WorldWideScience

Sample records for length perturbation analysis

  1. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  2. Extreme Value Analysis of Tidal Stream Velocity Perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Samuel; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Bryden, Ian

    2011-04-26

    This paper presents a statistical extreme value analysis of maximum velocity perturbations from the mean flow speed in a tidal stream. This study was performed using tidal velocity data measured using both an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at the same location which allows for direct comparison of predictions. The extreme value analysis implements of a Peak-Over-Threshold method to explore the effect of perturbation length and time scale on the magnitude of a 50-year perturbation.

  3. Non-perturbative gravity at different length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkerts, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    problem. Since the axion is the (pseudo-) Goldstone boson of a broken U(1) global symmetry, quantum gravitational global symmetry violations could reinstate the CP problem even in the presence of the axion. We show that in the presence of massless neutrinos possible conflicts with the axion solution can be resolved. Demanding a viable axion solution of the strong CP problem, we derive new bounds on neutrino masses. In addition, we investigate the QCD vacuum energy screening mechanism for light quarks. It is well-known that the θ-dependence of the QCD vacuum vanishes linearly with the lightest quark mass. By an analogy with Schwinger pair creation in a strong electric field, we consider vacuum screening by η' bubble nucleation. We find that using the standard instanton approximation for the η' potential, the linear dependence is not recovered. We take this as an indication for the non-analyticity of the QCD vacuum energy proposed by Witten. In the last part of this thesis, we are concerned with gravitational effects on cosmological scales. The recent Planck data indicate that one of the best motivated dark matter candidates, the axion, is in conflict with bounds on isocurvature perturbations. We show that the isocurvature fluctuations can be efficiently suppressed when introducing a non-minimal kinetic coupling for the axion field during inflation. Thus, the axion can be a viable dark matter candidate for a large range of parameters. We show that the same coupling allows for the Standard Model Higgs to drive inflation and the dark matter density to be produced by the axion. Gravitational effects on large scales would also be sensitive to a possible mass for the graviton. However, such a modification has been known to be plagued by inconsistencies. In light of the recent proposal of a ghost-free theory of massive gravity by de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley, we investigate the cubic order interactions of this theory in terms of helicities of a massive spin-2

  4. Non-perturbative gravity at different length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, Sarah

    2013-12-18

    problem. Since the axion is the (pseudo-) Goldstone boson of a broken U(1) global symmetry, quantum gravitational global symmetry violations could reinstate the CP problem even in the presence of the axion. We show that in the presence of massless neutrinos possible conflicts with the axion solution can be resolved. Demanding a viable axion solution of the strong CP problem, we derive new bounds on neutrino masses. In addition, we investigate the QCD vacuum energy screening mechanism for light quarks. It is well-known that the θ-dependence of the QCD vacuum vanishes linearly with the lightest quark mass. By an analogy with Schwinger pair creation in a strong electric field, we consider vacuum screening by η' bubble nucleation. We find that using the standard instanton approximation for the η' potential, the linear dependence is not recovered. We take this as an indication for the non-analyticity of the QCD vacuum energy proposed by Witten. In the last part of this thesis, we are concerned with gravitational effects on cosmological scales. The recent Planck data indicate that one of the best motivated dark matter candidates, the axion, is in conflict with bounds on isocurvature perturbations. We show that the isocurvature fluctuations can be efficiently suppressed when introducing a non-minimal kinetic coupling for the axion field during inflation. Thus, the axion can be a viable dark matter candidate for a large range of parameters. We show that the same coupling allows for the Standard Model Higgs to drive inflation and the dark matter density to be produced by the axion. Gravitational effects on large scales would also be sensitive to a possible mass for the graviton. However, such a modification has been known to be plagued by inconsistencies. In light of the recent proposal of a ghost-free theory of massive gravity by de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley, we investigate the cubic order interactions of this theory in terms of helicities of a massive spin-2

  5. Perturbative analysis in higher-spin theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenko, V.E. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Misuna, N.G. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutsky lane 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, M.A. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-28

    A new scheme of the perturbative analysis of the nonlinear HS equations is developed giving directly the final result for the successive application of the homotopy integrations which appear in the standard approach. It drastically simplifies the analysis and results from the application of the standard spectral sequence approach to the higher-spin covariant derivatives, allowing us in particular to reduce multiple homotopy integrals resulting from the successive application of the homotopy trick to a single integral. Efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by various examples. In particular, it is shown how the Central on-shell theorem of the free theory immediately results from the nonlinear HS field equations with no intermediate computations.

  6. Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.

  7. Perturbation analysis of octupoles in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moohyun Yoon

    1998-01-01

    The octupole effects in a circular accelerator are analyzed using a first-order canonical perturbation theory. It is shown that, to the first order, the nonlinear amplitude-dependent tune shifts due to an octupole are composed of two types: terms of second order and terms of fourth order in betatron-oscillation amplitudes. The fourth-order part of tune shifts is expressed in terms of distortion functions. Distortion functions are also expanded in harmonics to express the higher-order tune shifts in harmonically expanded form. Finally, the results are applied to an accelerator and compared with the results of numerical tracking of particles. Laskar's algorithm for numerical analysis of the fundamental frequency is used to determine tunes from the tracking data, in which the error becomes inversely proportional to the cube of the number of data points. (author)

  8. Stability Analysis of Nonuniform Rectangular Beams Using Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Pinarbasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of slender beams, that is, beams with large laterally unsupported lengths, is commonly controlled by stability limit states. Beam buckling, also called “lateral torsional buckling,” is different from column buckling in that a beam not only displaces laterally but also twists about its axis during buckling. The coupling between twist and lateral displacement makes stability analysis of beams more complex than that of columns. For this reason, most of the analytical studies in the literature on beam stability are concentrated on simple cases: uniform beams with ideal boundary conditions and simple loadings. This paper shows that complex beam stability problems, such as lateral torsional buckling of rectangular beams with variable cross-sections, can successfully be solved using homotopy perturbation method (HPM.

  9. Perturbation analysis of transient population dynamics using matrix projection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Iain

    2016-01-01

    to different applications: choosing a method to use may be challenging. Here, I review existing methods for prospective transient perturbation analysis, and identify a number of key considerations for ecologists when choosing a method. These include the approach taken in calculating the perturbation, the type...

  10. An asymmetry in the phosphate dependence of tension transients induced by length perturbation in mammalian (rabbit psoas) muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, K W; Coupland, Moira E; Mutungi, G

    2002-08-01

    The effects of inorganic phosphate (P(i), a product released during ATP hydrolysis in active muscle) on tension transients induced by length perturbation (approximately 0.3 ms) were examined in chemically skinned (0.5 % Brij), maximally Ca(2+)-activated rabbit psoas muscle fibres at 10 degrees C (ionic strength 200 mM, pH 7.1). In one type of experiment, the tension transients induced by length release and stretch of a standard amplitude (0.4-0.5 % of L(o), muscle fibre length) were examined at a range of added [P(i)] (range 3-25 mM). The steady active tension was depressed approximately 45 % with 25 mM added P(i). The initial tension recovery (from T(1), extreme tension reached after length step, to T(2), tension after quick recovery) was analysed by half-time measurement and also by exponential curve fitting - extracting a fast (phase 2a) and a slow (phase 2b) component. The tension decay after a stretch became faster with increased [P(i)], whereas the quick tension rise induced by a length release was insensitive to added P(i). Consequently, the asymmetry in the speed of tension recovery from stretch and release was reduced at high [P(i)]. A plot of the phase 2b rate (or 1/half-time) of tension decay after stretch versus [P(i)] was approximately hyperbolic and showed saturation at higher [P(i)] levels. In a second type of experiment, the tension transients induced by length steps of different amplitudes were examined in control (no added P(i)) and in the presence of 25 mM added P(i). Over a range of length step amplitudes (up to 1 % L(0)), the tension decay after stretch was consistently faster in the presence of P(i) than in the control; this was particularly pronounced in phase 2b. The rate of tension rise after length release remained high but similar in the presence and absence of added P(i). These observations indicate that a stretch and release perturb different molecular steps in the crossbridge cycle. The P(i) sensitivity of tension decay (phase 2b

  11. Process for computing geometric perturbations for probabilistic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Simeon H. K. [Charlottesville, VA; Riha, David S [San Antonio, TX; Thacker, Ben H [San Antonio, TX

    2012-04-10

    A method for computing geometric perturbations for probabilistic analysis. The probabilistic analysis is based on finite element modeling, in which uncertainties in the modeled system are represented by changes in the nominal geometry of the model, referred to as "perturbations". These changes are accomplished using displacement vectors, which are computed for each node of a region of interest and are based on mean-value coordinate calculations.

  12. Painleve analysis, conservation laws, and symmetry of perturbed nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Chowdhury, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors consider the Lie-Backlund symmetries and conservation laws of a perturbed KdV equation and NLS equation. The arbitrary coefficients of the perturbing terms can be related to the condition of existence of nontrivial LB symmetry generators. When the perturbed KdV equation is subjected to Painleve analysis a la Weiss, it is found that the resonance position changes compared to the unperturbed one. They prove the compatibility of the overdetermined set of equations obtained at the different stages of recursion relations, at least for one branch. All other branches are also indicated and difficulties associated them are discussed considering the perturbation parameter epsilon to be small. They determine the Lax pair for the aforesaid branch through the use of Schwarzian derivative. For the perturbed NLS equation they determine the conservation laws following the approach of Chen and Liu. From the recurrence of these conservation laws a Lax pair is constructed. But the Painleve analysis does not produce a positive answer for the perturbed NLS equation. So here they have two contrasting examples of perturbed nonlinear equations: one passes the Painleve test and its Lax pair can be found from the analysis itself, but the other equation does not meet the criterion of the Painleve test, though its Lax pair is found in another way

  13. NEXCADE: perturbation analysis for complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Yadav

    Full Text Available Recent advances in network theory have led to considerable progress in our understanding of complex real world systems and their behavior in response to external threats or fluctuations. Much of this research has been invigorated by demonstration of the 'robust, yet fragile' nature of cellular and large-scale systems transcending biology, sociology, and ecology, through application of the network theory to diverse interactions observed in nature such as plant-pollinator, seed-dispersal agent and host-parasite relationships. In this work, we report the development of NEXCADE, an automated and interactive program for inducing disturbances into complex systems defined by networks, focusing on the changes in global network topology and connectivity as a function of the perturbation. NEXCADE uses a graph theoretical approach to simulate perturbations in a user-defined manner, singly, in clusters, or sequentially. To demonstrate the promise it holds for broader adoption by the research community, we provide pre-simulated examples from diverse real-world networks including eukaryotic protein-protein interaction networks, fungal biochemical networks, a variety of ecological food webs in nature as well as social networks. NEXCADE not only enables network visualization at every step of the targeted attacks, but also allows risk assessment, i.e. identification of nodes critical for the robustness of the system of interest, in order to devise and implement context-based strategies for restructuring a network, or to achieve resilience against link or node failures. Source code and license for the software, designed to work on a Linux-based operating system (OS can be downloaded at http://www.nipgr.res.in/nexcade_download.html. In addition, we have developed NEXCADE as an OS-independent online web server freely available to the scientific community without any login requirement at http://www.nipgr.res.in/nexcade.html.

  14. NEXCADE: perturbation analysis for complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Gitanjali; Babu, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in network theory have led to considerable progress in our understanding of complex real world systems and their behavior in response to external threats or fluctuations. Much of this research has been invigorated by demonstration of the 'robust, yet fragile' nature of cellular and large-scale systems transcending biology, sociology, and ecology, through application of the network theory to diverse interactions observed in nature such as plant-pollinator, seed-dispersal agent and host-parasite relationships. In this work, we report the development of NEXCADE, an automated and interactive program for inducing disturbances into complex systems defined by networks, focusing on the changes in global network topology and connectivity as a function of the perturbation. NEXCADE uses a graph theoretical approach to simulate perturbations in a user-defined manner, singly, in clusters, or sequentially. To demonstrate the promise it holds for broader adoption by the research community, we provide pre-simulated examples from diverse real-world networks including eukaryotic protein-protein interaction networks, fungal biochemical networks, a variety of ecological food webs in nature as well as social networks. NEXCADE not only enables network visualization at every step of the targeted attacks, but also allows risk assessment, i.e. identification of nodes critical for the robustness of the system of interest, in order to devise and implement context-based strategies for restructuring a network, or to achieve resilience against link or node failures. Source code and license for the software, designed to work on a Linux-based operating system (OS) can be downloaded at http://www.nipgr.res.in/nexcade_download.html. In addition, we have developed NEXCADE as an OS-independent online web server freely available to the scientific community without any login requirement at http://www.nipgr.res.in/nexcade.html.

  15. Perturbation Method of Analysis Applied to Substitution Measurements of Buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-11-15

    Calculations with two-group perturbation theory on substitution experiments with homogenized regions show that a condensation of the results into a one-group formula is possible, provided that a transition region is introduced in a proper way. In heterogeneous cores the transition region comes in as a consequence of a new cell concept. By making use of progressive substitutions the properties of the transition region can be regarded as fitting parameters in the evaluation procedure. The thickness of the region is approximately equal to the sum of 1/(1/{tau} + 1/L{sup 2}){sup 1/2} for the test and reference regions. Consequently a region where L{sup 2} >> {tau}, e.g. D{sub 2}O, contributes with {radical}{tau} to the thickness. In cores where {tau} >> L{sup 2} , e.g. H{sub 2}O assemblies, the thickness of the transition region is determined by L. Experiments on rod lattices in D{sub 2}O and on test regions of D{sub 2}O alone (where B{sup 2} = - 1/L{sup 2} ) are analysed. The lattice measurements, where the pitches differed by a factor of {radical}2, gave excellent results, whereas the determination of the diffusion length in D{sub 2}O by this method was not quite successful. Even regions containing only one test element can be used in a meaningful way in the analysis.

  16. Step length after discrete perturbation predicts accidental falls and fall-related injury in elderly people with a range of peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allet, L; Kim, H; Ashton-Miller, JA; De Mott, T; Richardson, JK

    2013-01-01

    Aims Distal symmetric polyneuropathy increases fall risk due to inability to cope with perturbations. We aimed to 1) identify the frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions which are necessary for robustness to a discrete, underfoot perturbation during gait; and 2) determine whether changes in the post-perturbed step parameters could distinguish between fallers and non fallers. Methods Forty-two subjects (16 healthy old and 26 with diabetic PN) participated. Frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions were determined using established laboratory-based techniques. The subjects' most extreme alterations in step width or step length in response to a perturbation were measured. In addition, falls and fall-related injuries were prospectively recorded. Results Ankle proprioceptive threshold (APrT; p=.025) and hip abduction rate of torque generation (RTG; p=.041) independently predicted extreme step length after medial perturbation, with precise APrT and greater hip RTG allowing maintenance of step length. Fallers demonstrated greater extreme step length changes after medial perturbation than non fallers (percent change = 16.41±8.42 vs 11.0±4.95; p=.06) Conclusions The ability to rapidly generate frontal plane hip strength and/or precisely perceive motion at the ankle is needed to maintain a normal step length after perturbation, a parameter, which distinguishes between fallers and non fallers. PMID:24183899

  17. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment.......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... with known values, the accuracy of the soVBGF parameter estimation was evaluated. The results indicate that both optimisation approaches are capable of finding high scoring solutions, yet settings regarding the initial restructuring process for LFQ bin scoring (i.e. "moving average,") and the fixing...

  18. Perturbation analysis of Lagrangian invariant subspaces of symplectic matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, A.C.M.; Mehl, Ch.; Mehrmann, V.; Rodman, L.

    2009-01-01

    Lagrangian invariant subspaces for symplectic matrices play an important role in the numerical solution of discrete time, robust and optimal control problems. The sensitivity (perturbation) analysis of these subspaces, however, is a difficult problem, in particular, when the eigenvalues are on or

  19. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  20. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  1. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  2. Unmatched Projector/Backprojector Pairs: Perturbation and Convergence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Tommy; Hansen, Per Christian

    2018-01-01

    are not each other's transpose. Surprisingly, the influence of such errors in algebraic iterative reconstruction methods has received little attention in the literature. The goal of this paper is to perform a rigorous first-order perturbation analysis of the minimization problems underlying the algebraic...... methods in order to understand the role played by the nonmatch of the matrices. We also study the convergence properties of linear stationary iterations based on unmatched matrix pairs, leading to insight into the behavior of some important row-and column-oriented algebraic iterative methods. We conclude...

  3. Beyond perturbation introduction to the homotopy analysis method

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Shijun

    2003-01-01

    Solving nonlinear problems is inherently difficult, and the stronger the nonlinearity, the more intractable solutions become. Analytic approximations often break down as nonlinearity becomes strong, and even perturbation approximations are valid only for problems with weak nonlinearity.This book introduces a powerful new analytic method for nonlinear problems-homotopy analysis-that remains valid even with strong nonlinearity. In Part I, the author starts with a very simple example, then presents the basic ideas, detailed procedures, and the advantages (and limitations) of homotopy analysis. Part II illustrates the application of homotopy analysis to many interesting nonlinear problems. These range from simple bifurcations of a nonlinear boundary-value problem to the Thomas-Fermi atom model, Volterra''s population model, Von Kármán swirling viscous flow, and nonlinear progressive waves in deep water.Although the homotopy analysis method has been verified in a number of prestigious journals, it has yet to be ...

  4. Application of functional analysis to perturbation theory of differential equations. [nonlinear perturbation of the harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, V. M.; Bond, V. B.

    1980-01-01

    The deviation of the solution of the differential equation y' = f(t, y), y(O) = y sub O from the solution of the perturbed system z' = f(t, z) + g(t, z), z(O) = z sub O was investigated for the case where f and g are continuous functions on I x R sup n into R sup n, where I = (o, a) or I = (o, infinity). These functions are assumed to satisfy the Lipschitz condition in the variable z. The space Lip(I) of all such functions with suitable norms forms a Banach space. By introducing a suitable norm in the space of continuous functions C(I), introducing the problem can be reduced to an equivalent problem in terminology of operators in such spaces. A theorem on existence and uniqueness of the solution is presented by means of Banach space technique. Norm estimates on the rate of growth of such solutions are found. As a consequence, estimates of deviation of a solution due to perturbation are obtained. Continuity of the solution on the initial data and on the perturbation is established. A nonlinear perturbation of the harmonic oscillator is considered a perturbation of equations of the restricted three body problem linearized at libration point.

  5. PeTTSy: a computational tool for perturbation analysis of complex systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Mirela; Brown, Paul E; Shulgin, Boris V; Rand, David A

    2016-03-10

    Over the last decade sensitivity analysis techniques have been shown to be very useful to analyse complex and high dimensional Systems Biology models. However, many of the currently available toolboxes have either used parameter sampling, been focused on a restricted set of model observables of interest, studied optimisation of a objective function, or have not dealt with multiple simultaneous model parameter changes where the changes can be permanent or temporary. Here we introduce our new, freely downloadable toolbox, PeTTSy (Perturbation Theory Toolbox for Systems). PeTTSy is a package for MATLAB which implements a wide array of techniques for the perturbation theory and sensitivity analysis of large and complex ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models. PeTTSy is a comprehensive modelling framework that introduces a number of new approaches and that fully addresses analysis of oscillatory systems. It examines sensitivity analysis of the models to perturbations of parameters, where the perturbation timing, strength, length and overall shape can be controlled by the user. This can be done in a system-global setting, namely, the user can determine how many parameters to perturb, by how much and for how long. PeTTSy also offers the user the ability to explore the effect of the parameter perturbations on many different types of outputs: period, phase (timing of peak) and model solutions. PeTTSy can be employed on a wide range of mathematical models including free-running and forced oscillators and signalling systems. To enable experimental optimisation using the Fisher Information Matrix it efficiently allows one to combine multiple variants of a model (i.e. a model with multiple experimental conditions) in order to determine the value of new experiments. It is especially useful in the analysis of large and complex models involving many variables and parameters. PeTTSy is a comprehensive tool for analysing large and complex models of regulatory and

  6. Exact Controllability and Perturbation Analysis for Elastic Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreles, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Rayleigh beam is a perturbation of the Bernoulli-Euler beam. We establish convergence of the solution of the Exact Controllability Problem for the Rayleigh beam to the corresponding solution of the Bernoulli-Euler beam. Convergence is related to a Singular Perturbation Problem. The main tool in solving this perturbation problem is a weak version of a lower bound for hyperbolic polynomials

  7. Multigroup perturbation model for kinetic analysis of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The scope of this work is the development of a multigroup perturbation theory for the purpose of Kinetic and dynamic analysis of nuclear reactors. The equations that describe the reactor behavior were presented in all generality and written in the shorthand notation of matrices and vectors. In the derivation of those equations indetermined operators and discretizing factors were introduced and then determined by comparision with conventional equations. Fick's Law was developed in higher orders for neutron and importance current density. The solution of the direct and adjoint fields were represented by combination of the eigenfunctions of the B and B* operators and the eigenvalue modulus equality was established mathematically. In the derivation of the reactivity expression the B operator perturbation was split in two non coupled to the flux form and level. The prompt neutrons effective mean life was derived from reactor equations and importance conservation. The establishment of the Nordheim's equation, although modified, was based on Gandini. Finally, a mathematical interpretation of the flux-trap region was avented. (author)

  8. Thermodynamical analysis of acoustical perturbations in the bronchial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Margarita; Perez-Guerrero, Armando; Alvarado, Manuel

    2002-11-01

    In the airways, very complex flows occur because of different conditions and the existence of a lot of complications: constantly changing temperature and pressure during the respiration process, a normally turbulent flow in the trachea which, in heavy breathing, remains so in the first three or four generations of airways, changes of the direction of the flow over the breathing cycle, from inspiration to expiration, etc. We also know the air that flows in the bronchial tree is perturbed by several sources such as the heart and the circulatory system, the diaphragm and stomach movements, etc., which produce sound waves. Thus an acoustical analysis of the phenomenon can lead us to a physical model which could help us to better understand the phenomena and to demonstrate the importance to clinical applications such as the pneumocardiograms. To this purpose we use a thermodynamical model that originally was developed to analyze supersonic air jets to explain the production of shock waves in the bronchial tree.

  9. Acoustofluidics 13: Analysis of acoustic streaming by perturbation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhal, S S

    2012-07-07

    In this Part 13 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing waves forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation," the streaming phenomenon is presented from an analytical standpoint, and perturbation methods are developed for analyzing such flows. Acoustic streaming is the phenomenon that takes place when a steady flow field is generated by the absorption of an oscillatory field. This can happen either by attenuation (quartz wind) or by interaction with a boundary. The latter type of streaming can also be generated by an oscillating solid in an otherwise still fluid medium or vibrating enclosure of a fluid body. While we address the first kind of streaming, our focus is largely on the second kind from a practical standpoint for application to microfluidic systems. In this Focus article, we limit the analysis to one- and two-dimensional problems in order to understand the analytical techniques with examples that most-easily illustrate the streaming phenomenon.

  10. Analysis of Errors in a Special Perturbations Satellite Orbit Propagator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckerman, M.; Jones, J.P.

    1999-02-01

    We performed an analysis of error densities for the Special Perturbations orbit propagator using data for 29 satellites in orbits of interest to Space Shuttle and International Space Station collision avoidance. We find that the along-track errors predominate. These errors increase monotonically over each 36-hour prediction interval. The predicted positions in the along-track direction progressively either leap ahead of or lag behind the actual positions. Unlike the along-track errors the radial and cross-track errors oscillate about their nearly zero mean values. As the number of observations per fit interval decline the along-track prediction errors, and amplitudes of the radial and cross-track errors, increase.

  11. Recursive Principal Components Analysis Using Eigenvector Matrix Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Erdogmus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Principal components analysis is an important and well-studied subject in statistics and signal processing. The literature has an abundance of algorithms for solving this problem, where most of these algorithms could be grouped into one of the following three approaches: adaptation based on Hebbian updates and deflation, optimization of a second-order statistical criterion (like reconstruction error or output variance, and fixed point update rules with deflation. In this paper, we take a completely different approach that avoids deflation and the optimization of a cost function using gradients. The proposed method updates the eigenvector and eigenvalue matrices simultaneously with every new sample such that the estimates approximately track their true values as would be calculated from the current sample estimate of the data covariance matrix. The performance of this algorithm is compared with that of traditional methods like Sanger's rule and APEX, as well as a structurally similar matrix perturbation-based method.

  12. Fast dynamics perturbation analysis for prediction of protein functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Judith D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a fast version of the dynamics perturbation analysis (DPA algorithm to predict functional sites in protein structures. The original DPA algorithm finds regions in proteins where interactions cause a large change in the protein conformational distribution, as measured using the relative entropy Dx. Such regions are associated with functional sites. Results The Fast DPA algorithm, which accelerates DPA calculations, is motivated by an empirical observation that Dx in a normal-modes model is highly correlated with an entropic term that only depends on the eigenvalues of the normal modes. The eigenvalues are accurately estimated using first-order perturbation theory, resulting in a N-fold reduction in the overall computational requirements of the algorithm, where N is the number of residues in the protein. The performance of the original and Fast DPA algorithms was compared using protein structures from a standard small-molecule docking test set. For nominal implementations of each algorithm, top-ranked Fast DPA predictions overlapped the true binding site 94% of the time, compared to 87% of the time for original DPA. In addition, per-protein recall statistics (fraction of binding-site residues that are among predicted residues were slightly better for Fast DPA. On the other hand, per-protein precision statistics (fraction of predicted residues that are among binding-site residues were slightly better using original DPA. Overall, the performance of Fast DPA in predicting ligand-binding-site residues was comparable to that of the original DPA algorithm. Conclusion Compared to the original DPA algorithm, the decreased run time with comparable performance makes Fast DPA well-suited for implementation on a web server and for high-throughput analysis.

  13. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... right wave length for cobalt analysis with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. And this problem on wave length might exist also on the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) method. The wave length generally employed for cobalt determination is. 240.7 nm (Shapiro and Martin, 1988) ...

  14. Perturbation analysis for Monte Carlo continuous cross section models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Chris B.; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis, including both its forward and adjoint applications, collectively referred to hereinafter as Perturbation Analysis (PA), is an essential tool to complete Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and Data Assimilation (DA). PA-assisted UQ and DA have traditionally been carried out for reactor analysis problems using deterministic as opposed to stochastic models for radiation transport. This is because PA requires many model executions to quantify how variations in input data, primarily cross sections, affect variations in model's responses, e.g. detectors readings, flux distribution, multiplication factor, etc. Although stochastic models are often sought for their higher accuracy, their repeated execution is at best computationally expensive and in reality intractable for typical reactor analysis problems involving many input data and output responses. Deterministic methods however achieve computational efficiency needed to carry out the PA analysis by reducing problem dimensionality via various spatial and energy homogenization assumptions. This however introduces modeling error components into the PA results which propagate to the following UQ and DA analyses. The introduced errors are problem specific and therefore are expected to limit the applicability of UQ and DA analyses to reactor systems that satisfy the introduced assumptions. This manuscript introduces a new method to complete PA employing a continuous cross section stochastic model and performed in a computationally efficient manner. If successful, the modeling error components introduced by deterministic methods could be eliminated, thereby allowing for wider applicability of DA and UQ results. Two MCNP models demonstrate the application of the new method - a Critical Pu Sphere (Jezebel), a Pu Fast Metal Array (Russian BR-1). The PA is completed for reaction rate densities, reaction rate ratios, and the multiplication factor. (author)

  15. Singular Perturbation Analysis and Gene Regulatory Networks with Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlykova, Irina; Ponosov, Arcady

    2009-09-01

    There are different ways of how to model gene regulatory networks. Differential equations allow for a detailed description of the network's dynamics and provide an explicit model of the gene concentration changes over time. Production and relative degradation rate functions used in such models depend on the vector of steeply sloped threshold functions which characterize the activity of genes. The most popular example of the threshold functions comes from the Boolean network approach, where the threshold functions are given by step functions. The system of differential equations becomes then piecewise linear. The dynamics of this system can be described very easily between the thresholds, but not in the switching domains. For instance this approach fails to analyze stationary points of the system and to define continuous solutions in the switching domains. These problems were studied in [2], [3], but the proposed model did not take into account a time delay in cellular systems. However, analysis of real gene expression data shows a considerable number of time-delayed interactions suggesting that time delay is essential in gene regulation. Therefore, delays may have a great effect on the dynamics of the system presenting one of the critical factors that should be considered in reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. The goal of this work is to apply the singular perturbation analysis to certain systems with delay and to obtain an analog of Tikhonov's theorem, which provides sufficient conditions for constracting the limit system in the delay case.

  16. Perturbation method for fuel evolution and shuffling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1987-01-01

    A perturbation methodology is described by which the behaviour of a reactor system during burnup can be analyzed making use of Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) codes already available in the linear domain. Typical quantities that can be studied with the proposed methodology are the amount of a specified material at the end of cycle, the fluence in a specified region, the residual reactivity at end of reactor life cycle. The potentiality of the method for fuel shuffling studies is also described. (author)

  17. Analysis of ionospheric plasma perturbations before Wenchuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on data recorded by the French DEMETER satellite, plasma perturbations have been analyzed before the Wenchuan 8.0 earthquake which occurred on 12 May 2008. Using the revisited orbits, the seasonal variations of the O+ density at daytime and nighttime were obtained respectively. There mainly exist two kinds of shapes of O+ density, with peak values in the Northern Hemisphere during May to September and reversely in the Southern Hemisphere during other months. Analysis on local daytime O+ density showed that it reached its lowest values 3 days prior to the earthquake, i.e. on 9 May. With studies in more than 3 month time series and comparison with those in 2006 and 2007, it was found that the significant decrease of the O+ density on 9 May 2008 was different from the trend variations of 2007 and 2006 both with relatively higher O+ density in May. In addition, the ion density and temperature was also analyzed before the earthquake at local nighttime. They showed smallest value in O+ density and fast and short-term variations in ion temperature on 9 May above the epicenter area. All these plasma anomalies may be related to the Wenchuan earthquake. Finally, using our results and those published in other papers, the possible mechanisms of these ionospheric anomalies were discussed.

  18. An analysis of the expected eccentricity perturbations for the second Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical prediction of expected eccentricity perturbations for the RAE 2 lunar orbit shows that the eccentricity will grow linearly in time. Parametric inclination studies and analysis of perturbation equations establish a critical retrograde inclination of 116.565 at which the positive perturbation slope vanishes for a circular orbit about 1100 m above the lunar surface with an eccentricity constraint of less than 0.005 during a period of about one year.

  19. Geometric singular perturbation analysis of systems with friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena

    This thesis is concerned with the application of geometric singular perturbation theory to mechanical systems with friction. The mathematical background on geometric singular perturbation theory, on the blow-up method, on non-smooth dynamical systems and on regularization is presented. Thereafter...... use a Poincaré compactification to study the system near infinity. At infinity, the critical manifold loses hyperbolicity with an exponential rate. We use an adaptation of the blow-up method to recover the hyperbolicity. This enables the identification of a new attracting manifold, that organises...... singular, in contrast to the regular stiction solutions that are forward unique. In order to further the understanding of the non-unique dynamics, we introduce a regularization of the model. This gives a singularly perturbed problem that captures the main features of the original discontinuous problem. We...

  20. Perturbation analysis on the dynamic buckling of a lightly damped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation makes a conscious effort at analytical determination of the dynamic buckling load of an imperfect lightly damped spherical cap modulated by a sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load. Essentially, the formulation is that of an elastic nonlinear oscillatory system, with small perturbations and with coefficients ...

  1. Key-length analysis of double random phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-20

    Double random phase encoding (DRPE) is a classical optical symmetric-key encryption method. DRPE prevents the key length from being determined because of its redundancy between encryption and decryption, unlike digital symmetric-key cryptographies. In our study, we numerically analyzed the key length of DRPE based on key-space analysis. We estimated the key length of DRPE by calculating the inverse value of the cumulative probability of the normal distribution that was estimated from samples of DRPE and then discuss security against brute-force attacks.

  2. Detecting and correcting the bias of unmeasured factors using perturbation analysis: a data-mining approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The randomized controlled study is the gold-standard research method in biomedicine. In contrast, the validity of a (nonrandomized) observational study is often questioned because of unknown/unmeasured factors, which may have confounding and/or effect-modifying potential. Methods In this paper, the author proposes a perturbation test to detect the bias of unmeasured factors and a perturbation adjustment to correct for such bias. The proposed method circumvents the problem of measuring unknowns by collecting the perturbations of unmeasured factors instead. Specifically, a perturbation is a variable that is readily available (or can be measured easily) and is potentially associated, though perhaps only very weakly, with unmeasured factors. The author conducted extensive computer simulations to provide a proof of concept. Results Computer simulations show that, as the number of perturbation variables increases from data mining, the power of the perturbation test increased progressively, up to nearly 100%. In addition, after the perturbation adjustment, the bias decreased progressively, down to nearly 0%. Conclusions The data-mining perturbation analysis described here is recommended for use in detecting and correcting the bias of unmeasured factors in observational studies. PMID:24499374

  3. Analysis Models for Polymer Composites Across Different Length Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camanho, Pedro P.; Arteiro, Albertino

    This chapter presents the analysis models, developed at different length scales, for the prediction of inelastic deformation and fracture of polymer composite materials reinforced by unidirectional fibers. Three different length scales are covered. Micro-mechanical models are used to understand in detail the effects of the constituents on the response of the composite material, and to support the development of analysis models based on homogenized representations of composite materials. Meso-mechanical models are used to predict the strength of composite structural components under general loading conditions. Finally, macro-mechanical models based on Finite Fracture Mechanics, which enable fast strength predictions of simple structural details, are discussed.

  4. Dimensional Analysis Keeping Track of Length, Mass, Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Dimensional Analysis Keeping Track of Length, Mass, Time. Nagesha N Rao. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 29-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Framework for network modularization and Bayesian network analysis to investigate the perturbed metabolic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic network models have contributed to elucidating biological phenomena, and predicting gene targets to engineer for biotechnological applications. With their increasing importance, their precise network characterization has also been crucial for better understanding of the cellular physiology. We herein introduce a framework for network modularization and Bayesian network analysis (FMB) to investigate organism's metabolism under perturbation. FMB reveals direction of influences among metabolic modules, in which reactions with similar or positively correlated flux variation patterns are clustered, in response to specific perturbation using metabolic flux data. With metabolic flux data calculated by constraints-based flux analysis under both control and perturbation conditions, FMB, in essence, reveals the effects of specific perturbations on the biological system through network modularization and Bayesian network analysis at metabolic modular level. As a demonstration, this framework was applied to the genetically perturbed Escherichia coli metabolism, which is a lpdA gene knockout mutant, using its genome-scale metabolic network model. After all, it provides alternative scenarios of metabolic flux distributions in response to the perturbation, which are complementary to the data obtained from conventionally available genome-wide high-throughput techniques or metabolic flux analysis.

  6. Reliability importance analysis of Markovian systems at steady state using perturbation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Do Van; Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis has been primarily defined for static systems, i.e. systems described by combinatorial reliability models (fault or event trees). Several structural and probabilistic measures have been proposed to assess the components importance. For dynamic systems including inter-component and functional dependencies (cold spare, shared load, shared resources, etc.), and described by Markov models or, more generally, by discrete events dynamic systems models, the problem of sensitivity analysis remains widely open. In this paper, the perturbation method is used to estimate an importance factor, called multi-directional sensitivity measure, in the framework of Markovian systems. Some numerical examples are introduced to show why this method offers a promising tool for steady-state sensitivity analysis of Markov processes in reliability studies

  7. Sensitivity analysis of critical experiment with direct perturbation compared to TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, A. D.; Busch, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain sensitivities from direct uncertainty analysis calculation and correlate those calculated values with the sensitivities produced from TSUNAMI-3D (Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation in Three Dimensions). A full sensitivity analysis is performed on a critical experiment to determine the overall uncertainty of the experiment. Small perturbation calculations are performed for all known uncertainties to obtain the total uncertainty of the experiment. The results from a critical experiment are only known as well as the geometric and material properties. The goal of this relationship is to simplify the uncertainty quantification process in assessing a critical experiment, while still considering all of the important parameters. (authors)

  8. A finite element-based perturbation method for nonlinear free vibration analysis of composite cylindrical shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, T.; Jansen, E.L.; Tiso, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element-based approach for nonlinear vibration analysis of shell structures is presented. The approach makes use of a perturbation method that gives an approximation for the amplitude-frequency relation of the structure. The method is formulated using a functional notation

  9. A Homotopy-Perturbation analysis of the non-linear contaminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work, a Homotopy-perturbation analysis of a non –linear contaminant flow equation with an initial continuous point source is provided. The equation is characterized by advection, diffusion and adsorption. We assume that the adsorption term is modeled by Freudlich Isotherm. We provide an approximation of ...

  10. Analysis and Optimization of "Full-Length" Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    A method of analyzing the axial variation of the heat generation rate, temperature, voltage, current density and emitter heat flux in a thermionic converter is described. The method is particularly useful for the case of "long" diodes, each extending over the full length of the reactor core. For a given diode geometry and fuel distribution, the analysis combines a nuclear solution of the axial fission density profile with the iterative solution of four differential equations representing the thermal, electrical, and thermionic interactions within the diode. The digital computer program developed to solve these equations can also perform a design optimization with respect to lead resistance, load voltage, and emitter thickness, for a specified maximum emitter temperature. Typical results are presented, and the use of this analysis for predicting the diode operating characteristics is illustrated.

  11. Determination of Wind Turbine Near-Wake Length Based on Stability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert; Sarmast, Sasan; Ivanell, Stefan; Henningson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A numerical study on the wake behind a wind turbine is carried out focusing on determining the length of the near-wake based on the instability onset of the trailing tip vortices shed from the turbine blades. The numerical model is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the actuator line (ACL) method. The wake is perturbed by applying stochastic or harmonic excitations in the neighborhood of the tips of the blades. The flow field is then analyzed to obtain the stability properties of the tip vortices in the wake of the wind turbine. As a main outcome of the study it is found that the amplification of specific waves (traveling structures) along the tip vortex spirals is responsible for triggering the instability leading to wake breakdown. The presence of unstable modes in the wake is related to the mutual inductance (vortex pairing) instability where there is an out-of-phase displacement of successive helix turns. Furthermore, using the non-dimensional growth rate, it is found that the pairing instability has a universal growth rate equal to π/2. Using this relationship, and the assumption that breakdown to turbulence occurs once a vortex has experienced sufficient growth, we provide an analytical relationship between the turbulence intensity and the stable wake length. The analysis leads to a simple expression for determining the length of the near wake. This expression shows that the near wake length is inversely proportional to thrust, tip speed ratio and the logarithmic of the turbulence intensity

  12. VAN: an R package for identifying biologically perturbed networks via differential variability analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaswal, Vivek; Schramm, Sarah-Jane; Mann, Graham J; Wilkins, Marc R; Yang, Yee Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale molecular interaction networks are dynamic in nature and are of special interest in the analysis of complex diseases, which are characterized by network-level perturbations rather than changes in individual genes/proteins. The methods developed for the identification of differentially expressed genes or gene sets are not suitable for network-level analyses. Consequently, bioinformatics approaches that enable a joint analysis of high-throughput transcriptomics datasets a...

  13. Perturbation method utilization in the analysis of the Convertible Spectral Shift Reactor (RCVS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, G.B; Legendre, J.F.; Porta, J.; Doriath, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the preliminary faisability studies on a new core concept, techniques derived from perturbation theory show-up very useful in the calculation and physical analysis of project parameters. We show, in the present work, some applications of these methods to the RCVS (Reacteur Convertible a Variation de Spectre - Convertible Spectral Shift Reactor) Concept studies. Actually, we present here the search of a few group project type energy structure and the splitting of reactivity effects into individual components [fr

  14. ANALYSIS OF PERTURBED MOTION STABILITY OF WHEELER VEHICLES BRAKES CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Verbytskiyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the perturbed motion stability of the brake automatic control system on the basis of Lyapunov’s second method is carried out. Using transformations of Lurie there has been ob-tained the canonical form of the system of equations of automatic control. It allowed determining the necessary and sufficient conditions of the asymptotic stability of the system irrespective of its initial condition and a definite choice of the admissible characteristic of the regulator.

  15. A perturbation analysis of a mechanical model for stable spatial patterning in embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentil, D. E.; Murray, J. D.

    1992-12-01

    We investigate a mechanical cell-traction mechanism that generates stationary spatial patterns. A linear analysis highlights the model's potential for these heterogeneous solutions. We use multiple-scale perturbation techniques to study the evolution of these solutions and compare our solutions with numerical simulations of the model system. We discuss some potential biological applications among which are the formation of ridge patterns, dermatoglyphs, and wound healing.

  16. The Effect of Different Perturbations on the Stability Analysis of Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykin, Victor

    2010-09-01

    Neutron noise analysis techniques are studied and developed, with primary use of determining the stability of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). In particular, the role of a specific perturbation prevailing in Light Water Reactors, the propagating density perturbation, in the stability of BWRs and on the noise field of LWRs in general, is investigated by considering three topics. In the first topics, we investigate how the neutronic response of the reactor, usually described as a second order system driven by a white noise driving force, is affected by a non-white driving force. This latter arises from the reactivity effect of the propagating density perturbations. The investigation is performed by using spectral and correlation analysis. Propagating perturbations with different velocities are analyzed. We investigate how the accuracy of the determination of the so-called decay ratio (DR) of the system, based on the assumption of white noise driving force, deteriorates with deviations from the white noise character of the driving force. In the second topics, the space dependence of the neutron noise, induced by propagating density perturbations, represented through the perturbation of the absorption, is determined and discussed. A full analytical solution was obtained by the use of the Green's function technique. The solution was analyzed for different frequencies and different system sizes. An interesting new interference effect between the point-kinetic and space-dependent components of the induced noise was discovered and interpreted in physical terms. In the last topics, a non-linear stability analysis of a BWR is performed, using so called Reduced Order Model (ROM) techniques. A ROM is usually constructed by reducing the full set of 3D space-time dependent neutron-kinetics, thermal-hydraulics and heat transfer equations to time-dependent ones, by considering space dependence in a lumped parameter model (one or two discrete channels). The main novelty of our work

  17. Finite-element based perturbation analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Kevin; Narisetti, Raj K.; Leamy, Michael J.; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Wave propagation in continuous, periodic structures subject to weak nonlinearities is studied using a finite-element discretization of a single unit cell followed by a perturbation analysis. The dispersion analysis is integrated with commercial finite-element analysis (FEA) software to expedite nonlinear analysis of geometrically-complex unit cells. A simple continuous multilayer system is used to illustrate the principle aspects of the procedure. A periodic structure formed by membrane elements on nonlinear elastic supports is used to demonstrate the versatility of the procedure. Weakly nonlinear band diagrams are generated in which amplitude-dependent bandgaps and group velocities are identified. The nonlinear dispersion analysis procedure described, coupled with commercial FEA software, should facilitate the study of wave propagation in a wide-variety of geometrically-complex, nonlinear periodic structures.

  18. The Application of the Homotopy Perturbation Method and the Homotopy Analysis Method to the Generalized Zakharov Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Zedan, Hassan A.; El Adrous, Eman

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two powerful methods to solve the generalized Zakharov equations; one is the homotopy perturbation method and the other is the homotopy analysis method. The homotopy perturbation method is proposed for solving the generalized Zakharov equations. The initial approximations can be freely chosen with possible unknown constants which can be determined by imposing the boundary and initial conditions; the homotopy analysis method is applied to solve the generalized Zakharov equations. ...

  19. A theoretical analysis of season length restrictions in fisheries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies season length restrictions in fisheries management from an ecological-economic perspective. We first construct a model of a stylized fishery in which season length restrictions are used to manage the fishery. We then show how the dynamic and the stochastic properties of this fishery can be used to construct two managerial criteria that are meaningful from an ecological standpoint. Finally, using these two criteria, we discuss a probabilistic approach to fisheries management in which the principal focus of a manager is on moving the fishery away from the least desirable state of existence.

  20. Disruptive event uncertainties in a perturbation approach to nuclear waste repository risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, T.F.

    1980-09-01

    A methodology is developed for incorporating a full range of the principal forecasting uncertainties into a risk analysis of a nuclear waste repository. The result of this methodology is a set of risk curves similar to those used by Rasmussen in WASH-1400. The set of curves is partially derived from a perturbation approach to analyze potential disruptive event sequences. Such a scheme could be useful in truncating the number of disruptive event scenarios and providing guidance to those establishing data-base development priorities.

  1. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the ...

  2. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  3. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC; Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /INFN, Rome; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  4. Description Length and Dimensionality Reduction in Functional Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    D. S. Poskitt; Arivalzahan Sengarapillai

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of description length principles to select an appropriate number of basis functions for functional data. We provide a flexible definition of the dimension of a random function that is constructed directly from the Karhunen-Loève expansion of the observed process. Our results show that although the classical, principle component variance decomposition technique will behave in a coherent manner, in general, the dimension chosen by this technique will not be ...

  5. Change in Allosteric Network Affects Binding Affinities of PDZ Domains: Analysis through Perturbation Response Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerek, Z. Nevin; Ozkan, S. Banu

    2011-01-01

    The allosteric mechanism plays a key role in cellular functions of several PDZ domain proteins (PDZs) and is directly linked to pharmaceutical applications; however, it is a challenge to elaborate the nature and extent of these allosteric interactions. One solution to this problem is to explore the dynamics of PDZs, which may provide insights about how intramolecular communication occurs within a single domain. Here, we develop an advancement of perturbation response scanning (PRS) that couples elastic network models with linear response theory (LRT) to predict key residues in allosteric transitions of the two most studied PDZs (PSD-95 PDZ3 domain and hPTP1E PDZ2 domain). With PRS, we first identify the residues that give the highest mean square fluctuation response upon perturbing the binding sites. Strikingly, we observe that the residues with the highest mean square fluctuation response agree with experimentally determined residues involved in allosteric transitions. Second, we construct the allosteric pathways by linking the residues giving the same directional response upon perturbation of the binding sites. The predicted intramolecular communication pathways reveal that PSD-95 and hPTP1E have different pathways through the dynamic coupling of different residue pairs. Moreover, our analysis provides a molecular understanding of experimentally observed hidden allostery of PSD-95. We show that removing the distal third alpha helix from the binding site alters the allosteric pathway and decreases the binding affinity. Overall, these results indicate that (i) dynamics plays a key role in allosteric regulations of PDZs, (ii) the local changes in the residue interactions can lead to significant changes in the dynamics of allosteric regulations, and (iii) this might be the mechanism that each PDZ uses to tailor their binding specificities regulation. PMID:21998559

  6. Joint variable frame rate and length analysis for speech recognition under adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kraljevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method that combines variable frame length and rate analysis for speech recognition in noisy environments, together with an investigation of the effect of different frame lengths on speech recognition performance. The method adopts frame selection using an a posteriori signal...... frame length to a steady or low SNR region. The speech recognition results show that the proposed variable frame rate and length method outperforms fixed frame rate and length analysis, as well as standalone variable frame rate analysis in terms of noise-robustness.......-to-noise (SNR) ratio weighted energy distance and increases the length of the selected frames, according to the number of non-selected preceding frames. It assigns a higher frame rate and a normal frame length to a rapidly changing and high SNR region of a speech signal, and a lower frame rate and an increased...

  7. Degenerate two-phase incompressible flow problems III: Perturbation analysis and numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxin Chen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the third paper of a three-part series where we develop and analyze a finite element approximation for a degenerate elliptic-parabolic partial differential system which describes the flow of two incompressible, immiscible fluids in porous media. The approximation uses a mixed finite element method for the pressure equation and a Galerkin finite element method for the saturation equation. It is based on a regularization of the saturation equation. In the first paper cite{RckA} we analyzed the regularized differential system and presented numerical results. In the second paper cite{RckB} we obtained error estimates. In the present paper we describe a perturbation analysis for the saturation equation and numerical experiments for complementing this analysis.

  8. Sensitivity theory for reactor burnup analysis based on depletion perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wonsik.

    1989-01-01

    The large computational effort involved in the design and analysis of advanced reactor configurations motivated the development of Depletion Perturbation Theory (DPT) for general fuel cycle analysis. The work here focused on two important advances in the current methods. First, the adjoint equations were developed for using the efficient linear flux approximation to decouple the neutron/nuclide field equations. And second, DPT was extended to the constrained equilibrium cycle which is important for the consistent comparison and evaluation of alternative reactor designs. Practical strategies were formulated for solving the resulting adjoint equations and a computer code was developed for practical applications. In all cases analyzed, the sensitivity coefficients generated by DPT were in excellent agreement with the results of exact calculations. The work here indicates that for a given core response, the sensitivity coefficients to all input parameters can be computed by DPT with a computational effort similar to a single forward depletion calculation

  9. Analysis of Hydrogen/Air Turbulent Premixed Flames at Different Karlovitz Numbers Using Computational Singular Perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Manias, Dimitrios

    2018-01-08

    The dynamics and structure of two turbulent H2/air premixed flames, representative of the corrugated flamelet (Case 1) and thin reaction zone (Case 2) regimes, are analyzed and compared, using the computational singular perturbation (CSP) tools, by incorporating the tangential stretch rate (TSR) approach. First, the analysis is applied to a laminar premixed H2/air flame for reference. Then, a two-dimensional (2D) slice of Case 1 is studied at three time steps, followed by the comparison between two representative 2D slices of Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. Last, statistical analysis is performed on the full three-dimensional domain for the two cases. The dominant reaction and transport processes are identified for each case and the overall role of kinetics/transport is determined.

  10. Computer analysis of flow perturbations generated by placement of choke bumps in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An inviscid analytical study was conducted to determine the upstream flow perturbations caused by placing choke bumps in a wind tunnel. A computer program based on the stream-tube curvature method was used to calculate the resulting flow fields for a nominal free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.9. The choke bump geometry was also varied to investigate the effect of bump shape on the disturbance produced. Results from the study indicate that a region of significant variation from the free-stream conditions exists upstream of the throat of the tunnel. The extent of the disturbance region was, as a rule, dependent on Mach number and the geometry of the choke bump. In general, the upstream disturbance distance decreased for increasing nominal free-stream Mach number and for decreasing length-to-height ratio of the bump. A polynomial-curve choke bump usually produced less of a disturbance than did a circular-arc bump and going to an axisymmetric configuration (modeling choke bumps on all the tunnel walls) generally resulted in a lower disturbance than with the corresponding two dimensional case.

