic property and get rid of halo induced errors. Triangular method and relative standard deviation (RSD) were introduced to calculate line width and width uniformity, respectively. Based on these image processing methods, the effects of process parameters including substrate speed (v), applied voltage (U), nozzle-to-collector distance (H), and syringe pump flow rate (Q) on width and width uniformity of printed lines were discussed. The research results are helpful to promote the NFES technique for fabricating high resolution micro and sub-micro lines and also helpful to optical image processing at sub-micro level.

  14. Hypersharp resonant capture of neutrinos as a laboratory probe of the Planck length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, R S

    2009-03-06

    The 18.6 keV antineutrino (nue) line from the two-body decay of 3H in crystals can be emitted with a natural width because of motional averaging by lattice vibrations despite the very long lifetime of 3H and contrary to commonly held views of linewidths in such a case. It can be resonantly captured in 3He with geometrical cross section sigma approximately 10(-17) cm2. Using its hypersharp sensitivity DeltaE/E approximately 10(-29) and the method of "time-filtered" resonance, the basic energy width approximately 10(-24) eV expected of the 3H state can be measured to test if ultimate nuclear widths are limited by the Planck length rather than time-energy uncertainty.

  15. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  16. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  17. Diffusion in a two-dimensional channel with curved midline and varying width: Reduction to an effective one-dimensional description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R. Mark

    2009-12-01

    Diffusion in a narrow two-dimensional channel with a midline that need not be straight and a width that may vary is reduced to an effective one-dimensional equation of motion. This equation takes the form of the Fick-Jacobs equation with a spatially varying effective diffusivity. The effective diffusivity includes a contribution that comes from the slope of the midline as well as the usual term stemming from variations in the channel width along the length of the channel. Our derivation of our equation of motion is completely rigorous and is based on an asymptotic expansion in a small dimensionless parameter that characterizes the channel width. For a channel that has a straight midline or wall, our equation of motion reduces to Zwanzig’s equation [R. Zwanzig, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3926 (1992)]. Our derivation therefore provides a rigorous proof of the validity of the latter equation. Finally, the equation of motion is solved analytically for channels with curved midline and constant width.

  18. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving......Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...

  19. Intercanine width as a tool in two dimensional reconstruction of face: An aid in forensic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Shankarnarayan, Lata; Basavaraju, Sowbhagya Malligere; Gupta, Ashish; Vasan, Vinitra; Jambunath, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Dental evidence is a valuable tool in identifying individuals, especially when disasters befall. Reference points in faciomaxillary region such as interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic width can significantly contribute toward reconstruction of two-dimensional (2D) facial profiles. This study was researched upon to determine the relationship between the maxillary intercanine width and the different reference points of the face. The aim of the following study is to ascertain whether maxillary intercanine width can be used to detect interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic distance and to evaluate the role of maxillary intercanine width in the 2D reconstruction of the face. The study was carried out by consent and involved 90 subjects-45 males and 45 females who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Subjects were divided into three age groups, i.e. 18-24, 25-28, 29-35. Four parameters were measured- intercanine width, interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance and interalar distance. All the measurements were carried out with a digital Vernier caliper. The bizygomatic width was measured from posterior-anterior view. Two empiricists were assigned for the task. Each test was carried out twice to validate the soundness of the findings and to reduce bias. Analysis of variance and Pearson correlation was established. Regression analysis was performed to predict the study variables by intercanine width. Intercanine width showed a significant relationship with different points. The width varied with age and gender. Inter canine width can be used as a valuable parameter in the reconstruction of face in two dimensional as it shows significant relationship with faciomaxillary reference point such as interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic width.

  20. Analysis of the width-w non-adjacent form in conjunction with hyperelliptic curve cryptography and with lattices☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this work the number of occurrences of a fixed non-zero digit in the width-w non-adjacent forms of all elements of a lattice in some region (e.g. a ball) is analysed. As bases, expanding endomorphisms with eigenvalues of the same absolute value are allowed. Applications of the main result are on numeral systems with an algebraic integer as base. Those come from efficient scalar multiplication methods (Frobenius-and-add methods) in hyperelliptic curves cryptography, and the result is needed for analysing the running time of such algorithms. The counting result itself is an asymptotic formula, where its main term coincides with the full block length analysis. In its second order term a periodic fluctuation is exhibited. The proof follows Delange’s method. PMID:23805020

  1. Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mabelebele, Monnye

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... There is, thus, lack of information on the effect of egg weight on subsequent performance of indigenous. Venda chickens. Therefore, the .... However, Asuquo & Okon (1993) observed that egg size within the intermediate .... Effects of egg weight and length of storage on hatchability and subsequent growth ...

  2. Tornado hazard model with the variation effects of tornado intensity along the path length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakuchi, Hiromaru; Nohara, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Hattori, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Most of Japanese tornados have been reported near the coast line, where all of Japanese nuclear power plants are located. It is necessary for Japanese electric power companies to assess tornado risks on the plants according to a new regulation in 2013. The new regulatory guide exemplifies a tornado hazard model, which cannot consider the variation of tornado intensity along the path length and consequently produces conservative risk estimates. The guide also recommends the long narrow strip area along the coast line with the width of 5-10 km as a region of interest, although the model tends to estimate inadequate wind speeds due to the limit of application. The purpose of this study is to propose a new tornado hazard model which can be apply to the long narrow strip area. The new model can also consider the variation of tornado intensity along the path length and across the path width. (author)

  3. Temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate in one dimensional optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Ahmed S.; Soliman, Shemi S.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a conventional method of quantum statistical mechanics is used to study the temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate bosons in 1D optical potential. We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the temperature dependence of the in situ widths becomes perceivable. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the in situ widths is completely different from that of a rotating condensate or trapped bosons in the optical lattice separately. The z-width shows distinct behavior from x- and y-widths due to the rotation effect. The obtained results provide useful qualitative theoretical results for future Bose Einstein condensation experiments in such traps. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate boson in 1D optical potential is investigated. • We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the in situ widths become perceivable. • The above mentioned parameters exhibit a characteristic rotation rate and optical potential depth dependence. • Characteristic dependence of the effective widths on temperature is investigated. • Our results provide useful qualitatively and quantitative theoretical results for experiments in various traps.

  4. Temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate in one dimensional optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ahmed S., E-mail: ahmedhassan117@yahoo.com; Soliman, Shemi S.M.

    2016-01-08

    In this paper, a conventional method of quantum statistical mechanics is used to study the temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate bosons in 1D optical potential. We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the temperature dependence of the in situ widths becomes perceivable. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the in situ widths is completely different from that of a rotating condensate or trapped bosons in the optical lattice separately. The z-width shows distinct behavior from x- and y-widths due to the rotation effect. The obtained results provide useful qualitative theoretical results for future Bose Einstein condensation experiments in such traps. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate boson in 1D optical potential is investigated. • We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the in situ widths become perceivable. • The above mentioned parameters exhibit a characteristic rotation rate and optical potential depth dependence. • Characteristic dependence of the effective widths on temperature is investigated. • Our results provide useful qualitatively and quantitative theoretical results for experiments in various traps.

  5. The temperature dependence of the width of the giant-dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormand, W.E.; Bortignon, P.F.; Broglia, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The giant-dipole resonance (GDR) in 120 Sn and 208 Pb is studied as a function of excitation energy, angular momentum, and intrinsic width within the context of the adiabatic model. Theoretical evaluations of the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) for the GDR strength function are compared with recent experimental data and are found to be in good agreement. (orig.)

  6. The effect of interaural-time-difference fluctuations on apparent source width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; May, Tobias; Oskarsdottir, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    For the perception of spaciousness, the temporal fluctuations of the interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) provide important binaural cues. One major characteristic of spatial perception is apparent source width (ASW), which describes the perceived width of a ...