  11. Analysis of geomagnetic data and cosmic ray variations in periods of magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikova, Oksana; Zalyaev, Timur; Solovev, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris

    magnetic storms. Using the combination of the wavelet transform and neural networks, we have developed a technique of approximating the time variation of cosmic-ray data. This technique allows us to perform detailed analysis of geomagnetic data and detect anomalies in periods of high solar activity. Approximations of large-scale time variation components of cosmic-ray data have been obtained in the following form: [ c_{j,n+1}(t)=\\varphi^3_m Biggl (sum_i omega^3_{mi}\\varphi^2_i biggl (sum_l omega^2_{il}\\varphi^1_lBigl(sum_n omega^1_{ln}c_{j,n}(t)Bigr )biggr ) Biggr ) ] where c_{j,n}= ;phi_{j,n}=2(j/2) phi(2(j(t)-n)) is the scaling function, omega(1_{ln}) are the weights of the neurons of the network input layer l,omega(2_{il}) are the weights of the neurons of the network hidden layer i, omega(3_{mi}) are the weights of the neurons of the network output layer m, varphi(1_l(z)=varphi^2_i(z)=(2)/(1+exp(-2z))-1) ,varphi(3_m(z)) =a*z+b. Coefficients c_{j,n} are the result of transforming of the original function y to the space with the scale j. Analysis of long geomagnetic data from the Paratunka observatory (Kamchatka region, Russia) provided quantitative estimates of the storminess degree of the geomagnetic field before and during magnetic storms. Furthermore, we have managed to identify local weak increases of the field perturbations prior to the main phase of storms. The intensity of field perturbations rises on average 2.5 days before the onset of a storm. Abnormal time periods connected with increased solar activity have been detected in the flow of cosmic rays. Comparison of the results with the geomagnetic data has shown that the anomalies in the cosmic ray variations occur in periods of strong geomagnetic perturbations. The tools and techniques suggested in the present work, together with other methods of data -analysis will help forecast space weather, estimate more accurately the condition of the Earth’s magnetic field, and identify periods when the intensity of

  12. Path length entropy analysis of diastolic heart sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, Benjamin; Zia, Mohammad K; Fridman, Vladamir; Saponieri, Cesare; Semmlow, John L

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the acoustic approach, a noninvasive and cost-effective method, would greatly improve the outcome of CAD patients. To detect CAD, we analyze diastolic sounds for possible CAD murmurs. We observed diastolic sounds to exhibit 1/f structure and developed a new method, path length entropy (PLE) and a scaled version (SPLE), to characterize this structure to improve CAD detection. We compare SPLE results to Hurst exponent, Sample entropy and Multiscale entropy for distinguishing between normal and CAD patients. SPLE achieved a sensitivity-specificity of 80%-81%, the best of the tested methods. However, PLE and SPLE are not sufficient to prove nonlinearity, and evaluation using surrogate data suggests that our cardiovascular sound recordings do not contain significant nonlinear properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perturbation and Stability Analysis of the Multi-Anticipative Intelligent Driver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Qun; Xie, Wei-Jun; Shi, Jing; Shi, Qi-Xin

    This paper discusses three kinds of IDM car-following models that consider both the multi-anticipative behaviors and the reaction delays of drivers. Here, the multi-anticipation comes from two ways: (1) the driver is capable of evaluating the dynamics of several preceding vehicles, and (2) the autonomous vehicles can obtain the velocity and distance information of several preceding vehicles via inter-vehicle communications. In this paper, we study the stability of homogeneous traffic flow. The linear stability analysis indicates that the stable region will generally be enlarged by the multi-anticipative behaviors and reduced by the reaction delays. The temporal amplification and the spatial divergence of velocities for local perturbation are also studied, where the results further prove this conclusion. Simulation results also show that the multi-anticipative behaviors near the bottleneck will lead to a quicker backwards propagation of oscillations.

  14. GENOVA: a generalized perturbation theory program for various applications to CANDU core physics analysis (II) - a user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Heon; Choi, Hang Bok

    2001-03-01

    A user's guide for GENOVA, a GENeralized perturbation theory (GPT)-based Optimization and uncertainty analysis program for Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) physics VAriables, was prepared. The program was developed under the framework of CANDU physics design and analysis code RFSP. The generalized perturbation method was implemented in GENOVA to estimate the zone controller unit (ZCU) level upon refueling operation and calculate various sensitivity coefficients for fuel management study and uncertainty analyses, respectively. This documentation contains descriptions and directions of four major modules of GENOVA such as ADJOINT, GADJINT, PERTURB, and PERTXS so that it can be used as a practical guide for GENOVA users. This documentation includes sample inputs for the ZCU level estimation and sensitivity coefficient calculation, which are the main application of GENOVA. The GENOVA can be used as a supplementary tool of the current CANDU physics design code for advanced CANDU core analysis and fuel development

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Time Length of Photovoltaic Output Power to Capacity Configuration of Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Time interval and time length are two important indexes when analyzing the active output data of photovoltaic (PV power stations. When the time interval is constant, the length of time is too small, and the included information is less, resulting in a lack and distortion of information; it the length of time is too large, the included information is redundant and complicated, resulting in unnecessary increases of storage capacity and calculation. Therefore, it is important to determine the appropriate length of data for the analysis of PV output data. In this paper, firstly, the output data of a PV power station is analyzed statistically, and the preliminary conclusions for time length selection are obtained by autocorrelation analysis. Based on the weather characteristics, clustering analysis methods and statistical principles are used to analyze the data and optimal sample capacity estimation, respectively, for different types of photovoltaic output data and determine the required data time length at the time of analyzing the PV power plant output data, the relationship between energy storage capacity demand and data length is investigated, the rationality of the length of the selected time is verified. Meanwhile, the energy storage system capacity configuration based on the optimal data time length is given. The results show that the requirement of data volume of energy storage system capacity configuration can be met when the time length of the PV output data is 23 days.

  16. Three-dimensional instability analysis of boundary layers perturbed by streamwise vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Juan A.; Paredes, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    A parametric study is presented for the incompressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer perturbed by streamwise vortices. The vortices are placed near the leading edge and model the vortices induced by miniature vortex generators (MVGs), which consist in a spanwise-periodic array of small winglet pairs. The introduction of MVGs has been experimentally proved to be a successful passive flow control strategy for delaying laminar-turbulent transition caused by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The counter-rotating vortex pairs induce non-modal, transient growth that leads to a streaky boundary layer flow. The initial intensity of the vortices and their wall-normal distances to the plate wall are varied with the aim of finding the most effective location for streak generation and the effect on the instability characteristics of the perturbed flow. The study includes the solution of the three-dimensional, stationary, streaky boundary layer flows by using the boundary region equations, and the three-dimensional instability analysis of the resulting basic flows by using the plane-marching parabolized stability equations. Depending on the initial circulation and positioning of the vortices, planar TS waves are stabilized by the presence of the streaks, resulting in a reduction in the region of instability and shrink of the neutral stability curve. For a fixed maximum streak amplitude below the threshold for secondary instability (SI), the most effective wall-normal distance for the formation of the streaks is found to also offer the most stabilization of TS waves. By setting a maximum streak amplitude above the threshold for SI, sinuous shear layer modes become unstable, as well as another instability mode that is amplified in a narrow region near the vortex inlet position.

  17. Sequence length variation, indel costs, and congruence in sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagesen, Lone; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of two topological and four character-based congruence measures was explored using different indel treatments in three empirical data sets, each with different alignment difficulties. The analyses were done using direct optimization within a sensitivity analysis framework in which...

  18. Genetic analysis of differences in stomatal guard cell lengths of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Петровна Ламари

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars and its inheritance in F1 and F2 hybrids have been studied after crossing between contrast genotypes of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Analysis of F2 populations has shown the action of three non-allelic genes in control of stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars

  19. Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Koutstaal, B.P.

    2000-01-01

    Root length and diameter distribution are important characteristics to be considered when describing and comparing root systems. Root length and root-diameter distribution may be obtained in two ways: by microscopical measurements, which are laborious, or by computerised analysis, which is fast but

  20. Independent component analysis of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stufflebeam, Michael; Hodges, Jeffery A.; Park, Tyler; Evenson, W.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.

    2008-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) of electric field gradient (EFG) tensor components has proven useful in analysis of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation (PAC). We have simulated PAC spectra for various concentrations (0.1% to 15%) of randomly distributed defects with a near- neighbor vacancy in simple cubic and face-centered cubic crystal structures. In analyzing this simulation, we used ICA to transform the Vxx and Vzz EFG components to find a joint probability distribution function for the EFGs. ICA allowed us to separate the components and develop the joint probability function as a product of the probability distributions for two independent coordinates. Then we found the broadened G2(t) by integration over the joint probability distribution function. We have compared these results to simulated G2(t) functions, allowing us to analyze the concentration dependence of the broadened PAC spectrum. This work will be applied initially to broadened PAC data from β-Mn, Al-doped β-Mn, and Sr2RuO4.

  1. Deregulation upon DNA damage revealed by joint analysis of context-specific perturbation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biecek Przemysław

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deregulation between two different cell populations manifests itself in changing gene expression patterns and changing regulatory interactions. Accumulating knowledge about biological networks creates an opportunity to study these changes in their cellular context. Results We analyze re-wiring of regulatory networks based on cell population-specific perturbation data and knowledge about signaling pathways and their target genes. We quantify deregulation by merging regulatory signal from the two cell populations into one score. This joint approach, called JODA, proves advantageous over separate analysis of the cell populations and analysis without incorporation of knowledge. JODA is implemented and freely available in a Bioconductor package 'joda'. Conclusions Using JODA, we show wide-spread re-wiring of gene regulatory networks upon neocarzinostatin-induced DNA damage in Human cells. We recover 645 deregulated genes in thirteen functional clusters performing the rich program of response to damage. We find that the clusters contain many previously characterized neocarzinostatin target genes. We investigate connectivity between those genes, explaining their cooperation in performing the common functions. We review genes with the most extreme deregulation scores, reporting their involvement in response to DNA damage. Finally, we investigate the indirect impact of the ATM pathway on the deregulated genes, and build a hypothetical hierarchy of direct regulation. These results prove that JODA is a step forward to a systems level, mechanistic understanding of changes in gene regulation between different cell populations.

  2. Perturbations in amino acids and metabolic pathways in osteoarthritis patients determined by targeted metabolomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Han, Su; Liu, Xuefeng; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhou, Yong; Yang, Chundong; Zhang, Xi

    2018-05-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative synovial joint disease affecting people worldwide. However, the exact pathogenesis of OA remains unclear. Metabolomics analysis was performed to obtain insight into possible pathogenic mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers of OA. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS), followed by multivariate statistical analysis, was used to determine the serum amino acid profiles of 32 OA patients and 35 healthy controls. Variable importance for project values and Student's t-test were used to determine the metabolic abnormalities in OA. Another 30 OA patients were used as independent samples to validate the alterations in amino acids. MetaboAnalyst was used to identify the key amino acid pathways and construct metabolic networks describing their relationships. A total of 25 amino acids and four biogenic amines were detected by UPLC-TQ-MS. Differences in amino acid profiles were found between the healthy controls and OA patients. Alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and 4-hydroxy-l-proline were important biomarkers distinguishing OA patients from healthy controls. The metabolic pathways with the most significant effects were involved in metabolism of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, arginine and proline. The results of this study improve understanding of the amino acid metabolic abnormalities and pathogenic mechanisms of OA at the molecular level. The metabolic perturbations may be important for the diagnosis and prevention of OA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational singular perturbation analysis of super-knock in SI engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2018-04-02

    Pre-ignition engine cycles leading to super-knock were simulated with a 48 species skeletal iso-octane mechanism to identify the dominant reaction pathways that are present in super-knock. To mimic pre-ignition, a deflagration front was generated via a hot spot that is placed over the piston at close proximity to the end-wall. Computational singular perturbation (CSP) was used to analyze the chemical dynamics at various in-cylinder locations: a point at the center of the cylinder where the deflagration front consumes the air/fuel mixture and two points located at 3 mm from the end-wall where super-knock and mild knock occur. The CSP analysis of the point at the center of the cylinder reveals weak two-stage ignition-like dynamics with a short second stage. At the other points, a pronounced two-stage ignition is displayed with a long second stage. A distinct contribution of formaldehyde (CHO) at the second stage of ignition that adds to fast explosive modes in the super-knock points is not observed in the point at the center. A comparison between knock and super-knock analysis indicates that a similar set of reactions is responsible for the abnormal behavior but the fast explosive time scales are comparatively slower for knock, indicating lower reactivity, which results in the reduced intensity of knock. The analyzed results decoded important reactions responsible for the occurrence of super-knock.

  4. Perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.; Kirtman, B.; Davidson, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

  5. Perturbative approaches for the analysis of the spin-orbit problem

    CERN Document Server

    Celletti, A

    2006-01-01

    We review some results concerning perturbation techniques applied to the spin--orbit problem. In particular, we start byconstructing periodic orbits by means of a combination of theimplicit function theorem and of perturbation theory. Next, we focus onrotational and librational invariant tori, whose existence is provedby KAM theory. Applications to the Moon and Mercury are presented.This paper is the text of an invited lecture at the meeting "The rotation of celestial bodies" Festschrift Jacques Henrard.

  6. An analytic analysis of the pion decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan; Bijnens, Johan

    2017-01-01

    A representation of the two-loop contribution to the pion decay constant in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory is presented. The result is analytic up to the contribution of the three (different) mass sunset integrals, for which an expansion in their external momentum has been taken. We also give an analytic expression for the two-loop contribution to the pion mass based on a renormalized representation and in terms of the physical eta mass. We find an expansion of F π and M π 2 in the strange-quark mass in the isospin limit, and we perform the matching of the chiral SU(2) and SU(3) low-energy constants. A numerical analysis demonstrates the high accuracy of our representation, and the strong dependence of the pion decay constant upon the values of the low-energy constants, especially in the chiral limit. Finally, we present a simplified representation that is particularly suitable for fitting with available lattice data. (orig.)

  7. Strategic Deconfliction of 4D Trajectory and Perturbation Analysis for Air Traffic Control and Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic 4D trajectory conflict-free planning is recognized as one of the core technologies of next-generation air traffic control and automation systems. To resolve potential conflicts during strategic 4D conflict-free trajectory planning, a protection-zone conflict-control model based on air traffic control separation constraints was proposed, in which relationships between expected arrival time and adjusted arrival time at conflicting waypoints for aircraft queues were built and transformed into dynamic linear equations under the definition of max-plus algebra. A method for strategic deconfliction of 4D trajectory was then proposed using two strategies: arrival time adjustment and departure time adjustment. In addition, departure time and flight duration perturbations were introduced to analyze the sensitivity of the planned strategic conflict-free 4D trajectories, and a robustness index for the conflict-free 4D trajectories was calculated. Finally, the proposed method was tested for the Shanghai air traffic control terminal area. The outcomes demonstrated that the planned strategic conflict-free 4D trajectories could avoid potential conflicts, and the slack time could be used to indicate their robustness. Complexity analysis demonstrated that deconfliction using max-plus algebra is more suitable for deconfliction of 4D trajectory with random sampling period in fix air route.

  8. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-23

    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  9. Leg length change after opening wedge and closing wedge high tibial osteotomy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical considerations suggest that leg length increases after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and decreases after closing wedge HTO; however, in vivo studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis therefore assessed changes in leg length after opening wedge and closing wedge HTO. All studies comparing pre- and postoperative leg length in patients who underwent opening and/or closing wedge HTO were included. Two reviewers independently recorded data from each study in terms of sample size as well as preoperative and postoperative leg length of open wedge and/or closed wedge HTO groups. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Although pooled results showed leg length changes from before to after surgery were -6.93 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: -17.53 to 3.67 mm; P = 0.20) in opening wedge HTO and 1.97 mm (95% CI: -7.13 to 11.07 mm; P = 0.67) in closing wedge HTO, respectively, these values were statistically not significant. However, the difference in the pooled mean leg length change from before to after surgery between opening wedge and closing wedge HTO was 8 mm, a difference that was significant (95% CI: 6.53 to 9.46 mm; Pleg length was not statistically significant for either opening or closing wedge HTO. However, leg length change from before to after surgery was 8 mm greater for opening wedge HTO than for closing wedge HTO.

  10. Influence of fiber post cementation length on coronal microleakage values in vitro and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoli, Cásar Dalmolin; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Balducci, Ivan; Meira, Josete Barbosa Cruz; de Araújo, Maria Amália Méximo; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate, the Influence of different fiber posts cementation lengths by finite element analysis (FEA) and coronal microleakage. Fifty anterior bovine teeth were sectioned to obtain roots with 16 mm length. The coronal length of the post was 6 mm for all groups, while the radicular length were varied 6, 8, 10 or 12 mm. The fiber posts surfaces were cleaned with alcohol and silanized. Then the posts were cemented using a two steps total etch-and-rinse adhesive system + conventional resin cement. Forty teeth were submitted to mechanical cycling (45°; 2.000.000 cycles; 90N; 4Hz; 37°C) and ten teeth with radicular length of 12 mm was not submitted, ser ving as c ontrol. So, the experimental design was composed by different ratios of post coronal length/post radicular length and mechanical cycling (MC): Gr1- 1/1 + MC; Gr2- 3/4 + MC; Gr3- 3/5 + MC; Gr4- 1/2 + MC. All groups were immersed in a 1% toluidine blue solution. After 24 hours, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and the microleakage scores was given by a blind operator. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.05). The experimental variables were simulated in two-dimensional finite element analysis (2D-FEA). The maximum principal stress distributions were compared. No difference was observed in microleakage values between the cycled groups, whilst the control groups showed the lowest values. FEA analysis showed similar maximum principal stress distribution between the groups. Mechanical cycling affected the values of coronal microleakage and different cementation length generated similar values of coronal microleakage and stress distribution. These results showed that from the microleakage point of view, more conservative cementation lengths have the same effect as longer cementation lengths.

  11. Fourier transform analysis of rabbit detrusor autonomous contractions reveals length dependent increases in tone and slow wave development at long lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael D; Klausner, Adam P; Speich, John E; Southern, Jordan B; Habibi, Joseph R; Ratz, Paul H

    2013-07-01

    Bladder wall muscle (detrusor) develops low amplitude rhythmic contractions. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction activity is increased in detrusor from patients with overactive bladder. In this in vitro study we used fast Fourier transforms to assess the length dependence of low amplitude rhythmic contraction components. Rabbit detrusor strips were placed in a muscle bath between 2 clips to adjust length and record isometric tension. Tissues stretched from 70% to 130% of a reference muscle length at 10% increments were allowed to develop low amplitude rhythmic contractions at each length for 20 minutes. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction data were analyzed using fast Fourier transforms and represented by a frequency rather than a time spectrum. Based on fast Fourier transform analysis summarized by signal peaks within specific frequency ranges, rabbit low amplitude rhythmic contraction waveforms were divided into 1 tonic and 2 phasic components, defined as A0 + A1F1 + A2F2, where A0 is a length dependent basal tonic component that increases linearly, A1F1 is a slow wave with a length dependent specific amplitude (A1) and a length independent constant frequency (F1) of approximately 11.2 Hz, and A2F2 is a fast wave with a length dependent amplitude (A2) and frequency (F2) of approximately 0.03 Hz. Fast Fourier transform analysis revealed that rabbit low amplitude rhythmic contractions consist of a basal tonic component plus 2 phasic components. The amplitude of all 3 components was length dependent. The frequency of the fast component was not length dependent and the slow component was absent at short muscle lengths, developing only at muscle lengths beyond that producing a maximum active contraction. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Robustness analysis of culturing perturbations on Escherichia coli colony biofilm beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotic tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Taracido Lourdes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilms are ubiquitous. For instance, the majority of medical infections are thought to involve biofilms. However even after decades of investigation, the in vivo efficacy of many antimicrobial strategies is still debated suggesting there is a need for better understanding of biofilm antimicrobial tolerances. The current study's goal is to characterize the robustness of biofilm antibiotic tolerance to medically and industrially relevant culturing perturbations. By definition, robust systems will return similar, predictable responses when perturbed while non-robust systems will return very different and potentially unpredictable responses. The predictability of an antibiotic tolerance response is essential to developing, testing, and employing antimicrobial strategies. Results The antibiotic tolerance of Escherichia coli colony biofilms was tested against beta-lactam and aminoglycoside class antibiotics. Control scenario tolerances were compared to tolerances under culturing perturbations including 1 different nutritional environments 2 different temperatures 3 interruption of cellular quorum sensing and 4 different biofilm culture ages. Here, antibiotic tolerance was defined in terms of culturable biofilm cells recovered after a twenty four hour antibiotic treatment. Colony biofilm antibiotic tolerances were not robust to perturbations. Altering basic culturing parameters like nutritional environment or temperature resulted in very different, non-intuitive antibiotic tolerance responses. Some minor perturbations like increasing the glucose concentration from 0.1 to 1 g/L caused a ten million fold difference in culturable cells over a twenty four hour antibiotic treatment. Conclusions The current study presents a basis for robustness analysis of biofilm antibiotic tolerance. Biofilm antibiotic tolerance can vary in unpredictable manners based on modest changes in culturing conditions. Common antimicrobial testing methods

  13. Nonlinear vibration analysis of a rotor supported by magnetic bearings using homotopy perturbation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboozar Heydari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of nonlinear forces due to the electromagnetic field of bearing and the unbalancing force on nonlinear vibration behavior of a rotor is investigated. The rotor is modeled as a rigid body that is supported by two magnetic bearings with eight-polar structures. The governing dynamics equations of the system that are coupled nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations (ODEs are derived, and for solving these equations, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM is used. By applying HPM, the possibility of presenting a harmonic semi-analytical solution, is provided. In fact, with equality the coefficient of auxiliary parameter (p, the system of coupled nonlinear second order and non-homogenous differential equations are obtained so that consists of unbalancing effects. By considering some initial condition for displacement and velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions, free vibration analysis is done and next, the forced vibration analysis under the effect of harmonic forces also is investigated. Likewise, various parameters on the vibration behavior of rotor are studied. Changes in amplitude and response phase per excitation frequency are investigated. Results show that by increasing excitation frequency, the motion amplitude is also increases and by passing the critical speed, it decreases. Also it shows that the magnetic bearing system performance is in stable maintenance of rotor. The parameters affecting on vibration behavior, has been studied and by comparison the results with the other references, which have a good precision up to 2nd order of embedding parameter, it implies the accuracy of this method in current research.

  14. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2011-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  15. Application of generalized perturbation theory to sensitivity analysis in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vanessa S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X.; Alvarez, Gustavo B.

    2011-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the 10 B (n, α) 7 Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, α particle and the 7 Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the 10 B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)

  16. Why do lifespan variability trends for the young and old diverge? A perturbation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Engelman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variation in lifespan has followed strikingly different trends for the young and old: while overall lifespan variability has decreased as life expectancy at birth has risen, the variability conditional on survival to older ages has increased. These diverging trends reflect changes in the underlying demographic parameters determining age-specific mortality. Objective: We ask why the variation in the adult ages at death has followed a different trend than the variation at younger ages, and aim to explain the diverging patterns in terms of historical changes in the age schedule of mortality. Methods: Using simulations, we show that the empirical trends in lifespan variation are well characterized using the Siler model, which describes the mortality hazard across the full lifespan using functions representing early-life, later-life, and background mortality. We then obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the Siler parameters over time. Finally, we express lifespan variation in terms of a Markov chain model, and apply matrix calculus perturbation analysis to compute the sensitivity of age-specific lifespan variance trends to the changing Siler model parameters. Results: Our analysis produces a detailed quantification of the impact of changing demographic parameters on the pattern of lifespan variability at all ages, highlighting the impact of declining childhood mortality on the reduction of lifespan variability and the impact of improved survival in adulthood on the rising variability of lifespans at older ages. Conclusions: These findings provide insight into the dynamic relationship between the age pattern of survival improvements and time trends in lifespan variability.

  17. Analysis of regularly perturbed lattices and reaction rate distributions from TIC experiments for X7 lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, A.; Jagannathan, V.; Jain, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We conducted analysis of TIC experiments on regularly perturbed lattice experiments using indigenously developed EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN code system. → Analysis uses diffusion iterative technique (DIT) method which iteratively adjusts the absorber cell cross sections. → For simulation of dry lattice above the critical moderator height a suitable gamma boundary condition has been used. → The calculated fission rate and activation reaction rate distributions are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: Temporary International Collective (TIC) was established in 1972 by an agreement among seven countries, namely, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The main objective of TIC was to provide the experimental data for the reactor physics analysis of water cooled and water moderated power reactors (WWER). Extensive experimental work for different core configurations was carried out by TIC countries to investigate the physics behavior of WWER lattices and the results were published in TIC volumes. In this paper, TIC experiments on regularly perturbed cores have been analyzed as part of the validation of indigenous computer codes, EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN developed at Light Water Reactors Physics Section, B.A.R.C. The few group homogenized parameters of assembly cell or individual lattice cells were obtained by the hexagonal lattice burn-up code EXCEL and the core diffusion calculations were then performed using hexagonal assembly geometric code TRIHEX-FA and the pin-by-pin diffusion code HEXPIN. A transport-diffusion theory correction to the absorber cell cross section by a diffusion iterative technique (DIT) was used to iteratively adjust the absorber cell cross sections such that the transport leakage into the absorber cell is reproduced by diffusion theory. Neutron-nuclear multi-group cross-section libraries in WIMS/D format in 69/172 energy groups have been released

  18. Genetic association of telomere length with hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Yu, Chengxiao; Huang, Mingtao; Du, Fangzhi; Song, Ci; Ma, Zijian; Zhai, Xiangjun; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Jibin; Bei, Jin-Xin; Jia, Weihua; Jin, Guangfu; Li, Shengping; Zhou, Weiping; Liu, Jianjun; Dai, Juncheng; Hu, Zhibin

    2017-10-01

    Observational studies show an association between telomere length and Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, but the relationship is controversial. Particularly, it remains unclear whether the association is due to confounding or biases inherent in conventional epidemiological studies. Here, we applied Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate whether telomere length is causally associated with HCC risk. Individual-level data were from HBV-related HCC Genome-wide association studies (1,538 HBV positive HCC patients and 1,465 HBV positive controls). Genetic risk score, as proxy for actual measured telomere length, derived from nine telomere length-associated genetic variants was used to evaluate the effect of telomere length on HCC risk. We observed a significant risk signal between genetically increased telomere length and HBV-related HCC risk (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.32-3.31, P=0.002). Furthermore, a U-shaped curve was fitted by the restricted cubic spline curve, which indicated that either short or long telomere length would increase HCC risk (P=0.0022 for non-linearity test). Subgroup analysis did not reveal significant heterogeneity between different age, gender, smoking status and drinking status groups. Our results indicated that a genetic background that favors longer or shorter telomere length may increase HBV-related HCC risk-a U-shaped association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Sensetivity of Flood Frequency Analysis on Record Length in Continuous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Nikolopoulos, E. I.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    In flood frequency analysis (FFA), sufficiently long data series are important to get more reliable results. Compared to return periods of interest, at-site FFA usually needs large data sets. Generally, the precision of at site estimators and time-sampling errors are associated with the length of a gauged record. In this work, we quantify the difference with various record lengths. we use generalized extreme value (GEV) and Log Pearson type III (LP3), two traditional methods on annual maximum stream flows to undertake FFA, and propose quantitative ways, relative difference in median and interquartile range (IQR) to compare the flood frequency performances on different record length from selected 350 USGS gauges, which have more than 70 years record length in Continuous United States. Also, we group those gauges into different regions separately based on hydrological unit map and discuss the geometry impacts. The results indicate that long record length can avoid imposing an upper limit on the degree of sophistication. Working with relatively longer record length may lead accurate results than working with shorter record length. Furthermore, the influence of hydrologic unites for the watershed boundary dataset on those gauges also be presented. The California region is the most sensitive to record length, while gauges in the east perform steady.

  20. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  1. Zircons reveal ancient perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, N. Ryan

    2017-12-01

    A link between CO2 outgassing from carbonatite volcanoes during the Ediacaran and one of the most prominent carbon cycle perturbations in Earth's history is suggested by an analysis of the trace-element composition of detrital zircons.

  2. Cigarette smoking and telomere length: A systematic review of 84 studies and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Yuliana; Wardhana, Ardyan; Watkins, Johnathan; Wulaningsih, Wahyu

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for ageing-related disease, but its association with biological ageing, indicated by telomere length, is unclear. We systematically reviewed evidence evaluating association between smoking status and telomere length. Searches were performed in MEDLINE (Ovid) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases, combining variation of keywords "smoking" and "telomere". Data was extracted for study characteristics and estimates for association between smoking and telomere length. Quality of studies was assessed with a risk of bias score, and publication bias was assessed with a funnel plot. I 2 test was used to observe heterogeneity. Meta-analysis was carried out to compare mean difference in telomere length by smoking status, and a dose-response approach was carried out for pack-years of smoking and telomere length. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to examine sources of heterogeneity. A total of 84 studies were included in the review, and 30 among them were included in our meta-analysis. Potential bias was addressed in half of included studies, and there was little evidence of small study bias. Telomere length was shorter among ever smokers compared to never smokers (summary standard mean difference [SMD]: -0.11 (95% CI -0.16 to -0.07)). Similarly, shorter telomere length was found among smokers compared to non-smokers, and among current smokers compared to never or former smokers. Dose-response meta-analysis suggested an inverse trend between pack-years of smoking and telomere length. However, heterogeneity among some analyses was observed. Shorter telomeres among ever smokers compared to those who never smoked may imply mechanisms linking tobacco smoke exposure to ageing-related disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Diffusion Problems using Homotopy Perturbation and Variational Iteration Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Poor, A. Tahmasebi; Jorjani, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, variational iteration method and homotopy perturbation method are applied to different forms of diffusion equation. The diffusion equations have found wide applications in heat transfer problems, theory of consolidation and many other problems in engineering. The methods proposed...... to solve the diffusion equations herein have been applied to a variety of problems in the recent past, and have proved to yield highly accurate solutions. Comparison is made between the exact solutions and the results of the variational iteration method (VIM) and homotopy perturbation method (HPM) in order...

  4. Finite-Length Analysis of Frameless ALOHA with Multi-User Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, Francisco; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we present a finite-length analysis of frameless ALOHA for a k multi-user detection scenario, i.e., assuming the receiver can resolve collisions of size k or smaller. The analysis is obtained via a dynamical programming approach, and employed to optimize the scheme's performance. We...

  5. Stability bound analysis of singularly perturbed systems with time-delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Fengqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the stability bound problem of singularly perturbed systems with time-delay. Some stability criteria are derived by constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. The proposed criteria are less conservative than the existing ones. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. Gene network analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development through dynamic gene perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Thomson, Bennett; Raganelli, Andrea; Wuest, Samuel E; Ryan, Patrick T; Kwaśniewska, Kamila; Carles, Cristel C; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Understanding how flowers develop from undifferentiated stem cells has occupied developmental biologists for decades. Key to unraveling this process is a detailed knowledge of the global regulatory hierarchies that control developmental transitions, cell differentiation and organ growth. These hierarchies may be deduced from gene perturbation experiments, which determine the effects on gene expression after specific disruption of a regulatory gene. Here, we tested experimental strategies for gene perturbation experiments during Arabidopsis thaliana flower development. We used artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) to disrupt the functions of key floral regulators, and expressed them under the control of various inducible promoter systems that are widely used in the plant research community. To be able to perform genome-wide experiments with stage-specific resolution using the various inducible promoter systems for gene perturbation experiments, we also generated a series of floral induction systems that allow collection of hundreds of synchronized floral buds from a single plant. Based on our results, we propose strategies for performing dynamic gene perturbation experiments in flowers, and outline how they may be combined with versions of the floral induction system to dissect the gene regulatory network underlying flower development. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fuel requirements for experimental devices in MTR reactors. A perturbation model for reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeckmans de West-Meerbeeck, A.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation in neutron absorbing devices, requiring high fast neutron fluxes in the core or high thermal fluxes in the reflector and flux traps, lead to higher density fuel and larger core dimensions. A perturbation model of the reactor core helps to estimate the fuel requirements. (orig.)

  8. Application of the homotopy perturbation method and the homotopy analysis method for the dynamics of tobacco use and relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Kant Shukla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We obtain approximate analytical solutions of two mathematical models of the dynamics of tobacco use and relapse including peer pressure using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM and the homotopy analysis method (HAM. To enlarge the domain of convergence we apply the Padé approximation to the HPM and HAM series solutions. We show graphically that the results obtained by both methods are very accurate in comparison with the numerical solution for a period of 30 years.

  9. Analysis of perturbations of moments associated with orthogonality linear functionals through the Szegö transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Fuentes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider perturbations to a sequence of moments associated with an orthogonality linear functional that is represented by a positive measure supported in [−1, 1]. In particular, given a perturbation to such a measure on the real line, we analyze the perturbation obtained on the corresponding measure on the unit circle, when both measures are related through the Szeg´´o transformation. A similar perturbation is analyzed through the inverse Szeg´´o transformation. In both cases, we show that the applied perturbation can be expressed in terms of the singular part of the measures, and also in terms of the corresponding sequences of moments. Resumen. En el presente trabajo, analizamos las perturbaciones a una sucesión de momentos asociada a un funcional lineal de ortogonalidad que se representa por una medida positiva con soporte en [−1, 1]. En particular, dada una cierta perturbación a dicha medida en la recta real, analizamos la perturbación obtenida en la correspondiente medida en la circunferencia unidad, cuando dichas medidas están relacionadas por la transformación de Szeg´´o. También se analiza una perturbación similar a través de la transformación inversa de Szeg´´o. En ambos casos, se muestra que la perturbación aplicada puede ser expresada en términos de la parte singular de las medidas, y también a través de las correspondientes sucesiones de momentos.

  10. Robustness analysis of a constraint-based metabolic model links cell growth and proteomics of Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis under temperature perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Cao, Zhe; Wang, Quanhui; Zhang, Jiyuan; Bai, Xue; Wang, Rong; Liu, Siqi

    2013-04-05

    The integration of omic data with metabolic networks has been demonstrated to be an effective approach to elucidate the underlying metabolic mechanisms in life. Because the metabolic pathways of Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (T. tengcongensis) are incomplete, we used a 1-(13)C-glucose culture to monitor intracellular isotope-labeled metabolites by GC/MS and identified the gap gene in glucose catabolism, Re-citrate synthase. Based on genome annotation and biochemical information, we reconstructed the metabolic network of glucose metabolism and amino acid synthesis in T. tengcongensis, including 253 reactions, 227 metabolites, and 236 genes. Furthermore, we performed constraint based modeling (CBM)-derived robustness analysis on the model to study the dynamic changes of the metabolic network. By perturbing the culture temperature from 75 to 55 °C, we collected the bacterial growth rates and differential proteomes. Assuming that protein abundance changes represent metabolic flux variations, we proposed that the robustness analysis of the CBM model could decipher the effect of proteome change on the bacterial growth under perturbation. For approximately 73% of the reactions, the predicted cell growth changes due to such reaction flux variations matched the observed cell growth data. Our study, therefore, indicates that differential proteome data can be integrated with metabolic network modeling and that robustness analysis is a strong method for representing the dynamic change in cell phenotypes under perturbation.

  11. Inflatable penile prosthesis implant length with baseline characteristic correlations: preliminary analysis of the PROPPER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nelson; Henry, Gerard; Karpman, Edward; Brant, William; Jones, LeRoy; Khera, Mohit; Kohler, Tobias; Christine, Brian; Rhee, Eugene; Kansas, Bryan; Bella, Anthony J

    2017-12-01

    "Prospective Registry of Outcomes with Penile Prosthesis for Erectile Restoration" (PROPPER) is a large, multi-institutional, prospective clinical study to collect, analyze, and report real-world outcomes for men implanted with penile prosthetic devices. We prospectively correlated co-morbid conditions and demographic data with implanted penile prosthesis size to enable clinicians to better predict implanted penis size following penile implantation. We present many new data points for the first time in the literature and postulate that radical prostatectomy (RP) is negatively correlated with penile corporal length. Patient demographics, medical history, baseline characteristics and surgical details were compiled prospectively. Pearson correlation coefficient was generated for the correlation between demographic, etiology of ED, duration of ED, co-morbid conditions, pre-operative penile length (flaccid and stretched) and length of implanted penile prosthesis. Multivariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implanted prosthesis length. From June 2011 to June 2017, 1,135 men underwent primary implantation of penile prosthesis at a total of 11 study sites. Malleable (Spectra), 2-piece Ambicor, and 3-piece AMS 700 CX/LGX were included in the analysis. The most common patient comorbidities were CV disease (26.1%), DM (11.1%), and PD (12.4%). Primary etiology of ED: RP (27.4%), DM (20.3%), CVD (18.0%), PD (10.3%), and Priapism (1.4%), others (22.6%). Mean duration of ED is 6.2¡À4.1 years. Implant length was weakly negatively correlated with White/Caucasian (r=-0.18; Pprosthesis length is negatively correlated with some ethnic groups, prostatectomy, and incontinence. Positive correlates include CV disease, preoperative stretched penile length, and flaccid penile length.

  12. Leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus volume: a meta-analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Nilsonne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A random-effects meta-analysis estimated the effect to r = 0.12 [95% CI -0.13, 0.37] in the presence of heterogeneity and a subjectively estimated moderate to high risk of bias. There was no evidence that apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype was an effect moderator, nor that the ratio of leukocyte telomerase activity to telomere length was a better predictor than leukocyte telomere length for hippocampus volume. This meta-analysis, while not proving a positive relationship, also is not able to disprove the earlier finding of a positive correlation in the one large study included in analyses. We propose that a relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocamus volume may be mediated by transmigrating monocytes which differentiate into microglia in the brain parenchyma.

  13. Development, implementation, and verification of multicycle depletion perturbation theory for reactor burnup analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    A generalized depletion perturbation formulation based on the quasi-static method for solving realistic multicycle reactor depletion problems is developed and implemented within the VENTURE/BURNER modular code system. The present development extends the original formulation derived by M.L. Williams to include nuclide discontinuities such as fuel shuffling and discharge. This theory is first described in detail with particular emphasis given to the similarity of the forward and adjoint quasi-static burnup equations. The specific algorithm and computational methods utilized to solve the adjoint problem within the newly developed DEPTH (Depletion Perturbation Theory) module are then briefly discussed. Finally, the main features and computational accuracy of this new method are illustrated through its application to several representative reactor depletion problems.

  14. Implementation of $ab$ $initio$ perturbed angular correlation observables for analysis of fluctuating quadrupole interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Marcelo

    A review about the nuclear properties, namely the nuclear moments (magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment) and their interaction with electromagnetic fields external to the nucleus (hyperfine interactions), as well as the angular distribution of radiation produced by $\\gamma$-decay, is presented. A detailed description about the theory of Perturbed Angular Correlations was done, including the comparison between $\\gamma-\\gamma$- correlations and $e^{-}- \\gamma$ correlations. For dynamic nuclear interactions, an introduction to the theory of stochastic states in PAC was performed. We focused on ab-initio implementation of observables for analyzing fluctuating quadrupole hyperfine interactions on time dependent perturbed angular correlations experiments. The development of computacional codes solving the full problem, adapted to fit data obtained on single crystals or polycrystals for two-state transient fields with any axial symmetry and orientation was the main purpose of this work. The final pa...

  15. Non perturbative analysis of an N=2 Landau-Ginsburg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf Herrmann, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze the topological sector of an N=2 Landau-Ginsburg model using nonperturbative methods. In particular, we study the renormalization group flow between two superconformal minimal models, numerically compute the correlation functions along this trajectory, and compare the results to semi-classical calculations. We also study some aspects of arbitrary supersymmetric perturbations of the Landau-Ginsburg model. 20 refs, 4 figs

  16. Convergence analysis of homotopy perturbation method for Volterra integro-differential equations of fractional order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sayevand

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the homotopy perturbation method (HPM, a general analytical approach for obtaining approximate series solutions to Volterra integro-differential equations of fractional order is proposed. The approximate solutions are calculated in the form of a convergent series with easily computable components. In this paper, the uniqueness of the obtained solution and the convergence properties of the approach are studied. Some examples are presented, to verify convergence, and illustrating the efficiency and simplicity of the approach.

  17. Singular Perturbation Based Solution to Optimal Microalgal Growth Problem and Its Infinite Time Horizon Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čelikovský, Sergej; Papáček, Štěpán; Cervantes-Herrera, A.; Ruiz-León, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 767-772 ISSN 0018-9286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Photosynthetic factory (PSF) * singular perturbation * optimal control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/TR/celikovsky-0342103.pdf

  18. Construction and analysis of full-length and normalized cDNA libraries from citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Carmen; Perez-Amador, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an integrated method to generate a normalized cDNA collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts from citrus, using different species and multiple tissues and developmental stages. Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones facilitates functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. The development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation, as well as provide tools for functional characterization of genes.

  19. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF EXISTING REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS ON NORMAL CRACK LENGTH CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Utkin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a problem of the crack length influence on the reliability (safety of reinforced concrete beams under conditions of limited statistical information about controlled parameters in the design mathematical models of limit state. Numerical examples revealed the possibility of practical application of the reliability analysis methods for inspections and determining the category of the technical condition of buildings and structures. The article offers the methods for reliability (probability of non-failure analysis and the residual resource of reinforced concrete beams according to the criterion of the normal crack length in the tensile zone of reinforced concrete beams. The methods of reliability analysis constructed on the basis of possibility theory and fuzzy set theory. The algorithms of reliability analysis of reinforced concrete beams are presented on numerical examples of reliability analysis.

  20. Improved quantitative analysis of spectra using a new method of obtaining derivative spectra based on a singular perturbation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Qiaoyun; Lv, Jiangtao; Ma, Zhenhe; Yang, Linjuan

    2015-06-01

    Spectroscopy is often applied when a rapid quantitative analysis is required, but one challenge is the translation of raw spectra into a final analysis. Derivative spectra are often used as a preliminary preprocessing step to resolve overlapping signals, enhance signal properties, and suppress unwanted spectral features that arise due to non-ideal instrument and sample properties. In this study, to improve quantitative analysis of near-infrared spectra, derivatives of noisy raw spectral data need to be estimated with high accuracy. A new spectral estimator based on singular perturbation technique, called the singular perturbation spectra estimator (SPSE), is presented, and the stability analysis of the estimator is given. Theoretical analysis and simulation experimental results confirm that the derivatives can be estimated with high accuracy using this estimator. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the estimator for processing noisy infrared spectra is evaluated using the analysis of beer spectra. The derivative spectra of the beer and the marzipan are used to build the calibration model using partial least squares (PLS) modeling. The results show that the PLS based on the new estimator can achieve better performance compared with the Savitzky-Golay algorithm and can serve as an alternative choice for quantitative analytical applications.

  1. Non-destructive testing of full-length bonded rock bolts based on HHT signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. M.; Liu, L.; Peng, M.; Liu, C. C.; Tao, F. J.; Liu, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    Full-length bonded rock bolts are commonly used in mining, tunneling and slope engineering because of their simple design and resistance to corrosion. However, the length of a rock bolt and grouting quality do not often meet the required design standards in practice because of the concealment and complexity of bolt construction. Non-destructive testing is preferred when testing a rock bolt's quality because of the convenience, low cost and wide detection range. In this paper, a signal analysis method for the non-destructive sound wave testing of full-length bonded rock bolts is presented, which is based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). First, we introduce the HHT analysis method to calculate the bolt length and identify defect locations based on sound wave reflection test signals, which includes decomposing the test signal via empirical mode decomposition (EMD), selecting the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) using the Pearson Correlation Index (PCI) and calculating the instantaneous phase and frequency via the Hilbert transform (HT). Second, six model tests are conducted using different grouting defects and bolt protruding lengths to verify the effectiveness of the HHT analysis method. Lastly, the influence of the bolt protruding length on the test signal, identification of multiple reflections from defects, bolt end and protruding end, and mode mixing from EMD are discussed. The HHT analysis method can identify the bolt length and grouting defect locations from signals that contain noise at multiple reflected interfaces. The reflection from the long protruding end creates an irregular test signal with many frequency peaks on the spectrum. The reflections from defects barely change the original signal because they are low energy, which cannot be adequately resolved using existing methods. The HHT analysis method can identify reflections from the long protruding end of the bolt and multiple reflections from grouting defects based on mutations in the instantaneous

  2. Effect of tape recording on perturbation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J; Lin, E; Hanson, D G

    1998-10-01

    Tape recorders have been shown to affect measures of voice perturbation. Few studies, however, have been conducted to quantitatively justify the use or exclusion of certain types of recorders in voice perturbation studies. This study used sinusoidal and triangular waves and synthesized vowels to compare perturbation measures extracted from directly digitized signals with those recorded and played back through various tape recorders, including 3 models of digital audio tape recorders, 2 models of analog audio cassette tape recorders, and 2 models of video tape recorders. Signal contamination for frequency perturbation values was found to be consistently minimal with digital recorders (percent jitter = 0.01%-0.02%), mildly increased with video recorders (0.05%-0.10%), moderately increased with a high-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.15%), and most prominent with a low-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.24%). Recorder effect on amplitude perturbation measures was lowest in digital recorders (percent shimmer = 0.09%-0.20%), mildly to moderately increased in video recorders and a high-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.25%-0.45%), and most prominent in a low-quality analog audio cassette tape recorder (0.98%). The effect of cassette tape material, length of spooled tape, and duration of analysis were also tested and are discussed.

  3. [Sensitivity analysis of AnnAGNPS model's hydrology and water quality parameters based on the perturbation analysis method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Qing; Li, Zhao-Fu; Luo, Chuan

    2014-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis of hydrology and water quality parameters has a great significance for integrated model's construction and application. Based on AnnAGNPS model's mechanism, terrain, hydrology and meteorology, field management, soil and other four major categories of 31 parameters were selected for the sensitivity analysis in Zhongtian river watershed which is a typical small watershed of hilly region in the Taihu Lake, and then used the perturbation method to evaluate the sensitivity of the parameters to the model's simulation results. The results showed that: in the 11 terrain parameters, LS was sensitive to all the model results, RMN, RS and RVC were generally sensitive and less sensitive to the output of sediment but insensitive to the remaining results. For hydrometeorological parameters, CN was more sensitive to runoff and sediment and relatively sensitive for the rest results. In field management, fertilizer and vegetation parameters, CCC, CRM and RR were less sensitive to sediment and particulate pollutants, the six fertilizer parameters (FR, FD, FID, FOD, FIP, FOP) were particularly sensitive for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. For soil parameters, K is quite sensitive to all the results except the runoff, the four parameters of the soil's nitrogen and phosphorus ratio (SONR, SINR, SOPR, SIPR) were less sensitive to the corresponding results. The simulation and verification results of runoff in Zhongtian watershed show a good accuracy with the deviation less than 10% during 2005- 2010. Research results have a direct reference value on AnnAGNPS model's parameter selection and calibration adjustment. The runoff simulation results of the study area also proved that the sensitivity analysis was practicable to the parameter's adjustment and showed the adaptability to the hydrology simulation in the Taihu Lake basin's hilly region and provide reference for the model's promotion in China.

  4. Arsenic exposure perturbs the gut microbiome and its metabolic profile in mice: an integrated metagenomics and metabolomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Abo, Ryan Phillip; Schlieper, Katherine Ann; Graffam, Michelle E; Levine, Stuart; Wishnok, John S; Swenberg, James A; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Fox, James G

    2014-03-01

    The human intestine is host to an enormously complex, diverse, and vast microbial community-the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a profound role in metabolic processing, energy production, immune and cognitive development, epithelial homeostasis, and so forth. However, the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome can be readily affected by external factors, which raises the possibility that exposure to toxic environmental chemicals leads to gut microbiome alteration, or dysbiosis. Arsenic exposure affects large human populations worldwide and has been linked to a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. We investigated the impact of arsenic exposure on the gut microbiome composition and its metabolic profiles. We used an integrated approach combining 16S rRNA gene sequencing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling to examine the functional impact of arsenic exposure on the gut microbiome. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that arsenic significantly perturbed the gut microbiome composition in C57BL/6 mice after exposure to 10 ppm arsenic for 4 weeks in drinking water. Moreover, metabolomics profiling revealed a concurrent effect, with a number of gut microflora-related metabolites being perturbed in multiple biological matrices. Arsenic exposure not only alters the gut microbiome community at the abundance level but also substantially disturbs its metabolic profiles at the function level. These findings may provide novel insights regarding perturbations of the gut microbiome and its functions as a potential new mechanism by which arsenic exposure leads to or exacerbates human diseases. Lu K, Abo RP, Schlieper KA, Graffam ME, Levine S, Wishnok JS, Swenberg JA, Tannenbaum SR, Fox JG. 2014. Arsenic exposure perturbs the gut microbiome and its metabolic profile in mice: an integrated metagenomics and metabolomics analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:284-291; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307429.

  5. Variable Frame Rate and Length Analysis for Data Compression in Distributed Speech Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraljevski, Ivan; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of data compression in distributed speech recognition on the basis of a variable frame rate and length analysis method. The method first conducts frame selection by using a posteriori signal-to-noise ratio weighted energy distance to find the right time resolution...... length for steady regions. The method is applied to scalable source coding in distributed speech recognition where the target bitrate is met by adjusting the frame rate. Speech recognition results show that the proposed approach outperforms other compression methods in terms of recognition accuracy...... for noisy speech while achieving higher compression rates....

  6. Genetic Diversity and Sectional Relationships from an Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Taiwan Bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Shu-Fen; Chang, Yueh-Long; Yen, Yung-Fu; Miyajima, Ikuo; Huang, Kuang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 19 Musa species or cultivars were examined through DNA fingerprinting with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. The AFLP analysis was performed on the Musa species or cultivars with 21 primer combinations, yielding a total of 6,348 DNA bands, among which 6,113 (96.3%) were polymorphic. M. itinerans var. formosana demonstrated 133 monomorphic bands, which is the most among all samples. Unweighted pair–group method with arithmetic averages was...

  7. Genomic variations of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Bolske, G.; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains based on determination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) is described. AFLP fingerprints of 38 strains derived from different countries in Africa and the Middle East consisted of over 100 bands in the size...... found by 16S rDNA analysis. The present data support previous observations regarding genetic homogeneity of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, and confirm the two evolutionary lines of descent found by analysis of 16S rRNA genes....