  7. Case study: Equivalent widths of the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia Leon; Pierre Y. Julien; Drew C. Baird

    2009-01-01

    Successive reaches of the Rio Grande have maintained equivalent channel widths of 50 and 250 m, respectively, over long periods of time. It is hypothesized that alluvial channels adjust bed slope to match the long-term changes in channel width. Analytical relationships show that wider river reaches develop steeper slopes. A modeling approach using daily water and...

  8. Analysis of equivalent widths of alluvial channels and application for instream habitat in the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia A. Leon

    2003-01-01

    Rivers are natural systems that adjust to variable water and sediment discharges. Channels with spatial variability in width that are managed to maintain constant widths over a period of time are able to transport the same water and sediment discharges by adjusting the bed slope. Methods developed to de ne equilibrium hydraulic geometry characteristics of alluvial...

  9. Suppression of high-frequency perturbations in pulse-width modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method suppresses high-frequency perturbations in a pulse-width modulated signal. The pulse-width modulation may superpose a carrier signal onto an input signal having a predetermined modulation frequency. The carrier signals may be phase-shifted. The resulting modulated signals may...

  10. A New Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse- Width and Amplitude Modulation (SHEPWAM) for Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishy, Hoda; Varjani, Ali Yazdian; Mohamadian, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the conventional selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM), the selective harmonic elimination-pulse width and amplitude modulation (SHE-PWAM) control strategy results in significant improvements in the performance of CHB inverters. This fact is due to considerin...

  11. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency range...

  12. Effects of strip and full-width tillage on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... determine the effects of strip tillage and full-width tillage treatments on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon (CO2-C) fluxes, bacterial and fungal populations in growing period of sunflower (Helianthus annus). A row-crop rotary hoe with C type blades was used to create three strip widths by changing the connection of blades of the ...

  13. Relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus strength with and without normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus (GM) strength with and without normalization by body weight and height. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 34 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. To measure GM strength, subjects performed maximal hip joint extension with the knee joints flexed to 90° in the prone position. GM strength was normalized for body weight and height. [Results] GM strength with normalization was positively correlated with hamstring length, whereas GM strength without normalization was negatively correlated with hamstring length. [Conclusion] The normalization of GM strength by body weight and height has the potential to lead to more appropriate conclusions and interpretations about its correlation with hamstring length. Hamstring length may be related to GM strength.

  14. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  15. Maternal weight gain in second and third trimesters and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from Pearson correlation analysis found a positive correlation (P<0.001) between birth weight and variables such as maternal age, gestational period, parity, weight gain in both second and third trimester, birth length and sex of an infant. Multiple regression analysis indicated that birth weight (dependent variable) ...

  16. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-07-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders.

  17. Television Watching and Telomere Length Among Adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qian-Qian; Tian, Guo; Quan, Li-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Cheng, Guo

    2017-09-01

    To explore the independent associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with telomere length among Chinese adults. Data on total time of sedentary behavior, screen-based sedentary behavior (including television watching and computer or phone use), moderate to vigorous physical activity, and dietary intake of 518 adults in Chengdu, Guizhou, and Xiamen in China (54.25% women) aged 20 to 70 years were obtained between 2013 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index and percentage of body fat. Telomere length was measured through Southern blot technique. Television watching was inversely related to adjusted telomere length (-71.75 base pair; SE = 34.40; P  = .04). Furthermore, a similar trend between telomere length and television watching was found in the group aged 20 to 40 years after adjusting for all covariates. Adults aged 20 to 40 years in the highest tertile of daily time spent on watching television had 4.0% shorter telomere length than adults in the lowest tertile (P = .03). Although the association is modest, television watching is inversely related to telomere length among Chinese adults, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies.