  8. Microbial diversity in a thermophilic aerobic biofilm process: analysis by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiirola, Marja A; Suvilampi, Juhani E; Kulomaa, Markku S; Rintala, Jukka A

    2003-05-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale thermophilic aerobic suspended carrier biofilm process (SCBP) was set up for the on-site treatment of pulp and paper mill whitewater lining. The microbial diversity in this process was analyzed by length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA. The primer pair selected for PCR amplification was first evaluated by a computational analysis of fragment lengths in ten main phylogenetical eubacterial groups. The fragment contained the first third of the 16S rRNA gene, which was shown to vary naturally between 465 and 563 bp in length. The length heterogeneity analysis of polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) profile of the biomass attached to carrier elements was found to be diverse in both stages of the SCBP. During normal operating conditions, sequences belonging to beta-Proteobacteria, Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides group and gamma-Proteobacteria were assigned to the most prominent LH-PCR peak. Samples from the suspended biomass consisted of completely different bacterial populations, which were, however, similar in the serial reactors. The pilot process experienced alkaline shocks, after which Bacillus-like sequences were detected in both the biofilm and suspended biomass. However, when the conditions were reversed, the normal microbial population in the biofilm recovered rapidly without further biomass inoculations. This study shows that LH-PCR is a valuable method for profiling microbial diversity and dynamics in industrial wastewater processes.

  9. Variance analysis of the Monte-Carlo perturbation source method in inhomogeneous linear particle transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, K.

    1982-01-01

    The perturbation source method may be a powerful Monte-Carlo means to calculate small effects in a particle field. In a preceding paper we have formulated this methos in inhomogeneous linear particle transport problems describing the particle fields by solutions of Fredholm integral equations and have derived formulae for the second moment of the difference event point estimator. In the present paper we analyse the general structure of its variance, point out the variance peculiarities, discuss the dependence on certain transport games and on generation procedures of the auxiliary particles and draw conclusions to improve this method

  10. Thermodynamics of technetium: reconciling theory and experiment using density functional perturbation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Philippe F; Kim, Eunja

    2015-07-28

    The structure, lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties of bulk technetium were investigated within the framework of density functional theory. The phonon density of states spectrum computed with density functional perturbation theory closely matches inelastic coherent neutron scattering measurements. The thermal properties of technetium were derived from phonon frequencies calculated within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), which introduces a volume dependence of phonon frequencies as a part of the anharmonic effect. The predicted thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity of technetium are in excellent agreement with available experimental data for temperatures up to ∼1600 K.

  11. Generalized perturbation theory for LWR depletion analysis and core design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Frank, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive time-dependent perturbation theory formulation that includes macroscopic depletion, thermal-hydraulic and poison feedback effects, and a criticality reset mechanism is developed. The methodology is compatible with most current LWR design codes. This new development allows GTP/DTP methods to be used quantitatively in a variety of realistic LWR physics applications that were not possible prior to this work. A GTP-based optimization technique for incore fuel management analyses is addressed as a promising application of the new formulation

  12. Bunch length monitor using two-frequency analysis for RF gun system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Hayano, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Junji

    2004-01-01

    An rms (root mean square) bunch length monitor for a laser-driven photocathode rf gun system on a two-frequency analysis technique has been developed. Typically, the photoelectron beam generated from the rf gun system has an energy of 3-5 MeV and an rms bunch length smaller than 20 ps down to 3-4 ps. This monitor is suitable for such electron beam measurement. The rms bunch length as a function of rf phase was experimentally measured using both the rms bunch length monitor and streak camera technique using a 50 MeV electron beam at the KEK accelerator test facility (KEK-ATF) injector section which has an rf gun system and a 3-m-long accelerator structure. A numerical simulation study was also performed using the PARMELA code. The availability of this monitor was clearly verified by comparing the results. Consequently, this monitor was installed in the rf gun system at Waseda University and the rms bunch length measurement for a 3.5 MeV electron beam was precisely performed using the monitor. (author)

  13. Dynamic Allan Variance Analysis Method with Time-Variant Window Length Based on Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem that dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR with fixed length of window cannot meet the identification accuracy requirement of fiber optic gyro (FOG signal over all time domains, a dynamic Allan variance analysis method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control is proposed. According to the characteristic of FOG signal, a fuzzy controller with the inputs of the first and second derivatives of FOG signal is designed to estimate the window length of the DAVAR. Then the Allan variances of the signals during the time-variant window are simulated to obtain the DAVAR of the FOG signal to describe the dynamic characteristic of the time-varying FOG signal. Additionally, a performance evaluation index of the algorithm based on radar chart is proposed. Experiment results show that, compared with different fixed window lengths DAVAR methods, the change of FOG signal with time can be identified effectively and the evaluation index of performance can be enhanced by 30% at least by the DAVAR method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control.

  14. Nonadiabatic Coupling of Molecular States in Presence of Unobserved Perturbers: Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guosheng; Xie, Feng; Sovkov, Vladimir B.; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2018-02-01

    The situation is modeled, in which two electronic states of a diatomic molecule are nonadiabatically coupled to each other as well as to other states, so that levels of the former two states can be registered, while the latter (perturbing) states are unobserved in an experiment. An example being explored is the model of the states 23Πg ˜ 41Σ g + of Rb2; the computation is done with the multichannel (3-channel, where the third channel represents an effective unobserved perturber) split operator method. Besides the typical resonance-like shifts of a part of the levels, the cases are observed, which cannot be explained within the approximation of a pair-wise resonant interaction. We tested a capability to analyze the synthetic data via an estimate of the interaction matrix element from the magnitudes of the resonance-like shifts combined with an iterative correction of the potential functions, as well as via the two-channel close-coupling calculation.

  15. Analysis of the Effect of Electron Density Perturbations Generated by Gravity Waves on HF Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, M.; Elias, A. G.; Chum, J.; Cabrera, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, ray tracing of high frequency (HF) signals in ionospheric disturbed conditions is analyzed, particularly in the presence of electron density perturbations generated by gravity waves (GWs). The three-dimensional numerical ray tracing code by Jones and Stephenson, based on Hamilton's equations, which is commonly used to study radio propagation through the ionosphere, is used. An electron density perturbation model is implemented to this code based upon the consideration of atmospheric GWs generated at a height of 150 km in the thermosphere and propagating up into the ionosphere. The motion of the neutral gas at these altitudes induces disturbances in the background plasma which affects HF signals propagation. To obtain a realistic model of GWs in order to analyze the propagation and dispersion characteristics, a GW ray tracing method with kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity was applied. The IRI-2012, HWM14 and NRLMSISE-00 models were incorporated to assess electron density, wind velocities, neutral temperature and total mass density needed for the ray tracing codes. Preliminary results of gravity wave effects on ground range and reflection height are presented for low-mid latitude ionosphere.

  16. Eigenmode analysis of ballooning perturbations in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Parnowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze coupled Alfvén and slow magnetosonic eigenmodes in a dipole geomagnetic field with different ionospheric conductivities in the framework of ideal magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD with finite pressure. We use numerical and, if possible, analytical methods to describe eigenmode frequencies, growth rates and eigenfunctions. The spectrum of Alfvén and slow magnetosonic modes is discrete and equidistant. The frequencies of the first Alfvén and slow magnetosonic eigenmodes are estimated as ~1 Hz and ~1 mHz, respectively. In the case of finite conductivity, periodic and aperiodic modes are separated and their interaction analyzed. It was shown that periodic and aperiodic perturbations can mutually transform into each other. A new flute stability criterion is derived (α~4.25, which is stricter than the Gold criterion (α=20/3. Here, as usual, α=−L/p dp/dL. For flute perturbations, the deviations of transversal displacement from a constant are calculated. An approximation for longitudinal displacement is derived. We determined the position of the main longitudinal peak, which can be responsible for nonlinear structures observed by Freja. An influence of nonlinear terms in pressure is estimated as well.

  17. Black hole perturbations in vector-tensor theories: the odd-mode analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li

    2018-02-01

    In generalized Proca theories with vector-field derivative couplings, a bunch of hairy black hole solutions have been derived on a static and spherically symmetric background. In this paper, we formulate the odd-parity black hole perturbations in generalized Proca theories by expanding the corresponding action up to second order and investigate whether or not black holes with vector hair suffer ghost or Laplacian instabilities. We show that the models with cubic couplings G3(X), where X=‑AμAμ/2 with a vector field Aμ, do not provide any additional stability condition as in General Relativity. On the other hand, the exact charged stealth Schwarzschild solution with a nonvanishing longitudinal vector component A1, which originates from the coupling to the Einstein tensor GμνAμ Aν equivalent to the quartic coupling G4(X) containing a linear function of X, is unstable in the vicinity of the event horizon. The same instability problem also persists for hairy black holes arising from general quartic power-law couplings G4(X) ⊃ β4 Xn with the nonvanishing A1, while the other branch with A1=0 can be consistent with conditions for the absence of ghost and Laplacian instabilities. We also discuss the case of other exact and numerical black hole solutions associated with intrinsic vector-field derivative couplings and show that there exists a wide range of parameter spaces in which the solutions suffer neither ghost nor Laplacian instabilities against odd-parity perturbations.

  18. Thermal analysis of dry eye subjects and the thermal impulse perturbation model of ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Maki, Kara L; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Hindman, Holly B; Aquavella, James V; Zavislan, James M

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we explore the usage of ocular surface temperature (OST) decay patterns to distinguished between dry eye patients with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The OST profiles of 20 dry eye subjects were measured by a long-wave infrared thermal camera in a standardized environment (24 °C, and relative humidity (RH) 40%). The subjects were instructed to blink every 5 s after 20 ∼ 25 min acclimation. Exponential decay curves were fit to the average temperature within a region of the central cornea. We find the MGD subjects have both a higher initial temperature (p model, referred to as the thermal impulse perturbation (TIP) model. We conclude that long-wave-infrared thermal imaging is a plausible tool in assisting with the classification of dry eye patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Qualitative analysis and traveling wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation with Kerr law nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zaiyun; Liu Zhenhai; Miao Xiujin; Chen Yuezhong

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law nonlinearity. All explicit expressions of the bounded traveling wave solutions for the equation are obtained by using the bifurcation method and qualitative theory of dynamical systems. These solutions contain bell-shaped solitary wave solutions, kink-shaped solitary wave solutions and Jacobi elliptic function periodic solutions. Moreover, we point out the region which these periodic wave solutions lie in. We present the relation between the bounded traveling wave solution and the energy level h. We find that these periodic wave solutions tend to the corresponding solitary wave solutions as h increases or decreases. Finally, for some special selections of the energy level h, it is shown that the exact periodic solutions evolute into solitary wave solution.

  20. Perturbation analysis of spontaneous action potential initiation by stochastic ion channels

    KAUST Repository

    Keener, James P.

    2011-07-01

    A stochastic interpretation of spontaneous action potential initiation is developed for the Morris-Lecar equations. Initiation of a spontaneous action potential can be interpreted as the escape from one of the wells of a double well potential, and we develop an asymptotic approximation of the mean exit time using a recently developed quasistationary perturbation method. Using the fact that the activating ionic channel\\'s random openings and closings are fast relative to other processes, we derive an accurate estimate for the mean time to fire an action potential (MFT), which is valid for a below-threshold applied current. Previous studies have found that for above-threshold applied current, where there is only a single stable fixed point, a diffusion approximation can be used. We also explore why different diffusion approximation techniques fail to estimate the MFT. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  1. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to "soft" corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  2. Genome wide expression analysis suggests perturbation of vascular homeostasis during high altitude pulmonary edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic edema which occurs in unacclimatized but otherwise normal individuals within two to four days after rapid ascent to altitude beyond 3000 m. The precise pathoetiology and inciting mechanisms regulating HAPE remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We performed global gene expression profiling in individuals with established HAPE compared to acclimatized individuals. Our data suggests concurrent modulation of multiple pathways which regulate vascular homeostasis and consequently lung fluid dynamics. These pathways included those which regulate vasoconstriction through smooth muscle contraction, cellular actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and endothelial permeability/dysfunction. Some notable genes within these pathways included MYLK; rho family members ARGEF11, ARHGAP24; cell adhesion molecules such as CLDN6, CLDN23, PXN and VCAM1 besides other signaling intermediates. Further, several important regulators of systemic/pulmonary hypertension including ADRA1D, ECE1, and EDNRA were upregulated in HAPE. We also observed significant upregulation of genes involved in paracrine signaling through chemokines and lymphocyte activation pathways during HAPE represented by transcripts of TNF, JAK2, MAP2K2, MAP2K7, MAPK10, PLCB1, ARAF, SOS1, PAK3 and RELA amongst others. Perturbation of such pathways can potentially skew vascular homeostatic equilibrium towards altered vascular permeability. Additionally, differential regulation of hypoxia-sensing, hypoxia-response and OXPHOS pathway genes in individuals with HAPE were also observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveals specific components of the complex molecular circuitry underlying HAPE. We show concurrent perturbation of multiple pathways regulating vascular homeostasis and suggest multi-genic nature of regulation of HAPE.

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  4. Blood Capillary Length Estimation from Three-Dimensional Microscopic Data by Image Analysis and Stereology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Mao, X. W.; Janáček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 898-906 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME09010; GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : capillaries * confocal microscopy * image analysis * length * rat brain * stereology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2013

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging onsite long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks

  6. Stochastic Analysis of a Queue Length Model Using a Graphics Processing Unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Jan; Kocijan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2012), s. 55-62 ISSN 1802-971X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB091015 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : graphics processing unit * GPU * Monte Carlo simulation * computer simulation * modeling Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/prikryl-stochastic analysis of a queue length model using a graphics processing unit.pdf

  7. Modified Terminal Restriction Fragment Analysis for Quantifying Telomere Length Using In-gel Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Frank J; Kerr, Charles M; Fouquerel, Elise; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Opresko, Patricia L

    2017-07-10

    There are several different techniques for measuring telomere length, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. The traditional approach, Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis, utilizes a DNA hybridization technique whereby genomic DNA samples are digested with restriction enzymes, leaving behind telomere DNA repeats and some sub-telomeric DNA. These are separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, transferred to a filter membrane and hybridized to oligonucleotide probes tagged with either chemiluminescence or radioactivity to visualize telomere restriction fragments. This approach, while requiring a larger quantity of DNA than other techniques such as PCR, can measure the telomere length distribution of a population of cells and allows measurement expressed in absolute kilobases. This manuscript demonstrates a modified DNA hybridization procedure for determining telomere length. Genomic DNA is first digested with restriction enzymes (that do not cut telomeres) and separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The gel is then dried and the DNA is denatured and hybridized in situ to a radiolabeled oligonucleotide probe. This in situ hybridization avoids loss of telomere DNA and improves signal intensity. Following hybridization, the gels are imaged utilizing phosphor screens and the telomere length is quantified using a graphing program. This procedure was developed by the laboratories of Drs. Woodring Wright and Jerry Shay at the University of Texas Southwestern 1 , 2 . Here, we present a detailed description of this procedure, with some modifications.

  8. Congestion management in traffic-light intersections via Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seatzu, Carla; Wardi, Yorai

    2015-01-01

    We present a flow-control technique in traffic-light intersections, aiming at regulating queue lengths to given reference setpoints. The technique is based on multivariable integrators with adaptive gains, computed at each control cycle by assessing the IPA gradients of the plant functions. Moreover, the IPA gradients are computable on-line despite the absence of detailed models of the traffic flows. The technique is applied to a two-intersection system where it exhibits robustness with respe...

  9. TropFishR: an R package for fisheries analysis with length-frequency data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mildenberger, Tobias; Taylor, M. H.; Wolff, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    1. The R package TropFishR is a new analysis toolbox compiling single-species stock assessment methods specifically designed for data-limited fisheries analysis using length-frequency data. 2. It includes methods for (i) estimating biological stock characteristics such as growth and mortality...... introduces the package and demonstrates the functionality of a selection of its core methods. 4. TropFishR modernises traditional stock assessment methods by easing application and development and by combining it with advanced statistical approaches...

  10. A Run-Length Encoding Approach for Path Analysis of C. elegans Search Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Kim, Hongkyun; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans explores the environment using a combination of different movement patterns, which include straight movement, reversal, and turns. We propose to quantify C. elegans movement behavior using a computer vision approach based on run-length encoding of step-length data. In this approach, the path of C. elegans is encoded as a string of characters, where each character represents a path segment of a specific type of movement. With these encoded string data, we perform k-means cluster analysis to distinguish movement behaviors resulting from different genotypes and food availability. We found that shallow and sharp turns are the most critical factors in distinguishing the differences among the movement behaviors. To validate our approach, we examined the movement behavior of tph-1 mutants that lack an enzyme responsible for serotonin biosynthesis. A k-means cluster analysis with the path string-encoded data showed that tph-1 movement behavior on food is similar to that of wild-type animals off food. We suggest that this run-length encoding approach is applicable to trajectory data in animal or human mobility data.

  11. Automation of peak-tracking analysis of stepwise perturbed NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banelli, Tommaso; Vuano, Marco; Fogolari, Federico; Fusiello, Andrea; Esposito, Gennaro; Corazza, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    We describe a new algorithmic approach able to automatically pick and track the NMR resonances of a large number of 2D NMR spectra acquired during a stepwise variation of a physical parameter. The method has been named Trace in Track (TINT), referring to the idea that a gaussian decomposition traces peaks within the tracks recognised through 3D mathematical morphology. It is capable of determining the evolution of the chemical shifts, intensity and linewidths of each tracked peak.The performances obtained in term of track reconstruction and correct assignment on realistic synthetic spectra were high above 90% when a noise level similar to that of experimental data were considered. TINT was applied successfully to several protein systems during a temperature ramp in isotope exchange experiments. A comparison with a state-of-the-art algorithm showed promising results for great numbers of spectra and low signal to noise ratios, when the graduality of the perturbation is appropriate. TINT can be applied to different kinds of high throughput chemical shift mapping experiments, with quasi-continuous variations, in which a quantitative automated recognition is crucial.

  12. Automation of peak-tracking analysis of stepwise perturbed NMR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banelli, Tommaso; Vuano, Marco [Università di Udine, Dipartimento di Area Medica (Italy); Fogolari, Federico [INBB (Italy); Fusiello, Andrea [Università di Udine, Dipartimento Politecnico di Ingegneria e Architettura (Italy); Esposito, Gennaro [INBB (Italy); Corazza, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.corazza@uniud.it [Università di Udine, Dipartimento di Area Medica (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    We describe a new algorithmic approach able to automatically pick and track the NMR resonances of a large number of 2D NMR spectra acquired during a stepwise variation of a physical parameter. The method has been named Trace in Track (TinT), referring to the idea that a gaussian decomposition traces peaks within the tracks recognised through 3D mathematical morphology. It is capable of determining the evolution of the chemical shifts, intensity and linewidths of each tracked peak.The performances obtained in term of track reconstruction and correct assignment on realistic synthetic spectra were high above 90% when a noise level similar to that of experimental data were considered. TinT was applied successfully to several protein systems during a temperature ramp in isotope exchange experiments. A comparison with a state-of-the-art algorithm showed promising results for great numbers of spectra and low signal to noise ratios, when the graduality of the perturbation is appropriate. TinT can be applied to different kinds of high throughput chemical shift mapping experiments, with quasi-continuous variations, in which a quantitative automated recognition is crucial.

  13. Analysis of the 3d massive renormalization group perturbative expansions: a delicate case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Delamotte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the perturbative renormalization group approach at fixed space dimension d in the theory of critical phenomena is analyzed. Three models are considered: the O(N model, the cubic model and the antiferromagnetic model defined on the stacked triangular lattice. We consider all models at fixed d = 3 and analyze the resummation procedures currently used to compute the critical exponents. We first show that, for the O(N model, the resummation does not eliminate all non-physical (spurious fixed points (FPs. Then the dependence of spurious as well as of the Wilson-Fisher FPs on the resummation parameters is carefully studied. The critical exponents at the Wilson-Fisher FP show a weak dependence on the resummation parameters. On the contrary, the exponents at the spurious FP as well as its very existence are strongly dependent on these parameters. For the cubic model, a new stable FP is found and its properties depend also strongly on the resummation parameters. It appears to be spurious, as expected. As for the frustrated models, there are two cases depending on the value of the number of spin components. When N is greater than a critical value Nc, the stable FP shows common characteristic with the Wilson-Fisher FP. On the contrary, for N3, we conclude that the transitions for XY and Heisenberg frustrated magnets are of first order.

  14. A linear perturbation analysis of magnetopause motion in the Newton-Busemann limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Freeman

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of the magnetopause surface to time-varying solar wind dynamic pressure is examined. We argue that to a first approximation the magnetopause surface may be considered as analogous to an elastic membrane. Upon displacement from equilibrium resulting from a change in applied external pressure, it moves to a new equilibrium under the equation of motion of a forced, damped, simple harmonic oscillator. We derive this equation of motion by linearising for small perturbations the momentum equation for flow past a nonrigid ellipsoidal body in the Newton-Busemann limit. Though our approach is only an approximation to the real dynamics of the magnetopause boundary, it serves to demonstrate the importance of inertia in the system response. It allows us to estimate the natural eigenperiod of magnetopause oscillation as typically around 7 min, the precise value depending on solar wind conditions. However, the magnetopause eigenoscillation is furthermore found to be strongly damped, regardless of solar wind conditions. One consequence of these properties is that short-period fluctuations in the solar wind dynamic pressure elicit a suppressed magnetospheric response. We outline other theoretical expectations by which our model may be tested against observation, and discuss the implications of our findings for current interpretations of spacecraft observations made in the dynamic magnetopause environment.

  15. A linear perturbation analysis of magnetopause motion in the Newton-Busemann limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Freeman

    Full Text Available The response of the magnetopause surface to time-varying solar wind dynamic pressure is examined. We argue that to a first approximation the magnetopause surface may be considered as analogous to an elastic membrane. Upon displacement from equilibrium resulting from a change in applied external pressure, it moves to a new equilibrium under the equation of motion of a forced, damped, simple harmonic oscillator. We derive this equation of motion by linearising for small perturbations the momentum equation for flow past a nonrigid ellipsoidal body in the Newton-Busemann limit. Though our approach is only an approximation to the real dynamics of the magnetopause boundary, it serves to demonstrate the importance of inertia in the system response. It allows us to estimate the natural eigenperiod of magnetopause oscillation as typically around 7 min, the precise value depending on solar wind conditions. However, the magnetopause eigenoscillation is furthermore found to be strongly damped, regardless of solar wind conditions. One consequence of these properties is that short-period fluctuations in the solar wind dynamic pressure elicit a suppressed magnetospheric response. We outline other theoretical expectations by which our model may be tested against observation, and discuss the implications of our findings for current interpretations of spacecraft observations made in the dynamic magnetopause environment.

  16. Thermodynamic stability of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Lyapunov function analysis against temperature perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangde, V. M.; Bhalekar, A. A.; Venkataramani, B.

    2007-04-01

    The present paper describes the thermodynamic stability study of the industrially important reaction of sulfur trioxide synthesis using a framework of comprehensive thermodynamic theory of stability of irreversible processes (CTTSIP). The mathematical steps involved, use the CTTSIP set-up. We construct an appropriate expression of \\mathcal{L}_s , the excess rate of entropy production, and use the constitutive equations of the perturbation coordinates and then establish the sign of the time rate of \\mathcal{L}_s. In doing so we expand \\mathcal{L}_s, in a Taylor expansion about the given non-equilibrium state (that is a point on the unperturbed trajectory). In the present case \\mathcal{L}_s has been defined using an appropriate irreversible thermodynamic expression for Σs, the rate of entropy production, that includes the entropy production from the existence of heat flux and the chemical conversion occurring at a finite rate. The operative expression of d\\mathcal{L}_s/dt has been derived using the above inputs and then by the help of 'Polymath 5.1' signs of \\mathcal{L}_s and d\\mathcal{L}_s/dt and their profiles are computed. The effect of variation of the overall heat transfer coefficient on the stability of the process has been analysed.

  17. Performance analysis of ‘Perturb and Observe’ and ‘Incremental Conductance’ MPPT algorithms for PV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Ehtisham; Lodhi, Zeeshan; Noman Shafqat, Rana; Chen, Fieda

    2017-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system usually employed The Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques for increasing its efficiency. The performance of the PV system perhaps boosts by controlling at its apex point of power, in this way maximal power can be given to load. The proficiency of a PV system usually depends upon irradiance, temperature and array architecture. PV array shows a non-linear style for V-I curve and maximal power point on V-P curve also varies with changing environmental conditions. MPPT methods grantees that a PV module is regulated at reference voltage and to produce entire usage of the maximal output power. This paper gives analysis between two widely employed Perturb and Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance (INC) MPPT techniques. Their performance is evaluated and compared through theoretical analysis and digital simulation on the basis of response time and efficiency under varying irradiance and temperature condition using Matlab/Simulink.

  18. Impact of assimilation window length on diurnal features in a Mars atmospheric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective simulation of diurnal variability is an important aspect of many geophysical data assimilation systems. For the Martian atmosphere, thermal tides are particularly prominent and contribute much to the Martian atmospheric circulation, dynamics and dust transport. To study the Mars diurnal variability and Mars thermal tides, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars Global Climate Model with the 4D-local ensemble transform Kalman filter (4D-LETKF is used to perform an analysis assimilating spacecraft temperature retrievals. We find that the use of a ‘traditional’ 6-hr assimilation cycle induces spurious forcing of a resonantly enhanced semi-diurnal Kelvin waves represented in both surface pressure and mid-level temperature by forming a wave 4 pattern in the diurnal averaged analysis increment that acts as a ‘topographic’ stationary forcing. Different assimilation window lengths in the 4D-LETKF are introduced to remove the artificially induced resonance. It is found that short assimilation window lengths not only remove the spurious resonance, but also push the migrating semi-diurnal temperature variation at 50 Pa closer to the estimated ‘true’ tides even in the absence of a radiatively active water ice cloud parameterisation. In order to compare the performance of different assimilation window lengths, short-term to mid-range forecasts based on the hour 00 and 12 assimilation are evaluated and compared. Results show that during Northern Hemisphere summer, it is not the assimilation window length, but the radiatively active water ice clouds that influence the model prediction. A ‘diurnal bias correction’ that includes bias correction fields dependent on the local time is shown to effectively reduce the forecast root mean square differences between forecasts and observations, compensate for the absence of water ice cloud parameterisation and enhance Martian atmosphere prediction. The implications of these results for

  19. Analysis of stochastic magnetic fields formed by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST and comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, P.; Liu, Yueqiang; Kirk, A.; Nardon, E.

    2012-01-01

    In MAST experiments with applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), clear reduction in line-averaged density has been observed in a wide range of L-mode plasmas when there is an alignment between the perturbation and the equilibrium magnetic field that maximizes the size of the resonant components of the applied magnetic field, as well as in a few H-mode plasmas but with a much stronger sensitivity to this alignment. This density pump-out is the result of increased particle transport, which is thought to be caused by the formation of a stochastic magnetic field in the plasma edge. This paper presents an analysis of the magnetic field structures formed by the application of n = 3 RMPs on MAST, including various parameters characterizing the degree of stochasticity in the plasma edge. Values for these parameters are calculated and compared with the amount of density pump-out observed in MAST experiments. It is found that density pump-out is fairly well correlated with some of the parameters calculated using vacuum modelling, but none of them provides a single threshold value for pump-out that applies to both L- and H-mode plasmas. Plasma response modelling provides a robust criterion for density pump-out that applies both to L- and H-mode plasmas. (paper)

  20. Singular perturbation analysis of the steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck system: Applications to ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, A; Gillespie, D; Norbury, J; Eisenberg, R S

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels are proteins with a narrow hole down their middle that control a wide range of biological function by controlling the flow of spherical ions from one macroscopic region to another. Ion channels do not change their conformation on the biological time scale once they are open, so they can be described by a combination of Poisson and drift-diffusion (Nernst-Planck) equations called PNP in biophysics. We use singular perturbation techniques to analyse the steady-state PNP system for a channel with a general geometry and a piecewise constant permanent charge profile. We construct an outer solution for the case of a constant permanent charge density in three dimensions that is also a valid solution of the one-dimensional system. The asymptotical current-voltage (I-V ) characteristic curve of the device (obtained by the singular perturbation analysis) is shown to be a very good approximation of the numerical I-V curve (obtained by solving the system numerically). The physical constraint of non-negative concentrations implies a unique solution, i.e., for each given applied potential there corresponds a unique electric current (relaxing this constraint yields non-physical multiple solutions for sufficiently large voltages).

  1. Thigmomorphogenesis: anatomical, morphological and mechanical analysis of genetically different sibs of Pinus taeda in response to mechanical perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three open pollinated families (half-sibs) and four controlled pollinated families (full-sibs) of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) were grown in a greenhouse and analyzed for changes induced by mechanical perturbation (MP). These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, bracing of branch nodes, and increased radial growth in the direction of the MP. Inhibition of stem elongation was the least variable feature measured. Leaf extension and stem diameter were highly variable between half-sibs. MP induced increased drag in greenhouse grown P. taeda in wind-tunnel tests. In P. taeda, MP induced decreased flexibility and increased elasticity and plasticity of the stem. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in an overall decrease in flexibility. MP trees had a higher rupture point than non-MP controls. Increased radial growth is a result of more rapid cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decreased leader growth is partly due to a decreased tracheid length in response to MP.

  2. Perturbative anyon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasnieres de Veigy, A.; Ouvry, S.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1992-06-01

    The problem of the statistical mechanics of an anyon gas is addressed. A perturbative analysis in the anyonic coupling constant α is reviewed, and the thermodynamical potential is computed at first and second order. An adequate second quantized formalism (field theory at finite temperature) is proposed. At first order in perturbation theory, the results are strikingly simple: only the second virial coefficient close to bosonic statistics is corrected. At second order, however, the complexity of the anyon model appears. One can compute exactly the perturbative correction to each cluster coefficient. However, and contrary to first order, a closed expression for the equation of state seems out of reach. As an illustration, the perturbative expressions of a 3 , a 4 , a 5 and a 6 are given at second order. Finally, using the same formalism, the equation of state of an anyon gas in a constant magnetic field is analyzed at first order in perturbation theory. (K.A.) 16 refs.; 3 figs.; 7 tabs

  3. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  4. Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model

  5. Genomic diversity among Danish field strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Nielsen, Elisabeth O.

    2002-01-01

    Genomic diversity among strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated in Denmark was assessed by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Ninety-six strains, obtained from different specimens and geographical locations during 30 years and the type strain of M. hyosynoviae S16(T......) were concurrently examined for variance in BglII-MfeI and EcoRI-Csp6I-A AFLP markers. A total of 56 different genomic fingerprints having an overall similarity between 77 and 96% were detected. No correlation between AFLP variability and period of isolation or anatomical site of isolation could...

  6. From the chromosome to DNA: Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, R; Donoff, R B; Kim, Y; Wong, D T

    2001-06-01

    Understanding how chromosomal alterations contribute to acquired and inherited human disease requires the ability to manage the enormous physical and informational complexity of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) packaged within. Important concepts and techniques involved in the analysis of DNA include restriction enzymes, Southern blotting, and restriction fragment length polymorphism/linkage analysis. These techniques have been essential in the understanding and diagnosis of several syndromes associated with the head and neck. The purpose of this article is to introduce DNA structure, describe some techniques fundamental to DNA analysis, and provide a brief overview of the clinical applications of this technology with respect to dentinogenesis imperfecta and oral field cancerization. Copyright 2001 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  7. On the Performance Analysis of Digital Communication Systems Perturbed by Non-Gaussian Noise and Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2016-06-29

    The Gaussian distribution is typically used to model the additive noise affecting communication systems. However, in many cases the noise cannot be modeled by a Gaussian distribution. In this thesis, we investigate the performance of different communication systems perturbed by non-Gaussian noise. Three families of noise are considered in this work, namely the generalized Gaussian noise, the Laplace noise/interference, and the impulsive noise that is modeled by an α-stable distribution. More specifically, in the first part of this thesis, the impact of an additive generalized Gaussian noise is studied by computing the average symbol error rate (SER) of one dimensional and two dimensional constellations in fading environment. We begin by the simple case of two symbols, i.e. binary phase shift keying (BPSK) constellation. From the results of this constellation, we extended the work to the average SER of an M pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). The first 2 − D constellation is the M quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) (studied for two geometric shapes, namely square and rectangular), which is the combination of two orthogonal PAM signals (in-phase and quadrature phase PAM). In the second part, the system performance of a circular constellation, namely M phase shift keying (MPSK) is studied in conjunction with a Laplace noise with independent noise components. A closed form and an asymptotic expansion of the SER are derived for two detectors, maximum likelihood and minimum distance detectors. Next, we look at the intra cell interference of a full duplex cellular network which is shown to follow a Laplacian distribution with dependent, but uncorrelated, complex components. The densities of that interference are expressed in a closed form in order to obtain the SER of several communication systems (BPSK, PAM, QAM, and MPSK). Finally, we study the statistics of the α-stable distribution. Those statistics are expressed in closed form in terms of the Fox H function and

  8. Irreducible Brillouin conditions and contracted Schrödinger equations for n-electron systems. IV. Perturbative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzelnigg, Werner; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2004-04-01

    perturbative analysis does not encourage the use of a k-particle hierarchy based on the ICSEk (or on their reducible counterparts, the CSEk), it rather favors the approach in terms of the unitary transformation, where the k-particle approximation yields the energy correct up to E2k-1. The problems that arise are related to the unavoidable appearance of exclusion-principle violating cumulants. The good experience with perturbation theory in terms of a unitary transformation suggests that one should abandon a linearly convergent iteration scheme based on the ICSEk hierarchy, in favor of a quadratically convergent one based on successive unitary transformations.

  9. Direct endonuclease digestion and multi-analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms by microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamine, Rie; Yatsushiro, Shouki; Yamamura, Shouhei; Kido, Jun-ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    2009-12-05

    A high-performance multi-analysis system for genotypic mutation by means of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) involving endonuclease treatment of PCR-amplified DNA on a microchip and subsequent analysis by microchip electrophoresis for DNA sizing was developed. A Hitachi SV1210 system, with which 12 samples can be analyzed on a plastic chip with good accuracy as to DNA sizing between 25 and 300 bp, was employed for RFLP analysis. We performed RFLP analysis of the ABO genotypes of blood donors for whom the ABO type was known. Six blood samples were analyzed by PCR to amplify two different regions of the genomic DNA, each of the amplified DNAs containing a different nucleotide polymorphism. To analyze the genes at polymorphic sites 261 and 526, restriction endonucleases Kpn I and Ban I were employed, respectively. When an amplified DNA was digested with each endonuclease on a microchip for 20 min, sequential analysis revealed the presence or absence of the respective restriction site. This analysis was performed within 7 min using a 1/10 volume of a DNA sample in comparison with the conventional method, and the estimated DNA size differed from the predicted size by less than 10 bp. The results indicate the potential of microchip electrophoresis for RFLP with on-chip direct endonuclease digestion and sequential analysis, offering high resolution in a short time.

  10. Motion as perturbation. II. Development of the method for dosimetric analysis of motion effects with fixed-gantry IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Opp, Daniel; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.feygelman@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    was 5 s, with the resulting average motion speed of 1.45 cm/s. The motion-perturbed high resolution (2 mm voxel) volumetric dose grids on the MC2 phantom were generated for each beam. From each grid, a coronal dose plane at the detector level was extracted and compared to the corresponding moving MC2 measurement, using gamma analysis with both global (G) and local (L) dose-error normalization. Results: Using the TG-119 criteria of (3%G/3 mm), per beam average gamma analysis passing rates exceeded 95% in all cases. No individual beam had a passing rate below 91%. LDVE correction eliminated systematic disagreement patterns at the beams’ aperture edges. In a representative example, application of LDVE correction improved (2%L/2 mm) gamma analysis passing rate for an IMRT beam from 74% to 98%. Conclusions: The effect of motion on the moving region-of-interest IMRT dose can be estimated with a standard, static phantom QA measurement, provided the motion characteristics are independently known from 4D CT or otherwise. The motion-perturbed absolute dose estimates were validated by the direct planar diode array measurements, and were found to reliably agree with them in a homogeneous phantom.

  11. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the solid state full length rod control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopsky, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Full Length Rod Control System (FLRCS) controls the power to the rod drive mechanisms for rod movement in response to signals received from the Reactor Control System or from signals generated through Reactor Operator action. Rod movement is used to control reactivity of the reactor during plant operation. The Full Length Rod Control System is designed to perform its reactivity control function in conjunction with the Reactor Control and Protection System, to maintain the reactor core within design safety limits. By the use of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, it is shown that the FLRCS will perform its reactivity control functions considering the loss of single active components. That is, sufficient fault limiting control circuits are provided which blocks control rod movement and/or indicates presence of a fault condition at the Control Board. Reactor operator action or automatic reactor trip will thus mitigate the consequences of potential failure of the FLRCS. The analysis also qualitatively demonstrates the reliability of the FLRCS to perform its intended function

  12. Analysis of genetic diversity identified by amplified fragment length polymorphism marker in hybrid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, M; Qidi, Z; Gaisheng, Z; Na, N; Huiyan, Z; Qunzhu, W

    2015-08-07

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were used to assess genetic diversity in 10 male sterile wheat crop lines (hetero-cytoplasm with the same nucleus) in relation to a restorer wheat line. These male sterile lines were evaluated using 64 amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations, and 13 primers produced polymorphic bands, generating a total 682 fragments. Of the 682 fragments, 113 were polymorphic. The polymorphic information content and marker index values demonstrated the utility of the primer combinations used in the present study. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean and principal coordinate analysis of the genotypic data revealed clustering of accessions based on genetic relationships, and accessions were separated into 2 groups with their restorer line. Jaccard's similarity coefficient values suggested good variability among the male sterile lines, indicating their utility in breeding programs. The fallouts of analysis of molecular variance showed large within-group population variation, accounting for 77% of variation, while among-group comparison accounted for 23% of the total molecular variation, which was statistically significant. The molecular diversity observed in this study will be useful for selecting appropriate accessions for plant improvement and hybridization through molecular-breeding approaches and for developing suitable conservation strategies.

  13. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    He was interested to know how `large' is the set of numbers x for which the series is convergent. Here large refers to its length. But his set is not in the class ♢. Here is another problem discussed by Borel. Consider .... have an infinite collection of pairs of new shoes and want to choose one shoe from each pair. We have an ...

  14. In Silico analysis of perturbed steroidogenesis and gonad growth in fathead minnows (P. promelas) exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, David; Petersen, Lene H; Martinović, Dalma; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-06-01

    The multi-factorial nature of adverse reproductive effects mediated by endocrine disrupting compounds (or EDCs) makes understanding the mechanistic basis of reproductive dysfunction a highly pertinent area of research. As a consequence, a main motivator for continued research is to integrate 'multi-leveled' complexity (i.e., from genes to phenotype) using mathematical methods capable of encapsulating properties of physiological relevance. In this study, an in silico stoichiometric model of piscine steroidogenesis was augmented with a 'biomass' reaction associating the underlying stoichiometry of steroidogenesis with a reaction representative of gonad growth. The ability of the in silico model to predict perturbed steroidogenesis and subsequent effects on gonad growth was tested by exposing reproductively active male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to 88 ng/L of the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). The in silico model was parameterized (or constrained) with experimentally quantified concentrations of selected steroid hormones (using mass spectrometry) and fold changes in gene expression (using RT-qPCR) for selected steroidogenic enzyme genes, in gonads of male and female fish. Once constrained, the optimization framework of flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to calculate an optimal flux through the biomass reaction (analogous to gonad growth) and associated steroidogenic flux distributions required to generate biomass. FBA successfully predicted effects of EE2 exposure on fathead minnow gonad growth (%gonadosomatic index or %GSI) and perturbed production of steroid hormones. Specifically, FBA accurately predicted no effects of exposure on male %GSI and a significant reduction for female %GSI. Furthermore, in silico simulations accurately identified disrupted reaction fluxes catalyzing productions of androgens (in male fish) and progestogens (in female fish), an observation which agreed with in vivo experimentation. The analyses

  15. Effect of physicians' gender on communication and consultation length: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Laura; Bloor, Karen; Birks, Yvonne; Hewitt, Catherine; Bland, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Physician gender may be a source of differences in communication between physicians and their patients, which may in turn contribute to patient satisfaction and other outcomes. Our aim was to review systematically research on gender differences in the length, style and content of communication with patients. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to September 2010 with no language restrictions (included MEDLINE; PsychINFO; EMBASE; CINAHL; Health Management Information Consortium; Web of Science; and ASSIA). 'Grey' literature was also searched. Data extraction and quality assessment was carried out in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines by at least two reviewers. The review uses mainly narrative synthesis due to the heterogeneous nature of the studies, with only data on consultation length being pooled in a random effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis. Searches yielded 6412 articles, of which 33 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogenous and of mixed quality. Conflicting results are reported for many communication variables. There is some evidence that female physicians adopt a more partnership building style and spend on average 2.24 min longer with patients per consultation (95% CI 0.62-3.86) than their male colleagues. Greater patient engagement by female doctors may reflect a more patient-centred approach, but their longer consultation times will limit the number of consultations they can provide. This has implications for planning and managing services.

  16. Parallel imaging of Drosophila embryos for quantitative analysis of genetic perturbations of the Ras pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Goyal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ras pathway patterns the poles of the Drosophila embryo by downregulating the levels and activity of a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor Capicua (Cic. We demonstrate that the spatiotemporal pattern of Cic during this signaling event can be harnessed for functional studies of mutations in the Ras pathway in human diseases. Our approach relies on a new microfluidic device that enables parallel imaging of Cic dynamics in dozens of live embryos. We found that although the pattern of Cic in early embryos is complex, it can be accurately approximated by a product of one spatial profile and one time-dependent amplitude. Analysis of these functions of space and time alone reveals the differential effects of mutations within the Ras pathway. Given the highly conserved nature of Ras-dependent control of Cic, our approach provides new opportunities for functional analysis of multiple sequence variants from developmental abnormalities and cancers.

  17. Prediction Accuracy Optimization of Chaotic Perturbation in the Analysis Model of Network-Oriented Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakai Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the slower rate of convergence and lower study ability in the late period of network-oriented consumption prediction model based on neural network algorithm, this paper proposed a network analysis neural model based on chaotic disturbance optimized particle swarm. Firstly, improve the initialization of particle swarm with chaotic disturbance optimization strategy in order to limit the initial position and the initial speed of limited particle. Then have an optimal operation on each individual in particle swarm with chaotic disturbance variables, so that the particles which do not enter into iteration will jump out of the local optima area. And next, optimize the PSO algorithm inertia weight by adopting adaptive adjustment strategy based on individual particle adaptive value. At last, combine the improved PSO algorithm based on chaotic disturbance with neural network algorithm, thus we will construct the network-oriented consumption analysis model. Simulation results show that the proposed network-oriented consumption analysis neural network model based on chaotic disturbance optimized particle swarm has greatly improved in prediction accuracy and computational speed.

  18. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to differentiate isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Jefferson, K.L.; Heisey, D.M.; Samuel, M.D.; Berlowski, B.M.; Shadduck, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Avian cholera, an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, kills thousands of North American wild waterfowl annually. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolates cultured during a laboratory challenge study of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and collected from wild birds and environmental samples during avian cholera outbreaks were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, a whole-genome DNA fingerprinting technique. Comparison of the AFLP profiles of 53 isolates from the laboratory challenge demonstrated that P. multocida underwent genetic changes during a 3-mo period. Analysis of 120 P. multocida serotype 1 isolates collected from wild birds and environmental samples revealed that isolates were distinguishable from one another based on regional and temporal genetic characteristics. Thus, AFLP analysis had the ability to distinguish P. multocida isolates of the same serotype by detecting spatiotemporal genetic changes and provides a tool to advance the study of avian cholera epidemiology. Further application of AFLP technology to the examination of wild bird avian cholera outbreaks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations between virulence and P. multocida genotypes, to identify affiliations between bird species and bacterial genotypes, and to elucidate the role of specific bird species in disease transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  19. Inferring Drosophila gap gene regulatory network: a parameter sensitivity and perturbation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaandorp Jaap A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inverse modelling of gene regulatory networks (GRNs capable of simulating continuous spatio-temporal biological processes requires accurate data and a good description of the system. If quantitative relations between genes cannot be extracted from direct measurements, an efficient method to estimate the unknown parameters is mandatory. A model that has been proposed to simulate spatio-temporal gene expression patterns is the connectionist model. This method describes the quantitative dynamics of a regulatory network in space. The model parameters are estimated by means of model-fitting algorithms. The gene interactions are identified without making any prior assumptions concerning the network connectivity. As a result, the inverse modelling might lead to multiple circuits showing the same quantitative behaviour and it is not possible to identify one optimal circuit. Consequently, it is important to address the quality of the circuits in terms of model robustness. Results Here we investigate the sensitivity and robustness of circuits obtained from reverse engineering a model capable of simulating measured gene expression patterns. As a case study we use the early gap gene segmentation mechanism in Drosophila melanogaster. We consider the limitations of the connectionist model used to describe GRN Inferred from spatio-temporal gene expression. We address the problem of circuit discrimination, where the selection criterion within the optimization technique is based of the least square minimization on the error between data and simulated results. Conclusion Parameter sensitivity analysis allows one to discriminate between circuits having significant parameter and qualitative differences but exhibiting the same quantitative pattern. Furthermore, we show that using a stochastic model derived from a deterministic solution, one can introduce fluctuations within the model to analyze the circuits' robustness. Ultimately, we show that

  20. Inferring Drosophila gap gene regulatory network: a parameter sensitivity and perturbation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomekong-Nanfack, Yves; Postma, Marten; Kaandorp, Jaap A

    2009-09-21

    Inverse modelling of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) capable of simulating continuous spatio-temporal biological processes requires accurate data and a good description of the system. If quantitative relations between genes cannot be extracted from direct measurements, an efficient method to estimate the unknown parameters is mandatory. A model that has been proposed to simulate spatio-temporal gene expression patterns is the connectionist model. This method describes the quantitative dynamics of a regulatory network in space. The model parameters are estimated by means of model-fitting algorithms. The gene interactions are identified without making any prior assumptions concerning the network connectivity. As a result, the inverse modelling might lead to multiple circuits showing the same quantitative behaviour and it is not possible to identify one optimal circuit. Consequently, it is important to address the quality of the circuits in terms of model robustness. Here we investigate the sensitivity and robustness of circuits obtained from reverse engineering a model capable of simulating measured gene expression patterns. As a case study we use the early gap gene segmentation mechanism in Drosophila melanogaster. We consider the limitations of the connectionist model used to describe GRN Inferred from spatio-temporal gene expression. We address the problem of circuit discrimination, where the selection criterion within the optimization technique is based of the least square minimization on the error between data and simulated results. Parameter sensitivity analysis allows one to discriminate between circuits having significant parameter and qualitative differences but exhibiting the same quantitative pattern. Furthermore, we show that using a stochastic model derived from a deterministic solution, one can introduce fluctuations within the model to analyze the circuits' robustness. Ultimately, we show that there is a close relation between circuit sensitivity and

  1. Systems analysis of multiple regulator perturbations allows discovery of virulence factors in Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffron Fred

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic bacterial infections are highly regulated and complex processes that are orchestrated by numerous virulence factors. Genes that are coordinately controlled by the set of regulators required for systemic infection are potentially required for pathogenicity. Results In this study we present a systems biology approach in which sample-matched multi-omic measurements of fourteen virulence-essential regulator mutants were coupled with computational network analysis to efficiently identify Salmonella virulence factors. Immunoblot experiments verified network-predicted virulence factors and a subset was determined to be secreted into the host cytoplasm, suggesting that they are virulence factors directly interacting with host cellular components. Two of these, SrfN and PagK2, were required for full mouse virulence and were shown to be translocated independent of either of the type III secretion systems in Salmonella or the type III injectisome-related flagellar mechanism. Conclusions Integrating multi-omic datasets from Salmonella mutants lacking virulence regulators not only identified novel virulence factors but also defined a new class of translocated effectors involved in pathogenesis. The success of this strategy at discovery of known and novel virulence factors suggests that the approach may have applicability for other bacterial pathogens.

  2. Analysis of K → 3π decays in chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Haiyang; Cheung, C.Y.; Yeung Waibong

    1989-01-01

    Using the recently proposed higher-order chiral Lagrangians determined from the integration of nontopological chiral anomalies, we calculate corrections to the current-algebra analysis of K→3π decay amplitudes expanded in powers of the Dalitz variables. Effects of quartic-derivative weak chiral Lagrangians are determined through the use of short-distance effective weak Hamiltonian and the factorization method. We find that (1) the constant and linear terms in the amplitude for ΔI=1/2 K→3π are in excellent agreement with experiment; the previous discrepancy of (20-35)% between current algebra and data is thus accounted for by the higher-order effective Lagrangians, (2) the penguin interaction does not play an essential role in the ΔI=1/2 rule, for otherwise it will lead to a large disagreement for the constant and linear terms, (3) one of the two quadratic terms in the ΔI=1/2 process, which arise from the quartic chiral Lagrangians, is in accord with data within experimental errors, while the other is off by four standard deviations, (4) the linear term in the ΔI=3/2 transitions is in good agreement with experiment and contributions from quadratic terms are sizable. (orig.)

  3. Systems analysis of multiple regulator perturbations allows discovery of virulence factors in Salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; McDermott, Jason E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-06-28

    Background: Systemic bacterial infections are highly regulated and complex processes that are orchestrated by numerous virulence factors. Genes that are coordinately controlled by the set of regulators required for systemic infection are potentially required for pathogenicity. Results: In this study we present a systems biology approach in which sample-matched multi-omic measurements of fourteen virulence-essential regulator mutants were coupled with computational network analysis to efficiently identify Salmonella virulence factors. Immunoblot experiments verified network-predicted virulence factors and a subset was determined to be secreted into the host cytoplasm, suggesting that they are virulence factors directly interacting with host cellular components. Two of these, SrfN and PagK2, were required for full mouse virulence and were shown to be translocated independent of either of the type III secretion systems in Salmonella or the type III injectisome-related flagellar mechanism. Conclusions: Integrating multi-omic datasets from Salmonella mutants lacking virulence regulators not only identified novel virulence factors but also defined a new class of translocated effectors involved in pathogenesis. The success of this strategy at discovery of known and novel virulence factors suggests that the approach may have applicability for other bacterial pathogens.

  4. Application of perturbation methods and sensitivity analysis to water hammer problems in hydraulic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balino, Jorge L.; Larreteguy, Axel E.; Andrade Lima, Fernando R.