  18. Application of Displacement Height and Surface Roughness Length to Determination Boundary Layer Development Length over Stepped Spillway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most uncertain parameters in stepped spillway design is the length (from the crest of boundary layer development. The normal velocity profiles responding to the steps as bed roughness are investigated in the developing non-aerated flow region. A detailed analysis of the logarithmic vertical velocity profiles on stepped spillways is conducted through experimental data to verify the computational code and numerical experiments to expand the data available. To determine development length, the hydraulic roughness and displacement thickness, along with the shear velocity, are needed. This includes determining displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 and the relationship of d and z0 to the step geometry. The results show that the hydraulic roughness height ks is the primary factor on which d and z0 depend. In different step height, step width, discharge and intake Froude number, the relations d/ks = 0.22–0.27, z0/ks = 0.06–0.1 and d/z0 = 2.2–4 result in a good estimate. Using the computational code and numerical experiments, air inception will occur over stepped spillway flow as long as the Bauer-defined boundary layer thickness is between 0.72 and 0.79.

  19. Matrix continued-fraction calculation of localization length in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastawski, H.M.; Weisz, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    A Matrix Continued-Fraction method is used to study the localization length of the states at the band center of a two dimensional crystals with disorder given by the Anderson model. It is found that exponentially localized states which scale according to the work of Mac Kinnon and Kramer, becomes weakly localized as the disorder becomes weaker, and there is some critical disorder for which the localization length does not saturate with the width of the strips, this confirms the resuts found by Pichard and Sarma. Weakly localized states are also found in one dimension for w/v [pt

  20. Modified model of neutron resonances widths distributions. Results of reduced neutron widths approximation for mass region 35 ≤ A ≤ 249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The distributions of the reduced neutron widths of s-, p- and d-resonances of nuclei of any type from nuclear mass region 35 ≤ A ≤ 249 were approximated with maximal precision by the model which presents experimental data set as a superposition of a maximum of four independent neutron amplitudes. Under the assumption that each of these amplitudes has the Gauss distribution with the unique maximum there were determined the most probable values of contribution of each amplitude in summary width distribution, their most probable mean values and dispersions. Comparison of the obtained χ 2 values with value χ 2 at description of the experimental data by one distribution of neutron amplitudes with best fitted parameters shows that all widths from more than 157 analyzed data sets can have different types of wave functions

  1. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this result is more likely to

  2. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this

  3. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Min-su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimat...

  4. Relação peso-comprimento e fator de condição para Cichla cf. ocellaris e Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae no reservatório de Volta Grande, rio Grande - MG/SP - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2119 Length-weight relationship and condition factor for Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae in Volta Grande Reservoir, Rio Grande -MG/SP- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2119

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram analisados a relação peso e comprimento e o fator de condição de duas espécies de tucunarés, Cichla (Perciformes, Cichlidae, introduzidas no reservatório da UHE de Volta Grande, rio Grande. Tanto para Cichla cf. ocellaris como para Cichla monoculus não houve diferença na relação peso e comprimento entre os sexos. O fator de condição alométrico mostrou uma queda na primavera e outra menor no inverno; isso ocorre quando esses peixes mudam sua atividade alimentar. Na primavera, desenvolvem-se todos os comportamentos reprodutivos e, no inverno, existe escassez de presas. A variação do fator de condição relativo acompanhou a do fator de condição alométrico devido à baixa representatividade do peso das gônadas e da pouca quantidade de gordura acumulada no peso total. A distribuição de comprimento, relação peso e comprimento e fator de condição desses peixes variam de acordo com o tempo de introdução no reservatório, com as características do ecossistema e as interações entre as espécies nesses locaisThe aim of this paper was to analyze the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of two species of cichlids (Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae that were inducted in Volta Grande Reservoir, Rio Grande. There was no difference in the length-weight relationship between the sexes for Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus. The allometric condition factor showed a fall in the spring and another smaller one in the winter. It happens when these fishes change their feeding activity. In the spring all the reproductive behavior are developed and, in the winter, there is a shortage of prey. The variation of the relative condition factor followed the variation of the allometric condition factor due to the low contribution of the gonads weight and the small amount of accumulated fat in the total weight. The length distribution, length-weight relationship and