    1995-01-01

    The differential method was applied to the sensitivity analysis for water hammer problems in hydraulic networks. Starting from the classical water hammer equations in a single-phase liquid with friction, the state vector comprising the piezometric head and the velocity was defined. Applying the differential method the adjoint operator, the adjoint equations with the general form of their boundary conditions, and the general form of the bilinear concomitant were calculated. The discretized adjoint equations and the corresponding boundary conditions were programmed and solved by using the so called method of characteristics. As an example, a constant-level tank connected through a pipe to a valve discharging to atmosphere was considered. The bilinear concomitant was calculated for this particular case. The corresponding sensitivity coefficients due to the variation of different parameters by using both the differential method and the response surface generated by the computer code WHAT were also calculated. The results obtained with these methods show excellent agreement. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Shortened telomere length is associated with increased risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability, and telomere shortening is involved in initiation and progression of malignancies. A series of epidemiological studies have examined the association between shortened telomeres and risk of cancers, but the findings remain conflicting.A dataset composed of 11,255 cases and 13,101 controls from 21 publications was included in a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between overall cancer risk or cancer-specific risk and the relative telomere length. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were further assessed by the χ(2-based Q statistic test and Egger's test, respectively.The results showed that shorter telomeres were significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.60, compared with longer telomeres. In the stratified analysis by tumor type, the association remained significant in subgroups of bladder cancer (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.38-2.44, lung cancer (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.18-4.88, smoking-related cancers (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.83-2.78, cancers in the digestive system (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.53-1.87 and the urogenital system (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.12-2.67. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the association between the relative telomere length and overall cancer risk was statistically significant in studies of Caucasian subjects, Asian subjects, retrospective designs, hospital-based controls and smaller sample sizes. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested that there was no publication bias in the current meta-analysis (P = 0.532.The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the presence of shortened telomeres may be a marker for susceptibility to human cancer, but single larger, well-design prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  6. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Vlad; Moyo, Sikhulile; Lei, Quanhong; DeGruttola, Victor; Essex, M

    2015-05-01

    To improve the methodology of HIV cluster analysis, we addressed how analysis of HIV clustering is associated with parameters that can affect the outcome of viral clustering. The extent of HIV clustering and tree certainty was compared between 401 HIV-1C near full-length genome sequences and subgenomic regions retrieved from the LANL HIV Database. Sliding window analysis was based on 99 windows of 1,000 bp and 45 windows of 2,000 bp. Potential associations between the extent of HIV clustering and sequence length and the number of variable and informative sites were evaluated. The near full-length genome HIV sequences showed the highest extent of HIV clustering and the highest tree certainty. At the bootstrap threshold of 0.80 in maximum likelihood (ML) analysis, 58.9% of near full-length HIV-1C sequences but only 15.5% of partial pol sequences (ViroSeq) were found in clusters. Among HIV-1 structural genes, pol showed the highest extent of clustering (38.9% at a bootstrap threshold of 0.80), although it was significantly lower than in the near full-length genome sequences. The extent of HIV clustering was significantly higher for sliding windows of 2,000 bp than 1,000 bp. We found a strong association between the sequence length and proportion of HIV sequences in clusters, and a moderate association between the number of variable and informative sites and the proportion of HIV sequences in clusters. In HIV cluster analysis, the extent of detectable HIV clustering is directly associated with the length of viral sequences used, as well as the number of variable and informative sites. Near full-length genome sequences could provide the most informative HIV cluster analysis. Selected subgenomic regions with a high extent of HIV clustering and high tree certainty could also be considered as a second choice.

  7. Jacobian approach to optimal determination of perturbation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the optimal determination of the perturbation factor (λ) or perturbation parameter for gradient method is considered. The spectrum analysis of the associated Jacobian of the associated matrix has laid the basis for the judicious selection of the perturbation factor. Numerical work is carried out to prove our ...

  8. New insights in HLA-E polymorphism by refined analysis of the full-length gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olieslagers, T I; Voorter, C E M; Groeneweg, M; Xu, Y; Wieten, L; Tilanus, M G J

    2017-03-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a non-classical HLA class I molecule that plays a role in both the innate and the adaptive immune response through interaction with receptors on natural killer- and T-cells. The HLA-E gene is characterized by limited polymorphism compared with the classical HLA loci on chromosome 6. At the start of this study, only 13 variable sites had been identified (IPD-IMGT/HLA Database v3.18.0). While most previous studies focused on polymorphism in exons 2 and 3 or specific gene regions, polymorphism in the other exons and introns could influence protein expression and function as well. Studies that investigate extended HLA-E polymorphism are therefore needed to better understand the functional relevance of HLA-E in health and disease. The aim of this study was to examine the variability of the full-length HLA-E gene region in individuals originating from different populations. A total of 7 new HLA-E alleles were identified using full-length HLA-E sequencing of 123 individuals from Asian, Dutch or Hunan Han origin. Furthermore, genome variation analysis of the third phase of the 1000 genomes database showed 107 new variable sites in 2504 individuals originating from 26 different populations. Our study demonstrates that the nucleotide variability of the HLA-E gene is much higher than previously known, albeit in only a limited number of individuals. Overall only 2 variants, HLA-E*01:01 and *01:03, are frequently present worldwide, suggesting that balancing selection is acting on HLA-E. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis on effective reservoirs and length optimization of horizontal wells in the Sulige Gasfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of unique technical and economical advantages, horizontal well development has become a key technology in the high-efficiency development of tight gas reservoirs, however, this has worked unsatisfactorily in unstratified gas reservoirs. In this paper, the orientation and coverage of gas-bearing sand bodies (in isolated distribution of Member 8 of Permian Lower Shihezi Fm in the Sulige Gasfield were analyzed by means of outcrop analogy, geostatistical analysis and pilot tests of dense well patterns. Then, four gas-bearing sand distribution patterns suitable for the deployment of horizontal wells in Member 8 were proposed according to the precise geological anatomy results of dense well patterns. These patterns include thick massive isolated pattern, vertically superimposed pattern with physical interlayers, vertically superimposed pattern with argillaceous interlayers and lateral sugar-coated haw string pattern. Based on the statistics on gas-bearing sand bodies drilled by horizontal well drilling, the drilled gas-bearing sand bodies are 670–1300 m long. Based on production data correction, numerical simulation and economic evaluation, the length of rational horizontal sections were optimized by performing a case study of the vertically superimposed reservoirs with physical interlayers in the typical well group SuX-18-36 of Su-X Block. It is indicated that the rational horizontal well length within 1200 m in the Sulige Gasfield under current economic and technical conditions. This paper provides a technical support for the high-efficiency development of the Sulige Gasfield in the future.

  10. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-07-15

    presence of the desired DNA segments, and then submitted for fluorescent fragment length analysis (FLA) using capillary electrophoresis. DNA from armadillo passaged bacteria with a known number of repeat copies for each locus is used as a positive control. The FLA chromatograms are then examined using Peak Scanner software and fragment length is converted to number of VNTR copies (allele). Finally, the VNTR haplotypes are analyzed for patterns, and when combined with patient clinical data can be used to track distribution of strain types.

  11. Approximate Analysis of MHD Squeeze Flow between Two Parallel Disks with Suction or Injection by Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Domairry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis has been performed to study magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD squeeze flow between two parallel infinite disks where one disk is impermeable and the other is porous with either suction or injection of the fluid. We investigate the combined effect of inertia, electromagnetic forces, and suction or injection. With the introduction of a similarity transformation, the continuity and momentum equations governing the squeeze flow are reduced to a single, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation. An approximate solution of the equation subject to the appropriate boundary conditions is derived using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM and compared with the direct numerical solution (NS. Results showing the effect of squeeze Reynolds number, Hartmann number and the suction/injection parameter on the axial and radial velocity distributions are presented and discussed. The approximate solution is found to be highly accurate for the ranges of parameters investigated. Because of its simplicity, versatility and high accuracy, the method can be applied to study linear and nonlinear boundary value problems arising in other engineering applications.

  12. Full-length genome sequencing analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus isolate associated with nephropathogenic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghari, R A; Fan, B; Wang, H; Bai, J; Zhang, L; Abro, S H; Jiang, P

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) produces infectious bronchitis (IB) disease in poultry worldwide. In spite of proper vaccinations against the IBV, new IBV strains are continually emerging worldwide. In this study, a new highly virulent nephropathogenic IBV strain named CK/CH/XDC-2/2013 was identified from a vaccinated flock with clinical signs of IB in the Jiangsu province of China. The full-length genome sequence of the isolate was 27,714 nucleotides long, and the genome was organized similarly to classical IBV strains. Minimum divergence, phylogenetic analysis, and distance matrix of the genome showed that the CK/CH/XDC-2/2013 isolate had the highest similarity to the IBV BJ strain. The spike glycoprotein (S) gene had the greatest similarity to the nephropathogenic BJ strain and showed an 8 amino acid insertion (YSNGNSDV) at 73 to 80 sites and 3 amino acid deletion at sites 126 to 128 compared to the IBV vaccine strains. A recombination analysis of the S gene showed that the new isolate evolved from the IBV BJ strain and the KM91 vaccine strain. An animal challenge experiment showed a mortality of 60 to 80% in early-age chickens by different inoculation routes. Pathological examinations of the kidneys revealed inflammation, distention with uric acid deposits, and tubular degeneration. It indicated that the CK/CH/XDC-2/2013 isolate has robust kidney tissue tropism, and new nephropathogenic IBV strains are continuously evolving in China. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Geometrically Nonlinear Static Analysis of 3D Trusses Using the Arc-Length Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous analysis of geometrically nonlinear structures demands creating mathematical models that accurately include loading and support conditions and, more importantly, model the stiffness and response of the structure. Nonlinear geometric structures often contain critical points with snap-through behavior during the response to large loads. Studying the post buckling behavior during a portion of a structure's unstable load history may be necessary. Primary structures made from ductile materials will stretch enough prior to failure for loads to redistribute producing sudden and often catastrophic collapses that are difficult to predict. The responses and redistribution of the internal loads during collapses and possible sharp snap-back of structures have frequently caused numerical difficulties in analysis procedures. The presence of critical stability points and unstable equilibrium paths are major difficulties that numerical solutions must pass to fully capture the nonlinear response. Some hurdles still exist in finding nonlinear responses of structures under large geometric changes. Predicting snap-through and snap-back of certain structures has been difficult and time consuming. Also difficult is finding how much load a structure may still carry safely. Highly geometrically nonlinear responses of structures exhibiting complex snap-back behavior are presented and analyzed with a finite element approach. The arc-length method will be reviewed and shown to predict the proper response and follow the nonlinear equilibrium path through limit points.

  14. High-resolution genotyping of Listeria monocytogenes by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, ribotyping, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Fussing, V.; Ojeniyi, B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis for the inter- and intraspecies differentiation of a collection of 96 strains of Listeria monocytogenes and 10 non- L. monocytogenes strains representing six other Listeria species...... of different origin. The AFLP technique was compared with three other molecular typing methods - ribotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) - in terms of discriminatory ability. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was included....... Isolates with identical DNA profiles were distributed across the spectrum of origin. It was not possible to associate certain types with specific food sectors or clinical cases, which is indicative of the spread of L. monocytogenes clones across species. Overall, AFLP fingerprinting was suitable...

  15. Coccidioides species determination: does sequence analysis agree with restriction fragment length polymorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne M; Carlson, Erin L; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2015-06-01

    Fifteen Coccidioides isolates were previously examined for genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP); two fragment patterns were observed. Two isolates demonstrated one banding pattern (designated RFLP group I), while the remaining 13 isolates demonstrated a second pattern (designated RFLP group II). Recently, molecular studies supported the division of the genera Coccidioides into two species: Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis. It has been assumed that the species division corresponds to the RFLP grouping. We tested this hypothesis by amplifying the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region as well as the dioxygenase, serine proteinase, and urease genes from 13 isolates previously examined by RFLP and then sequencing the PCR products. The appropriate species for each isolate was assigned using phylogenetically informative sites. The RFLP grouping agreed with the Coccidioides species assignment for all but one isolate, which may represent a hybrid. In addition, polymorphic sites among the four genes examined were in agreement for species assignment such that analysis of a single gene may be sufficient for species assignment.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex differentiation using gyrB-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Chimara

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC members are causative agents of human and animal tuberculosis. Differentiation of MTBC members is required for appropriate treatment of individual patients and for epidemiological purposes. Strains from six MTBC species - M. tuberculosis, M. bovis subsp. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, and "M. canetti" - were studied using gyrB-restriction fragment length polymorphism (gyrB-RFLP analysis. A table was elaborated, based on observed restriction patterns and published gyrB sequences. To evaluate applicability of gyrB-RFLP at Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory, 311 MTBC clinical isolates, previously identified using traditional methods as M. tuberculosis (306, M. bovis (3, and M. bovis BCG (2, were analyzed by gyrB-RFLP. All isolates were correctly identified by the molecular method, but no distinction between M. bovis and M. bovis BCG was obtained. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis is of utmost importance, because they require different treatment schedules. In conclusion, gyrB-RFLP is accurate and easy-to-perform, with potential to reduce time needed for conventional differentiation methods. However, application for epidemiological studies remains limited, because it cannot differentiate M. tuberculosis from M. africanum subtype II, and "M. canetti", M. africanum subtype I from M. pinnipedii, and. M. bovis from M. bovis BCG.

  17. An analysis of variance of the pubertal and midgrowth spurts for length and width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, A; Gasser, T; Molinari, L; Largo, R H

    1999-01-01

    Using data from the first Zurich Longitudinal Growth Study characteristics of the growth of six variables--bihumeral width, biiliac width, standing height, sitting height, leg height and arm length--are studied. The main interest is in differences between boys and girls, and across variables and in particular in whether there are sex differences that are specific for some variables. For each child and variable, individual velocity and acceleration curves are estimated using a kernal smoother. From these curves, parameters characterizing the midgrowth spurt (MS) and the pubertal spurt (PS) are estimated: timings, durations and intensities. The level of childhood velocity is used for characterizing early growth. These parameters are analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the statistical significance of differences between boys and girls and across variables. This necessitates some kind of standardization and two types of standardization are used here. The MS shows negligible or small differences between boys and girls, and the same is true for velocity in childhood. Differences across variables during the MS are much more pronounced: with respect to intensity, bihumeral width has an MS about six times more intense than height. The PS is later for boys (as is well known), and there are significant differences across variables: bihumeral width and sitting height are late while legs are early. With the exception of biiliac width, the duration of the PS (which has been subdivided into three phases-early, middle and late) is slightly longer for boys for all variables: boys have a longer starting phase, the middle phase is about equal in length for both boys and girls, and girls have a slightly longer late phase. Leg height and height experience a PS of short duration while bihumeral and biiliac width experience a long one and these differences are highly statistically significant. For all variables, with the exception of biiliac width

  18. Analysis of variation in length of stay (LOS) after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji-Hye; Cheon, Song-Hee

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to understand factors present at baseline that affect outcome and healthcare utilization post-stroke. We investigated the association between the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score and functional outcome (length of stay) after hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Data from the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey for 6 years, from 2005 to 2010, were used. The t-test and analysis of variance were carried out to compare average differences in the length of stay with the general characteristics in accordance with CCI. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using dummy variables to look at factors affecting stroke patients' length of stay. [Results] Independent variables with significant relationships with the log-transformed length of stay included gender, type of insurance, the size of city of residence, the number of beds in the hospital, the location of the medical institution, hospitalization path, receipt of physical therapy, treatment involving brain surgery, death, the type of stroke, and CCI. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggests that CCI independently influences the length of stay after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and that variables with significant relationships with the log-transformed length of stay need to be continuously managed.

  19. An improved kinetic model for the acetone-butanol-ethanol pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum and model-based perturbation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive kinetic models of microbial metabolism can enhance the understanding of system dynamics and regulatory mechanisms, which is helpful in optimizing microbial production of industrial chemicals. Clostridium acetobutylicum produces solvents (acetone-butanol–ethanol, ABE) through the ABE pathway. To systematically assess the potential of increased production of solvents, kinetic modeling has been applied to analyze the dynamics of this pathway and make predictive simulations. Up to date, only one kinetic model for C. acetobutylicum supported by experiment has been reported as far as we know. But this model did not integrate the metabolic regulatory effects of transcriptional control and other complex factors. It also left out the information of some key intermediates (e.g. butyryl-phosphate). Results We have developed an improved kinetic model featured with the incorporation of butyryl-phosphate, inclusion of net effects of complex metabolic regulations, and quantification of endogenous enzyme activity variations caused by these regulations. The simulation results of our model are more consistent with published experimental data than the previous model, especially in terms of reflecting the kinetics of butyryl-phosphate and butyrate. Through parameter perturbation analysis, it was found that butyrate kinase has large and positive influence on butanol production while CoA transferase has negative effect on butanol production, suggesting that butyrate kinase has more efficiency in converting butyrate to butanol than CoA transferase. Conclusions Our improved kinetic model of the ABE process has more capacity in approaching real circumstances, providing much more insight in the regulatory mechanisms and potential key points for optimization of solvent productions. Moreover, the modeling strategy can be extended to other biological processes. PMID:21689471

  20. Genomic analysis reveals a potential role for cell cycle perturbation in HCV-mediated apoptosis of cultured hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie-Anne Walters

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of liver injury associated with chronic HCV infection, as well as the individual roles of both viral and host factors, are not clearly defined. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cytopathic effects, in addition to immune-mediated processes, play an important role in liver injury. Gene expression profiling during multiple time-points of acute HCV infection of cultured Huh-7.5 cells was performed to gain insight into the cellular mechanism of HCV-associated cytopathic effect. Maximal induction of cell-death-related genes and appearance of activated caspase-3 in HCV-infected cells coincided with peak viral replication, suggesting a link between viral load and apoptosis. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many of the cell-death genes function to induce apoptosis in response to cell cycle arrest. Labeling of dividing cells in culture followed by flow cytometry also demonstrated the presence of significantly fewer cells in S-phase in HCV-infected relative to mock cultures, suggesting HCV infection is associated with delayed cell cycle progression. Regulation of numerous genes involved in anti-oxidative stress response and TGF-beta1 signaling suggest these as possible causes of delayed cell cycle progression. Significantly, a subset of cell-death genes regulated during in vitro HCV infection was similarly regulated specifically in liver tissue from a cohort of HCV-infected liver transplant patients with rapidly progressive fibrosis. Collectively, these data suggest that HCV mediates direct cytopathic effects through deregulation of the cell cycle and that this process may contribute to liver disease progression. This in vitro system could be utilized to further define the cellular mechanism of this perturbation.

  1. Systems Biology Analysis of Brucella Infected Peyer's Patch Reveals Rapid Invasion with Modest Transient Perturbations of the Host Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Carlos A.; Drake, Kenneth L.; Siddavatam, Prasad; Lawhon, Sara D.; Nunes, Jairo E. S.; Gull, Tamara; Khare, Sangeeta; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris A.; Adams, Leslie Garry

    2013-01-01

    Brucella melitensis causes the most severe and acute symptoms of all Brucella species in human beings and infects hosts primarily through the oral route. The epithelium covering domed villi of jejunal-ileal Peyer's patches is an important site of entry for several pathogens, including Brucella. Here, we use the calf ligated ileal loop model to study temporal in vivo Brucella-infected host molecular and morphological responses. Our results document Brucella bacteremia occurring within 30 min after intraluminal inoculation of the ileum without histopathologic traces of lesions. Based on a system biology Dynamic Bayesian Network modeling approach (DBN) of microarray data, a very early transient perturbation of the host enteric transcriptome was associated with the initial host response to Brucella contact that is rapidly averted allowing invasion and dissemination. A detailed analysis revealed active expression of Syndecan 2, Integrin alpha L and Integrin beta 2 genes, which may favor initial Brucella adhesion. Also, two intestinal barrier-related pathways (Tight Junction and Trefoil Factors Initiated Mucosal Healing) were significantly repressed in the early stage of infection, suggesting subversion of mucosal epithelial barrier function to facilitate Brucella transepithelial migration. Simultaneously, the strong activation of the innate immune response pathways would suggest that the host mounts an appropriate protective immune response; however, the expression of the two key genes that encode innate immunity anti-Brucella cytokines such as TNF-α and IL12p40 were not significantly changed throughout the study. Furthermore, the defective expression of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling pathways may partially explain the lack of proinflammatory cytokine production and consequently the absence of morphologically detectable inflammation at the site of infection. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the in vivo pathogenesis of the early infectious process of Brucella is

  2. Systems biology analysis of Brucella infected Peyer's patch reveals rapid invasion with modest transient perturbations of the host transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rossetti

    Full Text Available Brucella melitensis causes the most severe and acute symptoms of all Brucella species in human beings and infects hosts primarily through the oral route. The epithelium covering domed villi of jejunal-ileal Peyer's patches is an important site of entry for several pathogens, including Brucella. Here, we use the calf ligated ileal loop model to study temporal in vivo Brucella-infected host molecular and morphological responses. Our results document Brucella bacteremia occurring within 30 min after intraluminal inoculation of the ileum without histopathologic traces of lesions. Based on a system biology Dynamic Bayesian Network modeling approach (DBN of microarray data, a very early transient perturbation of the host enteric transcriptome was associated with the initial host response to Brucella contact that is rapidly averted allowing invasion and dissemination. A detailed analysis revealed active expression of Syndecan 2, Integrin alpha L and Integrin beta 2 genes, which may favor initial Brucella adhesion. Also, two intestinal barrier-related pathways (Tight Junction and Trefoil Factors Initiated Mucosal Healing were significantly repressed in the early stage of infection, suggesting subversion of mucosal epithelial barrier function to facilitate Brucella transepithelial migration. Simultaneously, the strong activation of the innate immune response pathways would suggest that the host mounts an appropriate protective immune response; however, the expression of the two key genes that encode innate immunity anti-Brucella cytokines such as TNF-α and IL12p40 were not significantly changed throughout the study. Furthermore, the defective expression of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling pathways may partially explain the lack of proinflammatory cytokine production and consequently the absence of morphologically detectable inflammation at the site of infection. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the in vivo pathogenesis of the early infectious process

  3. On Sequence Lengths of Some Special External Exclusive OR Type LFSR Structures – Study and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the length of pseudo-random binary sequences generated by Linear- Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs plays an important role in the design approaches of built-in selftest, cryptosystems, and other applications. However, certain LFSR structures might not be appropriate in some situations. Given that determining the length of generated pseudo-random binary sequence is a complex task, therefore, before using an LFSR structure, it is essential to investigate the length and the properties of the sequence. This paper investigates some conditions and LFSR’s structures, which restrict the pseudo-random binary sequences’ generation to a certain fixed length. The outcomes of this paper are presented in the form of theorems, simulations, and analyses. We believe that these outcomes are of great importance to the designers of built-in self-test equipment, cryptosystems, and other applications such as radar, CDMA, error correction, and Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Analysis of telomere length in Dolly, a sheep derived by nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, P G; Kind, A J; Campbell, K H; Wilmut, I; Waddington, D; Colman, A; Schnieke, A E

    1999-01-01

    We have used a (TTAGGG) oligonucleotide probe to demonstrate that ovine telomeres are composed of (TTAGGG) repeat arrays and to compare the terminal restriction fragment lengths of sheep derived by natural mating and nuclear transfer. Here we show that ovine somatic telomeres decrease in length with age, and that Dolly, derived by the transfer of 6-year-old adult somatic nucleus, exhibits diminished terminal restriction fragment lengths. The decrease is consistent with the age of the donor tissue and telomere erosion during in vitro culture. Nuclear transfer does not restore telomere lengths. Dolly otherwise appears physiologically and phenotypically normal for her breed and age. We further report on apparent telomere lengthening in sheep, occurring during the first year in naturally derived lambs.

  5. A meta-analysis of the relationship between anxiety and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Schutte, Nicola S

    2017-05-01

    Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomeres are associated with poor physical health. The present study set out to consolidate the varying effect sizes found so far in studies of anxiety and telomere length. A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between anxiety and telomere length used information from 17 different samples comprising a total of 19,424 participants. The results showed a small but significant association, r = -.06, between higher anxiety and shorter telomeres. Studies comparing individuals diagnosed with an anxiety disorder with other individuals had a significant effect size, and studies that did not use this comparison threshold did not have a significant effect size. Anxiety is associated with an important biomarker related to health. Future experimental studies that examine the impact of interventions intended to reduce anxiety in conjunction with measurement of telomere length can further clarify the impact of anxiety on telomere length.

  6. Blood capillary length estimation from three-dimensional microscopic data by image analysis and stereology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubínová, Lucie; Mao, Xiao Wen; Janáček, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the capillary bed characterized by its length or length density are relevant in many biomedical studies. A reliable assessment of capillary length from two-dimensional (2D), thin histological sections is a rather difficult task as it requires physical cutting of such sections in randomized directions. This is often technically demanding, inefficient, or outright impossible. However, if 3D image data of the microscopic structure under investigation are available, methods of length estimation that do not require randomized physical cutting of sections may be applied. Two different rat brain regions were optically sliced by confocal microscopy and resulting 3D images processed by three types of capillary length estimation methods: (1) stereological methods based on a computer generation of isotropic uniform random virtual test probes in 3D, either in the form of spatial grids of virtual "slicer" planes or spherical probes; (2) automatic method employing a digital version of the Crofton relations using the Euler characteristic of planar sections of the binary image; and (3) interactive "tracer" method for length measurement based on a manual delineation in 3D of the axes of capillary segments. The presented methods were compared in terms of their practical applicability, efficiency, and precision.

  7. Failure analysis of fuel cell electrodes using three-dimensional multi-length scale X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, A.; El Hannach, M.; Orfino, F. P.; Dutta, M.; Kjeang, E.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT), a non-destructive technique, is proposed for three-dimensional, multi-length scale characterization of complex failure modes in fuel cell electrodes. Comparative tomography data sets are acquired for a conditioned beginning of life (BOL) and a degraded end of life (EOL) membrane electrode assembly subjected to cathode degradation by voltage cycling. Micro length scale analysis shows a five-fold increase in crack size and 57% thickness reduction in the EOL cathode catalyst layer, indicating widespread action of carbon corrosion. Complementary nano length scale analysis shows a significant reduction in porosity, increased pore size, and dramatically reduced effective diffusivity within the remaining porous structure of the catalyst layer at EOL. Collapsing of the structure is evident from the combination of thinning and reduced porosity, as uniquely determined by the multi-length scale approach. Additionally, a novel image processing based technique developed for nano scale segregation of pore, ionomer, and Pt/C dominated voxels shows an increase in ionomer volume fraction, Pt/C agglomerates, and severe carbon corrosion at the catalyst layer/membrane interface at EOL. In summary, XCT based multi-length scale analysis enables detailed information needed for comprehensive understanding of the complex failure modes observed in fuel cell electrodes.

  8. Identification of fungemia agents using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Prompt and specific identification of fungemia agents is important in order to define clinical treatment. However, in most cases conventional culture identification can be considered to be time-consuming and not without errors. The aim of the present study was to identify the following fungemia agents: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, and Histoplasma capsulatum using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP. More specifically: a to evaluate 3 different amplification regions, b to investigate 3 different restriction enzymes, and c to use the best PCR/RFLP procedure to indentify 60 fungemia agents from a culture collection. All 3 pairs of primers (ITS1/ITS4, NL4/ITS5 and Primer1/Primer2 were able to amplify DNA from the reference strains. However, the size of these PCR products did not permit the identification of all the species studied. Three restriction enzymes were used to digest the PCR products: HaeIII, Ddel and Bfal. Among the combinations of pairs of primers and restriction enzymes, only one (primer pair NL4/ITS5 and restriction enzyme Ddel produced a specific RFLP pattern for each microorganism studied. Sixty cultures of fungemia agents (selected from the culture collection of Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas - FMTAM were correctly identified by PCR/RFLP using the prime pair NL4/ITS5 and Ddel. We conclude that the method proved to be both simple and reproducible, and may offer potential advantages over phenotyping methods.

  9. Quantitative atom probe analysis of nanostructure containing clusters and precipitates with multiple length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, R.K.W.; Stephenson, L.T.; Hutchinson, C.R.; Ringer, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    A model Al-3Cu-(0.05 Sn) (wt%) alloy containing a bimodal distribution of relatively shear-resistant θ' precipitates and shearable GP zones is considered in this study. It has recently been shown that the addition of the GP zones to such microstructures can lead to significant increases in strength without a decrease in the uniform elongation. In this study, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the GP zones and the solute distribution in the bimodal microstructure as a function of applied plastic strain. Recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis has clearly shown strain-induced dissolution of the GP zones, which is supported by the current APT data with additional spatial information. There is significant repartitioning of Cu from the GP zones into the solid solution during deformation. A new approach for cluster finding in APT data has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the sizes and shapes of the Cu containing features in the solid solution solute as a function of applied strain. -- Research highlights: → A new approach for cluster finding in atom probe tomography (APT) data has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the sizes and shapes of the Cu containing features with multiple length scales. → In this study, a model Al-3Cu-(0.05 Sn) (wt%) alloy containing a bimodal distribution of relatively shear-resistant θ' precipitates and shearable GP zones is considered. → APT has been used to quantitatively characterise the evolution of the GP zones and the solute distribution in the bimodal microstructure as a function of applied plastic strain. → It is clearly shown that there is strain-induced dissolution of the GP zones with significant repartitioning of Cu from the GP zones into the solid solution during deformation.

  10. Complications and operative spine fusion construct length in Parkinson's disease: A nationwide population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Baker, Joseph F; Smith, Justin S; Line, Breton G; Hart, Robert A; Ames, Christopher P; Bess, R Shay

    2017-09-01

    There remains a dearth of information regarding the surgical complications following multilevel spine surgery in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. This retrospective cohort study was performed to address this issue on a nationwide level using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2001 to 2012. More than 25 postoperative variables were analyzed to assess the impact of fusion construct length on each variable. Subsequently, the same analysis was performed on admissions without PD. 4301 PD patients with spine fusion were identified, of whom 934 (21.7%) underwent fusion of at least three levels; the remaining 3367 underwent fusion of 1-2 levels. Patients with 3+ level fusions were more likely to suffer paraplegia (P=.001; OR=3.0; 95%CI=1.5-6.1), hematoma/seroma (P=.009; OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.2-3.2), IVC filter placement (P=.018; OR=2.1; 95%CI=1.1-3.9), RBC transfusion (Panemia (P1week (P<.001; OR=2.1; 95%CI=1.8-2.5), and a nonroutine discharge (P=.005; OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.4-2.4). 692,173 non-PD patients with spine fusion were identified; 123,964 (17.9%) underwent 3+ level fusion. Differences between 3+ versus 1-2 level fusions were similar to those in PD patient, but unlike PD patients, postoperative infection was significant while in-hospital mortality, PE and VTE were not. Fusion of at least three levels increased morbidity, mortality, and adverse discharge disposition compared with 1-2 level fusions. Nearly 80% of all spine fusions performed in the United States are fewer than three levels. These findings are worth considering during operative decision-making in both PD and non-PD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes

  12. Integrating vital rate variability into perturbation analysis: an evaluation for matrix population models of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Franco, M.

    2001-01-01

    1 Matrix population models are usually constructed by employing average values of vital rates (survival, growth and reproduction) for each size category. Perturbation analyses of matrix models assess the influence of vital rates or matrix elements on population growth rate. They consider the impact

  13. The Application of the Homotopy Analysis Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method to the Davey-Stewartson Equations and Comparison between Them and Exact Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zedan, Hassan A.; Barakati, W.; Hamad, Nada

    2013-01-01

    We introduce two powerful methods to solve the Davey-Stewartson equations: one is the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and the other is the homotopy analysis method (HAM). HAM is a strong and easy to use analytic tool for nonlinear problems. Comparison of the HPM results with the HAM results, and compute the absolute errors between the exact solutions of the DS equations with the HPM solutions and HAM solutions are obtained.

  14. Length distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous suspension measured by electrospray differential mobility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Leonard F; Tsai, De-Hao; Fagan, Jeffery A; Bauer, Barry J; Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2009-12-01

    The first characterization of the length distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) dispersed in a liquid by electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) is presented. Although an understanding of geometric properties of SWCNTs, including length, diameter, aspect ratio, and chirality, is essential for commercial applications, rapid characterization of nanotube length distributions remains challenging. Here the use of ES-DMA to obtain length distributions of DNA-wrapped SWCNTs dispersed in aqueous solutions is demonstrated. Lengths measured by ES-DMA compare favorably with those obtained from multiangle light scattering, dynamic light scattering, field flow fractionation with UV/vis detection, and atomic force microscopy, validating ES-DMA as a technique to measure SWCNTs of <250 nm in length. The nanotubes are previously purified and dispersed by wrapping with oligomeric DNA in aqueous solution and centrifuging to remove bundles and amorphous carbon. These dispersions are particularly attractive due to their amenability to bulk processing, ease of storage, high concentration, compatibility with biological and high-throughput manufacturing environments, and for their potential applications ranging from electronics and hydrogen-storage vessels to anticancer agents.

  15. High-resolution genotyping of Listeria monocytogenes by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, ribotyping, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Fussing, V.; Ojeniyi, B.

    2004-01-01

    of different origin. The AFLP technique was compared with three other molecular typing methods - ribotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) - in terms of discriminatory ability. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was included...... for virulence gene allele characterization. The 96 L. monocytogenes strains were divided into two major clusters by AFLP fingerprinting at a similarity level of 82% in concordance with the results of PFGE, RAPD, and ribotyping. One main cluster consisted of all of the 24 L. monocytogenes hly allele 1 strains...

  16. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node. In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78. In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs, enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately.

  17. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2016-07-07

    Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node). In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i) as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii) as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78). In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs), enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately.

  18. CFD analysis of blockage length on a partially blocked fuel rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuro, Nikolas Lymberis; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Angelo, Gabriel [Centro Universitário FEI (UNIFEI), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecânica; Angelo, Edvaldo, E-mail: nikolas.scuro@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br, E-mail: gangelo@fei.edu.br, E-mail: eangelo@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola da Engenharia. Grupo de Simulação Numérica

    2017-07-01

    In LOCA accidents, fuel rods may balloon by the increasing of pressure difference between fuel rod and core vessel. With the balloon effect, the swelling can partially block the flow channel, affecting the coolability during reflood phase. In order to analyze the influence of blockage length after LOCA events, many numerical simulations using Ansys-CFX code have been done in steady state condition, characterizing the final phase of reflood. Peaks of temperature are observed in the middle of the fuel rod, followed by a temperature drop. This effect is justified by the increasing of heat transfer coefficient, originated from the high turbulence effects. Therefore, this paper considers a radial blockage of 90%, varying just the blockage length. This study observed that, for the same boundary conditions, the longer the blockage length originated after LOCA events, the higher are the central temperatures in the fuel rod. (author)

  19. CFD analysis of blockage length on a partially blocked fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuro, Nikolas Lymberis; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Angelo, Gabriel; Angelo, Edvaldo

    2017-01-01

    In LOCA accidents, fuel rods may balloon by the increasing of pressure difference between fuel rod and core vessel. With the balloon effect, the swelling can partially block the flow channel, affecting the coolability during reflood phase. In order to analyze the influence of blockage length after LOCA events, many numerical simulations using Ansys-CFX code have been done in steady state condition, characterizing the final phase of reflood. Peaks of temperature are observed in the middle of the fuel rod, followed by a temperature drop. This effect is justified by the increasing of heat transfer coefficient, originated from the high turbulence effects. Therefore, this paper considers a radial blockage of 90%, varying just the blockage length. This study observed that, for the same boundary conditions, the longer the blockage length originated after LOCA events, the higher are the central temperatures in the fuel rod. (author)

  20. The impact of article length on the number of future citations: a bibliometric analysis of general medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Zarkali, Angeliki; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Bardakas, Vangelis; Mavros, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    The number of citations received is considered an index of study quality and impact. We aimed to examine the factors associated with the number of citations of published articles, focusing on the article length. Original human studies published in the first trimester of 2006 in 5 major General Medicine journals were analyzed with regard to the number of authors and of author-affiliated institutions, title and abstract word count, article length (number of print pages), number of bibliographic references, study design, and 2006 journal impact factor (JIF). A multiple linear regression model was employed to identify the variables independently associated with the number of article citations received through January 2012. On univariate analysis the JIF, number of authors, article length, study design (interventional/observational and prospective/retrospective), title and abstract word count, number of author-affiliated institutions, and number of references were all associated with the number of citations received. On multivariate analysis with the logarithm of citations as the dependent variable, only article length [regression coefficient: 14.64 (95% confidence intervals: (5.76-23.50)] and JIF [3.37 (1.80-4.948)] independently predicted the number of citations. The variance of citations explained by these parameters was 51.2%. In a sample of articles published in major General Medicine journals, in addition to journal impact factors, article length and number of authors independently predicted the number of citations. This may reflect a higher complexity level and quality of longer and multi-authored studies.

  1. Length of hospital stay after craniotomy for tumor: a National Surgical Quality Improvement Program analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Liu, Kevin X; Devine, Christopher A; Chavakula, Vamsidhar; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Although the length of hospital stay is often used as a measure of quality of care, data evaluating the predictors of extended hospital stay after craniotomy for tumor are limited. The goals of this study were to use multivariate regression to examine which preoperative characteristics and postoperative complications predict a prolonged hospital stay and to assess the impact of length of stay on unplanned hospital readmission. METHODS Data were extracted from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2007 to 2013. Patients who underwent craniotomy for resection of a brain tumor were included. Stratification was based on length of hospital stay, which was dichotomized by the upper quartile of the interquartile range (IQR) for the entire population. Covariates included patient age, sex, race, tumor histology, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, functional status, preoperative laboratory values, preoperative neurological deficits, operative time, and postoperative complications. Multivariate logistic regression with forward prediction was used to evaluate independent predictors of extended hospitalization. Thereafter, hierarchical multivariate logistic regression assessed the impact of length of stay on unplanned readmission. RESULTS The study included 11,510 patients. The median hospital stay was 4 days (IQR 3-8 days), and 27.7% (n = 3185) had a hospital stay of at least 8 days. Independent predictors of extended hospital stay included age greater than 70 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28%-1.83%, p craniotomy for tumor score was created based on preoperative factors significant in regression models, with a moderate correlation with length of stay (p = 0.43, p craniotomy for tumor, much of the variance in hospital stay was attributable to baseline patient characteristics, suggesting length of stay may be an imperfect proxy for quality. Additionally, longer hospitalizations were not found to be associated

  2. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  3. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  4. Taylor-plasticity-based analysis of length scale effects in void growth

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Junxian

    2014-09-25

    We have studied the void growth problem by employing the Taylor-based strain gradient plasticity theories, from which we have chosen the following three, namely, the mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity (Gao et al 1999 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47 1239, Huang et al 2000 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48 99-128), the Taylor-based nonlocal theory (TNT; 2001 Gao and Huang 2001 Int. J. Solids Struct. 38 2615) and the conventional theory of MSG (CMSG; Huang et al 2004 Int. J. Plast. 20 753). We have addressed the following three issues which occur when plastic deformation at the void surface is unconstrained. (1) Effects of elastic deformation. Elasticity is essential for cavitation instability. It is therefore important to guarantee that the gradient term entering the Taylor model is the effective plastic strain gradient instead of the total strain gradient. We propose a simple elastic-plastic decomposition method. When the void size approaches the minimum allowable initial void size related to the maximum allowable geometrically necessary dislocation density, overestimation of the flow stress due to the negligence of the elastic strain gradient is on the order of lεY/R0 near the void surface, where l, εY and R0 are, respectively, the intrinsic material length scale, the yield strain and the initial void radius. (2) MSG intrinsic inconsistency, which was initially mentioned in Gao et al (1999 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47 1239) but has not been the topic of follow-up studies. We realize that MSG higher-order stress arises due to the linear-strain-field approximation within the mesoscale cell with a nonzero size, lε. Simple analysis shows that within an MSG mesoscale cell near the void surface, the difference between microscale and mesoscale strains is on the order of (lε/R0)2, indicating that when lε/R0 ∼ 1.0, the higher-order stress effect can make the MSG result considerably different from the TNT or CMSG results. (3) Critical condition for cavitation instability

  5. A double perturbation method of postbuckling analysis in 2D curved beams for assembly of 3D ribbon-shaped structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhichao; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui

    2018-02-01

    Mechanically-guided 3D assembly based on controlled, compressive buckling represents a promising, emerging approach for forming complex 3D mesostructures in advanced materials. Due to the versatile applicability to a broad set of material types (including device-grade single-crystal silicon) over length scales from nanometers to centimeters, a wide range of novel applications have been demonstrated in soft electronic systems, interactive bio-interfaces as well as tunable electromagnetic devices. Previously reported 3D designs relied mainly on finite element analyses (FEA) as a guide, but the massive numerical simulations and computational efforts necessary to obtain the assembly parameters for a targeted 3D geometry prevent rapid exploration of engineering options. A systematic understanding of the relationship between a 3D shape and the associated parameters for assembly requires the development of a general theory for the postbuckling process. In this paper, a double perturbation method is established for the postbuckling analyses of planar curved beams, of direct relevance to the assembly of ribbon-shaped 3D mesostructures. By introducing two perturbation parameters related to the initial configuration and the deformation, the highly nonlinear governing equations can be transformed into a series of solvable, linear equations that give analytic solutions to the displacements and curvatures during postbuckling. Systematic analyses of postbuckling in three representative ribbon shapes (sinusoidal, polynomial and arc configurations) illustrate the validity of theoretical method, through comparisons to the results of experiment and FEA. These results shed light on the relationship between the important deformation quantities (e.g., mode ratio and maximum strain) and the assembly parameters (e.g., initial configuration and the applied strain). This double perturbation method provides an attractive route to the inverse design of ribbon-shaped 3D geometries, as

  6. Analysis of surface bond lengths reported for chemisorption on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of bond length information available from the techniques of surface crystallography (particularly with LEED, SEXAFS and photoelectron diffraction) for chemisorption on well-defined surfaces of metals (M). For adsorbed main-group atoms (X), measured X-M interatomic distances for 38 combinations of X and M have been assessed with a bond order-bond length relation in combination with the Schomaker-Stevenson approach for determining single-bond lengths. When the surface bond orders are fixed primarily by the valency of X, this approach appears to provide a simple framework for predicing X-M surface bond lengths. Further, in cases where agreement has been reached from different surface crystallographic techniques, this framework has the potential for assessing refinements to the surface bonding model (e.g. in determining the roles of the effective surface valency of M, and of coordinate bonding and supplementary π bonding between X and M). Preliminary comparisons of structural data are also given for molecular adsorption (CO and ethylidyne) and for the chemisorption of other metal atoms.

  7. Quantitative Classification of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Root Length and Diameter Using Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongxiang; Zhen, Fengxian; Hannaway, David B; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Leilei; Cao, Weixing; Tang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative study of root morphological characteristics of plants is helpful for understanding the relationships between their morphology and function. However, few studies and little detailed and accurate information of root characteristics were reported in fine-rooted plants like rice (Oryza sativa L.). The aims of this study were to quantitatively classify fine lateral roots (FLRs), thick lateral roots (TLRs), and nodal roots (NRs) and analyze their dynamics of mean diameter (MD), lengths and surface area percentage with growth stages in rice plant. Pot experiments were carried out during three years with three rice cultivars, three nitrogen (N) rates and three water regimes. In cultivar experiment, among the three cultivars, root length of 'Yangdao 6' was longest, while the MD of its FLR was the smallest, and the mean diameters for TLR and NR were the largest, the surface area percentage (SAP) of TLRs (SAPT) was the highest, indicating that Yangdao 6 has better nitrogen and water uptake ability. High N rate increased the length of different types of roots and increased the MD of lateral roots, decreased the SAP of FLRs (SAPF) and TLRs, but increased the SAP of NRs (SAPN). Moderate decrease of water supply increased root length and diameter, water stress increased the SAPF and SAPT, but decreased SAPN. The quantitative results indicate that rice plant tends to increase lateral roots to get more surface area for nitrogen and water uptake when available assimilates are limiting under nitrogen and water stress environments.

  8. Length of unemployment and health-related outcomes: a life-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janlert, Urban; Winefield, Anthony H; Hammarström, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Most previous studies on the effects of length of unemployment on health have focused on the duration of continuous spells of unemployment rather than on the cumulative length of intermittent spells. This study analysed the relationship between the cumulative length of intermittent spells of unemployment and different health-related outcomes using data from a longitudinal study of school leavers. All pupils who completed compulsory schooling in 1981 in a medium-sized town in northern Sweden (N = 1083) were followed for 14 years with repeated questionnaires including questions about unemployment, health and health behaviour. Men tended to react with a steady state or a levelling off of health symptoms with increased unemployment, whereas women showed deteriorating health symptoms. For health behaviour the reverse occurred. Women's health behaviour was less connected with increased unemployment while men's health behaviour tended to deteriorate. Cumulative length of unemployment is correlated with deteriorated health and health behaviour. Long-term unemployment, even as a result of cumulated shorter employment spells over a number of years should be an urgent target for policy makers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication in coated finite length line contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alakhramsing, S. S.; De Rooij, M. B.; Schipper, D. J.; Van Drogen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the finite lengths of components, such as cam-roller followers pairs, rolling element bearings, gear teeth etc., high stresses are typically generated towards the extremities of the contact, often referred to as edge loading. Therefore axial surface profiling of the components is often

  10. Genotyping and genetic diversity of Arcobacter butzleri by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Amisu, K.O.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the potential of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiling for genotyping Arcobacter butzleri and to obtain further data on the genetic diversity of this organism. Methods and Results: Seventy-three isolates of Danish, British, Turkish, Swedish, Nigerian and Nor...

  11. The Length of a Pestle: A Class Exercise in Measurement and Statistical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the simple exercise of measuring the length of an object as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating the resulting data. Discusses the procedure, significant figures, measurement error, spurious data, rejection of results, precision and accuracy, and student responses. (TW)

  12. Differential laser-induced perturbation Raman spectroscopy: a comparison with Raman spectroscopy for analysis and classification of amino acids and dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Erman K; Smith, Sarah E; Hahn, David W

    2015-04-01

    Differential-laser induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS) is a new spectral analysis technique for classification and identification, with key potential applications for analysis of complex biomolecular systems. DLIPS takes advantage of the complex ultraviolet (UV) laser–material interactions based on difference spectroscopy by coupling low intensity UV laser perturbation with a traditional spectroscopy probe. Here, we quantify the DLIPS performance using a Raman scattering probe in classification of basic constituents of collagenous tissues, namely, the amino acids glycine, L-proline, and L-alanine, and the dipeptides glycine–glycine, glycine–alanine and glycine–proline and compare the performance to a traditional Raman spectroscopy probe via several multivariate analyses. We find that the DLIPS approach yields an ~40% improvement in discrimination among these tissue building blocks. The effects of the 193-nm perturbation laser are further examined by assessing the photodestruction of targeted material molecular bonds. The DLIPS method with a Raman probe holds promise for future tissue diagnosis, either as a stand-alone technique or as part of an orthogonal biosensing scheme.

  13. Factors associated with length of hospital stay in minor and moderate burns at Popayan, Colombia. Analysis of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Zúñiga, Marco Fidel; Castro Delgado, Oscar Eduardo; Merchán-Galvis, Angela María; Caicedo, Juan Carlos Caicedo; Calvache, Jose Andrés; Delgado-Noguera, Mario

    2016-02-01

    To determine the independent contribution of prognostic factors to length of hospital stay of minor and moderate burn victims at the Hospital Universitario San José (HUSJ), Popayán, Colombia, 2000-2010. This was a retrospective cohort study of minor and moderate burn victims admitted between 2000 and 2010, at the burn unit (HUSJ). This is a further analysis of a same cohort previously published in Burns. The following variables were recorded and analyzed: age, gender, origin, depth and extent of burn, causal agent, length of hospital stay and mortality. The main outcome under study was length of stay. Survival analysis was done to explore the association of covariates and length of hospital stay and Cox regression model to adjust the effect of covariates in the outcome. During the study period 2000-2010, 842 of 921 (91.5%) patients treated at the Burn Unit of HUSJ that had complete data were included. There were 520 (61.8%) males and 322 (38.2%) females with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Their median age was 9 years (IQR 3-28). The median of percent total body surface area burned (TBSA) was 12% (IQR 7-21) and the most common degree of burn was 2nd degree with 58% (488 patients). There were 12 deaths (censored data) and 830 patients were discharged alive. After multivariate adjustment, significant associations with length of hospital stay remained for age group, burn degree and extension of the burn. The strongest relationship found was for burn degree (2nd degree superficial vs. 3rd degree hazard ratio=2.66 CI 95% [2.13-3.33]). In patients admitted with mild and moderate burns at HUSJ, the main predictors of length of stay were age, burn degree and extension of the burn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Construction and analysis of full-length cDNA library of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Junya; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Sugano, Sumio; Kawano, Suguru; Fujisaki, Kozo; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Watanabe, Junichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kimata, Isao; Xuan, Xuenan

    2011-06-01

    A full-length cDNA library was constructed from the sporozoite of Cryptosporidium parvum. Normalized clones were subjected to Solexa shotgun sequencing, and then complete sequences for 1066 clones were reconfigured. Detailed analyses of the sequences revealed that 13.5% of the transcripts were spliced; the average and median 5' UTR lengths were 213.5 and 122 nucleotides, respectively. There were 148 inconsistencies out of 562 examined genes between the experimentally described cDNA sequence and the predicted sequence from its genome. In addition, we identified 118 sequences that had little homology against annotated genes of C. parvum as prospective candidates for addable genes. These observations should improve the reliability of C. parvum transcriptome and provide a versatile resource for further studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ABSOLUTE BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE ALS BY INCOHERENTSYNCHROTRON RADIATION FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Zolotorev, Max S.; Filippetto, Daniele; Stupakov, Gennady V.

    2007-06-22

    By analysing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations ofthe radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of thespectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatialdistribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested asimple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolutemeasurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and theexperimental results are presented.

  16. An Analysis of Air Passenger Average Trip Lengths and Fare Levels in US Domestic Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Sheng-Chen Alex

    2000-01-01

    At a national level it is common to express the amount of air travel in terms of the number of revenue passenger miles flown or the number of enplaned passengers. This provides a way to resolve the difficulty of how to aggregate measures of air travel in many different markets of many different distances. However, information about the distribution of trip lengths is lost in the process. This information is of interest for a number of reasons. The ...