  5. Interface width effect on the classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the weakly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Li, Y. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the interface width effects (i.e., the density gradient effects or the density transition layer effects) on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in the weakly nonlinear (WN) regime are investigated by numerical simulation (NS). It is found that the interface width effects dramatically influence the linear growth rate in the linear growth regime and the mode coupling process in the WN growth regime. First, the interface width effects decrease the linear growth rate of the RTI, particularly for the short perturbation wavelengths. Second, the interface width effects suppress (reduce) the third-order feedback to the fundamental mode, which induces the nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) to exceed the classical prediction, 0.1λ. The wider the density transition layer is, the larger the NSA is. The NSA in our NS can reach a half of its perturbation wavelength. Finally, the interface width effects suppress the generation and the growth of the second and the third harmonics. The ability to suppress the harmonics' growth increases with the interface width but decreases with the perturbation wavelength. On the whole, in the WN regime, the interface width effects stabilize the RTI, except for an enhancement of the NSA, which is expected to improve the understanding of the formation mechanism for the astrophysical jets, and for the jetlike long spikes in the high energy density physics.

  6. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  7. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  8. Correlation between facial measurements and the mesiodistal width of the maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Vanderlei Luiz; Gonçalves, Luiz Carlos; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Junior, Itamar Lopes; de Lima Lucas, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    One of the most difficult aspects during the selection of maxillary anterior teeth for a removable prosthesis is determining the appropriate mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Many attempts have been made to establish methods of estimating the combined width of these anterior teeth, and improving the esthetic outcome. The proportion of facial structures and the relationship between facial measurements and natural teeth could be used as a guide in selecting denture teeth. The aim of this study was to verify the relation between the combined mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth and the facial segments: the width of the eyes, the inner canthal distance (ICD), the interpupillary distance (IPD), the interalar width, and the intercommissural width (ICm). Standardized digital images of 81 dentate Brazilian subjects were used to measure both facial and oral segments when viewed from the frontal aspect through an image processing program. To measure the distance between the upper canines on a curve, accurate casts were made from the upper right first premolar to the upper left first premolar. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was conducted to measure the strength of the associations between the variables (alpha = 0.05). The results showed a significant correlation between all facial elements and the combined mesiodistal width of the six teeth, when observed from the frontal aspect. The ICD, IPD, and ICm showed the highest probability of being correlated to the mesiodistal width of the teeth (p = 0.000). This article considers facial analysis with digital photography as a practical and efficient application to select the mesiodistal width of artificial anterior teeth in an esthetically pleasing and natural appearance during an oral rehabilitation treatment.

  9. Arch width changes from 6 weeks to 45 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, S E; Jakobsen, J R; Treder, J; Nowak, A

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths over a 45-year span. The subjects in this study were from two pools of normal persons: (1) 28 male and 33 female infants evaluated longitudinally at approximately 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years of age (before the complete eruption of the deciduous dentition); and (2) 15 male and 15 female subjects from the Iowa facial growth study evaluated at ages 3, 5, 8, 13, 26, and 45. Arch width measurements on maxillary and mandibular dental casts were obtained independently by two investigators. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability were predetermined at 0.5 mm. From the findings in the current study, the following conclusions can be made: (1) Between 6 weeks and 2 years of age, i.e., before the complete eruption of the deciduous dentition, there were significant increases in the maxillary and mandibular anterior and posterior arch widths in both male and female infants. (2) Intercanine and intermolar widths significantly increased between 3 and 13 years of age in both the maxillary and mandibular arches. After the complete eruption of the permanent dentition, there was a slight decrease in the dental arch widths, more in the intercanine than in the intermolar widths. (3) Mandibular intercanine width, on the average, was established by 8 years of age, i.e., after the eruption of the four incisors. After the eruption of the permanent dentition, the clinician should either expect no changes or a slight decrease in arch widths. In conclusion, although the dental arch widths undergo changes from birth until midadulthood, the magnitude as well as the direction of these changes do not provide a scientific basis for expanding the arches, in the average patient, beyond its established dimensions at the time of the complete eruption of the canines and molars. Both patients and clinicians should be aware of these limitations.