  17. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloot, Lizeth H; van den Noort, Josien C; van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms). Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally measure reflexes during

  18. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  19. Telomere length analysis in monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis and chronic lymphocytic leukemia Binet A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Furtado

    Full Text Available Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL is an asymptomatic clinical entity characterized by the proliferation of monoclonal B cells not meeting the diagnosis criteria for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. MBL may precede the development of CLL, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for disease progression and evolution are not completely known. Telomeres are usually short in CLL and their attrition may contribute to disease evolution. Here, we determined the telomere lengths of CD5+CD19+ cells in MBL, CLL, and healthy volunteers. Twenty-one CLL patients, 11 subjects with high-count MBL, and 6 with low-count MBL were enrolled. Two hundred and sixty-one healthy volunteers aged 0 to 88 years were studied as controls. After diagnosis confirmation, a flow cytometry CD19+CD5+-based cell sorting was performed for the study groups. Telomere length was determined by qPCR. Telomere length was similar in the 3 study groups but shorter in these groups compared to normal age-matched subjects that had been enrolled in a previous study from our group. These findings suggest that telomere shortening is an early event in CLL leukemogenesis.

  20. Generation and Analysis of Full-length cDNA Sequences from Elephant Shark (Callorhinchus milii)

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2009-03-17

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest living group of jawed vertebrates and therefore is an important group for understanding the evolution of vertebrate genomes including the human genome. Our laboratory has proposed elephant shark (C. milii) as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its relatively small genome size (910 Mb). The whole genome of C. milii is being sequenced (first cartilaginous fish genome to be sequenced completely). To characterize the transcriptome of C. milii and to assist in annotating exon-intron boundaries, transcriptional start sites and alternatively spliced transcripts, we are generating full-length cDNA sequences from C. milii.

  1. Length of time to first job for immigrants in the United Kingdom: An exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuYin (Helen Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether ethnicity affects immigrants’ time to first employment. Many studies on labour/social inequalities focus on modeling cross-sectional or panel data when comparing ethnic minority to majority groups in terms of their employment patterns. Results from these models, however, do not measure the degree of transition-duration penalties experienced by immigrant groups. Because time itself is an important variable, and to bridge the gap between literature and methodology, a lifecourse perspective and a duration model are employed to examine the length of transition that immigrants require to find first employment.

  2. Length of time to first job for immigrants in the United Kingdom: An exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuYin (Helen Wong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether ethnicity affects immigrants’ time to first employment. Many studies on labour/social inequalities focus on modeling cross-sectional or panel data when comparing ethnic minority to majority groups in terms of their employment patterns. Results from these models, however, do not measure the degree of transition-duration penalties experienced by immigrant groups. Because time itself is an important variable, and to bridge the gap between literature and methodology, a lifecourse perspective and a duration model are employed to examine the length of transition that immigrants require to find first employment.

  3. Evaluation of design parameters of dental implant shape, diameter and length on stress distribution: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Ibrahim, M; Thulasingam, C; Nasser, K S G A; Balaji, V; Rajakumar, M; Rupkumar, P

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the design parameters of dental implants shape, diameter and length on stress distribution by finite element analysis (FEA).The objectives of the study was to compare the influence of stress distribution in the implants of screw-vent tapered and parallel design by varying the implant diameter with a standard implant length. Six dental implant models have been simulated three-dimensionally. The influence of diameter and length on stress distribution was evaluated by Group I: for screw-vent tapered design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (1) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (2) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (3) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. Group II: for parallel design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (4) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (5) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (6) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. The 3-D model of the implant was created in the pro-e wildfire 4.0 software by giving various commands. This model was imported to the ANSYS software through IGES (initial graphic exchange specification) file for further analysis. All six models were loaded with a force of 17.1, 114.6 and 23.4 N in a lingual, an axial and disto-mesial direction respectively, simulating average masticatory force in a natural oblique direction, to analyze the stress distribution on these implants. The increase in implant diameter in Group I and Group II from 3.7 to 4.1 mm and from 4.1 to 4.7 mm with constant 13 mm length for screw-vent tapered and parallel design implant resulted in a reduction in maximum value of Von Mises stress in the bone surrounding the implant was statistically significant at 5% level done by student "t" test. The overall maximum value of Von Mises stress was decreased in parallel design implant diameter of 4.7 mm with constant

  4. Formation and analysis of topographical domains between lipid membranes tethered by DNA hybrids of different lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Minsub; Koo, Bon Jun; Boxer, Steven G

    2013-01-01

    We recently described a strategy to prepare DNA-tethered lipid membranes either to fixed DNA on a surface or to DNA displayed on a supported bilayer [Boxer et al., J. Struct. Biol., 2009, 168, 190; Boxer et al., Langmuir, 2011, 27, 5492]. With the latter system, the DNA hybrids are laterally mobile; when orthogonal sense-antisense pairs of different lengths are used, the DNA hybrids segregate by height and the tethered membrane deforms to accommodate the height difference. This architecture is particularly useful for modelling interactions between membranes mediated by molecular recognition and resembles cell-to-cell junctions. The length, affinity and population of the DNA hybrids between the membranes are completely controllable. Interesting patterns of height segregation are observed by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy. Diverse behavior is observed in the segregation and pattern forming process and possible mechanisms are discussed. This model system captures some of the essential physics of synapse formation and is a step towards understanding lipid membrane behaviour in cell-to-cell junctions.

  5. Ionospheric perturbations due to earthquakes as determined from VLF and GPS-TEC data analysis at Agra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhananjali; Singh, Birbal; Pundhir, Devbrat

    2018-04-01

    Employing SoftPAL receiver, amplitude variations of VLF transmitter signals NWC (19.8 kHz) and NPM (21.4 kHz) are analyzed at Agra station in India (Geograph. lat. 27.2°N, long. 78°E) ±15 days from five major earthquakes of magnitude M = 6.9-8.5 occurred in Indian subcontinent during the years 2011-2013. We apply nighttime fluctuation (NF) method and show that in almost all cases the trend decreases and dispersion and NF increase on the same days corresponding to each earthquake about 11-15 days prior to the main shock. Assuming that the ionospheric perturbations are caused by atmospheric gravity waves (AGW), we also calculate AGW modulation index for each case and find its values increased on the days amplitude fluctuations take place. Its value is decreased in one case only where the perturbations may be attributed to penetration of seismogenic electric field. In order to support the above results we also present GPS-TEC data analyzed by us corresponding to three of the above earthquakes. We study the TEC anomalies (unusual enhancements) and find that in one case the precursory period is almost the same as that found in NF method.

  6. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with .... terms of the effective Lagrangian at two-loop or O(p6) order is now available [12]. The formidable task of ... and straightforward manner for the system and are of great importance for the analysis of experimental ...

  7. Coherence length determination of meso-meso linked porphyrin arrays based on forward-backward pair trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeongwon; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Dongho; Sim, Eunji

    2008-06-12

    We investigated the excitation energy transfer process of meso-meso linked zinc(II) porphyrin arrays using the on-the-fly filtered propagator path integral method. Details of the dynamics such as coherence length of a porphyrin array are estimated by analysis of the characteristics of forward-backward pair trajectories. Upon examination of the convergence of the reduced density matrix with respect to the subset of Hilbert space trajectories, we determine the number of porphyrin units that form collective coherent states, that is, the coherence length. Simulation results show that the coherence length of zinc(II) porphyrin arrays is up to 4 units, which agrees excellently with experimental observations. On the other hand, the energy bias provided by the energy-accepting 5,15-bisphenylethynylated zinc(II) porphyrin reduces the degree of coherence which becomes negligible for an array with more than for porphyrin units. Considering conformational inhomogeneity, we found that the experimentally determined coherence length is the result of electronic and environmental influence rather than the structure disorder. Temperature dependence is also discussed.

  8. Toward the Physical Basis of Complex Systems: Dielectric Analysis of Porous Silicon Nanochannels in the Electrical Double Layer Length Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mircea Ciuceanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric analysis (DEA shows changes in the properties of
    a materials as a response to the application on it of a time dependent electric field. Dielectric measurements are extremely sensitive to small changes in materials properties, that molecular relaxation, dipole changes, local motions that involve the reorientation of dipoles, and so can be observed by DEA. Electrical double layer (EDL, consists in a shielding layer that is naturally created within the liquid near a charged surface. The thickness of the EDL is given by the characteristic Debye length what grows less with the ionic strength defined by half summ products of concentration with square of charge for all solvent
    ions (co-ions, counterions, charged molecules. The typical length scale for the Debye length is on the order of 1 nm, depending on the ionic contents in the solvent; thus, the EDL becomes significant for nano-capillaries that nanochannels. The electrokinetic e®ects in the nanochannels depend essentialy on the distribution of charged species in EDL, described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation those solutions require the solvent dielectric permittivity. In this work we propose a model for solvent low-frequency permittivity and a DEA profile taking into account both the porous silicon electrode and aqueous solvent properties in the Debye length range.

  9. Perturbative Noncommutative Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, E J

    1999-01-01

    I propose a nonperturbative regularization of quantum field theories with contact interactions (primarily, scalar field theories). This is given by the geometric quantization of compact Kähler manifolds and generalizes what has already been proposed by Madore, Grosse, Klimčík, and Prešnajder for the two-sphere. I discuss the perturbation theory derived from this regularized model and propose an approximation technique for evaluating the Feynman diagrams. This amounts to a momentum cutoff combined with phase factors at vertices. To illustrate the exact and approximate calculations, I present, as examples, the simplest diagrams for the lf4 model on the spaces S2,S 2×S2 , and CP2 . This regularization fails for noncompact spaces. I give a brief dimensional analysis argument as to why this is so. I also discuss the relevance of the topology of Feynman diagrams to their ultra-violet and infra-red divergence behavior in this model.

  10. Chemosensitivity of human small cell carcinoma of the lung detected by flow cytometric DNA analysis of drug-induced cell cycle perturbations in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, S A; Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L L

    1986-01-01

    A method based on detection of drug-induced cell cycle perturbation by flow cytometric DNA analysis has previously been described in Ehrlich ascites tumors as a way to estimate chemosensitivity. The method is extended to test human small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Three tumors with different...... sensitivities to melphalan in nude mice were used. Tumors were disaggregated by a combined mechanical and enzymatic method and thereafter have incubated with different doses of melphalan. After incubation the cells were plated in vitro on agar, and drug induced cell cycle changes were monitored by flow...

  11. Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild catfish Mystus bleekeri from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan. ... Linear regression analysis was used, first to compute the degree of relationship between length and weight and then among total (TL), standard (SL) and fork lengths (FL). LWR exhibited a highly ...

  12. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  13. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  14. A long path length spectroelectrochemical behavior analysis of the coabsorption system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhou, A; Xie, Q; Wei, W

    2000-08-16

    The coabsorption system in which both species Red and Ox absorb at the same wavelength was investigated by the long path length spectroelectrochemical technique. The variation of the system absorbance at the isosbestic point with time, which is strongly dependent upon the diffusion coefficients and their difference, was calculated by employing the method of digital simulation under semi-infinite condition. Simulated results indicated that each A(t)-t curve corresponded to definite values of D(R) and D(O) on the condition that D(R) is not equal to D(O). The species diffusion coefficients were evaluated by comparing the spectroelectrochemical experimental result at the isosbestic point with the simulated result, and experimentally verified by the study of electrooxidation of hydroquinone.

  15. Thermocouples calibration and analysis of the influence of the length of the sensor coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega, M; Ramírez, R; López, R; Vaca, M; Morales, J; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Chávez, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and construction of a lab prototype, with a much lower cost compared to the ones commercially sold, enabling the manufacture of thermocouples which are then calibrated to verify their functionality and acceptance. We also analyze the influence of the external insulation over the wires, to determine whether it influences temperature measurement. The tested lengths ranged from 0.00 m up to 0.030 m. The thermocouple was compared against the behavior of a thermocouple of the same type that was purchased with a commercial supplier. The obtained measurement showed less than 1 °C difference in some points. This makes the built thermocouple reliable, since the standard allows a difference of up to 2.2 °C

  16. Sequencing, mapping, and analysis of 27,455 maize full-length cDNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Soderlund

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Full-length cDNA (FLcDNA sequencing establishes the precise primary structure of individual gene transcripts. From two libraries representing 27 B73 tissues and abiotic stress treatments, 27,455 high-quality FLcDNAs were sequenced. The average transcript length was 1.44 kb including 218 bases and 321 bases of 5' and 3' UTR, respectively, with 8.6% of the FLcDNAs encoding predicted proteins of fewer than 100 amino acids. Approximately 94% of the FLcDNAs were stringently mapped to the maize genome. Although nearly two-thirds of this genome is composed of transposable elements (TEs, only 5.6% of the FLcDNAs contained TE sequences in coding or UTR regions. Approximately 7.2% of the FLcDNAs are putative transcription factors, suggesting that rare transcripts are well-enriched in our FLcDNA set. Protein similarity searching identified 1,737 maize transcripts not present in rice, sorghum, Arabidopsis, or poplar annotated genes. A strict FLcDNA assembly generated 24,467 non-redundant sequences, of which 88% have non-maize protein matches. The FLcDNAs were also assembled with 41,759 FLcDNAs in GenBank from other projects, where semi-strict parameters were used to identify 13,368 potentially unique non-redundant sequences from this project. The libraries, ESTs, and FLcDNA sequences produced from this project are publicly available. The annotated EST and FLcDNA assemblies are available through the maize FLcDNA web resource (www.maizecdna.org.

  17. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ribosomal RNA genes to assess changes in fungal community structure in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Dreumont, Christiane; Pérez-Piqueres, Ana; Steinberg, Christian

    2004-03-01

    Monitoring the structure and dynamics of fungal communities in soils under agricultural and environmental disturbances is currently a challenge. In this study, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting method was developed for the rapid comparison of fungal community structures. The terminal restriction fragment polymorphism of different regions of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was simulated by sequence comparison using 10 restriction enzymes, and analyzed among three different soils using fungal-specific primers. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 3' end of the SSU rRNA gene with the primer nu-SSU-0817-5' and with the fluorescently labelled primer nu-SSU-1536-3', and digestion of the amplicons with AluI and MboI were found to be optimal and were used in a standardized T-RFLP procedure. Both the number and the intensity of terminal restriction fragments detected by capillary gel electrophoresis were integrated in correspondence analyses. Three soils with contrasting physicochemical properties were differentiated according to the structure of their fungal communities. Assessment of the impact on the fungal community structure of the amendment of two soils with compost or manure confirmed the reproducibility and the sensitivity of the method. Shifts in the community structure were detected between non-amended and amended soil samples. In both soils, the shift differed with the organic amendment applied. In addition, the fungal community structures of the two soils were affected in a different way by the same organic amendment. The fingerprinting method provides a rapid tool to investigate the effect of various perturbations on the fungal communities in soils.

  18. Metaproteome analysis of the microbial community during leaf litter decomposition - the impact of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Leitner, S.; Hämmerle, I.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2012-04-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the breakdown of dead plant material, a terrestrial ecosystem process of paramount importance. Nutrients released during decomposition play a key role for microbial growth and plant productivity. These processes are controlled by abiotic factors, such as climate, and by biotic factors, such as litter nutrient concentration and stoichiometry (carbon:nutrient ratio) and activity of soil organisms. Future climate change scenarios predict temperature perturbations, therefore following changes of microbial community composition and possible feedbacks on ecosystem processes are of key interest; especially as our knowledge about the microbial regulation of these processes is still scarce. Our aim was to elucidate how temperature perturbations and leaf litter stoichiometry affect the composition of the microbial decomposer community. To this end a terrestrial microcosm experiment using beech (Fagus sylvatica) litter with different stoichiometry was conducted. In a semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; unique spectral counting) we used the intrinsic metabolic function of proteins to relate specific microbial activities to their phylogenetic origin in multispecies communities. Decomposer communities varied on litter with different stoichiometry so that microbial decomposers (fungi and bacteria) were favoured in litter with narrow C:nutrient ratios. The fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes) and Basidiomycota (Agaricomycetes) and the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The extracellular enzymes we detected belonged mainly to classes of xylanases, pectinases, cellulases and proteases and were almost exclusively of fungal origin (particularly Ascomycota). Temperature stress (heat and frost) evoked strong changes in community composition, enzyme activities, dissolved organic

  19. Analysis of mutation/rearrangement frequencies and methylation patterns at a given DNA locus using restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Alex; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a difference in DNA sequences of organisms belonging to the same species. RFLPs are typically detected as DNA fragments of different lengths after digestion with various restriction endonucleases. The comparison of RFLPs allows investigators to analyze the frequency of occurrence of mutations, such as point mutations, deletions, insertions, and gross chromosomal rearrangements, in the progeny of stressed plants. The assay involves restriction enzyme digestion of DNA followed by hybridization of digested DNA using a radioactively or enzymatically labeled probe. Since DNA can be digested with methylation sensitive enzymes, the assay can also be used to analyze a methylation pattern of a particular locus. Here, we describe RFLP analysis using methylation-insensitive and methylation-sensitive enzymes.

  20. Stability under persistent perturbation by white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyakin, L

    2014-01-01

    Deterministic dynamical system which has an asymptotical stable equilibrium is considered under persistent perturbation by white noise. It is well known that if the perturbation does not vanish in the equilibrium position then there is not Lyapunov's stability. The trajectories of the perturbed system diverge from the equilibrium to arbitrarily large distances with probability 1 in finite time. New concept of stability on a large time interval is discussed. The length of interval agrees the reciprocal quantity of the perturbation parameter. The measure of stability is the expectation of the square distance from the trajectory till the equilibrium position. The method of parabolic equation is applied to both estimate the expectation and prove such stability. The main breakthrough is the barrier function derived for the parabolic equation. The barrier is constructed by using the Lyapunov function of the unperturbed system

  1. Simulated glass-forming polymer melts: dynamic scattering functions, chain length effects, and mode-coupling theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S; Weysser, F; Meyer, H; Farago, J; Fuchs, M; Baschnagel, J

    2015-02-01

    We present molecular-dynamics simulations for a fully flexible model of polymer melts with different chain length N ranging from short oligomers (N = 4) to values near the entanglement length (N = 64). For these systems we explore the structural relaxation of the supercooled melt near the critical temperature T c of mode-coupling theory (MCT). Coherent and incoherent scattering functions are analyzed in terms of the idealized MCT. For temperatures T > T c we provide evidence for the space-time factorization property of the β relaxation and for the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) of the α relaxation, and we also discuss deviations from these predictions for T ≈ T c. For T larger than the smallest temperature where the TTSP holds we perform a quantitative analysis of the dynamics with the asymptotic MCT predictions for the late β regime. Within MCT a key quantity, in addition to T c, is the exponent parameter λ. For the fully flexible polymer models studied we find that λ is independent of N and has a value (λ = 0.735 ) typical of simple glass-forming liquids. On the other hand, the critical temperature increases with chain length toward an asymptotic value T c (∞) . This increase can be described by T c (∞) - T c(N) ∼ 1/N and may be interpreted in terms of the N dependence of the monomer density ρ, if we assume that the MCT glass transition is ruled by a soft-sphere-like constant coupling parameter Γ c = ρ c T c (-1/4), where ρ c is the monomer density at T c. In addition, we also estimate T c from a Hansen-Verlet-like criterion and MCT calculations based on structural input from the simulation. For our polymer model both the Hansen-Verlet criterion and the MCT calculations suggest T c to decrease with increasing chain length, in contrast to the direct analysis of the simulation data.

  2. A multi-resolution analysis of lidar-DTMs to identify geomorphic processes from characteristic topographic length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Characteristic length scales are often present in topography, and they reflect the driving geomorphic processes. The wide availability of high resolution lidar Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) allows us to measure such characteristic scales, but new methods of topographic analysis are needed in order to do so. Here, we explore how transitions in probability distributions (pdfs) of topographic variables such as (log(area/slope)), defined as topoindex by Beven and Kirkby[1979], can be measured by Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) of lidar DTMs [Stark and Stark, 2001; Sangireddy et al.,2012] and used to infer dominant geomorphic processes such as non-linear diffusion and critical shear. We show this correlation between dominant geomorphic processes to characteristic length scales by comparing results from a landscape evolution model to natural landscapes. The landscape evolution model MARSSIM Howard[1994] includes components for modeling rock weathering, mass wasting by non-linear creep, detachment-limited channel erosion, and bedload sediment transport. We use MARSSIM to simulate steady state landscapes for a range of hillslope diffusivity and critical shear stresses. Using the MRA approach, we estimate modal values and inter-quartile ranges of slope, curvature, and topoindex as a function of resolution. We also construct pdfs at each resolution and identify and extract characteristic scale breaks. Following the approach of Tucker et al.,[2001], we measure the average length to channel from ridges, within the GeoNet framework developed by Passalacqua et al.,[2010] and compute pdfs for hillslope lengths at each scale defined in the MRA. We compare the hillslope diffusivity used in MARSSIM against inter-quartile ranges of topoindex and hillslope length scales, and observe power law relationships between the compared variables for simulated landscapes at steady state. We plot similar measures for natural landscapes and are able to qualitatively infer the dominant geomorphic

  3. The perturbation theory in the fundamental mode. Its application to the analysis of neutronic experiments involving small amounts of materials in fast neutron multiplying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsak, Stanislav.

    1975-01-01

    The formalism of the perturbation theory at the first order, is developed in its simplest form: diffusion theory in the fundamental mode and then the more complex formalism of the transport theory in the fundamental mode. A comparison shows the effect of the angular correlation between the fine structures of the flux and its adjoint function, the difference in the treatment of neutron leakage phenomena, and the existence of new terms in the perturbation formula, entailing a reactivity representation in the diffusion theory that is not quite exact. Problems of using the formalism developed are considered: application of the multigroup formalism, transients of the flux and its adjoint function, validity of the first order approximation etc. A detailed analysis allows the formulation of a criterion specifying the validity range. Transients occuring in the reference medium are also treated. A set of numerical tests for determining a method of elimination of transient effects is presented. Some differential experiments are then discussed: sodium blowdown in enriched uranium or plutonium cores, experiments utilizing some structural materials (iron and oxygen) and plutonium sample oscillations. The Cadarache version II program was systematically used but the analysis of the experiments of plutonium sample oscillation in Ermine required the Cadarache version III program [fr

  4. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  5. Automated analysis of two-dimensional positions and body lengths of earthworms (Oligochaeta); MimizuTrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Naomi; Kimura, Toshifumi; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kaneda, Satoshi; Ohashi, Mizue; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are important soil macrofauna inhabiting almost all ecosystems. Their biomass is large and their burrowing and ingestion of soils alters soil physicochemical properties. Because of their large biomass, earthworms are regarded as an indicator of "soil heath". However, primarily because the difficulties in quantifying their behavior, the extent of their impact on soil material flow dynamics and soil health is poorly understood. Image data, with the aid of image processing tools, are a powerful tool in quantifying the movements of objects. Image data sets are often very large and time-consuming to analyze, especially when continuously recorded and manually processed. We aimed to develop a system to quantify earthworm movement from video recordings. Our newly developed program successfully tracked the two-dimensional positions of three separate parts of the earthworm and simultaneously output the change in its body length. From the output data, we calculated the velocity of the earthworm's movement. Our program processed the image data three times faster than the manual tracking system. To date, there are no existing systems to quantify earthworm activity from continuously recorded image data. The system developed in this study will reduce input time by a factor of three compared with manual data entry and will reduce errors involved in quantifying large data sets. Furthermore, it will provide more reliable measured values, although the program is still a prototype that needs further testing and improvement. Combined with other techniques, such as measuring metabolic gas emissions from earthworm bodies, this program could provide continuous observations of earthworm behavior in response to environmental variables under laboratory conditions. In the future, this standardized method will be applied to other animals, and the quantified earthworm movement will be incorporated into models of soil material flow dynamics or behavior in response to chemical

  6. RT-PCR and sequence analysis of the full-length fusion protein of Canine Distemper Virus from domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanutti, Carina; Gallo Calderón, Marina; Keller, Leticia; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, José

    2016-02-01

    During 2007-2014, 84 out of 236 (35.6%) samples from domestic dogs submitted to our laboratory for diagnostic purposes were positive for Canine Distemper Virus (CDV), as analyzed by RT-PCR amplification of a fragment of the nucleoprotein gene. Fifty-nine of them (70.2%) were from dogs that had been vaccinated against CDV. The full-length gene encoding the Fusion (F) protein of fifteen isolates was sequenced and compared with that of those of other CDVs, including wild-type and vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis using the F gene full-length sequences grouped all the Argentinean CDV strains in the SA2 clade. Sequence identity with the Onderstepoort vaccine strain was 89.0-90.6%, and the highest divergence was found in the 135 amino acids corresponding to the F protein signal-peptide, Fsp (64.4-66.7% identity). In contrast, this region was highly conserved among the local strains (94.1-100% identity). One extra putative N-glycosylation site was identified in the F gene of CDV Argentinean strains with respect to the vaccine strain. The present report is the first to analyze full-length F protein sequences of CDV strains circulating in Argentina, and contributes to the knowledge of molecular epidemiology of CDV, which may help in understanding future disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Construction and sequence analysis of a normalized full-length cDNA library of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Wang, Jiang; Wen, Guo-Song; Xu, Shao-Zhong; Zha, Ying-Hong; Rong, Tian-Ju; Qian, Xiong

    2013-02-01

    In order to obtain functional genes, a normalized stems cDNA library was constructed from medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale. SMART (switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript) cDNA synthesis combined with DSN (duplex-specific nuclease) normalization was applied to construct the normalized full-length cDNA library of D. officinale. The titer of cDNA library was about 1.3 x 10(6) cfu x mL(-1) and the average insertion size was about 1.5 kb with high recombination rate (93.9%). Random selected 163 positive clones were sequenced at single side. Bio-information analysis indicated that 147 from 150 high-quality unique sequences matched corresponding homologous proteins, and they participated in various biological processes based on GO (gene ontology). There were 8 clones with complete coding sequence, which presumed to be full-length genes. These results showed preliminarily that we successfully constructed a normalized full-length cDNA library of D. officinale which could be used to screen the functional genes related to metabolic pathways of medicinal ingredients.

  8. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a 3/4 er relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of 3/4 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data

  9. An integral equation for the continuation of perturbative expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciulli, S.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown how a procedure for analytic continuation, based on methods of functional analysis, can be used to extend the results of a perturbative calculation to yield nonperturbative information which could not be obtained directly from a perturbative expansion

  10. QTL analysis of cotton fiber length in advanced backcross populations derived from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. mustelinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; Draye, Xavier; Zhuang, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhengsheng; Liu, Min; Lubbers, Edward L; Jones, Don; May, O Lloyd; Paterson, Andrew H; Chee, Peng W

    2017-06-01

    QTLs for fiber length mapped in three generations of advanced backcross populations derived from crossing Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium mustelinum showed opportunities to improve elite cottons by introgression from wild relatives. The molecular basis of cotton fiber length in crosses between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium mustelinum was dissected using 21 BC 3 F 2 and 12 corresponding BC 3 F 2:3 and BC 3 F 2:4 families. Sixty-five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected by one-way analysis of variance. The QTL numbers detected for upper-half mean length (UHM), fiber uniformity index (UI), and short fiber content (SFC) were 19, 20, and 26 respectively. Twenty-three of the 65 QTLs could be detected at least twice near adjacent markers in the same family or near the same markers across different families/generations, and 32 QTLs were detected in both one-way variance analyses and mixed model-based composite interval mapping. G. mustelinum alleles increased UHM and UI and decreased SFC for five, one, and one QTLs, respectively. In addition to the main-effect QTLs, 17 epistatic QTLs were detected which helped to elucidate the genetic basis of cotton fiber length. Significant among-family genotypic effects were detected at 18, 16, and 16 loci for UHM, UI, and SFC, respectively. Six, two, and two loci showed genotype × family interaction for UHM, UI and SFC, respectively, illustrating complexities that might be faced in introgression of exotic germplasm into cultivated cotton. Co-location of many QTLs for UHM, UI, and SFC accounted for correlations among these traits, and selection of these QTLs may improve the three traits simultaneously. The simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with G. mustelinum QTLs will assist breeders in transferring and maintaining valuable traits from this exotic source during cultivar development.

  11. Dynamics of a modified Hindmarsh-Rose neural model with random perturbations: Moment analysis and firing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Argha; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the activity of mean membrane voltage and subsidiary system variables with moment equations (i.e., mean, variance and covariance's) under noisy environment. We consider a biophysically plausible modified Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neural system injected by an applied current exhibiting spiking-bursting phenomenon. The effects of predominant parameters on the dynamical behavior of a modified H-R system are investigated. Numerically, it exhibits period-doubling, period halving bifurcation and chaos phenomena. Further, a nonlinear system has been analyzed for the first and second order moments with additive stochastic perturbations. It has been solved using fourth order Runge-Kutta method and noisy systems by Euler's scheme. It has been demonstrated that the firing properties of neurons to evoke an action potential in a certain parameter space of the large exact systems can be estimated using an approximated model. Strong stimulation can cause a change in increase or decrease of the firing patterns. Corresponding to a fixed set of parameter values, the firing behavior and dynamical differences of the collective variables of a large, exact and approximated systems are investigated.

  12. Analysis of B→a1(1260)(b1(1235))K* decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qing; Fu, Jian-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics (PQCD) approach, we study the charmless two-body decays B→a1(1260)K*, b1(1235)K*. Using the decay constants and the light-cone distribution amplitudes for these mesons derived from the QCD sum rule method, we find the following results. (a) Our predictions for the branching ratios are consistent with the QCD factorization (QCDF) results within errors, but much larger than the naive factorization approach calculation values. (b) We predict that the anomalous polarizations occurring in the decays B→φK*, rHK* also happen in B→a1K* decays, while they do not happen in B→b1K* decays. Here the contributions from the annihilation diagrams play an important role in explaining the larger transverse polarizations in the B→a1K* decays, while they are not sensitive to the polarizations for the B→b1K* decays. (c) Our predictions for the direct CP-asymmetries agree well with the QCDF results within errors. The decays B¯0 → b+1K*-, B- → b01K*- have larger direct CP-asymmetries, which could be measured by the present LHCb experiment and the forthcoming Super-B experiment. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11147004, 11347030), Program of Youthful Key Teachers in University of Henan Province (001166), and by Foundation of Henan Educational Committee (14HASTIT037)

  13. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiquia, Sonia M.

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

  14. Construction of a full-length cDNA library and analysis of expressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... projects provide a very useful and quick means of accessing gene sequence and expression information. (Manickavelu et al., 2012). Some reports have proven that projects based on ESTs are powerful tools for both the analysis of gene ..... genes controlling many important traits of agronomic importance ...

  15. Construction of a full-length cDNA library and analysis of expressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the GenBank databases. Cluster analysis allowed the identification of 61 unique sequences. These genes were classified into six types by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. The results also indicated that unigenes of C. capsularis have higher homology to Populus trichocarpa, Ricinus communis and Corchorus olitorius.

  16. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  17. MCNP Perturbation Capability for Monte Carlo Criticality Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Carter, L.L.; McKinney, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The differential operator perturbation capability in MCNP4B has been extended to automatically calculate perturbation estimates for the track length estimate of k eff in MCNP4B. The additional corrections required in certain cases for MCNP4B are no longer needed. Calculating the effect of small design changes on the criticality of nuclear systems with MCNP is now straightforward

  18. Community analysis of preservative-treated southern pine (Pinus spp.) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; M. Lynn Prewitt; Walter J. Diehl; Susan V. Diehl

    2012-01-01

    The effects of wood preservatives on the bacterial community in southern yellow pine were assessed by the molecular method ‘terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism’ (T-RFLP). Stakes, treated with 0.25 % and 0.37 % ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ-C), 0.1 % and 0.25 % chlorothalonil (CTN), 0.1 % and 0.25 % CTN with 2 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and 2 % BHT...

  19. Anharmonic vibrational analysis of s-trans and s-cis conformers of acryloyl fluoride using numerical-analytic Van Vleck operator perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V.; Craig, Norman C.; Koroleva, Lidiya A.; Stepanov, Nikolay F.

    2018-01-01

    A new gas-phase infrared (IR) spectrum of acryloyl fluoride (ACRF, CH2dbnd CHsbnd CFdbnd O) with a resolution of 0.1 cm- 1 in the range 4000-450 cm- 1 was measured. Theoretical ab initio molecular structures, full quartic potential energy surfaces (PES), and cubic surfaces of dipole moments and polarizability tensor components (electro-optical properties, EOP) of the s-trans and s-cis conformers of the ACRF were calculated by the second-order Møller-Plesset electronic perturbation theory with a correlation consistent Dunning triple-ζ basis set. The numerical-analytic implementation of the second-order operator canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory was employed for predicting anharmonic IR and Raman scattering (RS) spectra of ACRF. To improve the anharmonic predictions, harmonic frequencies were replaced by their counterparts evaluated with the higher-level CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ model, to form a ;hybrid; PES. The original operator representation of the Hamiltonian is analytically reduced to a quasi-diagonal form, integrated in the harmonic oscillator basis and diagonalized to account for strong resonance couplings. Double canonical transformations of EOP expansions enabled prediction of integral intensities of both fundamental and multi-quanta transitions in IR/RS spectra. Enhanced band shape analysis reinforced the assignments. A thorough interpretation of the new IR experimental spectra and existing matrix-isolation literature data for the mixture of two conformers of ACRF was accomplished, and a number of assignments clarified.

  20. The big contradiction between the perturbation theory and the chaotic state. A detailed mathematical analysis indicates when the plasma is stable or unstable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Xaplanteris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present manuscript enough observations and interpretations of three issues of Plasma Physics are presented. The first issue is linked to the common experimental confirmation of plasma waves which appear to be repeated in a standard way while there are also cases where plasma waves change to an unstable state or even to chaotic state. The second issue is associated with a mathematical analysis of the movement of a charged particle using the perturbation theory; which could be used as a guide for new researchers on similar issues. Finally, the suitability and applicability of the perturbation theory or the chaotic theory is presented. Although this study could be conducted on many plasma phenomena (e.g. plasma diffusion or plasma quantities (e.g. plasma conductivity, here it was decided this study to be conducted on plasma waves and particularly on drift waves. This was because of the significance of waves on the plasmatic state and especially their negative impact on the thermonuclear fusion, but also due to the long-time experience of the plasma laboratory of Demokritos on drift waves.

  1. Concise and tight security analysis of the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol with finite key lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2012-01-01

    We present a tight security analysis of the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol taking into account the finite-size effect of key distillation and achieving unconditional security. We begin by presenting a concise analysis utilizing the normal approximation of the hypergeometric function. Next we show that a similar tight bound can also be obtained by a rigorous argument without relying on any approximation. In particular, for the convenience of experimentalists who wish to evaluate the security of their quantum key distribution systems, we also give the explicit procedures of our key distillation and show how to calculate the secret key rate and the security parameter from a given set of experimental parameters. In addition to the exact values of key rates and security parameters, we also describe how to obtain their rough estimates using the normal approximation. (paper)

  2. Automatic Inference of Cryptographic Key Length Based on Analysis of Proof Tightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Technology UML Unified Modeling Language xi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xii Acknowledgments There are many people without whom I would not have been...3 Cryptographic Attack Tree Analysis Model 7 3.1 Attack Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 Attack Trees with Reductions...faith; if it is serving, then serve; if it is teaching , then teach .” I firmly believe Dr. Gondree’s grace-given gift is teaching . Throughout this

  3. The Perturbed Puma Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Shu-Jun; Liu Qiu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element U e3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element U e3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  4. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2012-04-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  5. Prediction of fatty acid chain length and unsaturation of milk fat by mid-infrared milk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to develop partial least squares (PLS) models to predict fatty acid chain length and total unsaturation of milk fat directly from a mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of milk at 40°C and then determine the feasibility of using those measures as correction factors to improve the accuracy of milk fat determination. A set of 268 milks (modified milks, farm bulk tank milks, and individual cow) were analyzed for fat, true protein, and anhydrous lactose with chemical reference methods, and in addition a MIR absorption spectra was collected for each milk. Fat was extracted from another portion of each milk, the fat was saponified to produce free fatty acids, and the free fatty acids were converted to methyl esters and quantified using gas-liquid chromatography. The PLS models for predicting the average chain length (carbons per fatty acid) and unsaturation (double bonds per fatty acid) of fatty acids in the fat portion of a milk sample from a MIR milk spectra were developed and validated. The validation performance of the prediction model for chain length and unsaturation had a relative standard deviation of 0.43 and 3.3%, respectively. These measures are unique in that they are fat concentration independent characteristics of fat structure that were predicted directly with transmission MIR analysis of milk. Next, the real-time data output from the MIR spectrophotometer for fatty acid chain length and unsaturation of milk were used to correct the fat A (C=O stretch) and fat B (C-H stretch) measures to improve accuracy of fat prediction. The accuracy validation was done over a period of 5 mo with 12 sets of 10 individual farm milks that were not a part of the PLS modeling population. The correction of a traditional fat B virtual filter result (C-H stretch) for sample-to-sample variation in unsaturation reduced the Euclidean distance for predicted fat from 0.034 to 0.025. The correction of a traditional fat A virtual filter result (C=O stretch) modified with

  6. Algorithmic analysis of the maximum level length in general-block two-dimensional Markov processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs are useful tools for studying stochastic models such as queueing, inventory, and production systems. Of particular interest in this paper is the distribution of the maximal level visited in a busy period because this descriptor provides an excellent measure of the system congestion. We present an algorithmic analysis for the computation of its distribution which is valid for Markov chains with general-block structure. For a multiserver batch arrival queue with retrials and negative arrivals, we exploit the underlying internal block structure and present numerical examples that reveal some interesting facts of the system.

  7. Sensitivity of tidal characteristics in double inlet systems to momentum dissipation on tidal flats: a perturbation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepkema, Tjebbe M.; de Swart, Huib E.; Zagaris, Antonios; Duran-Matute, Matias

    2018-03-01

    In a tidal channel with adjacent tidal flats, along-channel momentum is dissipated on the flats during rising tides. This leads to a sink of along-channel momentum. Using a perturbative method, it is shown that the momentum sink slightly reduces the M2 amplitude of both the sea surface elevation and current velocity and favours flood dominant tides. These changes in tidal characteristics (phase and amplitude of sea surface elevations and currents) are noticeable if widths of tidal flats are at least of the same order as the channel width, and amplitudes and gradients of along-channel velocity are large. The M2 amplitudes are reduced because stagnant water flows from the flats into the channel, thereby slowing down the current. The M4 amplitudes and phases change because the momentum sink acts as an advective term during the fall of the tide, such a term generates flood dominant currents. For a prototype embayment that resembles the Marsdiep-Vlie double-inlet system of the Western Wadden Sea, it is found that for both the sea surface elevation and current velocity, including the momentum sink, lead to a decrease of approximately 2% in M2 amplitudes and an increase of approximately 25% in M4 amplitudes. As a result, the net import of coarse sediment is increased by approximately 35%, while the transport of fine sediment is hardly influenced by the momentum sink. For the Marsdiep-Vlie system, the M2 sea surface amplitude obtained from the idealised model is similar to that computed with a realistic three-dimensional numerical model whilst the comparison with regard to M4 improves if momentum sink is accounted for.

  8. Predicting permeability of regular tissue engineering scaffolds: scaling analysis of pore architecture, scaffold length, and fluid flow rate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, A; Montazerian, H; Davoodi, E; Homayoonfar, S

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this research is to numerically obtain the permeability coefficient in the cylindrical scaffolds. For this purpose, a mathematical analysis was performed to derive an equation for desired porosity in terms of morphological parameters. Then, the considered cylindrical geometries were modeled and the permeability coefficient was calculated according to the velocity and pressure drop values based on the Darcy's law. In order to validate the accuracy of the present numerical solution, the obtained permeability coefficient was compared with the published experimental data. It was observed that this model can predict permeability with the utmost accuracy. Then, the effect of geometrical parameters including porosity, scaffold pore structure, unit cell size, and length of the scaffolds as well as entrance mass flow rate on the permeability of porous structures was studied. Furthermore, a parametric study with scaling laws analysis of sample length and mass flow rate effects on the permeability showed good fit to the obtained data. It can be concluded that the sensitivity of permeability is more noticeable at higher porosities. The present approach can be used to characterize and optimize the scaffold microstructure due to the necessity of cell growth and transferring considerations.

  9. Full-length sequence analysis of chloroquine resistance transporter gene in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lii Lian; Lau, Tiek Ying; Timothy, William; Prabakaran, Dhanaraj

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine resistance (CQR) in falciparum malaria was identified to be associated with several mutations in the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) that encodes the transmembrane transporter in digestive vacuole membrane of the parasite. This study aimed to investigate the point mutations across the full-length pfcrt in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 31 P. falciparum positive samples collected from Keningau, Kota Kinabalu, and Kudat, Sabah, were analyzed. pfcrt was PCR amplified and cloned prior to sequence analysis. This study showed that all the previously described 10 point mutations associated with CQR at codons 72, 74, 75, 76, 97, 220, 271, 326, 356, and 371 were found with different prevalence. Besides, two novel point mutations, I166V and H273N, were identified with 22.5% and 19.3%, respectively. Three haplotypes, namely, CVMNK (29%), CVIET (3.2%), and SVMNT (67.7%), were identified. High prevalence of SVMNT among P. falciparum isolates from Sabah showed that these isolates are closer to the P. falciparum isolates from Papua New Guinea rather than to the more proximal Southeast Asian CVIET haplotype. Full-length analysis of pfcrt showed that chloroquine resistant P. falciparum in Sabah is still prevalent despite the withdrawal of chloroquine usage since 1979.

  10. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langnau, Alex [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  11. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.

  12. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelev, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models

  13. Comparison of SERPENT and SCALE methodology for LWRs transport calculations and additionally uncertainty analysis for cross-section perturbation with SAMPLER module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labarile Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear safety research, the quality of the results of simulation codes is widely determined by the reactor design and safe operation, and the description of neutron transport in the reactor core is a feature of particular importance. Moreover, for the long effort that is made, there remain uncertainties in simulation results due to the neutronic data and input specification that need a huge effort to be eliminated. A realistic estimation of these uncertainties is required for finding out the reliability of the results. This explains the increasing demand in recent years for calculations in the nuclear fields with best-estimate codes that proved confidence bounds of simulation results. All this has lead to the Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs of the NEA. The UAM-Benchmark coupling multi-physics and multi-scale analysis using as a basis complete sets of input specifications of boiling water reactors (BWR and pressurized water reactors (PWR. In this study, the results of the transport calculations carried out using the SCALE-6.2 program (TRITON/NEWT and TRITON/KENO modules as well as Monte Carlo SERPENT code, are presented. Additionally, they have been made uncertainties calculation for a PWR 15 × 15 and a BWR 7 × 7 fuel elements, in two different configurations (with and without control rod, and two different states, Hot Full Power (HFP and Hot Zero Power (HZP, using the TSUNAMI module, which uses the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT, and SAMPLER, which uses stochastic sampling techniques for cross-sections perturbations. The results obtained and validated are compared with references results and similar studies presented in the exercise I-2 (Lattice Physics of UAM-Benchmark.

  14. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of indigenous nitrogen-fixing micro organisms lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Woan Ying Pauline; Jong Bor Chyan; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2006-01-01

    The use of PCR-RFLP analysis as a useful microbial identification tool has been evaluated for years. This approach was verified effective worldwide, where differential DNA bands and sequence markers distinctive to specific microbes or microbial groups have been identified. In our study, PCR-RFLP technique has been adopted in the identification of our indigenous N 2 -fixing isolates obtained from several local environments. RFLP was carried out with suitable restriction enzymes and the patterns were documented. Representatives of the different patterns were selected and analysed with the 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing method. The results demonstrated correlation between the differential RFLP patterns and the 16S rDNA identities. (Author)

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Gossypium L. using restriction fragment length polymorphism of repeated sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Rong, Ying; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Zhang, Yang; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Cotton is the world's leading textile fiber crop and is also grown as a bioenergy and food crop. Knowledge of the phylogeny of closely related species and the genome origin and evolution of polyploid species is significant for advanced genomics research and breeding. We have reconstructed the phylogeny of the cotton genus, Gossypium L., and deciphered the genome origin and evolution of its five polyploid species by restriction fragment analysis of repeated sequences. Nuclear DNA of 84 accessions representing 35 species and all eight genomes of the genus were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree of the genus was reconstructed using the parsimony method on 1033 polymorphic repeated sequence restriction fragments. The genome origin of its polyploids was determined by calculating the diploid-polyploid restriction fragment correspondence (RFC). The tree is consistent with the morphological classification, genome designation and geographic distribution of the species at subgenus, section and subsection levels. Gossypium lobatum (D7) was unambiguously shown to have the highest RFC with the D-subgenomes of all five polyploids of the genus, while the common ancestor of Gossypium herbaceum (A1) and Gossypium arboreum (A2) likely contributed to the A-subgenomes of the polyploids. These results provide a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of the cotton genus and new insights into the genome origin and evolution of its polyploid species. The results also further demonstrate a simple, rapid and inexpensive method suitable for phylogenetic analysis of closely related species, especially congeneric species, and the inference of genome origin of polyploids that constitute over 70 % of flowering plants.

  16. Perturbative QCD and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    A brief review of some of the recent progress in perturbative QCD is given (heavy quark production, small-x physics, minijets and related topics, classical simulations in high energy reactions, coherence and the string effect)

  17. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  18. The effect of shape, length and diameter of implants on primary stability based on resonance frequency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Barikani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of shape, diameter and length of implants on their primary stability based on resonance frequency analysis. Materials and Methods: Replace select tapered and Branemark MK III implants were selected. Each of these two selected groups was divided into nine subgroups based on the implant length (IL (short, medium and long and the implant diameter (ID (narrow platform [NP], regular platform [RP] and wide platform [WP]. Five implants were assigned to each of the nine subgroups. Implants were placed in artificial bone blocks with bone quality similar to D3 bone. Immediately after the implant placement, its primary stability was measured using Osstell Mentor equipment. T-test and Tukey′s honest significant difference Post hoc were performed for data analysis. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: Replace select system showed significantly higher primary stability compared to the Branemark system, when using the short implants for all three diameters (P ≤ 0.004. However, in medium length implants there were no significant differences between the two implant systems (P ≥ 0.31. In long implants, only when the NP and RP implants were used, the Replace Select system showed significantly higher primary stability compared to the Branemark system (P = 0.000. In the replace select system, long implants had a significantly higher primary stability compared to medium and short length implants (P ≤ 0.003. In the NP and RP Branemark implants, short implants showed significantly lower primary stability compared to medium and long implants (P ≤ 0.002. However, in WP Branemark implants, primary stability increased significantly with increasing the IL from short to medium and from medium to long (P = 0.000. There were also significant differences between NP and the two other wider implants in both systems (P = 0.000. Conclusion: The use of tapered implants is

  19. The effect of shape, length and diameter of implants on primary stability based on resonance frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Hamidreza; Rashtak, Shadab; Akbari, Soolmaz; Fard, Mohammadjavad Kharrazi; Rokn, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of shape, diameter and length of implants on their primary stability based on resonance frequency analysis. Materials and Methods: Replace select tapered and Branemark MK III implants were selected. Each of these two selected groups was divided into nine subgroups based on the implant length (IL) (short, medium and long) and the implant diameter (ID) (narrow platform [NP], regular platform [RP] and wide platform [WP]). Five implants were assigned to each of the nine subgroups. Implants were placed in artificial bone blocks with bone quality similar to D3 bone. Immediately after the implant placement, its primary stability was measured using Osstell Mentor equipment. T-test and Tukey's honest significant difference Post hoc were performed for data analysis. Statistical significance was defined at P Branemark system, when using the short implants for all three diameters (P ≤ 0.004). However, in medium length implants there were no significant differences between the two implant systems (P ≥ 0.31). In long implants, only when the NP and RP implants were used, the Replace Select system showed significantly higher primary stability compared to the Branemark system (P = 0.000). In the replace select system, long implants had a significantly higher primary stability compared to medium and short length implants (P ≤ 0.003). In the NP and RP Branemark implants, short implants showed significantly lower primary stability compared to medium and long implants (P ≤ 0.002). However, in WP Branemark implants, primary stability increased significantly with increasing the IL from short to medium and from medium to long (P = 0.000). There were also significant differences between NP and the two other wider implants in both systems (P = 0.000). Conclusion: The use of tapered implants is recommended, especially, when the use of short implants is necessary. The use of RP implants is also preferred to WP

  20. An analysis of expressed sequence tags of developing castor endosperm using a full-length cDNA library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis James G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor seeds are a major source for ricinoleate, an important industrial raw material. Genomics studies of castor plant will provide critical information for understanding seed metabolism, for effectively engineering ricinoleate production in transgenic oilseeds, or for genetically improving castor plants by eliminating toxic and allergic proteins in seeds. Results Full-length cDNAs are useful resources in annotating genes and in providing functional analysis of genes and their products. We constructed a full-length cDNA library from developing castor endosperm, and obtained 4,720 ESTs from 5'-ends of the cDNA clones representing 1,908 unique sequences. The most abundant transcripts are genes encoding storage proteins, ricin, agglutinin and oleosins. Several other sequences are also very numerous, including two acidic triacylglycerol lipases, and the oleate hydroxylase (FAH12 gene that is responsible for ricinoleate biosynthesis. The role(s of the lipases in developing castor seeds are not clear, and co-expressing of a lipase and the FAH12 did not result in significant changes in hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Only one oleate desaturase (FAD2 gene was identified in our cDNA sequences. Sequence and functional analyses of the castor FAD2 were carried out since it had not been characterized previously. Overexpression of castor FAD2 in a FAH12-expressing Arabidopsis line resulted in decreased accumulation of hydroxy fatty acids in transgenic seeds. Conclusion Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation of FAD2 and FAH12 genes maybe one of the mechanisms that contribute to a high level of ricinoleate accumulation in castor endosperm. The full-length cDNA library will be used to search for additional genes that affect ricinoleate accumulation in seed oils. Our EST sequences will also be useful to annotate the castor genome, which whole sequence is being generated by shotgun sequencing at

  1. Identifying potential consequences of natural perturbations and management decisions on a coastal fishery social-ecological system using qualitative loop analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G. Martone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Managing for sustainable development and resource extraction requires an understanding of the feedbacks between ecosystems and humans. These feedbacks are part of complex social-ecological systems (SES, in which resources, actors, and governance systems interact to produce outcomes across these component parts. Qualitative modeling approaches offer ways to assess complex SES dynamics. Loop analysis in particular is useful for examining and identifying potential outcomes from external perturbations and management interventions in data poor systems when very little is known about functional relationships and parameter values. Using a case study of multispecies, multifleet coastal small-scale fisheries, we demonstrate the application of loop analysis to provide predictions regarding SES responses to perturbations and management actions. Specifically, we examine the potential ecological and socioeconomic consequences to coastal fisheries of different governance interventions (e.g., territorial user rights, fisheries closures, market-based incentives, ecotourism subsidies and environmental changes. Our results indicate that complex feedbacks among biophysical and socioeconomic components can result in counterintuitive and unexpected outcomes. For example, creating new jobs through ecotourism or subsidies might have mixed effects on members of fishing cooperatives vs. nonmembers, highlighting equity issues. Market-based interventions, such as ecolabels, are expected to have overall positive economic effects, assuming a direct effect of ecolabels on market-prices, and a lack of negative biological impacts under most model structures. Our results highlight that integrating ecological and social variables in a unique unit of management can reveal important potential trade-offs between desirable ecological and social outcomes, highlight which user groups might be more vulnerable to external shocks, and identify which interventions should be further tested

  2. Network-guided analysis of genes with altered somatic copy number and gene expression reveals pathways commonly perturbed in metastatic melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Valsesia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genomes frequently contain somatic copy number alterations (SCNA that can significantly perturb the expression level of affected genes and thus disrupt pathways controlling normal growth. In melanoma, many studies have focussed on the copy number and gene expression levels of the BRAF, PTEN and MITF genes, but little has been done to identify new genes using these parameters at the genome-wide scale. Using karyotyping, SNP and CGH arrays, and RNA-seq, we have identified SCNA affecting gene expression ('SCNA-genes' in seven human metastatic melanoma cell lines. We showed that the combination of these techniques is useful to identify candidate genes potentially involved in tumorigenesis. Since few of these alterations were recurrent across our samples, we used a protein network-guided approach to determine whether any pathways were enriched in SCNA-genes in one or more samples. From this unbiased genome-wide analysis, we identified 28 significantly enriched pathway modules. Comparison with two large, independent melanoma SCNA datasets showed less than 10% overlap at the individual gene level, but network-guided analysis revealed 66% shared pathways, including all but three of the pathways identified in our data. Frequently altered pathways included WNT, cadherin signalling, angiogenesis and melanogenesis. Additionally, our results emphasize the potential of the EPHA3 and FRS2 gene products, involved in angiogenesis and migration, as possible therapeutic targets in melanoma. Our study demonstrates the utility of network-guided approaches, for both large and small datasets, to identify pathways recurrently perturbed in cancer.

  3. Comparative analysis of maximum renal longitudinal length with positional changes on ultrasound with multiplanar reconstructed MR image in Korea Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Hee; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Kang, Woo Young; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Yook; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Yong [Public Health Medical Service, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable position in which the measured length on ultrasound is close to the true renal length obtained through a multiplanar reconstructed MR image. A total of 33 individuals (males: 15, females: 18) without any underlying renal disease were included in the present study. Renal length was measured as the longest axis at the level of the renal hilum in three positions-supine, lateral decubitus, and prone, respectively. With a 3.0 T MR scanner, 3D eTHRIVE was acquired. Subsequently, the maximum longitudinal length of both the kidneys was measured through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Paired t-test was used to compare the renal length obtained from ultrasonographic measurement with the length obtained through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Our study demonstrated significant difference between sonographic renal length in three positions and renal length through MRI (p < 0.001). However, the longest longitudinal length of right kidney among the measured three values by ultrasound was statistically similar to the renal length measured by reconstructed MR image. Among them, the lateral decubitus position showed the strongest correlation with true renal length (right: 0.887; left: 0.849). We recommend measurement of the maximum renal longitudinal length in all possible positions on ultrasonography. If not allowed, the best measurement is on the lateral decubitus showing the strongest correlation coefficient with true renal length.

  4. Perturbative studies of toroidal momentum transport using neutral beam injection modulation in the Joint European Torus: Experimental results, analysis methodology, and first principles modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantica, P.; Tala, T.; Ferreira, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Perturbative experiments have been carried out in the Joint European Torus [Fusion Sci. Technol. 53(4) (2008)] in order to identify the diffusive and convective components of toroidal momentum transport. The torque source was modulated either by modulating tangential neutral beam power...... or by modulating in antiphase tangential and normal beams to produce a torque perturbation in the absence of a power perturbation. The resulting periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity was modeled using time-dependent transport simulations in order to extract empirical profiles of momentum...

  5. The effect of gestational age and cervical length measurements in the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in twin pregnancies : an individual patient level meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindinger, L M; Poon, L C; Cacciatore, S; MacIntyre, D A; Fox, N S; Schuit, E; Mol, B W; Liem, S; Lim, A C; Serra, V; Perales, A; Hermans, F; Darzi, A; Bennett, P; Nicolaides, K H; Teoh, T G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of gestational age (GA) and cervical length (CL) measurements at transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) in the prediction of preterm birth in twin pregnancy. DESIGN: Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. SETTING: International multicentre study. POPULATION:

  6. Density perturbation mode structure of high frequency compressional and global Alfvén eigenmodes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using a novel reflectometer analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, N. A.; Kubota, S.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Belova, E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Reflectometry measurements of compressional (CAE) and global (GAE) Alfvén eigenmodes are analyzed to obtain the amplitude and spatial structure of the density perturbations associated with the modes. A novel analysis technique developed for this purpose is presented. The analysis also naturally yields the amplitude and spatial structure of the density contour radial displacement, which is found to be 2–4 times larger than the value estimated directly from the reflectometer measurements using the much simpler ‘mirror approximation’. The modes were driven by beam ions in a high power (6 MW) neutral beam heated H-mode discharge (#141398) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The results of the analysis are used to assess the contribution of the modes to core energy transport and ion heating. The total displacement amplitude of the modes, which is shown to be larger than previously estimated (Crocker et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 43017), is compared to the predicted threshold (Gorelenkov et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 84012) for the anomalously high heat diffusion inferred from transport modeling in similar NSTX discharges. The results of the analysis also have strong implications for the energy transport via coupling of CAEs to kinetic Alfvén waves seen in simulations with the Hybrid MHD code (Belova et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 15001). Finally, the amplitudes of the observed CAEs fall well below the threshold for causing significant ion heating by stochastic velocity space diffusion (Gates et al 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 205003).

  7. Community analysis of preservative-treated southern pine (Pinus spp.) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Part 1: Fungal field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; M. Lynn Prewitt; Tor P. Schultz; Susan V. Dieh

    2012-01-01

    The effects of chlorothalonil (CTN), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ-C) on the fungal community on southern yellow pine (SYP) were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis over 15 months. Field stakes, treated with 0.25 and 0.37 % ACQ-C, 0.1 and 0.25 % CTN, 2 % BHT alone, 0.1 and 0.25 % CTN...

  8. Do implant length and width matter for short dental implants (<10 mm)? A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Fu, Jia-Hui; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Suarez, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2013-12-01

    This meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials was conducted to determine the effects of dental implant length and width on implant survival rate of short (implants. An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant studies published in English from November 1998 to March 2012 was performed. Selected studies were randomized clinical trials, human clinical trials, or prospective trials with a clear aim of investigating the success or survival rate of short (implants. Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. A total of 525 short (implants were analyzed, of which 253 were 3.5 mm in diameter (48.19%), 151 were 4.0 mm (28.76%), 90 were 4.1 mm (17.14%), 21 were 4.8 mm (4%), and 10 were 5.1 mm (1.9%). All implants included in this meta-analysis had a follow-up period of 12 to 72 months. The included studies reported on the survival rate and diameter of the implants. Six of the studies used "short implants" (7 to 9 mm), and the remaining were classified as "extra-short implants" (≤ 6 mm). Five-year estimated failure rates were 1.61% and 2.92%, respectively, for extra-short and short implants (z = -3.49, P implant, the higher the failure rate (estimated failure rate = 2.36%, 95% confidence interval = 1.07% to 5.23%). Neither implant length nor width seemed to significantly affect the survival rate of short implants (<10 mm). Nonetheless, further well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Characterization of European Yersinia enterocolitica 1A strains using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros, A; Säde, E; Johansson, P; Korkeala, H; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Björkroth, J

    2016-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is currently divided into two subspecies: subsp. enterocolitica including highly pathogenic strains of biotype 1B and subsp. palearctica including nonpathogenic strains of biotype 1A and moderately pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. In this work, we characterized 162 Y. enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A and 50 strains of biotypes 2-4 isolated from human, animal and food samples by restriction fragment length polymorphism using the HindIII restriction enzyme. Phylogenetic relatedness of 20 representative Y. enterocolitica strains including 15 biotype 1A strains was further studied by the multilocus sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60). In all the analyses, biotype 1A strains formed a separate genomic group, which differed from Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica and from the strains of biotypes 2-4 of Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica. Based on these results, biotype 1A strains considered nonpathogenic should not be included in subspecies palearctica containing pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. Yersinia enterocolitica strains are currently divided into six biotypes and two subspecies. Strains of biotype 1A, which are phenotypically and genotypically very heterogeneous, are classified as subspecies palearctica. In this study, European Y. enterocolitica 1A strains isolated from both human and nonhuman sources were characterized using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis. The European biotype 1A strains formed a separate group, which differed from strains belonging to subspecies enterocolitica and palearctica. This may indicate that the current division between the two subspecies is not sufficient considering the strain diversity within Y. enterocolitica. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Effect of removable functional appliances on mandibular length in patients with class II with retrognathism: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Villegas, Adriana; Manrique-Hernandez, Rubén; Alvarez-Varela, Emery; Restrepo-Serna, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Orthopedic functional devices, are used to improve mandibular length in skeletal class II patients. However, the orthopedic functional device with the best effect to increasing the mandibular length, has not been identified before. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT), to determine the best functional appliance improving mandibular length in subjects with retrognathism. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed, including studies published and indexed in databases between 1966 and 2016. RCTs evaluating functional appliances' effects on mandibular length (Condilion-Gnation (Co-Gn) and Condilion-Pogonion (Co-Po)), were included. Reports' structure was evaluated according to 2010 CONSORT guide. The outcome measure was distance between Co-Gn and/or Co-Po after treatment. Data were analyzed with Cochran Q Test and random effects model. Five studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall difference in mandibular length was 1.53 mm (Confidence Interval (CI) 95% 1.15-1.92) in comparison to non-treated group. The Sander Bite Jumping reported the greatest increase in mandibular length (3.40 mm; CI 95% 1.69-5.11), followed by Twin Block, Bionator, Harvold Activator and Frankel devices. All removable functional appliances, aiming to increase mandibular length, are useful. Sander Bite Jumping was observed to be the most effective device to improve the mandibular length.

  11. Application of a new PCR primer for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the bacterial communities in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masao; Matsuka, Akira; Komura, Taichi; Kanazawa, Shinjiro

    2004-10-01

    Contamination with plastid small subunit (SSU) rDNA is a major drawback when analyzing the bacterial communities of plant roots using culture-independent methods. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer, 783r, was designed and tested to specifically amplify the SSU rDNA of various bacterial species without amplifying the SSU rDNA of plant plastids. To confirm how useful the community analysis of rhizobacteria is using 783r, the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was performed with wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea) root samples. Using the standard T-RFLP method, a large T-RF peak of plant plastid SSU rDNA interfered with the bacterial community analysis. In contrast, the T-RFLP method using the 783r primer was able to detect the bacterial DNA while directly eliminating the influence of the plant-derived DNA extracted from the plant roots. Primer 783r might, therefore, be a useful PCR primer for the culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in plant roots using SSU rDNA.

  12. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon

    2011-01-01

    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the delta N formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  13. Chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1996-06-01

    After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)

  14. Serum metabonomics coupled with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis characterizes metabolic perturbations in response to hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Gao, Yue; Dong, Xin; Tan, Guangguo; Li, Wuhong; Lou, Ziyang; Chai, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    A serum metabonomic profiling method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/TOF-MS) was applied to investigate the metabolic changes in hypothyroid rats induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). With Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) for classification and selection of biomarkers, 13 potential biomarkers in rat serum were screened out. Furthermore, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was introduced to deeply analyze unique pathways of hypothyroidism that were primarily involved in sphingolipid metabolism, fatty acid transportation, phospholipid metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism. Our results demonstrated that the metabonomic approach integrating with IPA was a promising tool for providing a novel methodological clue to systemically dissect the underlying molecular mechanism of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Full-length VP2 gene analysis of canine parvovirus reveals emergence of newer variants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookala, Mangadevi; Mukhopadhyay, Hirak Kumar; Sivaprakasam, Amsaveni; Balasubramanian, Brindhalakshmi; Antony, Prabhakar Xavier; Thanislass, Jacob; Srinivas, Mouttou Vivek; Pillai, Raghavan Madhusoodanan

    2016-12-01

    The canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a highly contagious and serious enteric disease of dogs with high fatality rate. The present study was taken up to characterize the full-length viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of CPV of Indian origin along with the commercially available vaccines. The faecal samples from parvovirus suspected dogs were collected from various states of India for screening by PCR assay and 66.29% of samples were found positive. Six CPV-2a, three CPV-2b, and one CPV-2c types were identified by sequence analysis. Several unique and existing mutations have been noticed in CPV types analyzed indicating emergence of newer variants of CPV in India. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the field CPV types were grouped in different subclades within two main clades, but away from the commercial vaccine strains. CPV-2b and CPV-2c types with unique mutations were found to be establishing in India apart from the prevailing CPV-2a type. Mutations and the positive selection of the mutants were found to be the major mechanism of emergence and evolution of parvovirus. Therefore, the incorporation of local strain in the vaccine formulation may be considered for effective control of CPV infections in India.

  16. Determinants of Length of Hospitalization due to Acute Odontogenic Maxillofacial Infections: A 2009–2013 Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastenienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Pūrienė, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the determinants of the length of hospitalization (LOH) due to acute odontogenic maxillofacial infections (AOMIs) from 2009 to 2013. Materials and Methods Dental records of adult patients with AOMIs and related data were retrieved from the Vilnius University's dental hospital. The LOH was related to several determinants in each of the following domains: outpatient primary care, severity of AOMIs, lifestyle and disease domains. Determinants were also associated with the LOH using multivariate analysis. Results A total of 285 patients were hospitalized with AOMIs, of which 166 (58.2s%) were males and 119 (41.8s%) were females. The mean LOH was 8.3 ± 4.9 days. The bivariate analysis did not reveal any statistically significant differences in LOH between patients with AOMIs who received urgent outpatient primary care and those who did not receive such care prior to hospitalization. All AOMI severity-related determinants were associated with the LOH. The LOH was related to coexisting systemic conditions but not to the higher severity of dental or periodontal diseases. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed similar trends, where the most significant determinants of a longer LOH were related to the severity of AOMIs. Conclusion The most important determinants regarding longer hospitalization were indicators of infection severity such as an extension of the odontogenic infection and the need for an extraoral incision to drain the infection. PMID:25592626

  17. Determinants of length of hospitalization due to acute odontogenic maxillofacial infections: a 2009-2013 retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastenienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Pūrienė, Alina

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the determinants of the length of hospitalization (LOH) due to acute odontogenic maxillofacial infections (AOMIs) from 2009 to 2013. Dental records of adult patients with AOMIs and related data were retrieved from the Vilnius University's dental hospital. The LOH was related to several determinants in each of the following domains: outpatient primary care, severity of AOMIs, lifestyle and disease domains. Determinants were also associated with the LOH using multivariate analysis. A total of 285 patients were hospitalized with AOMIs, of which 166 (58.2%) were males and 119 (41.8%) were females. The mean LOH was 8.3 ± 4.9 days. The bivariate analysis did not reveal any statistically significant differences in LOH between patients with AOMIs who received urgent outpatient primary care and those who did not receive such care prior to hospitalization. All AOMI severity-related determinants were associated with the LOH. The LOH was related to coexisting systemic conditions but not to the higher severity of dental or periodontal diseases. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed similar trends, where the most significant determinants of a longer LOH were related to the severity of AOMIs. The most important determinants regarding longer hospitalization were indicators of infection severity such as an extension of the odontogenic infection and the need for an extraoral incision to drain the infection. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, D J; Morton, A; Spence, N J; Miller, A

    1995-09-01

    Immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (RBDV) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). For both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplified (the one exception being a serologically quite distinct isolate of ZYMV). Restriction endonucleases revealing diagnostic RFLPs were readily identified. Each of two isolates of ZYMV could be detected in the presence of the other and the relative proportions approximately quantified by visual estimation of the relative intensity of the appropriate bands. A range of isolates of different RBDV pathotypes were compared; isolates were grouped in ways that accorded with their known history. Computer analysis of the published sequence from which the primers had been derived showed the sequenced isolate to be identical with an isolate imported from the USSR. The PCR/RFLP procedure is rapid (it can be completed in less than 2 days), effective and will probably be generally applicable to distinguishing closely related virus isolates, even where little sequence information is available.

  19. UPLC-QTOF MS-Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling Analysis Reveals the Molecular Perturbations Underlying Uremic Pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most troublesome complications in patients with chronic renal disease, the etiology of uremic pruritus remains unknown, and the current therapeutic approaches are limited and unsatisfactory. To identify potential biomarkers for improving diagnosis and treatment and obtain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of uremic pruritus, we compared serum metabolome profiles of severe uremic pruritus (HUP patients with mild uremic pruritus (LUP patients using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA showed that the metabolic profiles of HUP patients are distinguishable from those of LUP patients. Combining multivariate with univariate analysis, 22 significantly different metabolites between HUP and LUP patients were identified. Nine of the 22 metabolites in combination were characterized by a maximum area-under-receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.899 with a sensitivity of 85.1% and a specificity of 83.0% distinguishing HUP and LUP. Our results indicate that serum metabolome profiling might serve as a promising approach for the diagnosis of uremic pruritus and that the identified biomarkers may improve the understanding of pathophysiology of this disorder. Because the 9 metabolites were phospholipids, uremic toxins, and steroids, further studies may reveal their possible role in the pathogenesis of uremic pruritus.

  20. Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Nakayama, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a formula for the sacrifice bit-length for privacy amplification with the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths, when we employ the decoy method. Using the formula, we can guarantee the security parameter for a realizable quantum key distribution system. The key generation rates with finite key lengths are numerically evaluated. The proposed method improves the existing key generation rate even in the asymptotic setting. (paper)

  1. Parameter Identification with the Random Perturbation Particle Swarm Optimization Method and Sensitivity Analysis of an Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant Model for Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain appropriate parameters for an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR unit model is of great significance for power system analysis. The attributes of that ability include the following: nonlinear relationships, long transition time, intercoupled parameters and difficult obtainment from practical test, posed complexity and difficult parameter identification. In this paper, a model and a parameter identification method for the PWR primary loop system were investigated. A parameter identification process was proposed, using a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm that is based on random perturbation (RP-PSO. The identification process included model variable initialization based on the differential equations of each sub-module and program setting method, parameter obtainment through sub-module identification in the Matlab/Simulink Software (Math Works Inc., Natick, MA, USA as well as adaptation analysis for an integrated model. A lot of parameter identification work was carried out, the results of which verified the effectiveness of the method. It was found that the change of some parameters, like the fuel temperature and coolant temperature feedback coefficients, changed the model gain, of which the trajectory sensitivities were not zero. Thus, obtaining their appropriate values had significant effects on the simulation results. The trajectory sensitivities of some parameters in the core neutron dynamic module were interrelated, causing the parameters to be difficult to identify. The model parameter sensitivity could be different, which would be influenced by the model input conditions, reflecting the parameter identifiability difficulty degree for various input conditions.

  2. Models for growth, decline and regrowth of the dendrites of rat Purkinje cells induced from magnitude and link-length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldenberg, M J; O'Neill, M P; Quackenbush, L J; Pentney, R J

    1993-06-21

    This study examines Purkinje neurons of rats aged 1, 10, 18 and 28 months to investigate growth and decline in the magnitude of the dendritic tree, i.e. the number of exterior links (terminal segments) per cell. Growth in the mean number of exterior links was observed from 1 to 10 months, decline at 18 months and regrowth at 28 months. At 10, 28, and especially at 18 months, the cell size frequency distribution indicates two groups of cells, one of small and the other of large sized cells. The study also examines the relationship of age to lengths of topologically defined links of various types. For each age group we find that exterior links are longer than interior links (non-terminal or intermediate segments). Analysis of the geometric mean lengths of subtypes of exterior and interior links at maturity (10 months) indicates that they follow a Fibonacci series of link lengths, such that mean lengths of topologically defined types of mean exterior links are either about 13 or 8 microns long, while interior links are about 5 microns long. A sequential growth model for adding exterior links is suggested to illustrate a style of growth which could account for the various mean link lengths and the Fibonacci ratio (1.618) between their lengths. Interior link lengths are also dependent on the generation of exterior links from the sides of pre-existing interior links. If the Strahler branching ratio, Rb, should increase owing to growth of terminals from interior links, then mean interior link length would decline. During a period of regression, mean exterior link lengths become shorter and mean interior link lengths become longer. Changes in mean interior link length are much less affected by changes in Rb during regression than is the situation during growth. Finally, the changes in link lengths dictate that the ratio of mean exterior to mean interior link length increases during growth phases from 1 to 10 and 18 to 28 months, and declines during regression from 10 to 28

  3. Perturbed S3 neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos...

  4. Output synchronization of chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Mancilla, Didier [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara (CULagos-UdeG), Enrique Diaz de Leon s/n, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico)], E-mail: didier@uabc.mx; Cruz-Hernandez, Cesar [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Scientific Research and Advanced Studies of Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: ccruz@cicese.mx

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, an analysis for chaos synchronization under nonvanishing perturbations is presented. In particular, we use model-matching approach from nonlinear control theory for output synchronization of identical and nonidentical chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations in a master-slave configuration. We show that the proposed approach is indeed suitable to synchronize a class of perturbed slaves with a chaotic master system; that is the synchronization error trajectories remain bounded if the perturbations satisfy some conditions. In order to illustrate this robustness synchronization property, we present two cases of study: (i) for identical systems, a pair of coupled Roessler systems, the first like a master and the other like a perturbed slave, and (ii) for nonidentical systems, a Chua's circuit driving a Roessler/slave system with a perturbed control law, in both cases a quantitative analysis on the perturbation is included.

  5. Output synchronization of chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Mancilla, Didier; Cruz-Hernandez, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis for chaos synchronization under nonvanishing perturbations is presented. In particular, we use model-matching approach from nonlinear control theory for output synchronization of identical and nonidentical chaotic systems under nonvanishing perturbations in a master-slave configuration. We show that the proposed approach is indeed suitable to synchronize a class of perturbed slaves with a chaotic master system; that is the synchronization error trajectories remain bounded if the perturbations satisfy some conditions. In order to illustrate this robustness synchronization property, we present two cases of study: (i) for identical systems, a pair of coupled Roessler systems, the first like a master and the other like a perturbed slave, and (ii) for nonidentical systems, a Chua's circuit driving a Roessler/slave system with a perturbed control law, in both cases a quantitative analysis on the perturbation is included

  6. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

  7. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong; Gu, Liang; Li, Min; Jiang, Cizhong; Cao, Tongcheng; Zhang, Xiaobai

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  8. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yin

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  9. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs

  10. Soliton Perturbations, Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Russell Leland

    Starting with an 'integrable' nonlinear evolution equation, we are investigating perturbations about a one soliton solution, through the inversion of a linear equation for the first order correction. This differs from the methods based on the perturbation of certain 'scattering data', as the proposed method takes place in coordinate space, and not spectral space. The method is tested on several perturbed Korteweg -DeVries equations. The damped KdV equation is studied in detail, resulting in the resolution of the controversy over the shift in the center of the soliton in favor of the results of Karpman and Maslov. Using a finite difference scheme, a numerically induced shift in the damped soliton's position is predicted through the use of perturbation theory. We extend the results of Ott and Sudan for other damped KdV equations, giving expressions for the shift in soliton position and the asymptotic form of the first order correction to the solution. Next we investigate Menyuk's case of a solution consisting of a soliton plus arbitrary initial radiation, which is subject to a Hamiltonian perturbation; and we show that the radiation must start out small. After these preliminary investigations, we turn to the stochastic KdV equation with external Gaussian white noise, zeta(x,t). For the cases of damping and no damping, the averaged soliton asymptotically becomes a Gaussian wave packet, which decays and broadens according to the same power laws as found by Wadati and Akutsu for the noise zeta(t). Next, we investigate the propagation of a modulated KP soliton and compare our results to the work of Chang. We find that singular perturbation theory cannot explain the evolution of this profile, but we can obtain good qualitative results from the solution of the Cauchy problem for the linearized KP equation. The modulations travel away from the soliton peak and decay in time, leaving a stable planar soliton behind. Finally, we discuss the application of the method to the

  11. Analysis of ORF 1 in European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by long RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for partial characterization of the replicase-encoding open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It comprised long RT-PCR amplification of 11.1 kb (94%) of ORF 1, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... analysis. The method was used to compare ORF 1 sequences of two divergent European-type PRRSV strains. Our results indicated that the structural and replicase parts of these two strains had evolved at overall similar rates....

  12. Determination of bulk diffusion lengths for angle-lapped semiconductor material via the scanning electron microscope: A theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonroos, O.

    1978-01-01

    A standard procedure for the determination of the minority carrier diffusion length by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) consists in scanning across an angle-lapped surface of a P-N junction and measuring the resultant short circuit current I sub sc as a function of beam position. A detailed analysis of the I sub sc originating from this configuration is presented. It is found that, for a point source excitation, the I sub sc depends very simply on x, the variable distance between the surface and the junction edge. The expression for the I sub sc of a planar junction device is well known. If d, the constant distance between the plane of the surface of the semiconductor and the junction edge in the expression for the I of a planar junction is merely replaced by x, the variable distance of the corresponding angle-lapped junction, an expression results which is correct to within a small fraction of a percent as long as the angle between the surfaces, 2 theta sub 1, is smaller than 10 deg.

  13. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to assess crossover interference and homozygosity in gynogenetic diploid Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H-T; Li, Q; Kong, L-F

    2014-06-01

    Recombination analysis in gynogenetic diploids is a powerful tool for assessing the degree of inbreeding, investigating crossover events and understanding chiasma interference during meiosis. To estimate the marker-centromere recombination rate, the inheritance pattern of 654 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was examined in the 72-h veliger larvae of two meiogynogenetic diploid families in the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The second-division segregation frequency (y) of the AFLP loci ranged from 0.00 to 0.96, with 23.9% of loci showing y-values higher than 0.67, evidencing the existence of interference. The average recombination frequency across the 654 AFLP loci was 0.45, allowing estimation of the fixation index of 0.55, indicating that meiotic gynogenesis could provide an effective means of rapid inbreeding in the Pacific abalone. The AFLP loci have a small proportion (4.4%) of y-values greater than 0.90, suggesting that a relatively low or intermediate degree of chiasma interference occurred in the abalone chromosomes. The information obtained in this study will enhance our understanding of the abalone genome and will be useful for genetic studies in the species. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. Hybrid modeling for dynamic analysis of cable-pulley systems with time-varying length cable and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qi, Zhaohui; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    The dynamic analysis of cable-pulley systems is investigated in this paper, where the time-varying length characteristic of the cable as well as the coupling motion between the cable and the pulleys are considered. The dynamic model for cable-pulley systems are presented based on the principle of virtual power. Firstly, the cubic spline interpolation is adopted for modeling the flexible cable elements and the virtual 1powers of tensile strain, inertia and gravity forces on the cable are formulated. Then, the coupled motions between the cable and the movable or fixed pulley are described by the input and output contact points, based on the no-slip assumption and the spatial description. The virtual powers of inertia, gravity and applied forces on the contact segment of the cable, the movable and fixed pulleys are formulated. In particular, the internal node degrees of freedom of spline cable elements are reduced, which results in that only the independent description parameters of the nodes connected to the pulleys are included in the final governing dynamic equations. At last, two cable-pulley lifting mechanisms are considered as demonstrative application examples where the vibration of the lifting process is investigated. The comparison with ADAMS models is given to prove the validity of the proposed method.

  15. Simple and rapid human papillomavirus genotyping method by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with two restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghan; Watanabe, Ken; Haruyama, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Cervical cancer, the third most common cancer that affects women worldwide, is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and is treatable when detected at an early stage. To date, more than 100 different HPV types have been described, and the development of simple, low-cost, and accurate methods to distinguish HPV genotypes is highly warranted. In this study, an HPV genotyping assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated. This method involved the use of MY09/11 primers followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with the restriction enzymes HpyCH4V and NlaIII. Cervical specimens preserved using CytoRich Blue fluid were collected from 1,134 female volunteers for HPV detection, and 1,111 valid samples were amplified using PCR. The PCR method was sensitive enough to detect 25 copies of HPV18, and three copies of HPV16. Out of 202 PCR-positive samples, HPV genotypes were determined in 189 samples (93.6%) by this RFLP method. Results were then evaluated further by capillary sequencing method. Concordant results between the two tests were as high as 96.0%. Thirteen samples, which tested negative with RFLP, were verified as non-specific amplifications with PCR. In conclusion, this PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzymes HpyCH4V and NlaIII is simple, non-labor intensive, and is applicable for the inexpensive determination of HPV genotypes in clinical samples. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. M protein typing of Thai group A streptococcal isolates by PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Good Michael F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group A streptococcal (GAS infections can lead to the development of severe post-infectious sequelae, such as rheumatic fever (RF and rheumatic heart disease (RHD. RF and RHD are a major health concern in developing countries, and in indigenous populations of developed nations. The majority of GAS isolates are M protein-nontypeable (MNT by standard serotyping. However, GAS typing is a necessary tool in the epidemiologically analysis of GAS and provides useful information for vaccine development. Although DNA sequencing is the most conclusive method for M protein typing, this is not a feasible approach especially in developing countries. To overcome this problem, we have developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based assay for molecular typing the M protein gene (emm of GAS. Results Using one pair of primers, 13 known GAS M types showed one to four bands of PCR products and after digestion with Alu I, they gave different RFLP patterns. Of 106 GAS isolates examined from the normal Thai population and from patients with GAS-associated complications including RHD, 95 isolates gave RFLP patterns that corresponded to the 13 known M types. Only 11 isolates gave RFLP patterns that differed from the 13 known M types. These were then analyzed by DNA sequencing and six additional M types were identified. In addition, we found that M93 GAS was the most common M type in the population studied, and is consistent with a previous study of Thai GAS isolates. Conclusion PCR-RFLP analysis has the potential for the rapid screening of different GAS M types and is therefore considerably advantageous as an alternative M typing approach in developing countries in which GAS is endemic.

  17. Comparative study of freshwater crayfish, Cherax spp. (crustaceae: decapoda: parastacidae) from Papua, Indonesia based on length-weight analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidah, H.; Abinawanto, Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    The freshwater crayfish is one of the most important fish species as the protein resources. Lake and rivers are the habitat of crayfish in Papua. Morphological characters of crayfish, such as color, total body lengths (L) and body weight (W) were influenced by the habitat. The purpose of the study, therefore, was to compare the total body length and body weight as well as the unique color of crayfish from Uter lake (Atinjo district), Seremuk river (Haha village), Baliem river (Pike village; Hubukiak district, Jayawijaya), and Baliem river (Wesaput village; Wesaput district). Length-weight (body length; LB versus wet weight; WWT) relationships were determined for male and female crayfish (Cherax spp.) The length-weight relationships of total individuals was W = 0,022215.L3,159. This regression differed significantly (R2 = 97.5 %) between locations. Both males and females exhibited positive allometric growth as statistical difference was observed in the mean of the wet weight and body length between males and females. Besides, Canonical function was subjected to determine population distribution based on length-weight data.

  18. Renormalized Lie perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another

  19. Degenerate asymptotic perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunziker, W.; Pillet, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Asymptotic Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory for discrete eigenvalues is developed systematically in the general degenerate case. For this purpose we study the spectral properties of mxm - matrix functions A(kappa) of a complex variable kappa which have an asymptotic expansion ΣAsub(k)kappasup(k) as kappa->0. We show that asymptotic expansions for groups of eigenvalues and for the corresponding spectral projections of A(kappa) can be obtained from the set [Asub(k)] by analytic perturbation theory. Special attention is given to the case where A(kappa) is Borel-summable in some sector originating from kappa=0 with opening angle >π. Here we prove that the asymptotic series describe individual eigenvalues and eigenprojections of A(kappa) which are shown to be holomorphic in S near kappa=0 and Borel summable if Asub(k)sup(*)=Asub(k) for all k. We then fit these results into the scheme of Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory and we give some examples of asymptotic estimates for Schroedinger operators. (orig.)

  20. Twisting perturbed parafermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The near-collinear expansion of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory at strong coupling is governed by the dynamics of stings propagating on the five sphere. The pentagon transitions in the operator product expansion which systematize the series get reformulated in terms of matrix elements of branch-point twist operators in the two-dimensional O(6 nonlinear sigma model. The facts that the latter is an asymptotically free field theory and that there exists no local realization of twist fields prevents one from explicit calculation of their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. This complication is bypassed making use of the equivalence of the sigma model to the infinite-level limit of WZNW models perturbed by current–current interactions, such that one can use conformal symmetry and conformal perturbation theory for systematic calculations. Presently, to set up the formalism, we consider the O(3 sigma model which is reformulated as perturbed parafermions.

  1. Bond between smooth prestressing wires and concrete : finite element model and transfer length analysis for pretensioned concrete crossties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-03

    Pretensioned concrete ties are increasingly employed in railroad high speed : and heavy haul applications. The bond between prestressing wires or strands and : concrete plays an important role in determining the transfer length of pretensioned : conc...

  2. Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals perturbation of lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) treated with PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadetie, Fekadu; Oveland, Eystein; Døskeland, Anne; Berven, Frode; Goksøyr, Anders; Karlsen, Odd André

    2017-04-01

    PCB 153 is one of the most abundant PCB congeners detected in biological samples. It is a persistent compound that is still present in the environment despite the ban on production and use of PCBs in the late 1970s. It has strong tendencies to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in biota, and studies have suggested that it is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor. In order to study mechanisms of toxicity, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to various doses of PCB 153 (0, 0.5, 2 and 8mg/kg body weight) for two weeks and examined the effects on expression of liver proteins using label-free quantitative proteomics. Label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the liver proteome resulted in the quantification of 1272 proteins, of which 78 proteins were differentially regulated in the PCB 153-treated dose groups compared to the control group. Functional enrichment analysis showed that pathways significantly affected are related to lipid metabolism, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle and cell adhesion. Importantly, the main effects appear to be on lipid metabolism, with up-regulation of enzymes in the de novo fatty acid synthesis pathway, consistent with previous transcriptomics results. Increased plasma triglyceride levels were also observed in the PCB 153 treated fish, in agreement with the induction of the lipogenic genes and proteins. The results suggest that PCB 153 perturbs lipid metabolism in the Atlantic cod liver. Elevated levels of lipogenic enzymes and plasma triglycerides further suggest increased synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of perturbation methods for sensitivity analysis for nuclear power plant steam generators; Aplicacao da teoria de perturbacao a analise de sensibilidade em geradores de vapor de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurjao, Emir Candeia

    1996-02-01

    The differential and GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) formalisms of the Perturbation Theory were applied in this work to a simplified U-tubes steam generator model to perform sensitivity analysis. The adjoint and importance equations, with the corresponding expressions for the sensitivity coefficients, were derived for this steam generator model. The system was numerically was numerically solved in a Fortran program, called GEVADJ, in order to calculate the sensitivity coefficients. A transient loss of forced primary coolant in the nuclear power plant Angra-1 was used as example case. The average and final values of functionals: secondary pressure and enthalpy were studied in relation to changes in the secondary feedwater flow, enthalpy and total volume in secondary circuit. Absolute variations in the above functionals were calculated using the perturbative methods, considering the variations in the feedwater flow and total secondary volume. Comparison with the same variations obtained via direct model showed in general good agreement, demonstrating the potentiality of perturbative methods for sensitivity analysis of nuclear systems. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. High-resolution genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for high-resolution genomic fingerprinting of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, based on the determination of amplified fragment length polymorphism, is described. The potential of this method for molecular epidemiological studies of these species...... to available epidemiological data. We conclude that this amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting method may be a highly effective tool for molecular epidemiological studies of Campylobacter spp....

  5. Radionuclide migration through fractured rock for arbitrary-length decay chain: Analytical solution and global sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkarami, Pirouz; Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an analytical approach to simulate nuclide migration through a channel in a fracture accounting for an arbitrary-length decay chain. The nuclides are retarded as they diffuse in the porous rock matrix and stagnant zones in the fracture. The Laplace transform and similarity transform techniques are applied to solve the model. The analytical solution to the nuclide concentrations at the fracture outlet is governed by nine parameters representing different mechanisms acting on nuclide transport through a fracture, including diffusion into the rock matrices, diffusion into the stagnant water zone, chain decay and hydrodynamic dispersion. Furthermore, to assess how sensitive the results are to parameter uncertainties, the Sobol method is applied in variance-based global sensitivity analyses of the model output. The Sobol indices show how uncertainty in the model output is apportioned to the uncertainty in the model input. This method takes into account both direct effects and interaction effects between input parameters. The simulation results suggest that in the case of pulse injections, ignoring the effect of a stagnant water zone can lead to significant errors in the time of first arrival and the peak value of the nuclides. Likewise, neglecting the parent and modeling its daughter as a single stable species can result in a significant overestimation of the peak value of the daughter nuclide. It is also found that as the dispersion increases, the early arrival time and the peak time of the daughter decrease while the peak value increases. More importantly, the global sensitivity analysis reveals that for time periods greater than a few thousand years, the uncertainty of the model output is more sensitive to the values of the individual parameters than to the interaction between them. Moreover, if one tries to evaluate the true values of the input parameters at the same cost and effort, the determination of priorities should follow a certain

  6. Genetic divergence between Mexican Opuntia accessions inferred by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, S; Valadez-Moctezuma, E; Peláez-Luna, K S; Morales-Manzano, S; Meza-Carrera, P; Cid-Contreras, R C

    2016-06-03

    Molecular methods are powerful tools in characterizing and determining relationships between plants. The aim of this study was to study genetic divergence between 103 accessions of Mexican Opuntia. To accomplish this, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of three chloroplast intergenic spacers (atpB-rbcL, trnL-trnF, and psbA-trnH), one chloroplast gene (ycf1), two nuclear genes (ppc and PhyC), and one mitochondrial gene (cox3) was conducted. The amplified products from all the samples had very similar molecular sizes, and there were only very small differences between the undigested PCR amplicons for all regions, with the exception of ppc. We obtained 5850 bp from the seven regions, and 136 fragments were detected with eight enzymes, 37 of which (27.2%) were polymorphic. We found that 40% of the fragments from the chloroplast regions were polymorphic, 9.8% of the bands detected in the nuclear genes were polymorphic, and 20% of the bands in the mitochondrial locus were polymorphic. trnL-trnF and psbA-trnH were the most variable regions. The Nei and Li/Dice distance was very short, and ranged from 0 to 0.12; indeed, 77 of the 103 genotypes had the same genetic profile. All the xoconostle accessions (acidic fruits) were grouped together without being separated from three genotypes of prickly pear (sweet fruits). We assume that the genetic divergence between prickly pears and xoconostles is very low, and question the number of Opuntia species currently considered in Mexico.

  7. Lensed Density Perturbations in Braneworlds An Alternative to Perturbations from Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D J H; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Freese, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    We consider a scenario in which our observable universe is a 3-dimensional surface (3-brane) living in extra dimensions with a warped geometry. We show that ``lensed'' density perturbations from other branes serve as possible seeds for structure formation on our observable brane (without inflation), and, in addition, provide constraints on braneworld scenarios with warped bulk geometry. Due to the warped bulk metric, any perturbation generated on one brane (or in the bulk matter) appears to an observer on a second brane to have a significantly different amplitude. We analyze lensed perturbations in the Randall-Sundrum type scenarios and the ``shortcut metric'' scenarios. For Lorentz violating metrics in the bulk, we find the attractive possibility that large density fluctuations that are causally produced elsewhere can lead to small density fluctuations on our brane on superhorizon (acausal) length scales, as required by structure formation. Our most interesting result is that the ``shortcut metrics'' in whic...

  8. Perturbative vs non-perturbative impurity scattering in a narrow Si nanowire GAA transistor: A NEGF study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Antonio; Brown, Andrew R; Seoane, Natalia; Asenov, Asen, E-mail: antonio@elec.gla.ac.u [Department Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we study the effect of impurity scattering on the performance of a Si gate-all-around nanowire transistors. The non-equilibrium Green function formalism is used in order to describe the carrier transport. Impurity scattering is introduced using two different formalisms, one that considers the impurity potential as a small perturbation by introducing self energies and the other in which the impurity potential is described exactly by included the impurity potential through the Poisson equation. The non-perturbative method does not use a fitting parameter but the perturbative one uses a phenomenological constant that can be calibrated to match the result of the non-perturbative method. We confirm Ohms-law-type behaviour by using the perturbative approach for larger channel lengths.

  9. GC/TOFMS analysis of metabolites in serum and urine reveals metabolic perturbation of TCA cycle in db/db mice involved in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjie; Wang, Xufang; Aa, Jiye; Qin, Weisong; Zha, Weibin; Ge, Yongchun; Liu, Linsheng; Zheng, Tian; Cao, Bei; Shi, Jian; Zhao, Chunyan; Wang, Xinwen; Yu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Guangji; Liu, Zhihong

    2013-06-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is difficult although it is of crucial importance to prevent its development. To probe potential markers and the underlying mechanism of DN, an animal model of DN, the db/db mice, was used and serum and urine metabolites were profiled using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Metabolic patterns were evaluated based on serum and urine data. Principal component analysis of the data revealed an obvious metabonomic difference between db/db mice and controls, and db/db mice showed distinctly different metabolic patterns during the progression from diabetes to early, medium, and later DN. The identified metabolites discriminating between db/db mice and controls suggested that db/db mice have perturbations in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, citrate, malate, succinate, and aconitate), lipid metabolism, glycolysis, and amino acid turnover. The db/db mice were characterized by acidic urine, high TCA intermediates in serum at week 6 and a sharp decline thereafter, and gradual elevation of free fatty acids in the serum. The sharp drop of serum TCA intermediates from week 6 to 8 indicated the downregulated glycolysis and insulin resistance. However, urinary TCA intermediates did not decrease in parallel with those in the serum from week 6 to 10, and an increased portion of TCA intermediates in the serum was excreted into the urine at 8, 10, and 12 wk than at 6 wk, indicating kidney dysfunction occurred. The relative abundances of TCA intermediates in urine relative to those in serum were suggested as an index of renal damage.

  10. Binding Analysis of Some Classical Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Insights for a Rational Design Using Free Energy Perturbation Method Calculations with QM/MM MD Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Érica C M; Oliva, Mónica; Świderek, Katarzyna; Martins, João B L; Andrés, Juan

    2017-04-24

    In the present study, the binding free energy of some classical inhibitors (DMT, DNP, GNT, HUP, THA) with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is calculated by means of the free energy perturbation (FEP) method based on hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potentials. The results highlight the key role of the van der Waals interaction for the inhibition process, since the contribution of this term to the binding free energy is almost as decisive as the electrostatic one. The analysis of the geometrical parameters and the interaction energy per residue along the QM/MM molecular dynamics (MD) simulations highlights the most relevant interactions in the different AChE-ligand systems, showing that the charged residues with a more prominent contribution to the interaction energy are Asp72 and Glu199, although the relative importance depends on the molecular size of the ligand. A correlation between the binding free energy and the number of cation-π interactions present in the systems has been established, DMT being the most potent inhibitor, capable of forming four cation-π interactions. A layer of water molecules surrounding the inhibitors has been observed, which act as bridges along a network formed by the ligands and the residues of the gorge and also between different residues. Although several hydrogen bonds between ligands and AChE do appear, no significant values of BIEs have been recorded. This behavior can be accounted for by the special features of AChE, such as the presence of several subsites of different natures in the gorge or the existence of several water molecules that act as bridges in the electrostatic interactions.

  11. Differential Expression Analysis by RNA-Seq Reveals Perturbations in the Platelet mRNA Transcriptome Triggered by Pathogen Reduction Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdimajid Osman

    Full Text Available Platelet concentrates (PCs are prepared at blood banks for transfusion to patients in certain clinical conditions associated with a low platelet count. To prevent transfusion-transmitted infections via PCs, different pathogen reduction (PR systems have been developed that inactivate the nucleic acids of contaminating pathogens by chemical cross-linking, a mechanism that may also affect platelets' nucleic acids. We previously reported that treatment of stored platelets with the PR system Intercept significantly reduced the level of half of the microRNAs that were monitored, induced platelet activation and compromised the platelet response to physiological agonists. Using genome-wide differential expression (DE RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq, we now report that Intercept markedly perturbs the mRNA transcriptome of human platelets and alters the expression level of >800 mRNAs (P<0.05 compared to other PR systems and control platelets. Of these, 400 genes were deregulated with DE corresponding to fold changes (FC ≥ 2. At the p-value < 0.001, as many as 147 genes were deregulated by ≥ 2-fold in Intercept-treated platelets, compared to none in the other groups. Finally, integrated analysis combining expression data for microRNA (miRNA and mRNA, and involving prediction of miRNA-mRNA interactions, disclosed several positive and inverse correlations between miRNAs and mRNAs in stored platelets. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Intercept markedly deregulates the platelet mRNA transcriptome, concomitant with reduced levels of mRNA-regulatory miRNAs. These findings should enlighten authorities worldwide when considering the implementation of PR systems, that target nucleic acids and are not specific to pathogens, for the management of blood products.

  12. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This book will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in the area of high energy theoretical physics. Being the most complete and updated review volume on Perturbative QCD, it serves as an extremely useful textbook or reference book. Some of the reviews in this volume are the best that have been written on the subject anywhere. Contents: Factorization of Hard Processes in QCD (J C Collins, D E Soper & G Sterman); Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (S J Brodsky & G P Lepage); Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets (Yu L Dokshitzer, V A Khoze & S I Troyan); Pomeron in Qu

  13. Analysis of Soybean Microtubule Persistence Length; New Evidence on the Correlation between Structural Composition and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Winton, Carly; Barrientos, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies on microtubules composed of different β tubulin isotypes indicate their different functionality in terms of their dynamical behavior or the mechanism of their interaction with chemotherapeutic drugs. Along these lines, the result of our recent study measuring the rigidity of neural and non-neural samples of microtubules with different β tubulin isotype compositions suggests that the distinguished mechanical properties of microtubules, such as rigidity, may also be associated with the different distribution of their β tubulin isotypes. In our current study, we have reported the persistence length of a single soybean microtubule. This plant microtubule has a structural composition different from that of mammalian microtubules. Under the same experimental methods of measurement, the soybean microtubules showed a different persistence length as compared to the value of the persistence length that we estimated in the study of both single Bovine Brain and MCF7 microtubules.

  14. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Length-weight measurements were taken from well-preserved fish specimens from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as index of relative importance. The length-frequency analysis showed a size distribution with a ...

  15. A comparative analysis of periapical radiography and cone-beam computerized tomography for the evaluation of endodontic obturation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Zhang, Ru; Yu, Xuan; Tian, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hu; Zheng, Guangning; Hu, Tao

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the consistency and inconsistency between the periapical radiography (PR) and cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in evaluating the length of root canal obturations (RCOs) in vivo. Thirty-six maxillary and mandibular first and second molars yielding 109 obturated root canals with available PR and CBCT images were analyzed. The inclusion criterion was that the RCO extended 0-2 mm short of the radiographic apex on PR images. Teeth having root canal calcification, apical resorption, or poor quality PR/CBCT images were excluded. Agreement and disagreement between the 2 imaging modalities for obturation length were analyzed using the χ(2) test. A total of 30.3% of the RCOs evaluated by PR as having adequate length were diagnosed by CBCT to have inadequate length. Among these, 13.8% were overextended and 16.5% underextended as diagnosed by CBCT. When the distance from the filling tip to the radiographic apex was 0.5 to 1 mm on the PR image, the discordance rate was the lowest (11.1%) in all evaluated distance groups, significantly lower than with distances of 0-0.5 mm and 1.5-2 mm (P < .01). When RCOs were diagnosed as terminating at the facial/lingual side, overextension was the main evaluation result by CBCT in the disagreement evaluation with PR and significantly more frequent than those at the mesial/distal/central side (P < .01). CBCT evaluated 30.3% of the RCOs with radiographically adequate length as inadequate. When the RCOs radiographically terminated 0.5-1 mm short of the apex, the evaluation rated adequate for obturation length was comparatively reliable. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweerink, A.; Allaart, C.P.; Kuijer, J.P.A.; Wu, L.; Beek, A.M.; Ven, P.M. van de; Meine, M.; Croisille, P.; Clarysse, P.; Rossum, A.C. van; Nijveldt, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive

  17. On the power to detect differences between male and female mutation rates for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, using classical segregation analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karel, E.R.; te Meerman, G J; Ten Kate, L P

    The power to detect departures from the theoretical proportion of new mutants in X-linked lethal disorders has been analyzed for several types of segregation analysis, including methods based on completely linked restriction fragment length polymorphisms. It is shown that all methods require large

  18. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions). Obtained through an iterative process of ...

  19. Selection of optimal dental implant diameter and length in type IV bone: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Kong, L; Wang, Y; Hu, K; Song, L; Liu, B; Li, D; Shao, J; Ding, Y

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to create a 3D finite element model for continuous variation of implant diameter and length, thereby identifying their optimal range in type IV bone under biomechanical consideration. Implant diameter ranged from 3.0 to 5.0mm, and implant length ranged from 6.0 to 14.0mm. The results suggest that under axial load, the maximum Von Mises stresses in cortical and cancellous bones decrease by 50% and 27%, respectively; and under buccolingual load, by 52% and 60%, respectively. Under these two loads, the maximum displacements of implant-abutment complex decrease by 39% and 43%, respectively. These results indicate that in type IV bone, implant length is more crucial in reducing bone stress and enhancing the stability of implant-abutment complex than implant diameter. Biomechanically, implant diameter exceeding 4.0mm and implant length exceeding 9.0mm are the combination with optimal properties for a screwed implant in type IV bone.

  20. [Construction and preliminary analysis of a full-length cDNA library for Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Dong, Xu; Ma, Teng

    2014-01-01

    A full-length cDNA library of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis was constructed in order to research the genes relating to growing development and the genes regulation of its secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The total RNA was extracted from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis using modified Trizol method. The SMART (switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript )technology was appliedl to construct the full-length cDNA library. The library titer,recombinant rate and length of insert fragments were determined,the sequences of the library were analyzed by Blastx and were compared to GenBank database. The capacity of the library was 2. 5 x 107 cfu/mL, the recombinant rate was 98.5% and the average size of the inserted fragment was 1.5 kb. 9 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were relating to growing development and 5 ESTs were relating to regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis among 149 ESTs obtained from 192 clones sequenced. A full-length cDNA library of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is constructed by SMART technology successfully, and the library has enough capacity, high recombinant rate and long insert fragment for the further research to screen and identify the functional genes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  1. An EMA Analysis of the Effect of Increasing Word Length on Consonant Production in Apraxia of Speech: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartle, Carly J.; Goozee, Justine V.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing word length on the articulatory dynamics (i.e. duration, distance, maximum acceleration, maximum deceleration, and maximum velocity) of consonant production in acquired apraxia of speech was investigated using electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement of one apraxic patient was recorded…

  2. An anthropometric analysis of facial height, arch length, and palatal rugae in the Indian and Nepalese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Desai, Ami; Kasetty, Sowmya; Sudheendra, Us; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2011-01-01

    A country such as India abounds with diverse population groups with distinct anthropometric characteristics. Among these, numerous Nepalese population groups are present in different states of India comprising one of the most common immigrant races. The aim of the study is to compare two distinct races, Indians and Nepalese on the basis of facial height proportions, arch length and palatal rugae patterns and assess their significance in racial identification. A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 Indians and 60 Nepalese were selected, with each group including 30 males and 30 females. Facial heights were measured using sliding digital calipers, arch lengths with the help of a brass wire and rugae patterns were traced on dental casts obtained with alginate impressions. Facial height measurements did not give significant results for racial or gender identification of given races. Differences between arch length parameters were found to be significant between the two population groups. Secondary and fragmentary palatal rugae forms were found to be more common in Nepalese than Indians. The Indian and Nepalese have similar anthropometric characteristics with regard to facial height. However, arch length and palatal rugae characteristics vary between the two races.

  3. Symbolic derivation of high-order Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation energies using computer algebra: Application to vibrational-rotational analysis of diatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, John M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory is an effective and popular tool for describing low-lying vibrational and rotational states of molecules. This method, in conjunction with ab initio techniques for computation of electronic potential energy surfaces, can be used to calculate first-principles molecular vibrational-rotational energies to successive orders of approximation. Because of mathematical complexities, however, such perturbation calculations are rarely extended beyond the second order of approximation, although recent work by Herbert has provided a formula for the nth-order energy correction. This report extends that work and furnishes the remaining theoretical details (including a general formula for the Rayleigh-Schroedinger expansion coefficients) necessary for calculation of energy corrections to arbitrary order. The commercial computer algebra software Mathematica is employed to perform the prohibitively tedious symbolic manipulations necessary for derivation of generalized energy formulae in terms of universal constants, molecular constants, and quantum numbers. As a pedagogical example, a Hamiltonian operator tailored specifically to diatomic molecules is derived, and the perturbation formulae obtained from this Hamiltonian are evaluated for a number of such molecules. This work provides a foundation for future analyses of polyatomic molecules, since it demonstrates that arbitrary-order perturbation theory can successfully be applied with the aid of commercially available computer algebra software.

  4. Quantitative analysis of cone photoreceptor distribution and its relationship with axial length, age, and early age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Obata

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has not been clarified whether early age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with cone photoreceptor distribution. We used adaptive optics fundus camera to examine cone photoreceptors in the macular area of aged patients and quantitatively analyzed its relationship between the presence of early AMD and cone distribution. METHODS: Sixty cases aged 50 or older were studied. The eyes were examined with funduscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to exclude the eyes with any abnormalities at two sites of measurement, 2° superior and 5° temporal to the fovea. High-resolution retinal images with cone photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, France. After adjusting for axial length, cone packing density was calculated and the relationship with age, axial length, or severity of early AMD based on the age-related eye disease study (AREDS classification was analyzed. RESULTS: Patient's age ranged from 50 to 77, and axial length from 21.7 to 27.5 mm. Mean density in metric units and that in angular units were 24,900 cells/mm2, 2,170 cells/deg2 at 2° superior, and 18,500 cells/mm2, 1,570 cels/deg2 at 5° temporal, respectively. Axial length was significantly correlated with the density calculated in metric units, but not with that in angular units. Age was significantly correlated with the density both in metric and angular units at 2° superior. There was no significant difference in the density in metric and angular units between the eyes with AREDS category one and those with categories two or three. CONCLUSION: Axial length and age were significantly correlated with parafoveal cone photoreceptor distribution. The results do not support that early AMD might influence cone photoreceptor density in the area without drusen or pigment abnormalities.

  5. Perturbative and Non-Perturbative Aspects of N=8 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of quantum properties of N=8 supergravity in four dimensions are discussed for non-practitioners. At perturbative level, they include the Weyl trace anomaly as well as composite duality anomalies, the latter being relevant for perturbative finiteness. At non-perturbative level, we briefly review some facts about extremal black holes, their Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and attractor flows for single- and two-centered solutions.

  6. A Comparative Analysis on Two Types of Oral Implants, Bone-Level and Tissue-Level, with Different Cantilever Lengths of Fixed Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavar, Alireza; Nili, Monireh; Hashemi, Sayed Raouf; Kadkhodaei, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    Depending on esthetic, anatomical, and functional aspects, in implant-prosthetic restoration of a completely edentulous jaw, the selection of implant type is highly important; however, bone- and tissue-level implants and their stress distribution in bone have not yet been comparatively investigated. Hence, finite element analysis was used to study the influence of cantilever length in a fixed prosthesis on stress distribution in peri-implant bone around these two types of oral implants. A 3D edentulous mandible was modeled. In simulations, a framework with four posterior cantilever lengths and two types of implants, bone-level and tissue-level, was considered. A compressive load was applied to the distal regions of the cantilevers, and the von-Mises stress of peri-implant bone was investigated. The independent t-test and the Pearson correlation coefficient analyzed the results (α = 0.05). Stresses in the cortical bone around the bone-level implants were greater than those in the tissue-level implants with the same cantilever length. In addition, by extending the cantilever length, the stress values in peri-implant bone increased. Therefore, when the cantilever was at its maximum length, the maximum stress was in cortical bone and around the bone-level distal implants. The results of the present study indicate that treatment with tissue-level implants is potentially more advantageous than with bone-level implants for implant-supported fixed prostheses. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Resonances under rank-one perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Olivier; Cortés, Víctor H.; Del Río, Rafael; Fernández, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    We study resonances generated by rank-one perturbations of self-adjoint operators with eigenvalues embedded in the continuous spectrum. Instability of these eigenvalues is analyzed and almost exponential decay for the associated resonant states is exhibited. We show how these results can be applied to Sturm-Liouville operators. Main tools are the Aronszajn-Donoghue theory for rank-one perturbations, a reduction process of the resolvent based on the Feshbach-Livsic formula, the Fermi golden rule, and a careful analysis of the Fourier transform of quasi-Lorentzian functions. We relate these results to sojourn time estimates and spectral concentration phenomena.

  8. Perturbation theory with instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.; Pinsky, S.S.; Zachariasen, F.

    1977-05-01

    ''Perturbation theory'' rules are developed for calculating the effect of instantons in a pure Yang-Mills theory with no fermions, in the ''dilute gas'' approximation in which the N-instanton solution is assumed to be the sum of N widely separated one-instanton solutions. These rules are then used to compute the gluon propagator and proper vertex function including all orders of the instanton interaction but only to lowest order in the gluon coupling. It is to be expected that such an approximation is valid only for momenta q larger than the physical mass μ. The result is that in this regime instantons cause variations in the propagator and vertex of the form (μ 2 /q 2 )/sup -8π 2 b/ where b is the coefficient in the expansion of the β function: β = bg 3 +...

  9. Redshift-space distortions from vector perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Khosravi, Nima; Kunz, Martin; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2018-02-01

    We compute a general expression for the contribution of vector perturbations to the redshift space distortion of galaxy surveys. We show that they contribute to the same multipoles of the correlation function as scalar perturbations and should thus in principle be taken into account in data analysis. We derive constraints for next-generation surveys on the amplitude of two sources of vector perturbations, namely non-linear clustering and topological defects. While topological defects leave a very small imprint on redshift space distortions, we show that the multipoles of the correlation function are sensitive to vorticity induced by non-linear clustering. Therefore future redshift surveys such as DESI or the SKA should be capable of measuring such vector modes, especially with the hexadecapole which appears to be the most sensitive to the presence of vorticity.

  10. A micromechanical approach of suffusion based on a length scale analysis of the grain detachment and grain transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautier, Antoine; Bonelli, Stéphane; Nicot, François

    2017-06-01

    Suffusion is the selective erosion of the finest particles of a soil subjected to an internal flow. Among the four types of internal erosion and piping identified today, suffusion is the least understood. Indeed, there is a lack of micromechanical approaches for identifying the critical microstructural parameters responsible for this process. Based on a discrete element modeling of non cohesive granular assemblies, specific micromechanical tools are developed in a unified framework to account for the two first steps of suffusion, namely the grain detachment and the grain transport processes. Thanks to the use of an enhanced force chain definition and autocorrelation functions the typical lengths scales associated with grain detachment are characterized. From the definition of transport paths based on a graph description of the pore space the typical lengths scales associated with grain transport are recovered. For a uniform grain size distribution, a separation of scales between these two processes exists for the finest particles of a soil

  11. A micromechanical approach of suffusion based on a length scale analysis of the grain detachment and grain transport processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wautier Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suffusion is the selective erosion of the finest particles of a soil subjected to an internal flow. Among the four types of internal erosion and piping identified today, suffusion is the least understood. Indeed, there is a lack of micromechanical approaches for identifying the critical microstructural parameters responsible for this process. Based on a discrete element modeling of non cohesive granular assemblies, specific micromechanical tools are developed in a unified framework to account for the two first steps of suffusion, namely the grain detachment and the grain transport processes. Thanks to the use of an enhanced force chain definition and autocorrelation functions the typical lengths scales associated with grain detachment are characterized. From the definition of transport paths based on a graph description of the pore space the typical lengths scales associated with grain transport are recovered. For a uniform grain size distribution, a separation of scales between these two processes exists for the finest particles of a soil

  12. Development of PNTDs synthesized from monomers with different molecular length and analysis of molecular damages by heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hajime; Kodaira, Satoshi; Ihara, Daisuke; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Kusumoto, Tamon; Mori, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Benton, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Our interests for years lay to investigate the reason why CR-39 polymer has such high sensitivity as plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) on chemical structural aspects. We developed three PNTDs from three diacrylate compounds as monomers bearing different molecular length as well as different numbers of internal ether bonds. The polymer products obtained were colorless and transparent with 3-D molecular structures as CR-39 and different lattice structures each other. Our purpose of the current study was to investigate structural damages caused in newly prepared PNTDs and CR-39 by irradiation of Nitrogen ion (6 MeV/n, fluence of 5 x 10 11 cm -2 ). The structural damage by irradiation was analyzed by the magnitude of the relative absorbance of specific functional groups such as ester, C=O, ether and C-H bonds by means of FT-IR (ATR) method. The correlation between the relative absorbance and the molecular length of the monomers were discussed. (author)

  13. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF GAS LUBRICATED SELF-ACTING PLAIN CYLINDRICAL JOURNAL BEARINGS OF FINITE LENGTH, USING GALERKIN’S METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most important considerations in designing a high-speed, gas-lubricated, self acting journal bearing is the instability of the journal under a given operating condition. Intensive research in this direction has led to a number of significant contributions in the past five years. The present paper extends the method of Cheng and Trumpler to study the stability of plain cylindrical gas journal bearings of finite length. Both equilibrium and stability results were obtained.

  14. The process of homelessness: an event history analysis of length of stay for the Groningen shelter accommodation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernee, H.; Oldersma, F.; Popping, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the process of shelter exits for homeless individuals and for different shelter types in the public shelter system in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Individualised administrative data from the Groningen Homelessness Monitor (2003–2006) are used for estimating a Weibull hazard rate regression model. Results show that the different shelter types fit adequately with their policy purposes : lengths of stay in emergency shelter accommodation appear to be shorter than...

  15. Impedance analysis of PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells with different ZnO nanowire lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Takahashi, Akihiro; Wang, Haibin; Takahira, Kazuya; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been markedly improved by optimizing the surface passivation and device structure, and details of device physics are now under investigation. In this study, we investigated the resistance and capacitance components at the ZnO/PbS-QD interface and inside a PbS-QD layer by measuring the impedance spectrum while the interface area was controlled by changing the ZnO nanowire length. By evaluating the dependence of optical intensity and DC bias voltage on the ZnO nanowire length, only the capacitance was observed to be influenced by the interface area, and this indicates that photoinduced carriers are generated at the surface of PbS-QD. In addition, since the capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the QD, the interface area can be evaluated from the capacitance. Finally, photovoltaic performance was observed to increase with increasing ZnO nanowire length owing to the large interface area, and this result is in good agreement with the capacitance measurement.

  16. Prison environment and non-communicable chronic disease modifiable risk factors: length of incarceration trend analysis in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bertozzi, Stefano Michele; Orozco-Nuñez, Emanuel; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy

    2018-04-01

    There is a lack of evidence regarding chronic disease modifiable risk factors among prisoner populations in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and to assess their relationship with length of incarceration. We analysed data from a cross sectional study in which 4241 prisoners were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire with socio-demographic and health behaviour content using an audio computer-assisted self-interview format. Physical activity (PA), low-quality diet, current smoking and alcohol or cocaine use during the last month in prison were our main outcomes. Quantile regression models and logistic regression models were performed. Our final analytical sample consisted of 3774 prisoners from four Mexico City prisons. PA was estimated as 579 median metabolic equivalents-min/week, prevalence of alcohol use was 23.4%, cocaine use was 24.2% and current smoking was 53.2%. Our results suggest that, as length of incarceration increased, PA as well as alcohol and cocaine use increased, whereas the quality of diet decreased. This study supports the hypothesis that exposure to prison environment (measured by length of incarceration) fosters modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly diet quality and cocaine use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Noise Reduction in High-Throughput Gene Perturbation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivation: Accurate interpretation of perturbation screens is essential for a successful functional investigation. However, the screened phenotypes are often distorted by noise, and their analysis requires specialized statistical analysis tools. The number and scope of statistical methods available...

  18. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjuan Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  19. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-09-01

    Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  20. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  1. A Semester-Long Project for Teaching Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology Such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis to Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length ...

  2. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1979-12-01

    The application of QCD to hadron dynamics at short distances, where asymptotic freedom allows a systematic perturbative approach, is addressed. The main theme of the approach is to incorporate systematically the effects of the hadronic wave function in large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive reactions. Although it is conventional to treat the hadron as a classical source of on-shell quarks, there are important dynamical effects due to hadronic constituent structure which lead to a broader testing ground for QCD. QCD predictions are discussed for exclusive processes and form factors at large momentum transfer in which the short-distance behavior and the finite compositeness of the hadronic wave functions play crucial roles. Many of the standard tests of QCD are reviewed including the predictions for R = sigma/sub e + e - →had//sigma/sub e + e - →μ + μ - /, the structure functions of hadrons and photons, jet phenomena, and the QCD corrections to deep inelastic processes. The exclusive-inclusive connection in QCD, the effects of power-law scale-breaking contributions, and the important role of the available energy in controlling logarithmic scale violations are also discussed. 150 references, 44 figures

  3. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1979-12-01

    The application of QCD to hadron dynamics at short distances, where asymptotic freedom allows a systematic perturbative approach, is addressed. The main theme of the approach is to incorporate systematically the effects of the hadronic wave function in large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive reactions. Although it is conventional to treat the hadron as a classical source of on-shell quarks, there are important dynamical effects due to hadronic constituent structure which lead to a broader testing ground for QCD. QCD predictions are discussed for exclusive processes and form factors at large momentum transfer in which the short-distance behavior and the finite compositeness of the hadronic wave functions play crucial roles. Many of the standard tests of QCD are reviewed including the predictions for R = sigma/sub e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..had//sigma/sub e/sup +/e/sup -/..--> mu../sup +/..mu../sup -//, the structure functions of hadrons and photons, jet phenomena, and the QCD corrections to deep inelastic processes. The exclusive-inclusive connection in QCD, the effects of power-law scale-breaking contributions, and the important role of the available energy in controlling logarithmic scale violations are also discussed. 150 references, 44 figures. (RWR)

  4. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  5. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    41] which will be measured to high accuracy at Jefferson Laboratory at the experiment PrimEx. 4. Baryon chiral perturbation theory. Baryon chiral perturbation theory in the modern era was first formulated in [6]. This was a relativistic formulation ...

  6. On summation of perturbation expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.

    1985-04-01

    The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)

  7. Continual integral in perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that all results obtained by means of continual integration within the framework of perturbation theory are completely equivalent to those obtained by the usual diagram technique and are therfore just as rigorous. A rigorous justification is given for the rules for operating with continual integrals in perturbation theory. (author)

  8. Resumming the string perturbation series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Alba; Mariño, Marcos; Zakany, Szabolcs [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève, Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-07

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the resummation of a perturbative genus expansion appearing in the type II superstring dual of ABJM theory. Although the series is Borel summable, its Borel resummation does not agree with the exact non-perturbative answer due to the presence of complex instantons. The same type of behavior appears in the WKB quantization of the quartic oscillator in Quantum Mechanics, which we analyze in detail as a toy model for the string perturbation series. We conclude that, in these examples, Borel summability is not enough for extracting non-perturbative information, due to non-perturbative effects associated to complex instantons. We also analyze the resummation of the genus expansion for topological string theory on local ℙ{sup 1}×ℙ{sup 1}, which is closely related to ABJM theory. In this case, the non-perturbative answer involves membrane instantons computed by the refined topological string, which are crucial to produce a well-defined result. We give evidence that the Borel resummation of the perturbative series requires such a non-perturbative sector.

  9. Perturbative QCD (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Perturbative QCD is the general theoretical framework for describing hard scattering processes yielding multiparticle production at hadron colliders. In these lectures, we shall introduce fundamental features of perturbative QCD and describe its application to several high energy collider processes, including jet production in electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic scattering, Higgs boson and gauge boson production at the LHC.

  10. Molecular cloning and analysis of full-length genome of HIV type 1 strains prevalent in countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharsky, Alexei E; Klimov, Nikolai A; Kozlov, Andrei P

    2003-10-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) was caused mainly by two HIV-1 variants: subtype A and CRF03-AB. To date only three full-length HIV-I genomes from the FSU have been sequenced: one subtype A from Byelorussia and two CRF03-AB from Russia. We report the full-length genome cloning and analysis of two more HIV-1 strains from the FSU countries (98UA0116 of subtype A and 98BY10443 of CRF03-AB). Isolate 98UA0116 is the second cloned and sequenced full-length HIV-1 genome of subtype A lineage from the FSU, which may be a novel subsubtype within sub-type A. Isolate 98BY10443 is the third full-length HIV-1 genome of CRF03-AB in the world to be cloned and sequenced. Additionally, it is the first CRF03-AB strain discovered in Byelorussia. Cloned genomic sequences of the FSU HIV-1 isolates are being used for the development of a region-specific HIV-1 vaccine.

  11. Influence of Implant Design (Cylindrical and Conical) in the Load Transfer Surrounding Long (13mm) and Short (7mm) Length Implants: A Photoelastic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Frugis, Victor Lourenço; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Fernandez, Maria Piedad Ramirez; Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo Maté; Girardo, José Luis Calvo; Taschieri, Silvio; Corbella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of implant design (cylindrical and conical) in the load transfer on bone surrounding 13mm and 7mm length implants under simulated occlusal loading, using photoelastic analysis. Dental implants of 4mm diameter were divided into four groups, which varied in length and design: Group 1- standard (13 mm) cylindrical implant; Group 2 - standard conical implant; Group 3 - short (7 mm) cylindrical implant, and Group 4 - short conical implant. After the inclusion of the implant models in a photoelastic resin, they were subjected to a static load of 100 N. The lengths of the fringes that were generated were measured in three portions since the implants body: crestal, central and apical portion, parallel to the implant long axis. Furthermore, the entire extension area of dissipation of force was measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Lower stress was observed at the crestal bone in groups 2 and 4, while the stress levels in groups 1 and 3 were higher with significant differences compared to the other groups (pimplant length under axial loading condition, but changed in relation to the implant design with respect to the concentration of the fringes, which corresponded to the load distribution, with even more dissipation by conical implants.

  12. Numerical analysis of the optimal length and profile of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating for dispersion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, S; Lauzon, J; Cliche, J F; Martin, J; Duguay, M A; Têtu, M

    1995-03-15

    We propose a theoretical investigation of the length and coupling profile of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating for maximum dispersion compensation in a repeaterless optical communication system. The system consists of 100 km of standard optical fiber in which a 1550-nm signal, directly modulated at 2.5 Gbits/s, is launched. We discuss the results obtained with 6-, 4.33-, and 1-cm-long linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings having Gaussian and uniform coupling profiles. We numerically show that a 4.33-cm-long chirped fiber Bragg grating having a uniform coupling profile is capable of compensating efficiently for the dispersion of our optical communication system.

  13. Kaon-nucleon scattering to one-loop order in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Lin; Li, Yun-De

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the T matrices of kaon-nucleon (K N ) and antikaon-nucleon (K ¯N ) scattering to one-loop order in SU(3) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HB χ PT ). The low-energy constants (LECs) and their combinations are then determined by fitting the phase shifts of K N scattering and the corresponding data. This leads to a good description of the phase shifts below 200 MeV kaon laboratory momentum. We obtain the LEC uncertainties through statistical regression analysis and successfully reduce one parameter. We also determine the LECs through the use of scattering lengths in order to check the consistency of the HB χ PT framework for different observables and obtain a consistent result. By using these LECs, we predict the K ¯N elastic scattering phase shifts and obtain reasonable results. The scattering lengths are also predicted, which turn out to be in good agreement with the empirical values except for the isospin-0 K ¯N scattering length that is strongly affected by the Λ (1405 ) resonance. As most calculations in the chiral perturbation theory, the convergence issue is discussed in detail. Our calculations provide a possibility to investigate the baryon-baryon interaction in HB χ PT .

  14. Estimating length of stay in publicly-funded residential and nursing care homes: a retrospective analysis using linked administrative data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steventon Adam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about how long people stay in care homes is needed to plan services, as length of stay is a determinant of future demand for care. As length of stay is proportional to cost, estimates are also needed to inform analysis of the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing admissions to care homes. But estimates are rarely available due to the cost of repeatedly surveying individuals. Methods We used administrative data from three local authorities in England to estimate the length of publicly-funded care homes stays beginning in 2005 and 2006. Stays were classified into nursing home, permanent residential and temporary residential. We aggregated successive placements in different care home providers and, by linking to health data, across periods in hospital. Results The largest group of stays (38.9% were those intended to be temporary, such as for rehabilitation, and typically lasted 4 weeks. For people admitted to permanent residential care, median length of stay was 17.9 months. Women stayed longer than men, while stays were shorter if preceded by other forms of social care. There was significant variation in length of stay between the three local authorities. The typical person admitted to a permanent residential care home will cost a local authority over £38,000, less payments due from individuals under the means test. Conclusions These figures are not apparent from existing data sets. The large cost of care home placements suggests significant scope for preventive approaches. The administrative data revealed complexity in patterns of service use, which should be further explored as it may challenge the assumptions that are often made.

  15. Perturbative Analysis of the Influence of Strong Interaction on the Relations between A$_{2\\pi}$ Creation Probabilities in ns-States

    CERN Document Server

    Voskresenskaya, O O

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the relations between probabilities of A_{2\\pi}-atoms creation in ns-states, derived with neglecting of strong interaction between pions, hold practically unchanged if the strong interaction is taken into account in the first order of perturbation theory. The formulation of Deser equation for the energy levels shift of the hadronic atoms (HA) is given in terms of effective range of strong interaction and relative correction to the coulombic wave function of HA at origin, caused by strong interaction.

  16. Application of the perturbation theory-differential formalism-for sensitivity analysis in steam generators of PWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.M.G.; Andrade Lima, F.R. de; Alvim, A.C.M.

    1987-06-01

    An homogeneous model which simulates the stationary behavior of steam generators of PWR type reactors and uses the differential formalism of perturbation theory for analysing sensibility of linear and non-linear responses, is presented. The PERGEVAP computer code to calculate the temperature distribution in the steam generator and associated importance function, is developed. The code also evaluates effects of the thermohydraulic parameter variation on selected functionals. The obtained results are compared with results obtained by GEVAP computer code . (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Simulation and analysis of an isolated full-bridge DC/DC boost converter operating with a modified perturb and observe maximum power point tracking algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe A. Matias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to simulate and analyze an isolated full-bridge DC/DC boost converter, for photovoltaic panels, running a modified perturb and observe maximum power point tracking method. The zero voltage switching technique was used in order to minimize the losses of the converter for a wide range of solar operation. The efficiency of the power transfer is higher than 90% for large solar operating points. The panel enhancement due to the maximum power point tracking algorithm is 5.06%.

  18. Automatic landslide length and width estimation based on the geometric processing of the bounding box and the geomorphometric analysis of DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculiţǎ, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The morphology of landslides is influenced by the slide/flow of the material downslope. Usually, the distance of the movement of the material is greater than the width of the displaced material (especially for flows, but also the majority of slides); the resulting landslides have a greater length than width. In some specific geomorphologic environments (monoclinic regions, with cuesta landforms type) or as is the case for some types of landslides (translational slides, bank failures, complex landslides), for the majority of landslides, the distance of the movement of the displaced material can be smaller than its width; thus the landslides have a smaller length than width. When working with landslide inventories containing both types of landslides presented above, the analysis of the length and width of the landslides computed using usual geographic information system techniques (like bounding boxes) can be flawed. To overcome this flaw, I present an algorithm which uses both the geometry of the landslide polygon minimum oriented bounding box and a digital elevation model of the landslide topography for identifying the long vs. wide landslides. I tested the proposed algorithm for a landslide inventory which covers 131.1 km2 of the Moldavian Plateau, eastern Romania. This inventory contains 1327 landslides, of which 518 were manually classified as long and 809 as wide. In a first step, the difference in elevation of the length and width of the minimum oriented bounding box is used to separate long landslides from wide landslides (long landslides having the greatest elevation difference along the length of the bounding box). In a second step, the long landslides are checked as to whether their length is greater than the length of flow downslope (estimated with a flow-routing algorithm), in which case the landslide is classified as wide. By using this approach, the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve value for the classification of the long vs. wide

  19. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  20. Electromagnetic couplings of the chiral perturbation theory Lagrangian from the perturbative chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Gutsche, Th.; Faessler, Amand; Mau, R. Vinh

    2002-01-01

    We apply the perturbative chiral quark model to the study of the low-energy πN interaction. Using an effective chiral Lagrangian we reproduce the Weinberg-Tomozawa result for the S-wave πN scattering lengths. After inclusion of the photon field we give predictions for the electromagnetic O(p 2 ) low-energy couplings of the chiral perturbation theory effective Lagrangian that define the electromagnetic mass shifts of nucleons and first-order (e 2 ) radiative corrections to the πN scattering amplitude. Finally, we estimate the leading isospin-breaking correction to the strong energy shift of the π - p atom in the 1s state, which is relevant for the experiment 'pionic hydrogen' at PSI

  1. Variational nodal transport perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurin-Kovitz, K.F.; Lewis, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    A perturbation method based on the variational nodal method for solving the neutron transport equation is developed for multidimensional geometries. The method utilizes the solution of the corresponding adjoint transport equation to calculate changes in the critical eigenvalue due to cross-section changes. Both first-order and exact perturbation theory expressions are derived. The adjoint solution algorithm has been formulated and incorporated into the variational nodal option of the Argonne National Laboratory DIF3D production code. To demonstrate the efficacy of the methods, perturbation calculations are performed on the three-dimensional Takeda benchmark problems in both Cartesian and hexagonal geometries. The resulting changes in eigenvalue are also obtained by direct calculation with the variational nodal method and compared with the change approximated by the first-order and exact theory expressions from the perturbation method. Exact perturbation results are in excellent agreement with the actual eigenvalue differences calculated in VARIANT. First-order theory holds well for sufficiently small perturbations. The times required for the perturbation calculations are small compared with those expended for the base-forward and adjoint calculations

  2. Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Minamitsuji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (nonconservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.

  3. Privacy Is Become with, Data Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Er. Niranjan; Singhai, Niky

    2011-06-01

    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in many data mining applications that deal with health care, security, finance, behavior and other types of sensitive data. Is particularly becoming important in counterterrorism and homeland security-related applications. We touch upon several techniques of masking the data, namely random distortion, including the uniform and Gaussian noise, applied to the data in order to protect it. These perturbation schemes are equivalent to additive perturbation after the logarithmic Transformation. Due to the large volume of research in deriving private information from the additive noise perturbed data, the security of these perturbation schemes is questionable Many artificial intelligence and statistical methods exist for data analysis interpretation, Identifying and measuring the interestingness of patterns and rules discovered, or to be discovered is essential for the evaluation of the mined knowledge and the KDD process as a whole. While some concrete measurements exist, assessing the interestingness of discovered knowledge is still an important research issue. As the tool for the algorithm implementations we chose the language of choice in industrial world MATLAB.

  4. Toward controlling perturbations in robotic sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ashis G.; Majumder, Saikat R.

    2014-06-01

    Robotic sensor networks (RSNs), which consist of networks of sensors placed on mobile robots, are being increasingly used for environment monitoring applications. In particular, a lot of work has been done on simultaneous localization and mapping of the robots, and optimal sensor placement for environment state estimation1. The deployment of RSNs, however, remains challenging in harsh environments where the RSNs have to deal with significant perturbations in the forms of wind gusts, turbulent water flows, sand storms, or blizzards that disrupt inter-robot communication and individual robot stability. Hence, there is a need to be able to control such perturbations and bring the networks to desirable states with stable nodes (robots) and minimal operational performance (environment sensing). Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling the non-linear dynamics in other communication networks like emergency management systems and power grids by introducing compensatory perturbations to restore network stability and operation2. In this paper, we develop a computational framework to investigate the usefulness of this approach for RSNs in marine environments. Preliminary analysis shows promising performance and identifies bounds on the original perturbations within which it is possible to control the networks.

  5. Identification, molecular cloning, and analysis of full-length hepatitis C virus transmitted/founder genotypes 1, 3, and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Mark B; Li, Hui; Wang, Shuyi; Saeed, Mohsan; Andrus, Linda; Ding, Wenge; Jiang, Xinpei; Learn, Gerald H; von Schaewen, Markus; Wen, Jessica; Goepfert, Paul A; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ploss, Alexander; Rice, Charles M; Shaw, George M

    2015-02-24

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by persistent replication of a complex mixture of viruses termed a "quasispecies." Transmission is generally associated with a stringent population bottleneck characterized by infection by limited numbers of "transmitted/founder" (T/F) viruses. Characterization of T/F genomes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been integral to studies of transmission, immunopathogenesis, and vaccine development. Here, we describe the identification of complete T/F genomes of HCV by single-genome sequencing of plasma viral RNA from acutely infected subjects. A total of 2,739 single-genome-derived amplicons comprising 10,966,507 bp from 18 acute-phase and 11 chronically infected subjects were analyzed. Acute-phase sequences diversified essentially randomly, except for the poly(U/UC) tract, which was subject to polymerase slippage. Fourteen acute-phase subjects were productively infected by more than one genetically distinct virus, permitting assessment of recombination between replicating genomes. No evidence of recombination was found among 1,589 sequences analyzed. Envelope sequences of T/F genomes lacked transmission signatures that could distinguish them from chronic infection viruses. Among chronically infected subjects, higher nucleotide substitution rates were observed in the poly(U/UC) tract than in envelope hypervariable region 1. Fourteen full-length molecular clones with variable poly(U/UC) sequences corresponding to seven genotype 1a, 1b, 3a, and 4a T/F viruses were generated. Like most unadapted HCV clones, T/F genomes did not replicate efficiently in Huh 7.5 cells, indicating that additional cellular factors or viral adaptations are necessary for in vitro replication. Full-length T/F HCV genomes and their progeny provide unique insights into virus transmission, virus evolution, and virus-host interactions associated with immunopathogenesis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 2% to 3% of the world

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  7. Body Composition Explains Greater Variance in Weight-for-Length Z-scores than Mid-Upper Arm Circumference during Infancy - A Secondary Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Admassu, Bitiya; Kæstel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Traditionally, weight-for-length/height z-score (WLZ) was used to assess wasting (a mortality risk factor) in children 0-59 months. A recent consultation reached a majority position that mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a better mortality predictor than WLZ in children 6-59 months. In addition, MUAC collected at the ages of 6-14 weeks has shown to identify infants more likely to die before reaching one year. To understand which body compartment is most affected by undernutrition, associations between anthropometric indicators and body composition data have been studied in children aged 6-59 months. To our knowledge, no such study has been done in children aged 0-6 months. We aimed to study these associations. Methods: Weight, length, MUAC, and lean and fat mass (LM and FM, respectively) obtained by air-displacement plethysmography of infants aged 0-6 months were obtained from an Ethiopian birth cohort study. The data, originally used to construct body composition reference data, measured infants at birth, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 months of age. A complete set of measurements available for 2506 out of a total of 2777 child measurements (563/598, 403/436, 414/444, 413/446, 368/415, and 345/441 in each age, respectively) was used for this analys, E-mail: is. Weight and length data were transformed to sex-and age-specific weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) values using the 2006 WHO growth standards. To remove the confounding positive association between LM or FM and length, we calculated sex- and age-specific standardised residuals values obtained from regressing LM or FM on length, separately by sex and age of measurement. The associations between MUAC, WLZ, length, and body composition residuals were assessed using correlation analysis. We used regression analysis to assess the independent contribution of body composition residuals to MUAC and WLZ. All analyses were done separately by age. Results: MUAC was strongly and positively correlated

  8. Perturbation theory of effective Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandow, B.H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper constitutes a review of the many papers which have used perturbation theory to derive ''effective'' or ''model'' Hamiltonians. It begins with a brief review of nondegenerate and non-many-body perturbation theory, and then considers the degenerate but non-many-body problem in some detail. It turns out that the degenerate perturbation problem is not uniquely defined, but there are some practical criteria for choosing among the various possibilities. Finally, the literature dealing with the linked-cluster aspects of open-shell many-body systems is reviewed. (U.S.)

  9. Inflationary Perturbations from Deformed CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Schaar, J P

    2004-01-01

    We present a new method to calculate the spectrum of (slow-roll) inflationary perturbations, inspired by the conjectured dS/CFT correspondence. We show how the standard result for the spectrum of inflationary perturbations can be obtained from deformed CFT correlators, whose behavior is determined by the Callan-Symanzik equation. We discuss the possible advantages of this approach and end with some comments on the role of holography in dS/CFT and its relation to the universal nature of the spectrum of inflationary perturbations.

  10. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  11. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  12. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR products amplified from 18S ribosomal RNA gene of Trypanosoma congolense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanyo, A.; Majiwa, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Oligonucleotide primers were designed from the conserved nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene of protozoans: Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Triponema aequale and Lagenidium gigantum. The primers were used in polymerace chain reaction (PCR) to generate PCR products of approximately 1 Kb using genomic DNA from T. brucei and the four genotypic groups of T. congolense as template. The five PCR products so produced were digested with several restriction enzymes and hybridized to a DNA probe made from T. brucei PCR product of the same 18S rRNA gene region. Most restriction enzyme digests revealed polymorphism with respect to the location of their recognition sites on the five PCR products. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern observed indicate that the 18S rRNA gene sequences of trypanosomes: T. brucei and the four genotypes of T.congolence group are heterogeneous. The results further demonstrate that the region that was amplified can be used in specific identification of trypanosomes species and subspecies.(author)

  13. Molecular characterization of HOXC8 gene and methylation status analysis of its exon 1 associated with the length of cashmere fiber in Liaoning cashmere goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen L; Wang, Jiao J; Yin, Rong H; Dang, Yun L; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Cong, Yu Y; Deng, Liang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Shi Q; Yang, Shu H; Xue, Hui L

    2017-02-01

    Homeobox protein Hox-C8 (HOXC8) is a member of Hox family. It is expressed in the dermal papilla of the skin and is thought to be associated with the hair inductive capacity of dermal papilla cells. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a full-length open reading frame of HOXC8 cDNA from the skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, as well as, established a phylogenetic relationship of goat HOXC8 with that of other species. Also, we investigated the effect of methylation status of HOXC8 exon 1 at anagen secondary hair follicle on the cashmere fiber traits in Liaoning cashmere goat. The sequence analysis indicated that the obtained cDNA was 1134-bp in length containing a complete ORF of 729-bp. It encoded a peptide of 242 amino acid residues in length. The structural analysis indicated that goat HOXC8 contained a typical homeobox domain. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Capra hircus HOXC8 had a closer genetic relationship with that of Ovis aries, followed by Bos Taurus and Bubalus bubalis. The methylation analysis suggested that the methylation degree of HOXC8 exon 1 in anagen secondary hair follicle might be involved in regulating the growth of cashmere fiber in Liaoning cashmere goat. Our results provide new evidence for understanding the molecular structural and evolutionary characteristics of HOXC8 in Liaoning cashmere goat, as well as, for further insight into the role of methylation degree of HOXC8 exon 1 regulates the growth of cashmere fiber in goat.

  14. Design optimization using depletion perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, B.A.

    1984-06-01

    Analysis of the fuel cycle performance of a reactor requires knowledge of the entire fuel burnup history. The optimal design depends upon the desired performance parameter or combination of parameters to be minimized (or maximized). The emphasis to date has been to use some combination of iterations involving a number of direct calculations, static perturbation theory, binary exchange methods, and empirical relationships. The object of this study is to demonstrate an approach to optimization based upon Depletion Perturbation Theory (DPT). The DPT equations directly couple the nuclide burnup equations and the neutron balance equations. The equations require the calculation of forward and adjoint solutions for the neutron flux and nuclide transmutations. The application is for analysis of a modular HTGR. The reactor has axially dependent fuel loadings in order to achieve an axial power shape that keeps fuel temperatures below a specified maximum

  15. Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Matthias

    We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group...... of dilations is thereby replaced by the unitary group generated y the conjugate operator. This then allows to treat the perturbation problem with the usual Kato theory....

  16. Perturbation theory of quantum resonances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 7 (2016), s. 159 ISSN 1432-2234 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Partitioning technique * Analytic continuation * Perturbative expansion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  18. The Radius and Entropy of a Magnetized, Rotating, Fully Convective Star: Analysis with Depth-dependent Mixing Length Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lewis G.; Browning, Matthew K.

    2018-04-01

    Some low-mass stars appear to have larger radii than predicted by standard 1D structure models; prior work has suggested that inefficient convective heat transport, due to rotation and/or magnetism, may ultimately be responsible. We examine this issue using 1D stellar models constructed using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). First, we consider standard models that do not explicitly include rotational/magnetic effects, with convective inhibition modeled by decreasing a depth-independent mixing length theory (MLT) parameter α MLT. We provide formulae linking changes in α MLT to changes in the interior specific entropy, and hence to the stellar radius. Next, we modify the MLT formulation in MESA to mimic explicitly the influence of rotation and magnetism, using formulations suggested by Stevenson and MacDonald & Mullan, respectively. We find rapid rotation in these models has a negligible impact on stellar structure, primarily because a star’s adiabat, and hence its radius, is predominantly affected by layers near the surface; convection is rapid and largely uninfluenced by rotation there. Magnetic fields, if they influenced convective transport in the manner described by MacDonald & Mullan, could lead to more noticeable radius inflation. Finally, we show that these non-standard effects on stellar structure can be fabricated using a depth-dependent α MLT: a non-magnetic, non-rotating model can be produced that is virtually indistinguishable from one that explicitly parameterizes rotation and/or magnetism using the two formulations above. We provide formulae linking the radially variable α MLT to these putative MLT reformulations.

  19. Confocal microscopy analysis of native, full length and B-domain deleted coagulation factor VIII trafficking in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sven; Simpson, Jeremy C; Pepperkok, Rainer; Heinz, Stefan; Herder, Christian; Grez, Manuel; Seifried, Erhard; Tonn, Torsten

    2004-07-01

    In mammalian cells, factor VIII (FVIII) secretion depends upon its interaction with chaperones of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and requires a unique ATP-dependent step to dissociate aggregates formed within the ER. To further elucidate mechanisms which might account for the inefficient secretion of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), we have analyzed the pathways of recombinant full length (rFVIII-FL) and B-domain deleted (rFVIII Delta B) FVIII and compared these to the secretion route of native FVIII in primary hepatocytes. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with a pulse chase of a known secretion marker, we describe the trafficking route of FVIII, which upon release from the ER--where it colocalizes with calnexin--is transported to the Golgi complex in vesicular-tubular transport complexes (VTCs) which could be further identified as being COP I coated. However, a large portion of rFVIII is retained in the ER and additionally in structures which could not be assigned to the ER, Golgi complex or intermediate compartment. Moderate BiP transcription levels indicate that this observed retention of FVIII does not reflect cellular stress due to an overexpression of FVIII-protein in transduced cells. Moreover, a pulse of newly synthesized rFVIII protein is released within 4 hrs, indicating that once rFVIII is released from the ER there is no further limitation to its secretion. Our data provide new details about the secretory route of FVIII, which may ultimately help to identify factors currently limiting the efficient and physiological expression of FVIII in gene therapy and manufacture.

  20. Validation of a Perturbed-Continuum Model for Shear Localization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iyer, K; Schoenfeld, S; Casem, D; Wright, T

    2004-01-01

    .... Experiments and continuum analysis (Wright, 2002) have shown sudden stress collapse via shear localization may be related to velocity or strain rate perturbations in the vicinity of shear band initiation...

  1. A perturbation-based model for rectifier circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin B. Vats

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A perturbation-theoretic analysis of rectifier circuits is presented. The governing differential equation of the half-wave rectifier with capacitor filter is analyzed by expanding the output voltage as a Taylor series with respect to an artificially introduced parameter in the nonlinearity of the diode characteristic as is done in quantum theory. The perturbation parameter introduced in the analysis is independent of the circuit components as compared to the method presented by multiple scales. The various terms appearing in the perturbation series are then modeled in the form of an equivalent circuit. This model is subsequently used in the analysis of full-wave rectifier. Matlab simulation results are included which confirm the validity of the theoretical formulations. Perturbation analysis acts a helpful tool in analyzing time-varying systems and chaotic systems.

  2. Capillary and viscous perturbations to Helmholtz flows

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2014-02-21

    Inspired by recent calculations by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, p. 264506) relating to droplet impact, this paper presents an analysis of the perturbations to the free surface caused by small surface tension and viscosity in steady Helmholtz flows. In particular, we identify the regimes in which appreciable vorticity can be shed from the boundary layer to the bulk flow. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Nijveldt, Robin [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, and Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ven, Peter M. van de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meine, Mathias [University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, INSA, CNRS UMR 5520, INSERM U1206, CREATIS, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2017-12-15

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. (orig.)

  4. Sequencing and analysis of full-length cDNAs, 5'-ESTs and 3'-ESTs from a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).

    KAUST Repository

    Brenner, Sydney

    2012-10-08

    Cartilaginous fishes are the most ancient group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are, therefore, an important reference group for understanding the evolution of vertebrates. The elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a holocephalan cartilaginous fish, has been identified as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its compact genome (∼910 Mb) and a genome project has been initiated to obtain its whole genome sequence. In this study, we have generated and sequenced full-length enriched cDNA libraries of the elephant shark using the \\'oligo-capping\\' method and Sanger sequencing. A total of 6,778 full-length protein-coding cDNA and 10,701 full-length noncoding cDNA were sequenced from six tissues (gills, intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, and testis) of the elephant shark. Analysis of their polyadenylation signals showed that polyadenylation usage in elephant shark is similar to that in mammals. Furthermore, both coding and noncoding transcripts of the elephant shark use the same proportion of canonical polyadenylation sites. Besides BLASTX searches, protein-coding transcripts were annotated by Gene Ontology, InterPro domain, and KEGG pathway analyses. By comparing elephant shark genes to bony vertebrate genes, we identified several ancient genes present in elephant shark but differentially lost in tetrapods or teleosts. Only ∼6% of elephant shark noncoding cDNA showed similarity to known noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The rest are either highly divergent ncRNAs or novel ncRNAs. In addition to full-length transcripts, 30,375 5\\'-ESTs and 41,317 3\\'-ESTs were sequenced and annotated. The clones and transcripts generated in this study are valuable resources for annotating transcription start sites, exon-intron boundaries, and UTRs of genes in the elephant shark genome, and for the functional characterization of protein sequences. These resources will also be useful for annotating genes in other cartilaginous fishes whose genomes have been targeted for

  5. Analysis of self-consistency effects in range-separated density-functional theory with Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    -consistency effects are found to be much smaller than long-range correlation effects (less than 10% for the systems considered). For that reason, a sensible approximation might be to update the short-range energy functional term while freezing its functional derivative, namely, the short-range local potential...... implementation of the latter is based on a Neumann series which, interestingly, even though the effect is small, usually diverges. A convergence technique, which perhaps can be applied in other uses of Neumann series in perturbation theory, is proposed. The numerical results thus obtained show that, in weakly......, in the wave function optimization. The accuracy of such an approximation still needs to be assessed....

  6. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  7. Reactivity effect breakdown calculations with deterministic and stochastic perturbations analysis - JEFF-3.1.1 to JEFF3.2T1 (BRC-2009) actinides application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peneliau, Y.; Morillon, B.

    2013-01-01

    JEFF-3.1.1 is the reference nuclear data library in CEA for the design calculations of the next nuclear power plants. The validation of the new neutronics code systems is based on this library and changes in nuclear data should be looked at closely. Some new actinides evaluation files at high energies have been proposed by CEA/Bruyeres-le-Chatel in 2009 and have been integrated in JEFF3.2T1 test release. For the new release JEFF-3.2, CEA will build new evaluation files for the actinides, which should be a combination of the new evaluated data coming from BRC-2009 in the high energy range and improvements or new evaluations in the resolved and unresolved resonance range from CEA-Cadarache. To prepare the building of these new files, benchmarking the BRC-2009 library in comparison with the JEFF-3.1.1 library was very important. The crucial points to evaluate were the improvements in the continuum range and the discrepancies in the resonance range. The present work presents for a selected set of benchmarks the discrepancies in the effective multiplication factor obtained while using the JEFF-3.1.1 or JEFF-3.2T1 library with the deterministic code package ERANOS/PARIS and the stochastic code TRIPOLI- 4. They have both been used to calculate cross section perturbations or other nuclear data perturbations when possible. This has permitted to identify the origin of the discrepancies in reactivity calculations. In addition, this work also shows the importance of cross section processing validation. Actually, some fast neutron spectrum calculations have led to opposite tendencies between the deterministic code package and the stochastic code. Some particular nuclear data (MT=5 in ENDF terminology) seem to be incompatible with the current MERGE or GECCO processing codes. (authors)

  8. Characterization of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, N.F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2002-01-01

    , were investigated by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms of the Bgl II and Mfe I restriction sites and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of a Bss HII digest of chromosomal DNA. Both methods allowed unambiguous differentiation of the analysed strains and showed similar discriminatory...... potential for the differentiation of M. hyosynoviae isolates. Concordant results obtained with the two whole-genome fingerprinting techniques evidence the considerable intraspecies genetic heterogeneity of M. hyosynoviae . Sixteen field strains of M. hyosynoviae and the type strain S16(T) were further...

  9. A Unique Primer with an Inosine Chain at the 5'-Terminus Improves the Reliability of SNP Analysis Using the PCR-Amplified Product Length Polymorphism Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Shojo

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction-amplified product length polymorphism (PCR-APLP is one of the most convenient and reliable methods for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis. This method is based on PCR, but uses allele-specific primers containing SNP sites at the 3'-terminus of each primer. To use this method at least two allele-specific primers and one "counter-primer", which serves as a common forward or reverse primer of the allele-specific primers, are required. The allele-specific primers have SNP sites at the 3'-terminus, and another primer should have a few non-complementary flaps at the 5'-terminus to detect SNPs by determining the difference of amplicon length by PCR and subsequent electrophoresis. A major disadvantage of the addition of a non-complementary flap is the non-specific annealing of the primer with non-complementary flaps. However, a design principle for avoiding this undesired annealing has not been fully established, therefore, it is often difficult to design effective APLP primers. Here, we report allele-specific primers with an inosine chain at the 5'-terminus for PCR-APLP analysis. This unique design improves the competitiveness of allele-specific primers and the reliability of SNP analysis when using the PCR-APLP method.

  10. Longitudinal patterns and response lengths of algae in riverine ecosystems: A model analysis emphasising benthic-pelagic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Christoph G; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2018-04-07

    In riverine ecosystems primary production is principally possible in two habitats: in the benthic layer by sessile algae and in the surface water by planktonic algae being transported downstream. The relevance of these two habitats generally changes along the rivers' continuum. However, analyses of the interaction of algae in these two habitats and their controlling factors in riverine ecosystems are, so far, very rare. We use a simplified advection-diffusion model system combined with ecological process kinetics to analyse the interaction of benthic and planktonic algae and nutrients along idealised streams and rivers at regional to large scales. Because many of the underlying processes affecting algal dynamics are influenced by depth, we focus particularly on the impact of river depth on this interaction. At constant environmental conditions all state variables approach stable spatial equilibria along the river, independent of the boundary conditions at the upstream end. Because our model is very robust against changes of turbulent diffusion and stream velocity, these spatial equilibria can be analysed by a simplified ordinary differential equation (ode) version of our model. This model variant reveals that at shallower river depths, phytoplankton can exist only when it is subsidised by detaching benthic algae, and in turn, at deeper river depths, benthic algae can exist only in low biomasses which are subsidised by sinking planktonic algae. We generalise the spatial dynamics of the model system using different conditions at the upstream end of the model, which mimic various natural or anthropogenic factors (pristine source, dam, inflow of a waste water treatment plant, and dilution from e.g. a tributary) and analyse how these scenarios influence different aspects of the longitudinal spatial dynamics of the full spatial model: the relation of spatial equilibrium to spatial maximum, the distance to the spatial maximum, and the response length. Generally, our

  11. Length of stay and cost analysis of neonates undergoing surgery at a tertiary neonatal unit in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, S; Kennea, N; Desai, P; Giuliani, S; Richards, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a lack of knowledge on the average length of stay (LOS) in neonatal units after surgical repair of common congenital anomalies. There are few if any publications reporting the activity performed by units undertaking neonatal surgery. Such activity is important for contracting arrangements, commissioning specialist services and counselling parents. The aim of this study was to describe postnatal LOS for infants admitted to a single tertiary referral neonatal unit with congenital malformations requiring surgery. Methods Data on nine conditions were collected prospectively for babies on the neonatal unit over a five-year period (2006-2011). For those transferred back to their local unit following surgery, the local unit was contacted to determine the total LOS. Only those babies who had surgery during their first admission to our unit and who survived to discharge were included in the study. Cost estimates were based on the tariffs agreed for neonatal care between our trust and the London specialised commissioning group in 2011-2012. Results The median LOS for the conditions studied was: gastroschisis 35 days (range: 19-154 days), oesophageal atresia 33 days (range: 9-133 days), congenital diaphragmatic hernia 28 days (range: 7-99 days), intestinal atresia 24 days (range: 6-168 days), Hirschsprung's disease 21 days (range: 15-36 days), sacrococcygeal teratoma 17 days (range: 12-55 days), myelomeningocoele 15.5 days (range: 8-24 days), anorectal malformation 15 days (range: 6-90 days) and exomphalos 12 days (range: 3-228 days). The total neonatal bed day costs for the median LOS ranged from £8,701 (myelomeningocoele) to £23,874 (gastroschisis). The cost of surgery was not included. Conclusions There is wide variation in LOS for the same conditions in a single neonatal unit. This can be explained by different types and severity within the same congenital anomalies, different surgeons and other clinical confounders (eg sepsis, surgical

  12. Theoretical analysis of a new, efficient microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on magnetic structures on multiple length scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bu, Minqiang; Wolff, Anders

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of a new design for microfluidic magnetic bead separation. It combines an external array of mm-sized permanent magnets with magnetization directions alternating between up and down with mu m-sized soft magnetic structures integrated in the bottom of the separatio...

  13. Full-length genome analysis of Čalovo strains of Batai orthobunyavirus (Bunyamwera serogroup): Implications to taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufková, L.; Pachler, K.; Kilian, Patrik; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Danielová, V.; Růžek, Daniel; Nowotny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, 2014-Oct (2014), s. 96-104 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29256S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Batai virus * Orthobunyavirus * Phylogenetic analysis * Calovo virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.015, year: 2014

  14. Analysis of ORF 1 in European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by long RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for partial characterization of the replicase-encoding open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It comprised long RT-PCR amplification of 11.1 kb (94%) of ORF 1, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism a...

  15. Flow cytometric analysis of mitotic cycle perturbation by chemical carcinogens in cultured epithelial cells. [Effects of benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide on mitotic cycle of cultural mouse liver epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlman, Andrew Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A system for kinetic analysis of mitotic cycle perturbation by various agents was developed and applied to the study of the mitotic cycle effects and dependency of the chemical carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene-diolepoxide, DE, upon a mouse lever epithelial cell line, NMuLi. The study suggests that the targets of DE action are not confined to DNA alone but may include cytoplasmic structures as well. DE was found to affect cells located in virtually every phase of the mitotic cycle, with cells that were actively synthesizing DNA showing the strongest response. However, the resulting perturbations were not confined to S-phase alone. DE slowed traversal through S-phase by about 40% regardless of the cycle phase of the cells exposed to it, and slowed traversal through G2M by about 50%. When added to G1 cells, DE delayed recruitment of apparently quiescent (G0) cells by 2 hours, and reduced the synchrony of the cohort of cells recruited into active proliferation. The kinetic analysis system consists of four elements: tissue culture methods for propagating and harvesting cell populations; an elutriation centrifugation system for bulk synchronization of cells in various phases of the mitotic cycle; a flow cytometer (FCM), coupled with appropriate staining protocols, to enable rapid analysis of the DNA distribution of any given cell population; and data reduction and analysis methods for extracting information from the DNA histograms produced by the FCM. The elements of the system are discussed. A mathematical analysis of DNA histograms obtained by FCM is presented. The analysis leads to the detailed implementation of a new modeling approach. The new modeling approach is applied to the estimation of cell cycle kinetic parameters from time series of DNA histograms, and methods for the reduction and interpretation of such series are suggested.

  16. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P; Kuijer, Joost P A; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M; van de Ven, Peter M; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin

    2017-12-01

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. • Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.

  17. Multifrequency perturbations in matter-wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Stibor, A.

    2015-11-01

    High-contrast matter-wave interferometry is essential in various fundamental quantum mechanical experiments as well as for technical applications. Thereby, contrast and sensitivity are typically reduced by decoherence and dephasing effects. While decoherence accounts for a general loss of quantum information in a system due to entanglement with the environment, dephasing is due to collective time-dependent external phase shifts, which can be related to temperature drifts, mechanical vibrations, and electromagnetic oscillations. In contrast to decoherence, dephasing can, in principle, be reversed. Here, we demonstrate in experiment and theory a method for the analysis and reduction of the influence of dephasing noise and perturbations consisting of several external frequencies in an electron interferometer. This technique uses the high spatial and temporal resolution of a delay-line detector to reveal and remove dephasing perturbations by second-order correlation analysis. It allows matter-wave experiments under perturbing laboratory conditions and can be applied, in principle, to electron, atom, ion, neutron, and molecule interferometers.

  18. Biodosimetry estimation using the ratio of the longest:shortest length in the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) method applying autocapture and automatic image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jorge E; Romero, Ivonne; Gregoire, Eric; Martin, Cécile; Lamadrid, Ana I; Voisin, Philippe; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; García, Omar

    2014-09-01

    The combination of automatic image acquisition and automatic image analysis of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) spreads was tested as a rapid biodosimeter protocol. Human peripheral lymphocytes were irradiated with (60)Co gamma rays in a single dose of between 1 and 20 Gy, stimulated with phytohaemaglutinin and incubated for 48 h, division blocked with Colcemid, and PCC-induced by Calyculin A. Images of chromosome spreads were captured and analysed automatically by combining the Metafer 4 and CellProfiler platforms. Automatic measurement of chromosome lengths allows the calculation of the length ratio (LR) of the longest and the shortest piece that can be used for dose estimation since this ratio is correlated with ionizing radiation dose. The LR of the longest and the shortest chromosome pieces showed the best goodness-of-fit to a linear model in the dose interval tested. The application of the automatic analysis increases the potential use of the PCC method for triage in the event of massive radiation causalities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. Telomere length and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer: a review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caini, Saverio; Raimondi, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Zanna, Ines; Palli, Domenico; Gandini, Sara

    2015-12-01

    There is much evidence supporting the role of telomeres in cancer pathogenesis, however the studies that investigated the association between telomere length and skin cancer risk provided inconsistent results. To help clarify this issue, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published papers on the association between peripheral leukocytes telomere length (PLTL) and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We calculated summary relative risks (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using random effect models with maximum likelihood estimates, and explored causes of between-studies heterogeneity of risk estimates. We included 1629 cutaneous melanoma and 1439 NMSC from eight independent studies published until March 2015. The SRR of cutaneous melanoma for those in the lowest (vs. highest) category of PLTL distribution was 0.25 (95% CI 0.09-0.67). The results were less clear for NMSC, with two studies reporting no association and one study showing an increase in risk for those in the lowest (vs. highest) category of PLTL distribution. For both cutaneous melanoma and NMSC, the between-studies heterogeneity was large, mainly due to inclusion of hospital-based case-control studies. Our meta-analysis shows evidence of an association between short PLTL and reduced risk for cutaneous melanoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational analysis of perturbations in the post-fusion Dengue virus envelope protein highlights known epitopes and conserved residues in the Zika virus [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic transformation of the Zika virus (ZIKV from a relatively unknown virus to a pathogen generating global-wide panic has exposed the dearth of detailed knowledge about this virus. Decades of research in the related Dengue virus (DENV, finally culminating in a vaccine registered for use in endemic regions (CYD-TDV in three countries, provides key insights in developing strategies for tackling ZIKV, which has caused global panic to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Dengue virus (DENV, a member of the family Flaviviridae, the causal agent of the self-limiting Dengue fever and the potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, has been a scourge in tropical countries for many centuries. The recently solved structure of mature ZIKV (PDB ID:5IRE has provided key insights into the structure of the envelope (E and membrane (M proteins, the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The previously established MEPP methodology compares two conformations of the same protein and identifies residues with significant spatial and electrostatic perturbations. In the current work, MEPP analyzed the pre-and post-fusion DENV type 2 envelope (E protein, and identified several known epitopes (His317, Tyr299, Glu26, Arg188, etc. (MEPPitope. These residues are overwhelmingly conserved in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes, and also enumerates residue pairs that undergo significant polarity reversal. Characterization of α-helices in E-proteins show that α1 is not conserved in the sequence space of ZIKV and DENV. Furthermore, perturbation of α1 in the post-fusion DENV structure includes a known epitope Asp215, a residue absent in the pre-fusion α1. A cationic β-sheet in the GAG-binding domain that is stereochemically equivalent in ZIKV and all DENV serotypes is also highlighted due to a residue pair (Arg286-Arg288 that has a significant electrostatic polarity reversal upon fusion. Finally, two highly conserved residues (Thr32 and Thr40, with

  1. Perturbation theory in large order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    For many quantum mechanical models, the behavior of perturbation theory in large order is strikingly simple. For example, in the quantum anharmonic oscillator, which is defined by -y'' + (x 2 /4 + ex 4 /4 - E) y = 0, y ( +- infinity) = 0, the perturbation coefficients, A/sub n/, in the expansion for the ground-state energy, E(ground state) approx. EPSILON/sub n = 0//sup infinity/ A/sub n/epsilon/sup n/, simplify dramatically as n → infinity: A/sub n/ approx. (6/π 3 )/sup 1/2/(-3)/sup n/GAMMA(n + 1/2). Methods of applied mathematics are used to investigate the nature of perturbation theory in quantum mechanics and show that its large-order behavior is determined by the semiclassical content of the theory. In quantum field theory the perturbation coefficients are computed by summing Feynman graphs. A statistical procedure in a simple lambda phi 4 model for summing the set of all graphs as the number of vertices → infinity is presented. Finally, the connection between the large-order behavior of perturbation theory in quantum electrodynamics and the value of α, the charge on the electron, is discussed. 7 figures

  2. Delineation of Campylobacter concisus genomospecies by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and correlation of results with clinical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; On, Stephen L.W.; Siemer, Berit L.

    2005-01-01

    frequently isolated from immunocompetent patients and/or patients without concomitant infections that presented with fever, chronic diarrhea, and gut inflammation than was genomospecies 1, clustering with the type strain of oral origin. Bloody diarrhea was recorded only with C. concisus genomospecies 2......Campylobacter concisus has been as frequently isolated from human diarrhea as the important enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni, but it also occurs in the feces of healthy individuals. The role of C concisus in human disease has been difficult to determine, since the species comprises at least two......, and numerical analysis of these data distributed the strains among four clusters. The clustering was of taxonomic significance: two clusters contained, respectively, the type strain (of oral origin) and a reference strain (from diarrhea) of each of the known genomospecies. Genomospecies 2 strains were more...

  3. Analysis of Causes of Non-Uniform Flow Distribution in Manifold Systems with Variable Flow Rate along Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanaya, N. V.; Gulyakin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The uniformity of flow distribution in perforated manifolds is a relevant task. The efficiency of water supply, sewerage and perflation systems is determined by hydraulics of the flow with a variable mass. The extensive study of versatile available information showed that achieving a uniform flow distribution through all of the outlets is almost impossible. The analysis of the studies conducted by other authors and our numerical experiments performed with the help of the software package ANSYS 16.1 were made in this work. The results allowed us to formulate the main causes of non-uniform flow distribution. We decided to suggest a hypothesis to explain the static pressure rise problem at the end of a perforated manifold.

  4. Quarkonium Spectroscopy and Perturbative QCD A New Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, Nora; Vairo, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    We study the energy spectrum of bottomonium in perturbative QCD, taking $\\als(M_Z)=0.1181 \\pm 0.0020$ as input and fixing $m_b^{\\bar{\\rm MS}}(m_b^{\\bar{\\rm MS}})$ on the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ mass. Contrary to wide beliefs, perturbative QCD reproduces reasonably well the gross structure of the spectrum as long as the coupling constant remains smaller than one. We perform a detailed analysis and discuss the size of non-perturbative effects. A new qualitative picture on the structure of the bottomonium spectrum is provided. The lowest-lying $c\\bar{c}$ and $b\\bar{c}$ states are also examined.

  5. Analysis of expression sequence tags from a full-length-enriched cDNA library of developing sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Tao; Dong, Caihua; Mao, Han; Zhao, Yingzhong; Chen, Hong; Liu, Hongyan; Dong, Xuyan; Tong, Chaobo; Liu, Shengyi

    2011-12-24

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is one of the most important oilseed crops with high oil contents and rich nutrient value. However, genetic improvement efforts in sesame could not get benefit from molecular biology technology due to poor DNA and RNA sequence resources. In this study, we carried out a large scale of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing from developing sesame seeds and further conducted analysis on seed storage products-related genes. A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from 5 ~ 30 days old immature seeds was constructed and randomly sequenced, leading to generation of 41,248 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) which then formed 4,713 contigs and 27,708 singletons with 44.9% uniESTs being putative full-length open reading frames. Approximately 26,091 of all these uniESTs have significant matches to the counterparts in Nr database of GenBank, and 21,628 of them were assigned to one or more Gene ontology (GO) terms. Homologous genes involved in oil biosynthesis were identified including some conservative transcription factors regulating oil biosynthesis such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), PICKLE (PKL), WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and majority of them were found for the first time in sesame seeds. One hundred and 17 ESTs were identified possibly involved in biosynthesis of sesame lignans, sesamin and sesamolin. In total, 9,347 putative functional genes from developing seeds were identified, which accounts for one third of total genes in the sesame genome. Further analysis of the uniESTs identified 1,949 non-redundant simple sequence repeats (SSRs). This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during sesame seed development. This collection of sesame full-length cDNAs covered a wide variety of genes in seeds, in particular, candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of sesame oils and lignans. These EST sequences enriched with full length will contribute to comparative genomic studies on sesame and other oilseed plants and serve as an abundant

  6. Analysis of expression sequence tags from a full-length-enriched cDNA library of developing sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesame (Sesamum indicum is one of the most important oilseed crops with high oil contents and rich nutrient value. However, genetic improvement efforts in sesame could not get benefit from molecular biology technology due to poor DNA and RNA sequence resources. In this study, we carried out a large scale of expressed sequence tags (ESTs sequencing from developing sesame seeds and further conducted analysis on seed storage products-related genes. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from 5 ~ 30 days old immature seeds was constructed and randomly sequenced, leading to generation of 41,248 expressed sequence tags (ESTs which then formed 4,713 contigs and 27,708 singletons with 44.9% uniESTs being putative full-length open reading frames. Approximately 26,091 of all these uniESTs have significant matches to the counterparts in Nr database of GenBank, and 21,628 of them were assigned to one or more Gene ontology (GO terms. Homologous genes involved in oil biosynthesis were identified including some conservative transcription factors regulating oil biosynthesis such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, PICKLE (PKL, WRINKLED1 (WRI1 and majority of them were found for the first time in sesame seeds. One hundred and 17 ESTs were identified possibly involved in biosynthesis of sesame lignans, sesamin and sesamolin. In total, 9,347 putative functional genes from developing seeds were identified, which accounts for one third of total genes in the sesame genome. Further analysis of the uniESTs identified 1,949 non-redundant simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Conclusions This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during sesame seed development. This collection of sesame full-length cDNAs covered a wide variety of genes in seeds, in particular, candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of sesame oils and lignans. These EST sequences enriched with full length will contribute to comparative genomic studies on sesame and

  7. Inspiratory muscle training is effective to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Filipa; Oliveira, José; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Pinho, Paulo; Bastos, Pedro Teixeira

    2018-04-01

    This study systematically review and meta-analyse the effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) and length of hospital stay (LOS), both in the preoperative and/or postoperative periods of cardiac, pulmonary, and abdominal surgical patients. Sensitive analysis was performed to examine which patients benefit more from IMT according to methodological features (quality of studies and sample size), patient's characteristics (pulmonary risk stratification, age, and body mass index), type of surgery, period of training, and training protocols (training doses and level of supervision). The literature search was made in the electronic databases PubMed®, EBSCO, Web of Science ® , PEDro and Scopus ® . Only randomized controlled trials were included. Data extraction, quality assessment and meta-analysis were performed. We included 17 randomized controlled trials in the systematic review, of which, 12 were included for the PPC meta-analysis and 11 for the LOS meta-analysis. IMT significantly reduced the risk of PPC (Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.39, 0.64, I 2  =   0.0%), and a decrease in LOS (Mean Difference = -1.41, 95%CI: -2.07, -0.75, I 2  = 0.0%). IMT is effective to reduce PPC and LOS in patients undergoing surgery. Implications for Rehabilitation Physiotherapy interventions with inspiratory muscle training (IMT) are effective to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) and length of hospital stay (LOS) after major surgery, and should start preoperatively. Rehabilitation with IMT is beneficial at all ages and risk levels, but older and high-risk patients benefit more, as well as pulmonary surgery patients. IMT is more effective if it is supervised, and prescription target at least two-week period, sessions with more than 15 minutes, with imposed load increment, and adding other exercise modes.

  8. Full-length genome sequence analysis of four subgroup J avian leukosis virus strains isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lulu; Wang, Peikun; Yang, Yongli; Li, Haijuan; Huang, Teng; Wei, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Since 2014, cases of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have been emerging in commercial chickens in Guangxi. In this study, four strains of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), named GX14HG01, GX14HG04, GX14LT07, and GX14ZS14, were isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma in 2014 by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of ALV group specific antigen p27, the detection of subtype specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody. The complete genomes of the isolates were sequenced and it was found that the gag and pol were relatively conservative, while env was variable especially the gp85 gene. Homology analysis of the env gene sequences showed that the env gene of all the four isolates had higher similarities with the hemangioma (HE)-type reference strains than that of the myeloid leukosis (ML)-type strains, and moreover, the HE-type strains' specific deletion of 205-bp sequence covering the rTM and DR1 in 3'UTR fragment was also found in the four isolates. Further analysis on the sequences of subunits of env gene revealed an interesting finding: the gp85 of isolates GX14ZS14 and GX14HG04 had a higher similarity with HPRS-103 and much lower similarity with the HE-type reference strains resulting in GX14ZS14, GX14HG04, and HPRS-103 being clustered in the same branch, while gp37 had higher similarities with the HE-type reference strains when compared to that of HPRS-103, resulted in GX14ZS14, GX14HG04, and HE-type reference strains being clustered in the same branch. The results suggested that isolates GX14ZS14 and GX14HG04 may be the recombinant strains of the foreign strain HPRS-103 with the local epidemic HE-type strains of ALV-J.

  9. Use of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of yeast species isolated from bovine intramammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, M E; Pisano, M B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Mossa, V; Deplano, M; Moroni, P; Liciardi, M; Cosentino, S

    2013-01-01

    This study reports a rapid PCR-based technique using a one-enzyme RFLP for discrimination of yeasts isolated from bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis milk samples. We analyzed a total of 1,486 milk samples collected over 1 yr in south Sardinia and northern Italy, and 142 yeast strains were preliminarily grouped based on their cultural morphology and physiological characteristics. Assimilation tests were conducted using the identification kit API ID 32C and APILAB Plus software (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). For PCR-RFLP analysis, the 18S-ITS1-5.8S ribosomal(r)DNA region was amplified and then digested with HaeIII, and dendrogram analysis of RFLP fragments was carried out. Furthermore, within each of the groups identified by the API or PCR-RFLP methods, the identification of isolates was confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 region using an ABI Prism 310 automatic sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The combined phenotypic and molecular approach enabled the identification of 17 yeast species belonging to the genera Candida (47.9%), Cryptococcus (21.1%), Trichosporon (19.7%), Geotrichum (7.1%), and Rhodotorula (4.2%). All Candida species were correctly identified by the API test and their identification confirmed by sequencing. All strains identified with the API system as Geotrichum candidum, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus, and Rhodotorula glutinis also produced characteristic restriction patterns and were confirmed as Galactomyces geotrichum (a teleomorph of G. candidum), Filobasidium uniguttulatum (teleomorph of Crypt. uniguttulatus), and R. glutinis, respectively, by D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. With regard to the genus Trichosporon, preliminary identification by API was problematic, whereas the RFLP technique used in this study gave characteristic restriction profiles for each species. Moreover, sequencing of the D1/D2 region allowed not only successful identification of Trichosporon gracile where API could not, but also correct identification of

  10. Comparative analysis of perturb & observe and fuzzy logic maximum power point tracking techniques for a photovoltaic array under partial shading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. MURALI MOHAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interfacing of maximum power point tracking (MPPT controller is more concern as it contributes significantly to the power output of photovoltaic systems. The perturb and observe (P&O and fuzzy logic based P&O are two most promising MPPT techniques in wide range of irradiance conditions which include fully shaded condition to no shading, uniform and non uniform shadings among the strings. This paper analyzes the implementation of those two MPPT techniques to a photovoltaic (PV array in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Basically the power verses voltage curve of a PV array is highly non linear which contains single peak in the curve under uniform irradiance but the non uniform irradiance leaves multiple peaks in the curve. The MPPT normally controls the boost converter duty cycle to track the global peak power point of the PV array. When multiple peaks are present, the P&O has the probability of capturing a local maximum point rather than a global maximum. It is observed that under normal shadings both MPPTs are performed well but under partial shadings Fuzzy logic based P&O MPPT outperform over P&O MPPT.

  11. Perturbations of the Friedmann universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.; Heintzmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    Correcting and extending previous work by Hawking (1966) and Olson (1976) the complete set of perturbation equations of a Friedmann Universe in the quasi-Maxwellian form is derived and analized. The formalism is then applied to scalar, vector and tensor perturbations of a phenomenological fluid, which is modelled such as to comprise shear and heat flux. Depending on the equation of state of the background it is found that there exist unstable (growing) modes of purely rotational character. It is further found that (to linear order at least) any vortex perturbation is equivalent to a certain heat flux vector. The equation for the gravitational waves are derived in a completely equivalent method as in case of the propagation, in a curved space-time, of electromagnetic waves in a plasma endowed with some definite constitutive relations. (Author) [pt

  12. Analytic continuation in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Irinel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss some attempts to improve standard perturbative expansion in QCD by using the analytic continuation in the momentum and the Borel complex planes. We first analyse the momentum-plane analyticity properties of the Borel-summed Green functions in perturbative QCD and the connection between the Landau singularities and the infrared renormalons. By using the analytic continuation in the Borel complex plane, we propose a new perturbative series replacing the standard expansion in powers of the normalized coupling constant a. The new expansion functions have branch point and essential singularities at the origin of the complex a-plane and divergent Taylor expansions in powers of a. On the other hand the modified expansion of the QCD correlators is convergent under rather conservative conditions. (author)

  13. Historical developments in singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Malley, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text describes the development of singular perturbations, including its history, accumulating literature, and its current status. While the approach of the text is sophisticated, the literature is accessible to a broad audience. A particularly valuable bonus are the historical remarks. These remarks are found throughout the manuscript. They demonstrate the growth of mathematical thinking on this topic by engineers and mathematicians. The book focuses on detailing how the various methods are to be applied. These are illustrated by a  number and variety of examples. Readers are expected to have a working knowledge of elementary ordinary differential equations, including some familiarity with power series techniques, and of some advanced calculus. Dr. O'Malley  has written a number of books on singular perturbations.  This book has developed from many of his works in the field of perturbation theory.

  14. Perturbative coherence in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    A general condition for coherent quantization by perturbative methods is given, because the basic field equations of a fild theory are not always derivable from a Lagrangian. It's seen that non-lagrangian models way have well defined vertices, provided they satisfy what they call the 'coherence condition', which is less stringent than the condition for the existence of a Lagrangian. They note that Lagrangian theories are perturbatively coherent, in the sense that they have well defined vertices, and that they satisfy automatically that condition. (G.D.F.) [pt

  15. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  16. On relevant boundary perturbations of unitary minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, A.; Roggenkamp, D.; Schomerus, V.

    2000-01-01

    We consider unitary Virasoro minimal models on the disk with Cardy boundary conditions and discuss deformations by certain relevant boundary operators, analogous to tachyon condensation in string theory. Concentrating on the least relevant boundary field, we can perform a perturbative analysis of renormalization group fixed points. We find that the systems always flow towards stable fixed points which admit no further (non-trivial) relevant perturbations. The new conformal boundary conditions are in general given by superpositions of 'pure' Cardy boundary conditions

  17. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  18. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Romeo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo TN (Italy); Fredenhagen, Klaus [II Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hack, Thomas-Paul [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig,Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rejzner, Katarzyna [Department of Mathematics, University of York,Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-04

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  19. Chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, H.A.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A perturbative scheme to analyze the evolution of both metric and scalar field perturbations in an expanding universe is developed. The scheme is applied to study chaotic inflation with initial metric and scalar field perturbations present. It is shown that initial gravitational perturbations with wavelength smaller than the Hubble radius rapidly decay. The metric simultaneously picks up small perturbations determined by the matter inhomogeneities. Both are frozen in once the wavelength exceeds the Hubble radius. (orig.)

  20. Bacterial production, primary production, phytoplankton, zooplankton, biological analysis of fish, and massive fish length data from the EVRIKA and other platforms in the Antarctic from 23 February 1980 to 09 December 1988 (NODC Accession 9600039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacterial production, primary production, phytoplankton, zooplankton, biological analysis of fish, and massive fish length data were collected from the EVRIKA and...

  1. Symmetry and perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Giuseppe

    -Lagrange equations -- Regularity of pseudogroup orbits -- Relaxation times to equilibrium in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam system -- Energy cascade in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam models -- On Birkhoff method for integrable lagrangian systems -- Symmetry of singularities and orbit spaces of compact linear groups -- Symmetric solutions in molecular potentials -- Variational approach to soliton generation and stability analysis of multidimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation -- Differential invariants for infinite-dimensional algebras.

  2. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, D.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  3. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs

  4. Current issues in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1994-12-01

    This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of αs; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of Ψ and Υ in p anti p collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets

  5. Principles of chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    1995-01-01

    An elementary discussion of the main concepts used in chiral perturbation theory is given in textbooks and a more detailed picture of the applications may be obtained from the reviews. Concerning the foundations of the method, the literature is comparatively scarce. So, I will concentrate on the basic concepts and explain why the method works. (author)

  6. Perturbation theory from stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1984-01-01

    By using a diagrammatical method it is shown that in scalar theories the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu gives the usual perturbation series in Feynman diagrams. It is further explained how to apply the diagrammatical method to gauge theories, discussing the origin of ghost effects. (Author)

  7. Genetic relatedness among Campylobacter jejuni serotyped isolates of diverse origin as determined by numerical analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemer, B.L.; Harrington, C.S.; Nielsen, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    health. The remaining 30 groups contained isolates from humans, chickens and associated food products, cattle, sheep, turkeys, ostriches and/or dogs. Strains assigned to serotypes 2, 6/7, 11 and 12 formed major clusters at the 77.6% S-level. Most other serotypes did not form homogeneous clusters......Aims: To use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis to evaluate the genetic relatedness among 254 Campylobacter jejuni reference and field strains of diverse origin representing all defined 'Penner' serotypes for this species. Methods and Results: Field strains (n = 207) from human...... diarrhoea and diverse animal and environmental sources were collected mainly through a National surveillance programme in Denmark and serotyped by use of the established 'Penner' scheme. Genetic relationships among these isolates, and the archetypal serotype reference strains, were assessed by numerical...

  8. Genetic analysis of autoimmune gld mice. I. Identification of a restriction fragment length polymorphism closely linked to the gld mutation within a conserved linkage group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A linkage map of distal mouse chromosome 1 was generated using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of DNA prepared from 95 [C3H-gld/gld X Mus spretus)F1 X C3H-gld/gld] backcross mice. The gene order was: (centromere) C4bp, Ren-1,2, Ly-5, [At-3/gld], Apoa-2/Ly-17, Spna-1 (telomere). All mice expressing the phenotype of gld homozygotes were homozygous for the At-3 RFLP characteristic of C3H mice and none of the mice heterozygous for At-3 RFLPs had characteristics of gld homozygotes, demonstrating close linkage between these genes. The identification of an RFLP closely linked to the gld gene provides a starting point for the identification of a genetic defect that results in abnormal T cells and autoimmune disease. PMID:2894402

  9. Performance of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the Helicobacter pylori ureB gene in differentiating gene variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Hartzen, S H; Mohammadi, M

    2003-01-01

    Recently, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the urease genes of Helicobacter pylori was evaluated in a meta-analysis; acceptable discriminatory indices of the ureAB and C genes were found. In the present investigation, we found a discriminatory index of 0.95 for 191...... unrelated clinical H. pylori isolates with PCR-RFLP typing of the ureB gene (933 bp), combining the results obtained with restriction enzymes HaeIII and Sau3A, and a mixture of the enzymes. We therefore find that PCR-RFLP typing of the ureB gene of H. pylori with restriction enzymes HaeIII and Sau3A...

  10. Performance of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the Helicobacter pylori ureB gene in differentiating gene variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Hartzen, S H; Mohammadi, M

    2003-01-01

    unrelated clinical H. pylori isolates with PCR-RFLP typing of the ureB gene (933 bp), combining the results obtained with restriction enzymes HaeIII and Sau3A, and a mixture of the enzymes. We therefore find that PCR-RFLP typing of the ureB gene of H. pylori with restriction enzymes HaeIII and Sau3A......Recently, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the urease genes of Helicobacter pylori was evaluated in a meta-analysis; acceptable discriminatory indices of the ureAB and C genes were found. In the present investigation, we found a discriminatory index of 0.95 for 191...

  11. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  12. Analysis of in-R12 CHF data: influence of hydraulic diameter and heating length; test of Weisman boiling crisis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czop, V.; Herer, C.; Souyri, A.; Garnier, J.

    1993-09-01

    In order to progress on the comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, Electricite de France (EDF), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and FRAMATOME have set up experimental programs involving in-R12 tests: the EDF APHRODITE program and the CEA-EDF-FRAMATOME DEBORA program. The first phase in these programs aims to acquire critical heat flux (CHF) data banks, within large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, both in cylindrical and annular configurations, and with different hydraulic diameters and heating lengths. Actually, three data banks have been considered in the analysis, all of them concerning in-R12 round tube tests: - the APHRODITE data bank, obtained at EDF with a 13 mn inside diameter, - the DEBORA data bank, obtained at CEA with a 19.2 mm inside diameter, - the KRISTA data bank, obtained at KfK with a 8 mm inside diameter. The analysis was conducted using CHF correlations and with the help of an advanced mathematical tool using pseudo-cubic thin plate type Spline functions. Two conclusions were drawn: -no influence of the heating length on our CHF results, - the influence of the diameter on the CHF cannot be simply expressed by an exponential function of this parameter, as thermal-hydraulic parameters also have an influence. Some calculations with Weisman and Pei theoretical boiling crisis model have been compared to experimental values: fairly good agreement was obtained, but further study must focus on improving the modelling of the influence of pressure and mass velocity. (authors). 12 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs

  13. An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

    2007-09-15

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found.

  14. Genetic Diversity of African and Worldwide Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum as Determined by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of the hrp Gene Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussier, Stephane; Vandewalle, Peggy; Luisetti, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    The genetic diversity among a worldwide collection of 120 strains of Ralstonia solanacearum was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of amplified fragments from the hrp gene region. Five amplified fragments appeared to be specific to R. solanacearum. Fifteen different profiles were identified among the 120 bacterial strains, and a hierarchical cluster analysis distributed them into eight clusters. Each cluster included strains belonging to a single biovar, except for strains of biovars 3 and 4, which could not be separated. However, the biovar 1 strains showed rather extensive diversity since they were distributed into five clusters whereas the biovar 2 and the biovar 3 and 4 strains were gathered into one and two clusters, respectively. PCR-RFLP analysis of the hrp gene region confirmed the results of previous studies which split the species into an “Americanum” division including biovar 1 and 2 strains and an “Asiaticum” division including biovar 3 and 4 strains. However, the present study showed that most of the biovar 1 strains, originating from African countries (Reunion Island, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, and Angola) and being included in a separate cluster, belong to the “Asiaticum” rather than to the “Americanum” division. These African strains could thus have evolved separately from other biovar 1 strains originating from the Americas. PMID:10224018

  15. Sex Determination from Fragmented and Degenerated DNA by Amplified Product-Length Polymorphism Bidirectional SNP Analysis of Amelogenin and SRY Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Kotoka; Shojo, Hideki; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Inokuchi, Shota; Adachi, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination. Amplicon size was designed to be less than 60 bp to make the method more useful for analyzing degraded DNA samples. All DNA samples collected from eight Japanese individuals (four male, four female) were evaluated correctly using our method. The detection limit for accurate sex determination was determined to be 20 pg of DNA. We compared our new method with commercial short tandem repeat analysis kits using DNA samples artificially fragmented by ultraviolet irradiation. Our novel method was the most robust for highly fragmented DNA samples. To deal with allelic dropout resulting from deamination, we adopted “bidirectional analysis,” which analyzed samples from both sense and antisense strands. This new method was applied to 14 Jomon individuals (3500-year-old bone samples) whose sex had been identified morphologically. We could correctly identify the sex of 11 out of 14 individuals. These results show that our method is reliable for the sex determination of highly degenerated samples. PMID:28052096

  16. Sex Determination from Fragmented and Degenerated DNA by Amplified Product-Length Polymorphism Bidirectional SNP Analysis of Amelogenin and SRY Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotoka Masuyama

    Full Text Available Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination. Amplicon size was designed to be less than 60 bp to make the method more useful for analyzing degraded DNA samples. All DNA samples collected from eight Japanese individuals (four male, four female were evaluated correctly using our method. The detection limit for accurate sex determination was determined to be 20 pg of DNA. We compared our new method with commercial short tandem repeat analysis kits using DNA samples artificially fragmented by ultraviolet irradiation. Our novel method was the most robust for highly fragmented DNA samples. To deal with allelic dropout resulting from deamination, we adopted "bidirectional analysis," which analyzed samples from both sense and antisense strands. This new method was applied to 14 Jomon individuals (3500-year-old bone samples whose sex had been identified morphologically. We could correctly identify the sex of 11 out of 14 individuals. These results show that our method is reliable for the sex determination of highly degenerated samples.

  17. A semester-long project for teaching basic techniques in molecular biology such as restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to undergraduate and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky(73). Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers.

  18. Application of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to simple and rapid genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains isolated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yoshihisa; Seimiya, Yukio M; Motokawa, Masato; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Nagai, Makoto; Hayashi, Michiko

    2008-04-01

    The E2 regions of 177 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated in Japan between 1957 and 2006 were analyzed for genotyping. The strains were classified into 8 genotypes (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f, So and 2a) based on the phylogenetic analysis. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the RT-PCR products using 6 selected enzymes (Apo I, Mly I, BstAP I, Pvu II, Ear I, EcoR V) disclosed the cutting patterns classified into 11 groups (I-XI), each of that consisted of strains belonging to a single genotype. Namely, groups-I and -II were composed by genotype-1a strains, groups-III and -IV by 1b strains, and groups-V and -VI by 1c strains. Other groups-VII, -VIII, -IX, -X and -XI comprised genotypes-1d, -1e, -1f, -So and -2a strains, respectively. The results suggest that the RFLP analysis can simply and rapidly differentiate the 8 genotypes of BVDV strains.

  19. Signature pattern analysis for the full-length env gene of the earliest Korean subclade B of HIV-1: outbreak among Korean hemophiliacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Keol; Kim, Jung-Eun; Jeong, Daeun; Foley, Brian T

    2017-12-01

    The epidemiological link in the hypervariable env gene between viruses infecting HIV-positive hemophiliacs (HPs) and plasma donors was not studied. We determined full-length env gene sequences in 20 HPs, 3 plasma donors whose plasma was used for domestic clotting factor (DCF) production, and 54 local controls (LCs). Env genes from viruses in frozen stored sera obtained 1-3 years after diagnosis and from samples collected several years after infection were amplified via RT-PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all sequences were subtype B, including 133 sequences from 77 cases (20 HPs, 3 plasma donors, and 54 LCs) belonging to the Korean subclade B (KSB) and 6 sequences from 5 cases that did not belong to the KSB. Env gene sequences from donors O and P and those of the 20 HPs comprised 2 subclusters within the KSB, although phylogenetic analysis did not support significant bootstrap values. In contrast, signature pattern analysis indicated signature nucleotides at 43 positions between the HPs and LCs (P env gene revealed an epidemiological link that the 20 HPs in this study had been infected with viruses from the DCF used for treatment, consistent with our previous finding.

  20. A Semester-Long Project for Teaching Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology Such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis to Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky73. Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers. PMID:21364104

  1. Perturbation-based moment equation approach for flow in heterogeneous porous media: applicability range and analysis of high-order terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liyong; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.; Zhang Dongxiao

    2003-01-01

    We present detailed comparisons between high-resolution Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and low-order numerical solutions of stochastic moment equations (SMEs) for the first and second statistical moments of pressure. The objective is to quantify the difference between the predictions obtained from MCS and SME. Natural formations with high permeability variability and large spatial correlation scales are of special interest for underground resources (e.g. oil and water). Consequently, we focus on such formations. We investigated fields with variance of log-permeability, σ Y 2 , from 0.1 to 3.0 and correlation scales (normalized by domain length) of 0.05 to 0.5. In order to avoid issues related to statistical convergence and resolution level, we used 9000 highly resolved realizations of permeability for MCS. We derive exact discrete forms of the statistical moment equations. Formulations based on equations written explicitly in terms of permeability (K-based) and log-transformed permeability (Y-based) are considered. The discrete forms are applicable to systems of arbitrary variance and correlation scales. However, equations governing a particular statistical moment depend on higher moments. Thus, while the moment equations are exact, they are not closed. In particular, the discrete form of the second moment of pressure includes two triplet terms that involve log-permeability (or permeability) and pressure. We combined MCS computations with full discrete SME equations to quantify the importance of the various terms that make up the moment equations. We show that second-moment solutions obtained using a low-order Y-based SME formulation are significantly better than those from K-based formulations, especially when σ Y 2 >1. As a result, Y-based formulations are preferred. The two triplet terms are complex functions of the variance level and correlation length. The importance (contribution) of these triplet terms increases dramatically as σ Y 2 increases above one. We

  2. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koh; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ayako; Kawamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suda, Kunihiro; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Ooga, Kazuhide; Torii, Maiko; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Egusa, Mayumi; Kodama, Motoichiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Kikuchi, Mari; Fukushima, Sumire; Okabe, Akiko; Arie, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Omura, Toshikazu; Ezura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2010-03-30

    The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence and aid in tomato functional

  3. The status of perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.

    1988-10-01

    The advances in perturbative QCD are reviewed. The status of determinations of the coupling constant α/sub S/ and the parton distribution functions is presented. New theoretical results on the spin dependent structure functions of the proton are also reviewed. The theoretical description of the production of vector bosons, jets and heavy quarks is outlined with special emphasis on new results. Expected rates for top quark production at hadronic colliders are presented. 111 refs., 8 figs

  4. Perturbative QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.

    1989-03-01

    We discuss an application of finite temperature QCD to lepton-pair production in a quark-gluon plasma. The perturbative calculation is performed within the realtime formalism. After cancellation of infrared and mass singularities, the corrections at O (α s ) are found to be very small in the region where the mass of the Drell-Yan pair is much larger than the temperature of the plasma. Interesting effects, however, appear at the annihilation threshold of the thermalized quarks

  5. Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Silva, Jailthon Carlos da; Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Pires e Cruz, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA.

  6. A catalytic spectrophotometric method for determination of nanomolar manganese in seawater using reverse flow injection analysis and a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sichao; Yuan, Dongxing; Huang, Yongming; Lin, Kunning; Zhu, Yong; Ma, Jian

    2018-02-01

    A sensitive and precise method for determination of nanomolar manganese in seawater was developed, using reverse flow injection analysis, a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell, and spectrophotometric detection. The reaction was based on manganese catalyzed oxidation of leucomalachite green with sodium periodate. Various experimental parameters were investigated and optimized. Foreign trace metal ions of iron, copper, zinc, nickel and aluminum did not cause obvious interference with manganese detection. Low manganese seawater was prepared and used as the blank and standards' matrix, to eliminate the seawater matrix effect. The method detection limit was 0.20nmolL -1 , and the quantification range was 0.50-10.00nmolL -1 , which should be sensitive enough and suitable for open ocean seawater analysis. The seawater certified reference material NASS-6 was used to test the accuracy, and good agreement was obtained. The proposed method was applied to analyze seawater samples collected at the SEATS station in the South China Sea. The vertical profile of the total dissolvable manganese is reported and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Yamashiro Rocha Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1, Bos taurus (1 and Equus caballus (2. Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA.

  8. Genotyping of infectious bursal disease virus strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A D; Abreu, J T; Redondo, R A F; Martins, N R S; Resende, J S; Resende, M

    2005-12-01

    SUMMARY. This study aimed to genotype infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates from the Minas Gerais state poultry industry. RNA was extracted from bursae obtained from field cases without passage or commercial vaccines. Genetic subtyping of IBDV isolates and vaccine strains was carried out by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A 588-bp fragment in the VP1 gene, an 847-bp fragment in the VP2 gene, and a 320-bp fragment in the VP3 gene were amplified by PCR and digested with restriction enzymes PstI and ScaI (VP1); BamHI, BstEII, and PstI (VP2); and NcoI, ScaI, and XbaI (VP3). Our work shows that complementing the clinical history of the outbreaks with RT-PCR followed by RFLP analysis using PstI for VP1, BamHI for VP2, and XbaI for VP3 allowed an accurate classification of a causative agent as a very virulent IBDV.

  9. Analysis of genetic variability in endemic medicinal plants of genus Chlorophytum from the Indian subcontinent using amplified fragment length polymorphism marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil Mahadeo; Chandanshive, Vishal Vinayak; Tamboli, Asif Shabodin; Adsul, Avinash Asraji; Yadav, Shrirang Ramchandra; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu

    2015-12-01

    The genus Chlorophytum consists of medicinally important species like Chlorophytum borivilianum, C. tuberosum and C. attenuatum. Uncontrolled harvest of this plant from wild habitat due to its high commercial value made the species of this genus be listed in the Red Data Book of Indian plants as an endangered species. In India, approximately nineteen species of Chlorophytum are found; out of these, only C. borivilianum is cultivated commercially. The objective of this study was to measure genetic diversity, population structure and phylogenetic relationship among the species using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Fifteen pairs of primer (out of 64 primer pairs screened) were used to analyse the genetic diversity in eighteen species of genus Chlorophytum. Cluster analysis, estimation of the gene flow among the species and of the phylogeographic distribution of this genus were carried out using an AFLP data matrix. A high level of genetic diversity was observed on the basis of the percentage of polymorphic bands (99.91%), Shannon's information index (0.3592) and Nei's gene diversity (0.2085) at species level. Cluster analysis of UPGMA dendrogram, principal component analysis and Bayesian method analysis resolved these species in three different clusters, which was supported by morphological information. The Mantel test (r=0.4432) revealed a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The collected data have an important implication in the identification, authentication, and conservation of the species of the genus Chlorophytum. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential Gene Expression in Response to Papaya ringspot virus Infection in Cucumis metuliferus Using cDNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Jo-Chu; Yeh, Shy-Dong; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV resistance genes using cDNA-AFLP analysis and offered an open architecture and transcriptomic method to study those transcripts differentially expressed after virus inoculation. The whole genome expression profile of Cucumis metuliferus inoculated with PRSV was generated using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) method. Transcript derived fragments (TDFs) identified from the resistant line PI 292190 may represent genes involved in the mechanism of PRSV resistance. C. metuliferus susceptible Acc. 2459 and resistant PI 292190 lines were inoculated with PRSV and subsequently total RNA was isolated for cDNA-AFLP analysis. More than 400 TDFs were expressed specifically in resistant line PI 292190. A total of 116 TDFs were cloned and their expression patterns and putative functions in the PRSV-resistance mechanism were further characterized. Subsequently, 28 out of 116 candidates which showed two-fold higher expression levels in resistant PI 292190 than those in susceptible Acc. 2459 after virus inoculation were selected from the reverse northern blot and bioinformatic analysis. Furthermore, the time point expression profiles of these candidates by northern blot analysis suggested that they might play roles in resistance against PRSV and could potentially provide valuable information for controlling PRSV disease in the future. PMID:23874746

  11. Switching between dynamic states in intermediate-length Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of zero-field steps (ZFS’s) in the current-voltage characteristics of intermediate-length overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junctions described by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation (PSGE) is associated with the growth of parametrically excited instabilities of the McCumber backgroun...

  12. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  13. He's homotopy perturbation method for systems of integro-differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazar, J.; Ghazvini, H.; Eslami, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the homotopy perturbation method [He JH. Homotopy perturbation technique. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 1999;178:257-62; He JH. A coupling method of homotopy technique and perturbation technique for nonlinear problems. Int J Non-Linear Mech 2000;35(1):37-43; He JH. Comparison of homotopy perturbation method and homotopy analysis method. Appl Math Comput 2004;156:527-39; He JH. Homotopy perturbation method: a new nonlinear analytical technique. Appl Math Comput 2003;135:73-79; He JH. The homotopy perturbation method for nonlinear oscillators with discontinuities. Appl Math Comput 2004;151:287-92; He JH. Application of homotopy perturbation method to nonlinear wave equations Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2005;26:695-700] is applied to solve linear and nonlinear systems of integro-differential equations. Some nonlinear examples are presented to illustrate the ability of the method for such system. Examples for linear system are so easy that has been ignored.

  14. Leucocyte telomere length and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: new prospective cohort study and literature-based meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willeit

    Full Text Available Short telomeres have been linked to various age-related diseases. We aimed to assess the association of telomere length with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in prospective cohort studies.Leucocyte relative telomere length (RTL was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 684 participants of the prospective population-based Bruneck Study (1995 baseline, with repeat RTL measurements performed in 2005 (n = 558 and 2010 (n = 479. Hazard ratios for T2DM were calculated across quartiles of baseline RTL using Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, body-mass index, smoking, socio-economic status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and waist-hip ratio. Separate analyses corrected hazard ratios for within-person variability using multivariate regression calibration of repeated measurements. To contextualise findings, we systematically sought PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE for relevant articles and pooled results using random-effects meta-analysis.Over 15 years of follow-up, 44 out of 606 participants free of diabetes at baseline developed incident T2DM. The adjusted hazard ratio for T2DM comparing the bottom vs. the top quartile of baseline RTL (i.e. shortest vs. longest was 2.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.90 to 4.49; P = 0.091, and 2.31 comparing the bottom quartile vs. the remainder (1.21 to 4.41; P = 0.011. The corresponding hazard ratios corrected for within-person RTL variability were 3.22 (1.27 to 8.14; P = 0.014 and 2.86 (1.45 to 5.65; P = 0.003. In a random-effects meta-analysis of three prospective cohort studies involving 6,991 participants and 2,011 incident T2DM events, the pooled relative risk was 1.31 (1.07 to 1.60; P = 0.010; I2 = 69%.Low RTL is independently associated with the risk of incident T2DM. To avoid regression dilution biases in observed associations of RTL with disease risk, future studies should implement

  15. Higher orders of the perturbation theory and summation of perturbational series in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.S.; Weinberg, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Calculation of higher orders of the perturbation theory is considered for screened Coulomb potentials. Particular cases of such potentials are the Yukawa potential, a familiar object of nuclear physics, and the funnel-shaped potential, applied to analysis of heavy quark-antiquark systems. The calculation of higher perturbational orders is reduced to recursive relations, quite appropriate for computer. The Pade approximants and a modified Pade-Borel summation method are applied for calculation of sums of diverging PT series. It is shown that in the considered problems higher orders of the PT determine the behaviour of E(g) in the region of strong coupling (Esub(g)-the energy of eigen-value)

  16. The analysis of variability in the length of sleep states bouts reveals memory-free sleep sub-components consistent among primary insomnia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzotto, Roberto; Zamuner, Stefano

    2018-01-31

    The statistical distributions of bout lengths for the different (macro) sleep states (wake, N1, N2, N3 and REM sleep) are essential to understand whether any memory-free sub-component ("micro state") is involved in the organization of sleep. Micro states detection can be prevented by the fusion of data including various sources of variability, in particular by the differences in sleep architecture between individuals, along sleep time (or night-time), or among different nights. In this analysis, a mathematical model of sleep was adopted to disentangle these features and advance the understanding of the dynamics and mechanisms of sleep and its states. The analysis involved 116 primary insomnia patients taking placebo before going to bed and undergoing polysomnography for one night. The individual sequences of macro sleep states had been previously modelled with a mixed-effect non-homogeneous modified Markov-chain model, from which individual conditional probability distributions for the bout durations were derived in this analysis, as functions of sleep time. The probability distributions, affected by neither subject, night-time nor multiple-night pooling, substantially changed at 1/4 and 3/4 sleep time, had modified exponential shape, and were best described as the sum of one to four exponentials, depending on the sleep state. The time constants and proportions of bouts contributing to each exponential were similar in the different subjects and changing during sleep time. Variability in bout durations thus indicated the presence of multiple memory-free sleep sub-components whose mean residence times and access probabilities could be identified and showed to be consistent among the studied subjects.

  17. Geometric Hamiltonian structures and perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omohundro, S.

    1984-08-01

    We have been engaged in a program of investigating the Hamiltonian structure of the various perturbation theories used in practice. We describe the geometry of a Hamiltonian structure for non-singular perturbation theory applied to Hamiltonian systems on symplectic manifolds and the connection with singular perturbation techniques based on the method of averaging

  18. Matrix perturbations: bounding and computing eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis da Silva, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the somewhat negative connotation of the word, not every perturbation is a bad perturbation. In fact, while disturbing the matrix entries, many perturbations still preserve useful properties such as the orthonormality of the basis of eigenvectors or the Hermicity of the original matrix. In

  19. FRW Cosmological Perturbations in Massive Bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Comelli, D; Pilo, L

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of FRW solutions in ghost free massive bigravity, including also a second matter sector, are studied in detail. At early time, we find that sub horizon exponential instabilities are unavoidable and they lead to a premature departure from the perturbative regime of cosmological perturbations.

  20. Multiplicative perturbations of local C-semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... In this paper, we establish some left and right multiplicative perturbation theorems concerning local -semigroups when the generator of a perturbed local -semigroup S(⋅) may not be densely defined and the perturbation operator is a bounded linear operator from ¯D(A) into () such that = ...