  10. Aperture correction with an asymmetrically trimmed gaussian weight in SPECT with a fan-beam collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Ryo; Ogawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to improve the spatial resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired with a fan-beam collimator. The aperture angle of a hole in the fan-beam collimator depends on the position of the collimator. To correct the aperture effect in an iterative image reconstruction, an asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weight was used for a model. To confirm the validity of our method, point source phantoms and brain phantom were used in the simulation, and we applied the method to the clinical data. The results of the simulation showed that the spatial resolution of point sources improved from about 6 to 2 pixels full width at half maximum, and the corrected point sources were isotropic. The results of the simulation with the brain phantom showed that our proposed method could improve the spatial resolution of the phantom, and our method was effective for different fan-beam collimators with different focal lengths. The results of clinical data showed that the quality of the reconstructed image was improved with our proposed method. Our proposed aperture correction method with the asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weighting function was effective in improving the spatial resolution of SPECT images acquired with the fan-beam collimator. (author)

  11. The ρ radiative decay width: A measurement at 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capraro, L.; Levy, P.; Querrou, M.; Hecke, B. van; Verbeken, M.; Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bedeschi, A.; Bellamy, E.H.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tonelli, G.; Beck, G.A.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Paver, N.; Rolandi, L.; Green, M.G.; March, P.V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Strong, J.A.; Tenchini, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ρ - radiative decay width has been measured by studying the production of ρ - via the Primakoff effect by 200 GeV incident π - on Cu and Pb targets. This width was obtained by fitting the measured dσ/dt for ρ production with the theoretical coherent differential cross section including both the electromagnetic and strong contributions. The measured radiative width value is 81±4±4 keV: it is consistent with the ratio Γ(ρ → πγ)/Γ(ω → πγ) ∝ 1/9 as expected from the vector dominance and the quark model. (orig.)

  12. Attention demanding tasks during treadmill walking reduce step width variability in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Karen L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability of step time and step width is associated with falls by older adults. Further, step time is significantly influenced when performing attention demanding tasks while walking. Without exception, step time variability has been reported to increase in normal and pathologically aging older adults. Because of the role of step width in managing frontal plane dynamic stability, documenting the influence of attention-demanding tasks on step width variability may provide insight to events that can disturb dynamic stability during locomotion and increase fall risk. Preliminary evidence suggests performance of an attention demanding task significantly decreases step width variability of young adults walking on a treadmill. The purpose of the present study was to confirm or refute this finding by characterizing the extent and direction of the effects of a widely used attention demanding task (Stroop test on the step width variability of young adults walking on a motorized treadmill. Methods Fifteen healthy young adults walked on a motorized treadmill at a self-selected velocity for 10 minutes under two conditions; without performing an attention demanding task and while performing the Stroop test. Step width of continuous and consecutive steps during the collection was derived from the data recorded using a motion capture system. Step width variability was computed as the standard deviation of all recorded steps. Results Step width decreased four percent during performance of the Stroop test but the effect was not significant (p = 0.10. In contrast, the 16 percent decrease in step width variability during the Stroop test condition was significant (p = 0.029. Conclusion The results support those of our previous work in which a different attention demanding task also decreased step width variability of young subjects while walking on a treadmill. The decreased step width variability observed while performing an attention

  13. Clinical Utility of Red Cell Distribution Width in Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Milić, Sandra; Mikolašević, Ivana; Radić, Mladen; Hauser, Goran; Štimac, Davor

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the variation of red blood cell width that is reported as a part of standard complete blood count. Red blood cell distribution width results are often used together with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) results to figure out mixed anemia. The aim of our study was to compare the values of RDW in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to determine if RDW follows the severity of disease according to Child-Pugh score. We re...

  14. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  15. Towards a common methodology to simulate tree mortality based on ring-width data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleret, Maxime; Bigler, Christof; Bugmann, Harald; Davi, Hendrik; Minunno, Francesco; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Individual mortality is a key process of population and community dynamics, especially for long-lived species such as trees. As the rates of vegetation background mortality and of massive diebacks accelerated during the last decades and would continue in the future due to rising temperature and increasing drought, there is a growing demand of early warning signals that announce that the likelihood of death is very high. If physiological indicators have a high potential to predict tree mortality, their development requires an intensive tree monitoring which cannot be currently done on a representative sample of a population and on several species. An easier approach is to use radial growth data such as tree ring-widths measurements. During the last decades, an increasing number of studies aimed to derive these growth-mortality functions. However, as they followed different approaches concerning the choice of the sampling strategy (number of dead and living trees), of the type of growth explanatory variables (growth level, growth trend variables…), and of the length of the time-window (number of rings before death) used to calculate them, it makes difficult to compare results among studies and a subsequent biological interpretation. We detailed a new methodology for assessing reliable tree-ring based growth-mortality relationships using binomial logistic regression models. As examples we used published tree-ring datasets from Abies alba growing in 13 different sites, and from Nothofagus dombeyi and Quercus petraea located in one single site. Our first approach, based on constant samplings, aims to (1) assess the dependency of growth-mortality relationships on the statistical sampling scheme used; (2) determine the best length of the time-window used to calculate each growth variable; and (3) reveal the presence of intra-specific shifts in growth-mortality relationships. We also followed a Bayesian approach to build the best multi-variable logistic model considering

  16. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  17. Limits on estimating the width of thin tubular structures in 3D images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, Stefan; Rohr, Karl

    2006-01-01

    This work studies limits on estimating the width of thin tubular structures in 3D images. Based on nonlinear estimation theory we analyze the minimal stochastic error of estimating the width. Given a 3D analytic model of the image intensities of tubular structures, we derive a closed-form expression for the Cramér-Rao bound of the width estimate under image noise. We use the derived lower bound as a benchmark and compare it with three previously proposed accuracy limits for vessel width estimation. Moreover, by experimental investigations we demonstrate that the derived lower bound can be achieved by fitting a 3D parametric intensity model directly to the image data.

  18. Thermal conductivity engineering in width-modulated silicon nanowires and thermoelectric efficiency enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zianni, Xanthippi

    2018-03-01

    Width-modulated nanowires have been proposed as efficient thermoelectric materials. Here, the electron and phonon transport properties and the thermoelectric efficiency are discussed for dimensions above the quantum confinement regime. The thermal conductivity decreases dramatically in the presence of thin constrictions due to their ballistic thermal resistance. It shows a scaling behavior upon the width-modulation rate that allows for thermal conductivity engineering. The electron conductivity also decreases due to enhanced boundary scattering by the constrictions. The effect of boundary scattering is weaker for electrons than for phonons and the overall thermoelectric efficiency is enhanced. A ZT enhancement by a factor of 20-30 is predicted for width-modulated nanowires compared to bulk silicon. Our findings indicate that width-modulated nanostructures are promising for developing silicon nanostructures with high thermoelectric efficiency.

  19. Optimum filters with time width constraints for liquid argon total-absorption detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Radeka, V.

    1977-10-01

    Optimum filter responses are found for triangular current input pulses occurring in liquid argon ionization chambers used as total absorption detectors. The filters considered are subject to the following constraints: finite width of the output pulse having a prescribed ratio to the width of the triangular input current pulse and zero area of a bipolar antisymmetrical pulse or of a three lobe pulse, as required for high event rates. The feasibility of pulse shaping giving an output equal to, or shorter than, the input one is demonstrated. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio remains constant for the chamber interelectrode gap which gives an input pulse width (i.e., electron drift time) greater than one third of the required output pulse width

  20. Total Ionizing Dose Test Report for the UC1823A Pulse Width Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Forney, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the total ionizing dose susceptibility for the UC1823A pulse width modulator manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. The part is suspected to be vulnerable to enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS).