WorldWideScience

Sample records for lemonade clear beverages

  1. Consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jessica L; Drake, MaryAnne

    2010-01-01

    Acidic whey protein beverages are a growing component of the functional food and beverage market. These beverages are also astringent, but astringency is an expected and desirable attribute of many beverages (red wine, tea, coffee) and may not necessarily be a negative attribute of acidic whey protein beverages. The goal of this study was to define the consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages. Six focus groups (n=49) were held to gain understanding of consumer knowledge of astringency. Consumers were presented with beverages and asked to map them based on astringent mouthfeel and liking. Orthonasal thresholds for whey protein isolate (WPI) in water and flavored model beverages were determined using a 7-series ascending forced choice method. Mouthfeel/basic taste thresholds were determined for WPI in water. Acceptance tests on model beverages were conducted using consumers (n=120) with and without wearing nose clips. Consumers in focus groups were able to identify astringency in beverages. Astringency intensity was not directly related to dislike. The orthonasal threshold for WPI in water was lower (P astringent mouthfeel and that both flavor and astringency should be the focus of ongoing studies to improve the palatability of these products. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. A study of fortification of lemonade with herbal extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Ece TAMER

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present work was to design new beverages using lemonade and some herbal extracts (linden, heather, green tea, lemon verbena, clove, peppermint, ginger and mate rich in vitamin C and flavonoids. The linden-added lemonade showed the highest value (597.9 mg/kg for ascorbic acid content, whereas the lemon verbena-added lemonade showed the lowest value (486.04 mg/kg. The amount of saccharose was changed by 11.07-11.58%, the glucose by 1.11-1.62% and the fructose between 11.07-11.58% in the beverages. K, Na, Mg and P values in the lemonades were determined in the range of 178.83-210.98 mg/kg, 33.75-39.13 mg/kg, 22.37-27.89 mg/kg and 7.22-10.04 mg/kg, respectively. The total phenolic content in the samples changed between 315.11-397.57 mg GAE/100 g. When the samples were analyzed for antioxidant activity, FRAP (17.13-26.79 µmol trolox/mL and ABTS (16.91-25.38 µmol trolox/mL methods gave higher results than the DPPH (14.88-17.72 µmol trolox/mL method. Linden-, ginger- and peppermint-added lemonades, which had been found to be rich in total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, showed higher antioxidant activity than the control sample. Overall, the most preferred lemonades were heather- and ginger-added beverages and the control sample. Mate-added lemonade was the least preferred.

  3. A study of fortification of lemonade with herbal extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Ece TAMER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present work was to design new beverages using lemonade and some herbal extracts (linden, heather, green tea, lemon verbena, clove, peppermint, ginger and mate rich in vitamin C and flavonoids. The linden-added lemonade showed the highest value (597.9 mg/kg for ascorbic acid content, whereas the lemon verbena-added lemonade showed the lowest value (486.04 mg/kg. The amount of saccharose was changed by 11.07-11.58%, the glucose by 1.11-1.62% and the fructose between 11.07-11.58% in the beverages. K, Na, Mg and P values in the lemonades were determined in the range of 178.83-210.98 mg/kg, 33.75-39.13 mg/kg, 22.37-27.89 mg/kg and 7.22-10.04 mg/kg, respectively. The total phenolic content in the samples changed between 315.11-397.57 mg GAE/100 g. When the samples were analyzed for antioxidant activity, FRAP (17.13-26.79 µmol trolox/mL and ABTS (16.91-25.38 µmol trolox/mL methods gave higher results than the DPPH (14.88-17.72 µmol trolox/mL method. Linden-, ginger- and peppermint-added lemonades, which had been found to be rich in total phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, showed higher antioxidant activity than the control sample. Overall, the most preferred lemonades were heather- and ginger-added beverages and the control sample. Mate-added lemonade was the least preferred.

  4. Lisa's Lemonade Stand: Exploring Algebraic Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Esther M. H.; Lakatos, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity, "Lisa's Lemonade Stand," that actively engages students in algebraic thinking as they analyze change by investigating relationships between variables and gain experience describing and representing these relationships graphically. (YDS)

  5. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  6. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which part of the water has been removed. In the preparation of the lemon juice ingredients, the lemon... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1...

  7. A Simulation of Lean Manufacturing: The Lean Lemonade Tycoon 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the functions and effectiveness of games and simulations in the learning processes, in particular as an experiential learning methodology. The application of the game Lemonade Tycoon in the development of lean manufacturing concepts is described. This article addresses the use of the game to teach the principles of lean…

  8. Haze in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Karl J

    2009-01-01

    Beverages such as beer, wine, clear fruit juices, teas, and formulated products with similar ingredients are generally expected by consumers to be clear (free of turbidity) and to remain so during the normal shelf life of the product. Hazy products are often regarded as defective and perhaps even potentially harmful. Since consumers are usually more certain of what they perceive visually than of what they taste or smell, the development of haze in a clear product can reduce the likelihood of repeat purchasing of a product and can have serious economic consequences to a producer. Hazes are caused by suspended insoluble particles of colloidal or larger size that can be perceived visually or by instruments. Hazes in clear beverages can arise from a number of causes, but are most often due to protein-polyphenol interaction. The nature of protein-polyphenol interaction and its effect on haze particles, analysis of haze constituents, and stabilization of beverages against haze formation are reviewed.

  9. [Sugar content in non-alcoholic beverages and dietary recemmendations for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Maciej; Rybakowa, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Increase the intake of sugars among the inhabitants of developed countries is related to, among others, increasing consumption of non-alcoholic beverages, for which the relationship with the epidemic of obesity, particularly among children and adolescents, has been proven. The most frequently cited are non-alcoholic beverages, sweetened glucose-fructose syrup, ie. colas, tonics, ice teas, lemonades. Fruit drinks, fruit juices and nectars are commonly cited as a healthy alternative to non-alcoholic beverages and, however, we do not pay attention to the high content of sugars in these products. Determine the content of sugars in non-alcohollic beverages popular among children and adolescents. 80 non-alcoholic beverages such as cola, tonic, lemonade, ice tea, flavored waters, fruit juices, fruit nectars and fruit drinks. Evaluation of the content of monosaccharides and sucrose was performed by high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the tested non-alcohollic beverages, monosaccharides ie. glucose and fructose and the disaccharide sucrose were detected in different proportions. The product with the lowest content of the total sugars content was flavored water with lemon flavor based on the mineral water (2.72 g/100 ml). In the group of fruit juices, fruit nectars and fruit drinks highest sugars content have been reported (12.94 g/100 ml for aronia nectar and 12.76 g/100ml for the juice of pomegranate and grapes). Significant monosaccharides and sucrose content in the tested non-alcohollic beverages tends to claim that their manufacturers should be obliged to place warnings on the labels addressed to patients suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Educational programs for children and adolescents with diabetes should include information about the content of a large amount of sugars in fruit products: fruit juices, fruit drinks and fruit nectar. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  10. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones: evaluation of a common preoperative carbohydrate beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Holst, Jens J; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E Marelise W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C

    2011-09-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied. In eight volunteers, gastric emptying rates of both 400 mL of a ready-to-use beverage (A: Nutricia preOp; 50.4 g carbohydrates-mainly polysaccharides; 260 mOsm/kg) and 400 mL over-the-counter fruit-based lemonade (B: Roosvicee Original; 48 g carbohydrates--mainly fruit-associated saccharides; 805 mOsm/kg) were determined scintigraphically (using hepatate Tc-99(m)) according to a crossover design. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, total glucagon, and ghrelin were studied. Gastric emptying showed no differences in residual volumes. Earlier onset in emptying for beverage A versus B was observed (trend), with significantly higher glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon responses at 15-90 min. GLP-1 was inversely related to residual volume. Fruit-based lemonade is a safe alternative for preoperative purposes. It induces a more limited glucose, insulin, and C-peptide response. Later onset in gastric emptying (B versus A: trend), lower glucagon release, and differences in beverage content and osmolarity may have contributed to those differences. Efficient emptying was reflected by early GLP-1 levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rehydration beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel rehydration beverage containing sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and aspartame useful for rapid restoration of hydration homeostasis is disclosed. The beverage is particularly useful for restoration of normal body fluid volumes and their intracellular and extracellular distribution during a hypohydration state observed in astronauts and air passengers.

  12. Health interest modulates brain reward responses to a perceived low-caloric beverage in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Wegman, Joost; Aarts, Esther; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-01-01

    Health labels are omnipresent in the supermarket. Such labels give rise to expectations about the product experience and may change flavor perception and perceived reward value. Consumers vary in their degree of health interest and may be differentially affected by such labels. However, how health interest influences neural reward responses to anticipation and receipt of heath-labeled foods is not known. This study assessed to what extent brain responses induced by anticipation and receipt of a beverage with different levels of perceived caloric content are associated with health interest. Twenty-five females completed an fMRI motivational taste-task in which they were presented with a low-caloric cue or a high-caloric cue and subsequently worked for sips of lemonade by moving a joystick. If they responded correctly and in time, they received the lemonade as a reward. Because of the 2 cue types, participants believed they were receiving 2 different lemonades, a high-caloric (HC-receipt) and a low-caloric (LC-receipt) one. Health interest was assessed with the General health interest subscale of the Health and Taste Attitude Scales. Health interest scores correlated significantly (r = .65) with LC-versus HC-receipt activation in the dorsal striatum (putamen), a region involved in encoding food reward. These findings suggest that the reward value of a healthy product compared to its unhealthy counterpart increases with health interest. This provides more insight into the working mechanism of government campaigns that focus on increasing health interest to encourage the formation of healthy eating habits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Clear retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakorn Chaimongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear retainer is a removable retainer that is popular in the present day. Compared with conventional fixed and removable orthodontic retainers, it is a more esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive appliance. Although several studies have been published about clear retainers, it could be difficult to interpret the results because of the variety of study designs, sample sizes, and research methods. This article is intended to compile the content from previous studies and discuss advantages, disadvantages, fabrication, insertion, and adjustment. Moreover, the effectiveness in maintaining dental position, occlusion, retention protocols, thickness, and survival rate of clear retainers is discussed.

  14. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2015-06-01

    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P appeal. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  16. Feasibility and acceptability of a beverage intervention for Hispanic adults: a protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Kristin E; Aceves, Benjamin; Valdez, Luis A; Thomson, Cynthia A; Hakim, Iman A; Bell, Melanie L; Martinez, Jessica A; Garcia, David O

    2018-02-09

    In the U.S., Hispanics have among the highest rates of overweight and obesity when compared to other racial/ethnic groups placing them at a greater risk for obesity-related disease. Identifying intervention strategies to reduce caloric intake and/or improve cardiometabolic health in Hispanics is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality among this large and growing population. Evidence exists to support diet-specific behavioral interventions, including beverage modifications, in reducing obesity-related health risks. However, the acceptability and feasibility of a beverage intervention in obese Hispanic adults has not been robustly evaluated. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a randomized, controlled beverage intervention in 50 obese Hispanic adults ages 18-64 over 8-weeks. Eligible participants were obese (30-50.0 kg/m 2 ), between the ages 18-64, self-identified as Hispanic, and were able to speak, read, and write in either English and/or Spanish. Study recruitment was completed August 2017. Upon the completion of baseline assessments, participants will be randomized to either Mediterranean lemonade, Green Tea, or flavored water control. After completing a 2-week washout period, participants will be asked to consume 32 oz. per day of study beverage for 6-weeks while avoiding all other sources of tea, lemonade, citrus, juice, and other sweetened beverages; water is permissible. Primary outcomes will be recruitment, retention, and acceptability of the intervention strategies. Our study will also evaluate participant-reported tolerance and as an exploratory aim, assess safety/toxicity-related to renal and/or liver function. Fasting blood samples will be collected at baseline and 8-weeks to assess the primary efficacy outcomes: total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Secondary outcomes include fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and high-sensitivity C

  17. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Beverages containing low energy sweeteners do not differ from water in their effects on appetite, energy intake and food choices in healthy, non-obese French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Marc; Fantino, Agnès; Matray, Marie; Mistretta, Frédéric

    2018-06-01

    The usefulness of replacement of caloric sugars by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) for weight management has been questioned on the grounds that the uncoupling of LCS sweet taste and dietary energy may confuse physiological mechanisms, leading potentially to higher energy and sugar intake. The aim of the present study was to determine whether LCS beverages compared to water, when consumed with meals, differ in their effects on energy and food intake in acute trials and after long-term habituation. Ad libitum food intake of 166 (80 women; 86 men) healthy non-obese adults (BMI between 19 and 28 kg/m2), infrequent consumers of LCS was measured in four 2-consecutive-day testing sessions (Day 1 in the laboratory, Day 2 free-living). During the first 3 sessions, held one-week apart, participants were required to drink either water or commercial non-carbonated LCS lemonade (330 ml) with their main meals (randomised cross-over design). On Day 1, motivational ratings were obtained using visual analogue scales and ad libitum food intakes (amounts and types of foods selected) were measured using the plate waste method. On Day 2, participants reported their ad libitum intakes using a food diary. After Session 3, participants were randomly assigned to the LCS habituation group or to the water control group. The habituation (660 ml LCS lemonade daily vs 660 ml water) lasted 5 weeks. The fourth and final test session measured food intakes and motivational ratings after habituation. Water and LCS beverage did not differ in their effects on total energy intake, macronutrient intakes or the selection of sweet foods and on motivational ratings. Similar results were obtained in both LCS-naïve and LCS-habituated individuals.

  19. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    habitual beverage intake. Similar study was developed in China, but in this case, the use of Smartphone technology was employed for beverage assessment. The methodology for measuring beverage intake in population studies remains controversial. There are few validated and reproducible studies, so there is still lacking an ideal method (ie, short, easy to administer, inexpensive and accurate) in this regard. Clearly, this is an area of scientific interest that is still in development and seems to be very promising for improving health research. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M

    2010-04-26

    Total beverage intake patterns have changed greatly over the past half century. The present research was conducted to evaluate historic and current patterns of beverage consumption of adults and children in the U.S. Data were drawn from food balance surveys along with two-day beverage intake averages and were weighted to be nationally representative. A marked slow continuous shift downward in total milk intake with a shift toward an increased proportion of reduced fat milk was determined. The biggest shifts in beverage consumption among children aged 2 to18 were an increase in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (from 87 to 154kcal/d), a smaller increase in juices (+21kcal/d), and a decrease in milk consumption (-91kcal/d). Data among adults aged 19 and older indicated that SSB intake has more than doubled. Water intake was highly variable, with a marked increase in bottled water intake but no clear trend in total water intake. Overall trends by age were presented and indicated that age-related beverage intake, both in ounces and kcal/day, decreased sharply for adults aged 60 and older. Kcal/d values ranged from a low of 283 for those over age 60 to a peak of 533 for those aged 19 to39 to 367 for 2 to 6year olds. The consumer shift toward increased levels of SSBs and alcohol, limited amounts of reduced fat milk along with a continued consumption of whole milk, and increased juice intake represent issues to address from a public health perspective. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Profitables Food & Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...

  2. Mothers’ Perceptions of Toddler Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rigo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’ (n = 22 about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers.

  3. canned beverages in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    5.0 mg/l set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The selenium levels ... eyes, and bones (ATSDR, 1990). Selenium is a metal ... 3.30. Seoul, South Korea. Three Crown Milk. 3.21. Lagos, Nigeria. Luna Milk. 2.95. Jedda ..... and acute effects of copper in drinking water and beverages.Rev. Environ ...

  4. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  5. Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

  6. Food and Beverage Stylist and Photography

    OpenAIRE

    BEKAR, Aydan; KARAKULAK, Çisem

    2016-01-01

    A food and beverage stylist makes food and beverage look appetizing by preaparing them properly in order to get customers’ attention. A food and beverage photographer gets the most impressive image by using different shooting techniques. Food and beverage stylists and phtographers prepare attractive and unusual menus ,brochures, banners and ads for food and beverage enterprises so that products can look better when customers see them. People see the works of food and beverage styling and phot...

  7. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    alternatives on long-term health outcomes. METHOD: We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health...... to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health...... outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted...

  8. CLEAR test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.

  9. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  11. Clear cell chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; David, R.; Cierney, G. III

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of three cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma are described. On radiographs, this rather benign-appearing tumor resembles a chondroblastoma when it occurs at the end of a long bone, and may occasionally show a calcified matrix. However, it has distinctive tumor cells with a centrally placed vesicular nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm. The lesion has a low-grade malignancy and is amenable to en bloc surgical resection, which results in a much better prognosis than that of conventional chondrosarcoma.

  12. Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by rice beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2013-05-14

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow's milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option.Infant with FPIES presented to our emergency department with vomiting, watery stools, hypothension and metabolic acidosis after ingestion of rice beverage. Intravenous fluids and steroids were administered with good clinical response. Subsequently, a double blind placebo control food challenge (DBPCFC) was performed using rice beverage and hydrolyzed formula (eHF) as placebo. The "rice based formula" induced emesis, diarrhoea and lethargy. Laboratory investigations reveal an increase of absolute count of neutrophils and the presence of faecal eosinophils. The patient was treated with both intravenous hydration and steroids. According to Powell criteria, oral food challenge was considered positive and diagnosis of FPIES induced by rice beverage was made. Patient was discharged at home with the indication to avoid rice and any rice beverage as well as to reintroduce hydrolyzed formula. A case of FPIES induced by rice beverage has never been reported. The present case clearly shows that also beverage containing rice proteins can be responsible of FPIES. For this reason, the use of rice beverage as cow's milk substitute for the treatment of non IgE-mediated food allergy should be avoided.

  13. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  14. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma:

    OpenAIRE

    Lamovec, Janez; Pohar-Marinšek, Živa

    2003-01-01

    A case of eccrine clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of sweat gland origin is presented, disclosing its clinical behavior and morphologic characteristics asevidenced by fine needle aspiration biopsy and tissue section histology. Thepatient was a 53-years old male who had a tumor on his fifth toe for 16 years. The tumor recurred 18 months after excision and metastasized widely 17 months following the amputation of the toe due to the recurrence. In spite of chemotherapy the patient died 37 months af...

  15. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age.

  16. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., 23, 37, et al. Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing..., 38, and 39 RIN 3038-0092, -0094 Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing... implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  17. Impact of beverage intake on metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Laura; Macdonald, Ian A

    2015-09-01

    This review is based on a presentation that was made at a meeting concerning hydration. It summarizes the epidemiological evidence for selected beverages in relation to cardiovascular and/or metabolic health. The review focuses on tea, cocoa, milk, orange juice, alcohol, and beverages sweetened with sugars. These beverage types were chosen because of their widespread consumption, with tea, cocoa, orange juice, and milk being of potential benefit while alcohol and sugars may be detrimental. There is reasonably consistent evidence of reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with high consumption of tea, with the tea flavonoids appearing to be responsible for these benefits. There is also a growing evidence base for cocoa flavanols to have beneficial cardiovascular effects. The bulk of the evidence supporting these conclusions is epidemiological and needs to be confirmed with randomized controlled trials. Milk is associated with reduced risk of CVD, particularly in relation to blood pressure, with certain milk tripeptides being implicated in having effects to reduce angiotensin action. Further work is needed to confirm these potentially beneficial effects. There is some evidence of potentially beneficial effects of orange juice on aspects of cardiovascular function, but this is by no means convincing, and further evidence is needed from randomized controlled trials, together with the elucidation of whether any benefits are linked to the citrus flavanones or simply to the vitamin C content. While there is some evidence that red wine may convey some health benefits, there is also clear evidence that alcoholic beverages can have undesirable effects on blood pressure and increase the risk of CVD. It is possible that low to moderate intakes of alcoholic beverages may be beneficial. There is some evidence that beverages sweetened with sugars may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain, and there is also an indication from longitudinal cohort

  18. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  19. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  20. Chocolate as a Revolutionary Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...

  1. Energy beverages: content and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Tuttle, Troy D; Higgins, Christopher L

    2010-11-01

    Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by "weekend warriors" and those seeking an edge in an endurance event. Long-term exposure to the various components of EBs may result in significant alterations in the cardiovascular system, and the safety of EBs has not been fully established. For this review, we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1976 through May 2010, using the following keywords: energy beverage, energy drink, power drink, exercise, caffeine, red bull, bitter orange, glucose, ginseng, guarana, and taurine. Evidence regarding the effects of EBs is summarized, and practical recommendations are made to help in answering the patient who asks, "Is it safe for me to drink an energy beverage when I exercise?"

  2. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  3. Stylistic analysis of songs in beverage advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周双卉

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the advertisement,people tend to study the stylistic analysis of it.However,in this paper,the focus will be on the songs in beverage advertisement.The analysis will be focused on the features of the beverage advertisement songs and the stylistics of it.The aim of the paper is to improve the people and the scholars' understanding of the beverage advertisement songs.

  4. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  5. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  6. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  7. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Resources for You Consumers FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages ... addition, the flavorings and nutrients added to these beverages must comply with all applicable FDA safety requirements and they must be identified in the ...

  8. Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India ... unhealthy foods and beverages are increasing the non-communicable disease burden and risk ... and promotion of unhealthy foods and beverages to Indian children and ...

  9. Make Better Beverage Choices: 10 Tips to Get Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Department of Agriculture 10 tips Nutrition Education Series MyPlate MyWins Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Make better beverage choices A healthy eating style includes all foods and beverages. Many beverages ...

  10. Beverage-specific mortality relationships in US population data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C.; Ye, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all countries regulate distilled spirits differently from beer and wine. However, the scientific basis for this differential treatment has not been clearly established. This review covers beverage-specific relationships with alcohol-related mortality causes at the population level in the US and includes a new analysis of motor vehicle accident mortality. Spirits were found to be more strongly related to, or the only beverage type with a significant positive association with, cirrhosis, IHD and head and neck cancer mortality. Spirits sales, along with beer, were also implcated in motor vehicle accident mortality and homicde. While all three beverage types were found to be associated with suicide mortality, only spirits had a significant unlagged association. These associations were found under policy arrangements where spirits were discouraged with relatively higher taxes, lower availability and more restricted marketing opportunities. This suggests that the differential policy treatment found in the US and most other countries is justified on the basis of differential harm relationships. PMID:24431476

  11. Measurement of the 226Ra-concentration in bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Hernegger, F.

    1978-01-01

    226 Ra being regarded nowadays as a toxic trace element, a systementic examination of bottled Austrian mineral waters and table beverages has been carried out. Only in one case was the maximum allowable concentration of 3.3 pCi/l, a value set up by the WHO, clearly exceeded. (orig.) [de

  12. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  13. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  14. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  15. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  16. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  17. Pilot beverage cartons : extended technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  18. Trace elements in wine and other beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1974-01-01

    Survey of the mostly physical methods of analysis (e.g. activation analysis) for the dectection of trace elements in wine and in other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as well as for detection of radioactivity (natural and man-made) in these beverages. (HP) [de

  19. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contexts...

  20. Clear aligners in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Tooth Positioner (TP Orthodontics) in 1944, removable appliances analogous to clear aligners have been employed for mild to moderate orthodontic tooth movements. Clear aligner therapy has been a part of orthodontic practice for decades, but has, particularly since the introduction of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology) in 1998, become an increasingly common addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. An internet search reveals at least 27 different clear aligner products currently on offer for orthodontic treatment. The present paper will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligner appliances, as well as the clinical scope and the limitations of aligner therapy in general. Further, the paper will outline the differences between the various types of clear aligner products currently available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  2. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-08-01

    How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  4. Electrochemical sensing carcinogens in beverages

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, Asif Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...

  5. 77 FR 37803 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., 202-418-6703, [email protected] , Division of Clearing and Risk, and Camden Nunery, Economist, 202-418-5723, Office of the Chief Economist, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Three Lafayette Centre, 1155...

  6. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  8. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.

  9. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are presented on how fermentation is used to replace, modify or improve current, artificially produced, foods and beverages and how also fermentation can be used for completely novel consumer products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.

  11. Quality of fermented whey beverage with milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakin Marica B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-6 culture. The results showed that the applied starter culture can be used for the production of fermented whey based beverage with satisfactory nutritional properties. Addition of milk was important not only in the nutritional quality of the resulting product, but also improved the taste, the homogeneity and stability. Analysis of the chemical composition of fermented whey based beverage and nutritional information about it indicates that the product is a good source of protein and calcium. Fermented beverage contained 8.07 log (CFU/mL, showed antioxidant activity of at least 38.1% and the titratable acidity of 28.2°SH corresponding to the acidity of the product in this category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. 451-03-00605/2012-16/85

  12. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  13. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  14. Ideas for clear technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The three greatest obstacles to clear technical-report writing are probably (1) imprecise words, (2) wordiness, and (3) poorly constructed sentences. Examples of category 1 include abstract words, jargon, and vogue words; of category 2, sentences containing impersonal construction superfluous words; and of category 3, sentences lacking parallel construction and proper order of related words and phrases. These examples and other writing-related subjects are discussed in the report, which contains a cross-referenced index and 24 references.

  15. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  16. Sports Sponsorships of Food and Nonalcoholic Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Roberto, Christina A; Sam, Rachel; Sarda, Vishnudas; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2018-04-01

    Food and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy products are associated with popular sports organizations, especially those viewed by youth. This descriptive study used Nielsen audience data to select 10 sports organizations with the most 2-17 year old viewers of 2015 televised events. Sponsors of these organizations were identified and assigned to product categories. We identified advertisements promoting food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsorships on television, YouTube, and sports organization Web sites from 2006 to 2016, and the number of YouTube advertisement views. The nutritional quality of advertised products was assessed. Youth watched telecasts associated with these sports organizations over 412 million times. These organizations had 44 food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors (18.8% of sponsors), second to automotive sponsors ( n = 46). The National Football League had the most food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors ( n = 10), followed by the National Hockey League ( n = 7) and Little League ( n = 7). We identified 273 advertisements that featured food and/or nonalcoholic beverage products 328 times and product logos 83 times (some advertisements showed multiple products). Seventy-six percent ( n = 132) of foods had unhealthy nutrition scores, and 52.4% ( n = 111) of nonalcoholic beverages were sugar-sweetened. YouTube sponsorship advertisements totaled 195.6 million views. Sports sponsorships are commonly used to market unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverages, exposing millions of consumers to these advertisements. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Clear aligners for orthodontic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Hanieh; Graham, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials (CENTRAL), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and LILACS databases. Clinical prospective and retrospective studies of orthodontic treatment with clear aligners on patients over the age of 15 that included clear descriptions of the materials and applied technique were included. Selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Two reviewers extracted data independently with study quality being assessed using the grading system described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). A narrative summary of the findings was presented. Eleven studies involving a total of 480 patients were included consisting of two randomised controlled trials, five prospective studies and four retrospective studies. Six studies were considered to be of moderate quality, the remainder of limited quality. Most of the studies presented with methodological problems: small sample size, bias and confounding variables, lack of method error analysis, blinding in measurements, and deficient or missing statistical methods. The quality level of the studies was not sufficient to draw any evidence-based conclusions.

  18. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  19. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  20. A Correlation Study between Student Performance in Food and Beverage Services Course and Internship in F&B Department of Hospitality Business

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter R. Buted; Sevillia S. Felicen; Abigail I. Manzano

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges hospitality educators face today is determining clear goals and objectives for the curriculum to the constantly changing needs of the industry. It is crucial to close the gap between what is taught to students and what the industry expects from the graduates being hired. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the performance of the students on Food and Beverage Services Course and their internship performance in Food and Beverage department in differ...

  1. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  2. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  3. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  4. New Waste Beverage Cans Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmansyah Burlian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary emphasis of this work is on the development of a new waste beverage cans identification method for automated beverage cans sorting systems known as the SVS system. The method described involved window-based subdivision of the image into X-cells, construction of X-candidate template for N-cells, calculation of matching scores of reference templates for the N-cells image, and application of matching score to identify the grade of the object. The SVS system performance for correct beverage cans grade identification is 95.17% with estimated throughput of 21,600 objects per hour with a conveyor belt width of 18˝. The weight of the throughput depends on the size and type of the objects.

  5. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  6. [On alcoholic beverage taxation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni

    Review the price elasticity of alcoholic beverages to identify the characteristics we should take into account to make a tax policy proposal. Systematic review of articles in EBSCOhost that include in their abstract and title the words alcohol and elasticity and alcohol and tax, over the last 20 years in academic journals in English. We found 11 references. Although price elasticity is quite similar across countries, it is heterogeneous with regard togender, age, consumption level and type of beverage. Ad-hoc policies proved ineffective due to the substitution effect, and regressive in their impact on populations with lower levels of income and consumption. Tax policies should be applied to all alcoholic beverages based on their volume of alcohol and all measures, such as the minimum price per unit, should be complemented with other policies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  8. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited. (b... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is...

  9. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  10. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B.; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Methods Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013–2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Results Respondents aged 18–29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. PMID:27662697

  11. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  12. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...

  13. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beverage. 4.14 Section 4.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose...

  14. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beverage. 1004.14 Section 1004.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the...

  15. 11 CFR 100.137 - Invitations, food, and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invitations, food, and beverages. 100.137...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.137 Invitations, food, and beverages. The cost of invitations, food, and... invitations, food and beverages provided by the individual on behalf of the candidate does not exceed $1,000...

  16. 11 CFR 100.77 - Invitations, food, and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invitations, food, and beverages. 100.77...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.77 Invitations, food, and beverages. The cost of invitations, food and... invitations, food and beverages provided by the individual on behalf of the candidate does not exceed $1,000...

  17. Perception of male drinkers as a function of their alcoholic beverage preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L; Fisher, R D

    1993-05-01

    The present study examined perception of a man's likelihood of driving after drinking and his ability to do so as a function of his choice of beverage. Perceptions of his social characteristics were also examined. The sample was composed of 200 volunteer undergraduate psychology students. Equal numbers of male and female subjects read one of four vignettes which varied only in the male protagonist's choice of beverage: beer, wine, shots of distilled spirits, or cola. After reading the story, subjects answered multiple-choice questions about the character, tapping social judgments, situational judgments and drinking and driving judgments. Subject drinking habits were also assessed. The most notable result was the consistently positive perception of the protagonist portrayed as an abstainer. The lack of a consistent alcoholic beverage distinction implies that the beer-spirits double standard is far from a clear-cut discrimination. Possible explanations for results are discussed. This study questions the robustness of the alcoholic beverage type bias and reflects the need for future research.

  18. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  19. Vegetables, Soups, Sauces, Gravies and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on vegetables, soups, sauces, gravies, and beverages is designed to increase Marine Corps cooks' effectiveness as food handlers, using the proper techniques in the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for…

  20. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are

  1. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A

    2017-03-04

    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  2. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  3. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  4. Beverage consumption pattern among undergraduates of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few admitted always drinking while with friends (7.3%) or had feeling of guilt about drinking habit (9%) while over 70% agreed to parents` or guardians` awareness of drinking habit. Conclusion: Higher percentage of the respondents consumed more of healthy beverage such as fruit juices and soft drinks than alcoholic ...

  5. The sugar-sweetened beverage wars: public health and the role of the beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D

    2013-10-01

    To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown.

  6. The sugar-sweetened beverage wars: public health and the role of the beverage industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Recent findings Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Summary Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown. PMID:23974767

  7. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Overweight and Obese African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terryl J. Hartman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI. It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population.

  8. Contribution of Beverage Selection to the Dietary Quality of the Packed Lunches Eaten by Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-02-16

    Sweet drinks early in life could predispose to lifelong consumption, and the beverage industry does not clearly define fruit drinks as part of the sweet drink category. To ascertain the relationship between beverage selection and dietary quality of the lunches packed for preschool-aged children evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Foods packed by parents (n=607) were observed at 30 early care and education centers on two nonconsecutive days. Three-level regression models were used to examine the dietary quality of lunches by beverage selection and the dietary quality of the lunch controlling for the nutrient composition of the beverage by removing it from the analysis. Fruit drinks were included in 25% of parent-packed lunches, followed by 100% fruit juice (14%), milk (14%), and flavored milk (3.7%). Lunches with plain milk had the highest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (59.3) followed by lunches with 100% fruit juice (56.9) and flavored milk (53.2). Lunches with fruit drinks had the lowest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores at 48.6. After excluding the nutrient content of the beverage, the significant difference between lunches containing milk and flavored milk persisted (+5.5), whereas the difference between fruit drinks and 100% fruit juice did not. Dietary quality is associated with the type of beverage packed and these differences hold when the lunch is analyzed without the nutrient content of the beverage included. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a Brief Questionnaire to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake (BEVQ-15): Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Beverage Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A.; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Objective Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Methods Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596; age 43±12 yrs; BMI 31.5±0.2 kg/m2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed beverage, or SSB, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version’s (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70; age 37±2 yrs; BMI 24.5±0.4 kg/m2) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls’ (FIR) beverage intake. Results Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91–99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all Pbeverage energy (R2=0.59) were more highly correlated with FIR than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth grade education or greater. Conclusion The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ~2 min) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage consumption with health-related outcomes, such as weight status. PMID

  10. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment.

  11. Trace speciation analysis of arsenic in beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Fajgarová, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to determine the toxicologically important arsenic species in beverages (beer, wine and apple juice) with minimal sample preparation. Determination of arsenic species was performed by selective hydride generation of arsenic hydrides with cryogenic collection under liquid nitrogen and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry. In all the samples only inorganic arsenic was found, methyl substituted species were below the limit of detection. The method is su...

  12. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone st...

  14. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryplonek, Katarzyna; Jasińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bacteria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all samples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  15. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposed rules address risk management for cleared trades by futures commission merchants, swap dealers... Commission has proposed extensive regulations addressing open access and risk management at the derivatives..., 2011) (Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations). These proposed regulations...

  16. Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: The Microscience of the Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions and foams form the basis of an extensive variety of materials used in the beverage industry. One of the characteristics of beverage emulsions is that they are rather diluted, contain little amounts of a dispersed oil phase in the finished product, and must remain physically stable for long periods of time. Nowadays, the consumers ask for more than a drink. Thus, in the market, we can find a vast variety of beverages, where emulsion science seems to be the main factor for controlling flavor, color, the presence of constituents of technological or nutritional value, nutraceutical/bioactive components and, also, turbidity. This work intends to make an overview of the recent advances in beverage-emulsions technology. Some examples are given within the very large world of the beverage industry, from cream liqueurs, soft drinks, and functional beverages, to bottled water, fruit drinks, sparkling wine, and beer.

  17. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  18. Market-oriented new product development of functional beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    Strategic reviews of the Irish Food and Beverage Industry have consistently emphasised the need for food and beverage firms to improve their innovation and marketing capabilities, in order to maintain competitiveness in both domestic and overseas markets. In particular, the functional food and beverages market has been singled out as an extremely important emerging market, which Irish firms could benefit from through an increased technological and market orientation. Although h...

  19. Public Knowledge about Herbal Beverages in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaver Nazir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY:To explore public knowledge and perceptions of the efficacy, safety and reason to consume herbal beveragesincluding ginseng tea, gingko biloba tea and tongka ali tea.METHOD:This study was conducted in the state of Penang in June 2007. Participants were recruited at random;respondents were interviewed using a 19 item questionnaire. Non- parametric statistics was applied to analysethe data.RESULTS:Four hundred participants were recruited. Most of the respondents 228(57.0% were habitual consumers ofherbal beverages. 249(62.25% respondents believed that herbal beverages improved their health status.193(48.25% believed that herbal beverages boost the energy level of user and 120(30.0% used them toprevent diseases. 300(75% respondents agreed with the statement that herbal beverages are safe to use andthat they have less side effect than conventional medicines available on the market. Female respondents weremore likely to report using herbal beverages for slimming 78(19.5% and for cosmetic purposes 74(18.5%.However, the use of herbal beverages to boost energy levels was more frequent among male respondents.Respondents aged 18 – 25 years were significantly more likely to report the use of herbal beverages to preventcoughs and flu.CONCLUSION:This potentially ill advised and dangerous consumption of herbal beverages may delay appropriate help seekingfor various medical illnesses. In addition lack of knowledge about the side effects of herbal beverages may putusers at risk of side effects.

  20. New Trends in Beverage Packaging Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ramos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New trends in beverage packaging are focusing on the structure modification of packaging materials and the development of new active and/or intelligent systems, which can interact with the product or its environment, improving the conservation of beverages, such as wine, juice or beer, customer acceptability, and food security. In this paper, the main nutritional and organoleptic degradation processes of beverages, such as oxidative degradation or changes in the aromatic profiles, which influence their color and volatile composition are summarized. Finally, the description of the current situation of beverage packaging materials and new possible, emerging strategies to overcome some of the pending issues are discussed.

  1. Case study: beverage temperature at aid stations in ironman triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Catriona A; Johnson, Nathan A; Chapman, Phillip G; Munir Che Muhamed, Ahmad; O'Connor, Helen T

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of environmental conditions and aid-station beverage- cooling practices on the temperature of competitor beverages. Environmental and beverage temperatures were measured at three cycling and two run course aid stations at the 2010 Langkawi, Malaysia (MA), and Port Macquarie, Australia (AU), Ironman triathlon events. To measure the specific effect of radiant temperature, additional fluid-filled (600 ml) drink bottles (n = 12) were cooled overnight (C) and then placed in direct sun (n = 6) or shade (n = 6) near to a cycle aid station at AU. During both events, beverage temperature increased over time (p beverage temperature ranged between 14-26°C and during both events was above the palatable range (15-22°C) for extended periods. At AU, bottles placed in direct sunlight heated faster (6.9 ± 2.3 °C·h-1) than those in the shade (4.8 ±1.1°C·h-1, p = .05). Simple changes to Ironman aid-station practices, including shade and chilling beverages with ice, result in the provision of cooler beverages. Future studies should investigate whether provision of cool beverages at prolonged endurance events influences heat-illness incidence, beverage-consumption patterns, and competitor performance.

  2. 10 CFR 431.292 - Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Basic model means, with respect to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines, all units... beverages and dispenses the bottled or canned beverages on payment. V means the refrigerated volume (ft3) of...

  3. Gradual reduction of free sugars in beverages on sale by implementing the beverage checklist as a public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Maria; Winzer, Eva; Schätzer, Manuel; Dämon, Sabine; Moser, Nadine; Blagusz, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Julia; Lechleitner, Monika; Rieder, Anita; Hoppichler, Friedrich

    2018-03-15

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major source of free sugar intake and contribute to obesity and obesity-related diseases. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of a gradual sugar reduction strategy within the so-called 'beverage checklist' on free sugar content in beverages on sale in Austria. From 2010 until 2017, data on the amount of free sugar of sweetened beverages (sweetened with sugars, fruit juice and artificial sweeteners) with 0.20-0.75l serving sizes in all main supermarkets and from industry was collected. These data were published annually as the beverage checklist, which displays beverages on sale in Austria. The checklist aims to encourage beverage production with a free sugar content of ≤7.4 g/100 ml and no artificial sweeteners. Free sugar content in the total supply decreased significantly [7.53 (2.86) vs. 6.75 (2.79) g/100 ml; 10.4%; P strategy, conducted by a small non-profit organization, showed a reduction in the mean free sugar content by working with the industry to voluntarily reformulate beverages. More beverages with less added sugar were brought to the market, which implies healthier choices. The challenge now is to further engage the industry and also policy makers to achieve a greater reduction in the future.

  4. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives: a review of long-term health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Rangan, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has become an intractable public health concern worldwide, making investigation of healthy beverage alternatives for SSBs imperative. To summarize the available evidence on the effects of replacing SSBs with beverage alternatives on long-term health outcomes. We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health outcomes in both children and adults were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 50 methodology checklists. Six cohort studies and four RCTs were included in the systematic review with the quality rating ranging from acceptable to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted to fully understand the long-term health implications of beverage substitutions. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustainable alternative for the food industry: converting whey and orange juice into a micro-filtered beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Enhancing industrial sustainability by converting whey into alternative high value-added products is a scientific trend in food science and technology. However, without other ingredients, rennet, or sour, whey has an unappetizing flavor. This sensory challenge can be overcome by blending it with citrus flavor from orange juice. This study assessed a micro-filtered beverage from whey and orange juice without enzymatic treatment. Four formulations (27:10, 8.6:10, 2.4:10 and 1:10 v/v whey:juice ratio were processed through a 1.4 μm microfiltration system with four different transmembrane pressures (1, 2, 3, and 4.15 bar and then stored at 5 °C for 28 days. The micro-filtered beverage was analyzed for physicochemical, sensorial and microbial changes. It was possible overcome the technological challenges of orange juice microfiltration without enzymatic treatment with high transmembrane pressures. The whey:orange juice ratio was also decisive for permeation. A clear beverage with lower viscosity, turbidity, and protein levels was obtained, without altering mineral concentrations thus showing that the product has good capacity for hydration. The beverage presented good microbiological quality and remained stable for 28 days at 5 °C. Sensory evaluation data indicate that the beverage can be directed to young people and women, regardless of their physical activity. The combination of whey and orange juice can be explored industrially as a micro-filtered beverage, with satisfactory results of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory acceptance.

  6. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Alcohol consumption and mortality: is wine different from other alcoholic beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J; Crozier, A; Lean, M E

    2001-08-01

    Alcohol has been an integral part of the diets of many cultures for thousands of years, and formed the basis of early antiseptics. However, many health professionals have been loath to recommend its moderate consumption. Fears of increased risks of cancers, strokes and coronary heart disease (CHD), as well as its role in accidents, violence, psychological and social decline (when consumed in excess) meant that alcohol was viewed as generally detrimental to health. Recent reports have examined some of these fears and suggest that the moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, particularly red wine, may actually protect against the development of CHD. Evidence for the influence of alcoholic drinks on strokes and cancer is less clear. This review discusses the chemical differences between red wine and other alcoholic beverages and their possible effects on the development of CHD, stroke and cancer. Both clinical and experimental evidence suggest that red wine does indeed offer a greater protection to health than other alcoholic beverages. This protection has been attributed to grape-derived antioxidant polyphenolic compounds found particularly in red wine.

  8. Strategic messaging to promote taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages: lessons from recent political campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the use of strategic messaging by proponents of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation to influence public opinion and shape the policy process, emphasizing the experiences in El Monte and Richmond, California, with SSB tax proposals in 2012. We conducted 18 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders about the use and perceived effectiveness of messages supporting and opposing SSB taxation, knowledge sharing among advocates, message dissemination, and lessons learned from their messaging experiences. The protax messages most frequently mentioned by respondents were reinvesting tax revenue into health-related programs and linking SSB consumption to health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. The most frequently mentioned antitax messages addressed negative economic effects on businesses and government restriction of personal choice. Factors contributing to perceived messaging success included clearly defining "sugar-sweetened beverage" and earmarking funds for obesity prevention, incorporating cultural sensitivity into messaging, and providing education about the health effects of SSB consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has faced significant challenges in gaining political and public support. Future campaigns can benefit from insights gained through the experiences of stakeholders involved in previous policy debates.

  9. Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kevin C.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with higher caloric intakes, the amount SSBs contribute to higher intakes has not been addressed. Purpose To estimate the amount SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes and determine how the diets of SSB consumers and nonconsumers differ. Methods The WWEI America (What We Eat in America), NHANES 2003–2010 surveys were combined into a sample of 13,421 children; analyses were conducted in December 2012. To determine the contribution of SSB to higher caloric intakes, total non-SSB, food, and non-SSB beverage intakes of SSB consumers and nonconsumers were compared using linear regression models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Analyses also compared intakes between nonconsumers and SSB consumers with different amounts of SSB consumption. Results For children aged 2–5 years and 6–11 years, non-SSB intakes did not differ between nonconsumers and SSB consumers at any level of SSB consumption, indicating that SSBs were primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes among SSB consumers. A similar finding was observed among children aged 12–18 years; however, both food and SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes of adolescents consuming ≥500 kcal of SSBs. Among those aged 12–18 years, higher intakes of foods (e.g., pizza, burgers, fried potatoes, and savory snacks) and lower intakes of non-SSB beverages (e.g., fluid milk and fruit juice) were associated with increased SSB intake. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened beverages are primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes of SSB consumers, and SSB consumption is associated with intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are often unhealthy (e.g., pizza and grain-based desserts). PMID:23498100

  10. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Gu, M.J.; Kim, M.J.; Bae, Y.K.; Choi, W.H.; Shin, D.S.; Cho, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults with melanocytic differentiation. It occurs predominantly in the soft tissue of extremities, typically involving tendons and aponeuroses. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is extremely rare. We report a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the right first metatarsal in a 48-year-old woman and provide a literature review of the entity. (orig.)

  11. Clear sky solar insolation data for Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baig, A.; Mufti, A.

    1990-09-01

    Monthly average values of both integrated and instantaneous clear sky solar radiation components for Islamabad territory have been presented and discussed. The components include total, direct normal, direct horizontal, global and diffuse radiations, sun hours, number of clear days and temperature for solar energy applications. Beam irradiance values are used to get clear sky (maximum) sun hours by ab-initio. The need for replacing the conventional sunshine recorder is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  12. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  13. Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  14. The effects of carbonated alcoholic herbal beverage on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Carbonated Alcoholic herbal beverages (CAHB) are a menace in our society as the drink is grossly abused; this study is therefore aimed at investigating the Histomorphological, selected hepatorenal function indices and some hematological parameters effects induced by a Carbonated Alcoholic Herbal Beverage that ...

  15. Quinoa Beverages: Formulation, Processing and Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Intelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.

  16. Production and antioxidative activity of alcoholic beverages made ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation yeast was isolated from a Thai traditional alcoholic beverage called Thai ou, which is drunk through bamboo tubes. The isolated yeast was identified as a strain of the genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The alcoholic beverage made with the isolated yeast designated as S. cerevisiae NP01 from black rice ...

  17. Determination of indigenous and foreign alcoholic beverages' levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative levels of indigenous and foreign alcoholic beverages in the urine of 24 University students after drinking a cup or shot of the beverages have been reported. The Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy was used for the analysis. From the results, the percentage content of alcohol (%v/v) in burukutu, ...

  18. The effects of energy beverages on cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Wayne; Shide, Eric; Thapa, Slesha; Chandrasekaran, Vidya

    2012-10-01

    The popularity and prevalence of energy beverages makes it essential to examine the interactions between the ingredients and their effects on the safety of these beverages. In this study, we used in vitro assays to examine the effects of two energy beverages on mesenchymal, epithelial and neuronal cells. Our results showed that treatment of epithelial and mesenchymal cells with either energy beverage resulted in a dose dependent delay in wound closure, in a scratch wound healing assay. In rat embryonic fibroblasts, treatment with the energy beverages led to decreased lamellipodia formation and decreased proliferation/viability; whereas in MDCK cells, energy beverage treatment resulted in actin disorganization without any effects on cell proliferation. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying delayed wound healing might be different in the two cell types. Interestingly, the delays in both cell types could not be mimicked by treatment of caffeine, taurine and glucose alone or in combinations. Furthermore, treatment of chick forebrain neuronal cultures with energy beverages resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of neurite outgrowth. The cellular assays used in this study provide a consistent, qualitative and quantitative system for examining the combinatorial effects of the various ingredients used in energy beverages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Taxing Sugary Beverages Reduces Their Purchase, Especially Among Poor Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Joshi, Shilpi

    2017-06-01

    Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study. Colchera MA, Popkin BM, Rivera JA, Ng SW. Br Med J 2016;352:h6704. Bloomberg Philanthropies, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública and Carolina Population Center. Observational study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of Food and Beverage Advertising and Marketing in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Foods and beverages rich in salt, sugar, calories, and saturated fats, but deficient in micronutrients, have flooded Indian food markets. Indian consumers are showing an increased preference for them. This project will help strengthen Indian policies for regulating advertising and marketing of food and beverage products in ...

  1. Antioxidant capacity of some plants foods and beverages consumed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today plant foods and beverages are receiving more scientific attention because of their potential to curb the effect of free radicals in the human system. The present study reports on the antioxidant potentials of some plants foods and beverages consumed in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The study made use of the ferric ...

  2. Alcoholic Beverages in Bangladesh-How Much We Know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, N.; Ferdous, N.; Nesha, K.; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the names and alcohol content or strength of different alcoholic beverages used in different parts of Bangladesh and also to determine contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some samples. Methods: Eight different types of alcoholic beverages

  3. Mycological evaluation of a ground cocoa-based beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are processed into cocoa beverage through fermentation, drying, roasting and grounding of the seed to powder. The mycological quality of 39 samples of different brand of these cocoa – based beverage referred to as 'eruku oshodi' collected from 3 different markets in south – west Nigeria ...

  4. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  5. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: the fight against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie

    2013-05-10

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable.

  6. Foods and Beverages Sold Outside the School Meals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs About SHPPS: SHPPS is a national survey periodically conducted ... canteen, or snack bar where students could purchase foods or beverages. • 4.0% of states and 6.6% of ...

  7. Determination of Cu, Fe, Zn Elements in Soil, Root Tea Plants, Tea Leaves, and Tea Beverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyanto; Zainul-Kamal

    2006-01-01

    One of the causes of land quality damage was due to the pollution of Cu, Fe, and Zn so that it could directly and also indirectly cause the occurrence of pollution of plants which is growing on it for example tea plant that has been used by society for making of tea beverage. The sampling of soil, root tea plants, tea leaves and tea beverage samples were done in June, 2005 at sub district of Keparakan, Temanggung, Central Java. The purpose of research was to determine the content of Cu, Fe and Zn in soil, root tea plants, tea leaves and tea beverage. The research was done by digesting the sample with nitric acid until the clear solution was obtained, then it was added by aquabidest until 10.0 ml. Determination of Cu, Fe and Zn content used AAS instrument. The average concentration of Cu Fe and Zn obtained in deep soil samples area 0.155 ± 0.005 ppm, 127.16 ± 2.65 ppm, and 0.68 ± 0.02 ppm respectively, in surface soil samples are 0.355 ± 0.025 ppm, 360.59 ± 13.17 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.01 ppm respectively, in root of tea plants samples area 0.241 ± 0.098 ppm, 13.16 ± 1.34 ppm and 2.64 ± 0.06 ppm respectively, in tea leaves are 0.211 ± 0.013 ppm, 3.35 ± 0.886 ppm, and 0.795 ± 0.016 ppm respectively and in tea beverage 0.142 ± 0.086 ppm, 6.11 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.66 ± 0.02 ppm respectively. (author)

  8. Negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.

  9. Flavonoids protecting food and beverages against light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, which are ubiquitously present in the plant kingdom, preserve food and beverages at the parts per million level with minor perturbation of sensory impressions. Additionally, they are safe and possibly contribute positive health effects. Flavonoids should be further exploited for the protection of food and beverages against light-induced quality deterioration through: (1) direct absorption of photons as inner filters protecting sensitive food components; (2) deactivation of (triplet-)excited states of sensitisers like chlorophyll and riboflavin; (3) quenching of singlet oxygen from type II photosensitisation; and (iv) scavenging of radicals formed as reaction intermediates in type I photosensitisation. For absorption of light, combinations of flavonoids, as found in natural co-pigmentation, facilitate dissipation of photon energy to heat thus averting photodegradation. For protection against singlet oxygen and triplet sensitisers, chemical quenching gradually decreases efficiency hence the pathway to physical quenching should be optimised through product formulation. The feasibility of these protection strategies is further supported by kinetic data that are becoming available, allowing for calculation of threshold levels of flavonoids to prevent beer and dairy products from going off. On the other hand, increasing understanding of the interplay between light and matrix physicochemistry, for example the effect of aprotic microenvironments on phototautomerisation of compounds like quercetin, opens up for engineering better light-to-heat converting channels in processed food to eventually prevent quality loss. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  11. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  12. The problem of clear air turbulence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to rapid improvements in on-board instrumentation and atmospheric observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse weather. However, they still encounter unexpected bumpy flight conditions in regions away from storms and clouds. This is the phenomenon of clear air ...

  13. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when

  14. Whey based beverages - new generation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a by product in the process of cheese production. Composition and characteristics of whey are depending on the production technology, the end product and the quality of used milk. Liquid whey consists of approximately 93% water and contains almost 50% of total solids present in the milk of which lactose is main constituent. Lactose is the main constituent of whey while proteins represent less than 1% of total solids. Minerals and vitamins are present in fewer amounts also. Production of whey based beverages started in 1970's and until today a wide range of different whey based beverages has been developed. They can be produced from native sweet or acid whey, from deproteinised whey, from native whey which was diluted with water, from whey powder or by whey fermentation. Non alcoholic whey beverages include wide range of products obtained by mixing native sweet, diluted or acid whey with different additives like tropical fruits (but also other fruits like apples, pears, strawberries or cranberries, crops and their products (mainly bran, isolates of vegetable proteins, CO2, chocolate, cocoa, vanilla extracts and other aromatizing agents. Special attention is being paid to production of fermented whey beverages with probiotic bacteria where the most important step is the choice of suitable culture of bacteria in order to produce functional beverage with high nutritional value and acceptable sensory characteristics. Non alcoholic whey beverages also include dietetic beverages, drinks with hydrolyzed lactose, milk like drinks and powder drinks. Whey is a very good raw material for production of alcoholic beverages due to the fact that the main constituent of the solid content is lactose (about 70%. Alcoholic whey beverages include drinks with small amount of alcohol (up to 1,5%, whey beer and whey wine. Whey beverages are suitable for wide range of consumers – from children to the elderly ones. They have very high nutritional value and good

  15. Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Johnny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid fluid delivery from ingested beverages is the goal of oral rehydration solutions (ORS and sports drinks. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing carbohydrate and sodium content upon fluid delivery using a deuterium oxide (D2O tracer. Design Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups of 10, the first group was a carbohydrate group (CHO and the second a sodium group (Na. The CHO group ingested four different drinks with a stepped increase of 3% glucose from 0% to 9% while sodium concentration was 20 mmol/L. The Na group ingested four drinks with a stepped increase of 20 mmol/L from 0 mmol/L to 60 mmol/l while glucose concentration was 6%. All beverages contained 3 g of D2O. Subjects remained seated for two hours after ingestion of the experimental beverage, with blood taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 10 min in the second hour. Results Including 3% glucose in the beverage led to a significantly greater AUC 60 min (19640 ± 1252 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min than all trials. No carbohydrate (18381 ± 1198 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min had a greater AUC 60 min than a 6% (16088 ± 1359 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min and 9% beverage (13134 ± 1115 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min; the 6% beverage had a significantly greater AUC 60 min than the 9% beverage. There was no difference in fluid delivery between the different sodium beverages. Conclusion In conclusion the present study showed that when carbohydrate concentration in an ingested beverage was increased above 6% fluid delivery was compromised. However, increasing the amount of sodium (0–60 mmol/L in a 6% glucose beverage did not lead to increases in fluid delivery.

  16. The pH of beverages in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Avanija; Norris, Don F; Momeni, Stephanie S; Waldo, Belinda; Ruby, John D

    2016-04-01

    Dental erosion is the chemical dissolution of tooth structure in the absence of bacteria when the environment is acidic (pH beverage's erosive potential. In addition, citrate chelation of calcium ions may contribute to erosion at higher pH. The authors of this study determined the erosive potential measured by the pH of commercially available beverages in the United States. The authors purchased 379 beverages from stores in Birmingham, Alabama, and categorized them (for example, juices, sodas, flavored waters, teas, and energy drinks) and assessed their pH. They used a pH meter to measure the pH of each beverage in triplicate immediately after it was opened at a temperature of 25°C. The authors recorded the pH data as mean (standard deviation). Most (93%, 354 of 379) beverages had a pH of less than 4.0, and 7% (25 of 379) had a pH of 4.0 or more. Relative beverage erosivity zones based on studies of apatite solubility in acid indicated that 39% (149 of 379) of the beverages tested in this study were considered extremely erosive (pH beverages in the United States found that most are potentially erosive to the dentition. This study's findings provide dental clinicians and auxiliaries with information regarding the erosive potential of commercially available beverages. Specific dietary recommendations for the prevention of dental erosion may now be developed based on the patient's history of beverage consumption. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  18. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Hans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey’s test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  19. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Garla, Bharat; Dagli, Rushabh J; Hans, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  20. The nutritional limitations of plant-based beverages in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro

    2017-10-24

    Breastfeeding, infant formula and cow's milk are basic foods in infant nutrition. However, they are being increasingly replaced either totally or partially by plant-based beverages.The composition of 164 plant-based beverages available in Spain was reviewed based on the nutritional labeling of the package and the manufacturers' webpages. This was compared to the composition of cow's milk and infant formula. In addition, the nutritional disease associated with consumption of plant-based beverages in infants and children was reviewed by means of a literature search in Medline and Embase since 1990 based on the key words "plant-based beverages" or "rice beverages" or "almond beverages" or "soy beverages" and "infant" or "child".The nutritional composition of 54 soy beverages, 24 rice beverages, 22 almond beverages, 31 oat beverages, 6 coconut beverages, 12 miscellaneous beverages and 15 mixed beverages was described. At least 30 cases of nutritional disease in children associated with nearly exclusive consumption of plant-based beverages have been published. A characteristic association has been observed between soy beverage and rickets, rice beverage and kwashiorkor, and almond-based beverage and metabolic alkalosis.The nutritional quality of plant-based beverages is lower than that of cow's milk and infant formula, therefore they are not a nutritional alternative. Predominant or exclusive use of these beverages in infant feeding can lead to serious nutritional risks. In the case of nonexclusive feeding with these beverages, the pediatrician should be aware of the nutritional risks and limitations of these beverages in order to complement their deficiencies with other foods.

  1. Intelligibility of clear speech: effect of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2013-10-01

    The authors investigated how clear speech instructions influence sentence intelligibility. Twelve speakers produced sentences in habitual, clear, hearing impaired, and overenunciate conditions. Stimuli were amplitude normalized and mixed with multitalker babble for orthographic transcription by 40 listeners. The main analysis investigated percentage-correct intelligibility scores as a function of the 4 conditions and speaker sex. Additional analyses included listener response variability, individual speaker trends, and an alternate intelligibility measure: proportion of content words correct. Relative to the habitual condition, the overenunciate condition was associated with the greatest intelligibility benefit, followed by the hearing impaired and clear conditions. Ten speakers followed this trend. The results indicated different patterns of clear speech benefit for male and female speakers. Greater listener variability was observed for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility compared to speakers with inherently high habitual intelligibility. Stable proportions of content words were observed across conditions. Clear speech instructions affected the magnitude of the intelligibility benefit. The instruction to overenunciate may be most effective in clear speech training programs. The findings may help explain the range of clear speech intelligibility benefit previously reported. Listener variability analyses suggested the importance of obtaining multiple listener judgments of intelligibility, especially for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility.

  2. CLEARING OF ELECTRON CLOUD IN SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WANG, L.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPRIA, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism using the clearing electrodes to remove the electron cloud in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, where strong multipacting could happen at median clearing fields. A similar phenomenon was reported in an experimental study at Los Alamos laboratory's Proton Synchrotron Ring (PSR). We also investigated the effectiveness of the solenoid's clearing mechanism in the SNS, which differs from the short bunch case, such as in B-factories. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating of the chamber walls was applied to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY)

  3. Primary clear cell sarcoma of rib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersekli, Murat Ali; Ozkoc, Gurkan; Akpinar, Sercan; Ozalay, Metin; Tandogan, Reha N.; Bircan, Sema; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft tissues) is a very rare soft tissue neoplasm. It generally arises in tendons and aponeuroses. Although metastasis of malignant melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is an extremely rare neoplasm. To our knowledge five cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of bone in a 28-year-old woman arising in the left ninth rib. We treated the patient with total excision of the mass and postoperative radiotherapy. The patient is alive and well without local recurrence or distant metastasis at 33 months after surgery. (orig.)

  4. The Short-Term Impacts of the Philadelphia Beverage Tax on Beverage Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yichen; Auchincloss, Amy H; Lee, Brian K; Kanter, Genevieve P

    2018-04-11

    On January 1, 2017, Philadelphia implemented a beverage tax of $0.015/ounce on sugar ("regular") and sugar-substitute ("diet") beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate impact of the tax on residents' consumption of soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water. A repeat cross-sectional study design used data from a random-digit-dialing phone survey during a no-tax period (December 6-31, 2016) and a tax period (January 15-February 31, 2017) among 899 respondents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and 878 respondents in three nearby comparison cities. Survey questions included frequency and volume of bottled water and beverages. Outcomes were daily consumption, and 30-day consumption frequency and volume. Propensity score-weighted difference-in-differences regression was used to control for secular time trend and confounding. Covariates were sociodemographics, BMI, health status, smoking, and alcohol use. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Within the first 2 months of tax implementation, relative to the comparison cities, in Philadelphia the odds of daily consumption of regular soda was 40% lower (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.37, 0.97); energy drink was 64% lower (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.17, 0.76); bottled water was 58% higher (OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.13, 2.20); and the 30-day regular soda consumption frequency was 38% lower (ratio of consumption frequency=0.62, 95% CI=0.40, 0.98). Early results suggest that the tax influenced daily consumption of regular soda, energy drinks, and bottled water. Future studies are needed to evaluate longer-term impact of the tax on sugared beverage consumption and substitutions. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  6. Production Efficiency Audit on Tea Beverage Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes

  7. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-03-01

    Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 15 years, with these appliances continually being modified to increase the range of tooth movements that they can achieve. However, there is very little clinical research available to show how these appliances achieve their results. This article describes the different generations of clear aligners that are available and highlights their use. However, until more clinical research becomes available, aligners cannot be routinely prescribed as an effective alternative to fixed labial appliances.

  8. Open bite treatment using clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function.

  9. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Fluid intake from beverages across age groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, A E; Bibiloni, M Del Mar; Pons, A; Tur, J A

    2015-10-01

    Fluid intake, especially water, is essential for human life and also necessary for physical and mental function. The present study aimed to assess beverage consumption across age groups. A systematic review was conducted. Original research in English language publications and available studies (or abstracts in English) from 2000 to 2013 was searched for by using the medical subheading (MeSH) terms: ('beverage' OR 'fluid' [Major]) AND ('consumption' [Mesh] OR 'drinking' [Mesh] OR 'intake' [Mesh]) AND ('child' [Mesh] OR 'adolescent' [Mesh] OR 'adult' [Mesh]). Article selection was restricted to those papers covering healthy populations of all age groups in a nationwide sample, or from a representative sample of the population of a city or cities, which examined the trends or patterns of beverage intake and the determinants of beverage intake. Sixty-five studies were identified with respect to beverage consumption across age groups. The papers were screened by thoroughly reading titles or abstracts. Full-text articles were assessed by three investigators. Total beverage intake varied between 0.6 and 3.5 L day(-1) among all age groups (males more than females). Plain water contributed up to 58%, 75% and 80% of the total beverage intake in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Milk consumption was higher among children; consumption of soft drinks was higher among adolescents; and the consumption of tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages was higher among adults. Plain water is the main water source for all age groups and the consumption of other beverages varies according to age. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Skin optical clearing potential of disaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shi, Rui; Ma, Ning; Tuchina, Daria K.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Skin optical clearing can significantly enhance the ability of biomedical optical imaging. Some alcohols and sugars have been selected to be optical clearing agents (OCAs). In this work, we paid attention to the optical clearing potential of disaccharides. Sucrose and maltose were chosen as typical disaccharides to compare with fructose, an excellent monosaccharide-OCA, by using molecular dynamics simulation and an ex vivo experiment. The experimental results indicated that the optical clearing efficacy of skin increases linearly with the concentration for each OCA. Both the theoretical predication and experimental results revealed that the two disaccharides exerted a better optical clearing potential than fructose at the same concentration, and sucrose is optimal. Since maltose has an extremely low saturation concentration, the other two OCAs with saturation concentrations were treated topically on rat skin in vivo, and optical coherence tomography imaging was applied to monitor the optical clearing process. The results demonstrated that sucrose could cause a more significant increase in imaging depth and signal intensity than fructose.

  12. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  13. Beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Cássia Gomes Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and characterize beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein. Beverages formulated with 0.5 (F1, 2.0 (F2, 4.0 (F3 and 6.0% w/v (F4 whey protein were physicochemically and microbiologically characterized, and sensory evaluated. The physicochemical analyses indicated that the protein content significantly changed (P0.05 with increased protein content. The F2 formulation showed the highest sensory acceptance. Beverages offer a promising alternative to whey use and enhance the value of the product by the addition of lutein.

  14. Textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages produced by kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraković Katarina G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of fermented dairy products are very important parameters of the product quality. The behaviour of gel formed during fermentation of milk is influenced by a great number of factors, such as: milk composition, starter culture, flavourings addition, etc. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of fat content, and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. Higher fat content of beverage affects the firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index, while higher amount of inoculum in beverages has an opposite effect on textural characteristics of samples during storage.

  15. How compliant are beverage employees to occupational health and safety regulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chetty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This observational study was undertaken to identify thehealth and safety violations of employees at a specific beverage manufac-turing company.  A  site inspection and observation of all employees employedat this specific beverage company was conducted by the researcher over 2 days. Employees were observed for 12 hours per day with the morningshift on Day 1 and the afternoon shift on Day 2. A  sample of conveniencewas used in that every employee who was present on those days was included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data set. There were a total of 212 employees and 332 behaviours observed during thisstudy period. Unsafe handling and behaviour was observed in 55% of observations. Incorrect manual lifting techniques was the most frequent health and safety violation observed. In the 48 manual lifting behaviours observed, correct practice was observed in only three cases.  It is clear thatmore healthcare education and practical training is required in the area of manual lifting techniques. It is clear that more practical training is required in the area of manual handling.

  16. Colorectal surgery patients prefer simple solid foods to clear fluids as the first postoperative meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Sophia E; Fenton, Tanis R

    2009-09-01

    Randomized controlled trials have established that there is no benefit to withholding oral food and fluids from colorectal surgery patients postoperatively. The aim of this survey was to determine food preferences for the first postoperative meal and compare these with a traditional clear-fluid diet. One hundred forty-five elective colorectal surgery patients were surveyed about their preferences for 35 common foods within 72 hours of surgery and their levels of nausea, hunger, and pain. Preferences were examined by postoperative day (one vs. two) and levels of nausea, hunger, and pain. The survey showed that patients significantly preferred solid foods as early as the first postoperative day and their preferences had little congruency with the traditional clear-fluid diet. Foods highest in preference, such as eggs, regular broth soup (e.g., chicken noodle soup), toast, and potatoes, were significantly more preferred than common clear-fluid diet items such as gelatin, clear broth, and carbonated beverages (P clear-fluid diet as their first postoperative meal.

  17. Weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine or metabolic effects of high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Kearney, Monica L; Kanaley, Jill A

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, but it is not clear whether obese (Ob) individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming HFCS-sweetened beverages, and whether weight classification (normal weight (NW) vs. Ob) influences these effects. Ten NW and 10 Ob men and women who habitually consumed ≤355 mL per day of sugar-sweetened beverages were included in this study. Initially, the participants underwent a 4-h mixed-meal test after a 12-h overnight fast to assess insulin sensitivity, pancreatic and gut endocrine responses, insulin secretion and clearance, and glucose, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol responses. Next, the participants consumed their normal diet ad libitum, with 1065 mL per day (117 g·day(-1)) of HFCS-sweetened beverages added for 2 weeks. After the intervention, the participants repeated the mixed-meal test. HFCS-sweetened beverages did not significantly alter body weight, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or clearance, or endocrine, glucose, lipid, or cholesterol responses in either NW or Ob individuals. Regardless of previous diet, Ob individuals, compared with NW individuals, had ∼28% lower physical activity levels, 6%-9% lower insulin sensitivity, 12%-16% lower fasting high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, 84%-144% greater postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, and 46%-79% greater postprandial insulin concentrations. Greater insulin responses were associated with reduced insulin clearance, and there were no differences in insulin secretion. These findings suggest that weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine and metabolic effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages.

  18. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. 39.4 Section 39.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.4 Procedures for...

  19. 76 FR 47529 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 23, and 39 RIN 3038-AD51 Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission... published in the Federal Register of August 1, 2011, regarding Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of...

  20. Nutrition recommendations and the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's 2014 approved food and beverage product list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M

    2015-04-23

    We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children.

  1. Beverage Intake among Children: Associations with Parent and Home-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Arwa; Davey, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Beverage intake can influence child diet quality in a positive or negative manner depending on the beverage type and amounts consumed. Parenting practices such as role modeling and control of home beverage availability have been associated with child beverage intake, whereas examination of the influence of parental beverage nutrition knowledge has been more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sugar-sweetened and dairy beverage intake among children (9–12 years) and home and parental factors. A questionnaire was administered among a convenience sample of parents (n = 194) to assess beverage nutrition knowledge, beverage intake and home availability of beverages. Children completed a questionnaire to estimate usual beverage intake. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake by children ranged from 0.4 to 48 oz. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine relationships. Parents were mostly female, white, well educated, and employed. Home availability of sugar-sweetened and dairy beverages was positively associated with child sugar-sweetened (OR = 1.48, p = 0.03) and dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.34, p = 0.03), respectively. Parent dairy beverage intake was associated with child dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.06, p = 0.01). Parent knowledge about sugar in beverages was related to child dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.46, p = 0.02), whereas calcium/dairy knowledge and general beverage nutrition knowledge were not related to child beverage intake. Parenting practices and knowledge may play a role in determining child beverage intake. PMID:28820455

  2. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The sale or gift of an alcoholic beverage to a person under 21 years of age, except where allowed by... practice or otherwise allowed by Federal or State law. (c) Presence in a park area when under the influence...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The sale or gift of an alcoholic beverage to a person under 21 years of age, except where allowed by... by the Presidio Trust when under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance to a degree that...

  4. Five propositions to harmonize environmental footprints of food and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, Tommie; Werf, Van Der H.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Several attempts have been made to harmonize guidelines for environmental footprints of food and beverages. For example, the food Sustainable Consumption and Production Roundtable, the Leap partnership, and the Environmental Footprint project, in particular within the Cattle Model Working Group.

  5. Beverage Alcohol Choice Among University Students: Perception, Consumption and Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liana SALANTA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze and compare the beverage alcohol choice among university students. The study was carried out on a total of 1069 students (men and women from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage consumption, perception and preference. The main reasons associated with alcohol consumption were relaxation and socialization followed by taste and flavour. The most respondents are attracted by flavor and aroma of the favourite beverage. The participants in the study were not heavy social drinkers (only 1.7 % of participants consume alcohol every day. Beer and wine, were the alcoholic beverages ranked in the top of preferences. Our findings can provide information for educators and policymakers in Romania to implement target-orientated interventions against alcohol abuse at universities. The results of this study may also add evidence to university administrators and public health educators elsewhere dealing with students from Romania.

  6. Determinants of Non Alcoholic Beverages (NAB) Consumption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    positive role in the consumption probability of soda beverages. The study concluded that an ... contributions to household food and nutrition in general, and especially, for their role in ... marketing and product positioning. To achieve this, the.

  7. Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The topic on milk and dairy products deals with the livestock resource of the country with respect to the microbiological ...

  9. Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping the terrain. ... Food marketing to children has in recent years come under scrutiny as one of the putative factors ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Development and Quality Evaluation of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and Quality Evaluation of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage from Cocoyam ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta ) ... Nigerian Food Journal ... evaluation were conducted on the products to assess the highest preference.

  11. Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TrueFasterUser

    2013-07-03

    ANZFA) permitted the maximum concentration of methanol in spirit beverages at 8 g/L of ..... German Federal Republic Patent. DE 43 (13)549. Frenkel C, Peters JS, Tieman DM, Tiznado ME, Handa AK (1998). Pectin Methylesterase ...

  12. Digest of impaired driving and selected beverage control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with impaired driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 2006.

  13. Microbiological quality of drinking water and beverages in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.; Sahir, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiological assay of 780 water samples and 1220 beverage samples (412 branded and 808 unbranded), collected from 490 different schools, both government (98 schools) and private (392 schools), situated in different areas of the city of Karachi, was conducted for bacterial heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, faecal coliforms, E. coli, faecal streptococci, Pseudomonas and Salmonella species. The counts ranged from 0 to 2.5 X 105 cfu/mL and from 0 to 106 cfu/mL in water and beverage samples, respectively. About 36% of water samples and 48% of unbranded beverage samples were contaminated with the indicator and the pathogenic bacteria; all the branded beverage samples were found fit for human consumption from microbiological viewpoint. (author)

  14. Clear-air lidar dark band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Paolo Di; Scoccione, Andrea; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Schween, Jan H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper illustrates measurements carried out by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HOPE, revealing the presence of a clear-air dark band phenomenon (i.e. the appearance of a minimum in lidar backscatter echoes) in the upper portion of the convective boundary layer. The phenomenon is clearly distinguishable in the lidar backscatter echoes at 1064 nm. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of lignite aerosol particles advected from the surrounding open pit mines in the vicinity of the measuring site.

  15. Assessment of a Districtwide Policy on Availability of Competitive Beverages in Boston Public Schools, Massachusetts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S; Gortmaker, Steven L; Kenney, Erica L; Carter, Jill E; Howe, M Caitlin Westfall; Reiner, Jennifer F; Cradock, Angie L

    2016-03-03

    Competitive beverages are drinks sold outside of the federally reimbursable school meals program and include beverages sold in vending machines, a la carte lines, school stores, and snack bars. Competitive beverages include sugar-sweetened beverages, which are associated with overweight and obesity. We described competitive beverage availability 9 years after the introduction in 2004 of district-wide nutrition standards for competitive beverages sold in Boston Public Schools. In 2013, we documented types of competitive beverages sold in 115 schools. We collected nutrient data to determine compliance with the standards. We evaluated the extent to which schools met the competitive-beverage standards and calculated the percentage of students who had access to beverages that met or did not meet the standards. Of 115 schools, 89.6% met the competitive beverage nutrition standards; 88.5% of elementary schools and 61.5% of middle schools did not sell competitive beverages. Nutrition standards were met in 79.2% of high schools; 37.5% did not sell any competitive beverages, and 41.7% sold only beverages meeting the standards. Overall, 85.5% of students attended schools meeting the standards. Only 4.0% of students had access to sugar-sweetened beverages. A comprehensive, district-wide competitive beverage policy with implementation support can translate into a sustained healthful environment in public schools.

  16. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2016-01-01

    : Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape...

  17. Traditional fermented food and beverages for improved livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Danilo; Marshall, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    "This booklet is intended to heighten awareness about the potential of fermented foods and beverages as a viable enterprise that can contribute to small-scale farmers' income, building on, and in full respect of, important social and cultural factors. It also looks at how fermented food and beverages contribute to food security through preservation and improved nutritional quality. It highlights the opportunities and challenges associated with small-scale fermentation activities, as well as m...

  18. Determination of CaffeineIn Beverages: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Igelige Gerald; David Ebuka Arthur; Adebiyi Adedayo

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a well-known stimulant which is added as an ingredient to various carbonated soft drinks. Caffeine has drawn more attention due to its physiological effects beyond that of its stimulatory effect. Consumers are interested in knowing the exact amounts of caffeine existing in beverages. However, limited data exist, especially for store brand beverages. Therefore, it is pertinent to review the various methods that will effectively determine the caffeine contents in different carbonate...

  19. Sugary beverage tax policy: lessons learned from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    Excise taxes on sugary beverages have been proposed as a method to replicate the public health success of tobacco control and to generate revenue. As policymakers increase efforts to pass sugary beverage taxes, they can anticipate that manufacturers will emulate the strategies employed by tobacco companies in their attempts to counteract the impact of such taxes. Policymakers should therefore consider 2 complementary laws-minimum price laws and prohibitions on coupons and discounting-to accomplish the intended price increase.

  20. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  1. Corporate Citizenship: Case study of Coca-Cola Beverages Hrvatska

    OpenAIRE

    Tafra-Vlahović, Majda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether the corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy implemented by Coca-Cola Beverages Croatia during the past four years has had a positive impact on the reputation of this company and on the overall business. The researcher intended to explore attitudes of Coca-Cola Beverages employees about CSR and the mentioned community relations model in order to evaluate whether the CSR policy of the company has had an impact on internal stakehol...

  2. Intelligence in relation to later beverage preference and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....

  3. Popular Music Celebrity Endorsements in Food and Nonalcoholic Beverage Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Elizee, Juleen; Dighe, Shatabdi; Elbel, Brian D

    2016-07-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity. We quantified the number and type of food or beverage brands promoted by music celebrities, assessed the nutritional quality of the products, and examined Teen Choice Award data to assess the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. This was a descriptive study. A list of music celebrities associated with the 2013 and 2014 Billboard Hot 100 Chart, which ranks songs according to sales and radio impressions, was compiled. Data on celebrity endorsements were gathered from official company Web sites, YouTube commercials, an advertising database, and media reports. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed according to the Nutrient Profile Index, whereas nonalcoholic beverages were evaluated based on calories from added sugar. Teen Choice Award nominations were used to measure the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. Of the 590 endorsements made by the 163 celebrities in the sample, consumer goods (eg, fragrances, makeup) represented the largest endorsement category (26%), followed by food and beverage (18%) and retail (11%). Sixty-five celebrities were collectively associated with 57 different food and beverage brands owned by 38 parent companies. Of these 65 celebrities, 53 (81.5%) had ≥1 Teen Choice Award nomination. Forty-nine (71%) of the 69 nonalcoholic beverage references promoted sugar-sweetened beverages. Twenty-one (80.8%) of the 26 endorsed foods were energy dense and nutrient poor. Baauer, will.i.am, Justin Timberlake, Maroon 5, and Britney Spears had the most food and beverage endorsements. This study demonstrates that music celebrities who are popular among adolescents endorse energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Formulation and characterization of a nutritional pumpkin-based whey beverages, enriched with oatmeal and passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Valencia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect on the addition of oatmeal (Avena sativa and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis in the content of fiber, calcium, iron, phosphorus and A vitamin in beverage formulation based on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, milk and whey, was determined. The beverages undergone significant changes during the storage time, the pH decreased as the acidity showed a slight increase. The coordinates of CIELAB (L *, a * and b * were located in quadrant 1 indicating a clear tendency to yellow caused by the presence of carotenoids from the pumpkin and passion fruit. Based on the sensory analysis it was selected best treatment who was higher in 3 of the 4 parameters evaluated. This sample also presented a pseudoplastic behavior with a consistency index of 3.57 Pa.s0.24 and a shelf life of 9 days

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Walker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, together with other essential nutrients such as amino acids, minerals and vitamins, S. cerevisiae will conduct fermentative metabolism to ethanol and carbon dioxide (as the primary fermentation metabolites as the cells strive to make energy and regenerate the coenzyme NAD+ under anaerobic conditions. Yeasts will also produce numerous secondary metabolites which act as important beverage flavour congeners, including higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds. These are very important in dictating the final flavour and aroma characteristics of beverages such as beer and wine, but also in distilled beverages such as whisky, rum and brandy. Therefore, yeasts are of vital importance in providing the alcohol content and the sensory profiles of such beverages. This Introductory Chapter reviews, in general, the growth, physiology and metabolism of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic beverage fermentations.

  6. Erosive effects of common beverages on extracted premolar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K; Thong, K M

    2005-09-01

    Dental erosion is highly prevalent today, and acidic drinks are thought to be an important cause. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the erosive potential of a range of common beverages on extracted human teeth. The beverages were tested for their individual pHs using a pH meter. The clinical effects of the most erosive beverages were determined by the degree of etching and Vickers microhardness of enamel. The results showed that many common beverages have pHs sufficiently low to cause enamel erosion. Lime juice concentrate (pH 2.1) had the lowest pH, followed by Coca-cola and Pepsi (both with pH 2.3) and Lucozade (pH 2.5). The erosive potential of these beverages was demonstrated by the deep etching of the enamel after five minutes. The Vickers Hardness of enamel was reduced by about 50 per cent in the case of lime juice (p case of Coca-cola (p Coca-cola completely reversed the erosive effects on the enamel. Although only a few of the beverages with the lowest pHs were tested, the present study showed that the most acidic drinks had the greatest erosive effects on enamel. While saliva was protective against erosion, relatively large volumes were required to neutralize the acidity.

  7. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  9. A CLEAR Plan for School Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Anthony; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Although many school formulas for crisis management are well coordinated internally, many are also shortsighted in recognizing when a school crisis falls simultaneously into law enforcement's domain. An Illinois high school has devised CLEAR, a crisis management plan delineating cognizance of personnel, the linkages they establish, accountability…

  10. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  11. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode

  12. Association of a Community Campaign for Better Beverage Choices With Beverage Purchases From Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Schneider, Glenn E; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-05-01

    Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95% CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P sports drinks (-86.3 fl oz; 95% CI, -343.6 to 170.9 fl oz) and diet soda (-17.8 in HC stores vs -11.3 in comparison stores; DID adjusted mean, -78.9 fl oz; 95% CI, -182.1 to 24.4 fl oz) decreased in both communities, but the decreases were not significantly

  13. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  14. Food and beverage environment analysis and monitoring system: a reliability study in the school food and beverage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E

    2010-07-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  16. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  17. Effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on haemoglobin level of school going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency is estimated to affect one-half of the school going children in developing countries and school years are opportune time to intervene. Rationale: No coherent, co-ordinate and effective health services are available in the country for below 16 years. So attempt was made to know real scenario of iron deficiency. Objectives: To assess the effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on the haemoglobin level of school going children. Methodology:  An experimental research design was taken to conduct the study in which 200 children of 6≥and7≥ years in low socio economic status of both the genders were taken. For hemoglobin testing Sahil’s hemoglobinometer was used. Each child in experimental group was given 200ml of whey guava beverage for 90 days except holidays. Results and Discussion: The initial mean Hb levels of 6≥and7≥ year’s old boys and girls of control groups and experimental groups were ranging from 9.50 to 10.24 which were 79.17% to 85.33%. The results revealed that almost all the respondents were anaemic. After 90 days of feeding supplement the final mean Hb levels of 6≥7 years old boys and girls of control group  ranged from 10.10 to 10.65 which was 84.17% to 88.75%. Whereas in experimental group it ranged from 11.06 to 11.42 which were 91.92% to 95.17%. The study clearly evidences that the respondents in experimental group had improved with more Hb levels when compared to control group. Also children who were suffering from anaemia in experimental group became normal. Conclusion: Distribution of whey guava beverage through school feeding program may prove as an outstanding strategy to combat iron deficiency in school children.

  18. Effectiveness of sugar-sweetened beverages taxes to reduce obesity: evidence brief for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, Josefina; Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2017-10-25

    The high prevalence of obesity in Chile, along with the increasing consumption of sugary drinks in the country, has made apparent the need to propose fiscal measures, through taxes on specific foods, as a complementary alternative to approach this problem. Since 2014, an additional 5% increase in the tax on sugar-sweetened nonalcoholic beverages has been in effect in Chile, an amount that may be insufficient to produce an impact on obesity levels. The evidence of the effectiveness of fiscal measures upon sugary beverages, in terms of price modification, generally reflects a high transfer of the tax to the final consumers, which is variable according to local conditions. After the analysis of the literature, a sensitivity of the demand to the changes in prices of sugary drinks was evidenced, by means of negative elasticity close to -1, for different groups observed, besides a decrease in the consumption of these products. On the other hand, effects on body weight after the application of these taxes were analyzed by several simulation studies, reporting a decrease on prevalence of obesity between 0.99% and 2.4%. Within the acceptability of a fiscal measure of this nature, there were variable support figures between 36% and 60% among general population. Regarding possible negative effects on employment, an international study even evidenced a rise in the figures for employment in two locations following the application of a tax on sugary drinks. The research showed that there is evidence to support the implementation of a fiscal measure upon sugary beverages in Chile; however, there is a lack of local simulation studies to explore the possible effects and implications of a new tax of this kind in the country. Taxation measures upon foods seem to be both viable and effective alternatives to address the problem of obesity in Chile, but they should be considered as part of an overall strategy with the clear goal of reducing the prevalence of national obesity.

  19. CLEARING MAGNET DESIGN FOR APS-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.; Jaski, Y.; Westferro, F.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of developing an upgrade (APS-U) of the storage ring. The upgrade will be converting the current double bend achromat (DBA) lattice to a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice. In addition, the storage ring will be operated at 6 GeV and 200 mA with regular swap-out injection to keep the stored beam current constant [1]. The swap-out injection will take place with beamline shutters open. For radiation safety to ensure that no electrons can exit the storage ring, a passive method of protecting the beamline and containing the electrons inside the storage ring is proposed. A clearing magnet will be located in all beamline front ends inside the storage ring tunnel. This article will discuss the features and design of the clearing magnet scheme for APS-U.

  20. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with clear cell changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT has a limited biological profile and been an attention-grabbing tumor for a century for its origin. Though described earlier, it was widely accepted after Harbitz from Norway reported about this uncommon benign tumor in 1915. There has been a long debate as whether this tumor is a hamartoma or a neoplasm. Here, we present a case of AOT in a 20-year-old female with details of clinical, radiological and histological features along with clear cell changes, signifying AOT to be more aggressive in nature than assessed from earlier literature. Thus, we did an extensive search of PubMed literature on AOT with all its histopathological features associated until date to find the report of clear cell changes yet.

  1. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode feasible paths through the environment. The roadmap is partitioned into regions, e.g., one per level, and we design region-based search strategies to cover and clear the environment. We can provide certain guarantees within this roadmap-based framework on coverage and the number of agents needed. Our approach can handle complex and realistic environments where many approaches are restricted to simple 2D environments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Clearing the smoke around medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M A

    2011-12-01

    The hazy world of "medical marijuana" continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This Commentary considers the implications of this work for clinical practice and further research initiatives.

  3. Internet compromise clears way for WSIS agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    Ermert, M

    2003-01-01

    A working group under the leadership of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan himself will try to resolve the deep differences on the question of Internet governance, officials said here. The group, whose exact membership wasn't immediately clear, is to propose a solution to the controversial issue that has given negotiators at the World Summit of the Information Society (WSIS) a headache (1/2 page).

  4. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...

  5. A clinical case treated with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fernando César; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Cepera, Fernanda; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Sanders, Derek

    2011-01-01

    There are a wide variety of techniques, prescriptions and materials that can be used to correct malocclusions. Esthetic and discrete appliances have gained popularity in recent years and there seems to be a continual search for new materials that can provide similar orthodontic results. This article will describe the relevant aspects of clear aligners and present clinical cases to document some of the applications of Invisalign.

  6. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Sawano, Seishi; Yamada, Keiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  7. Drivers of Acceptance of a New Beverage in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of studying food consumption behavior is to identify the drivers of choice for a food product. This is particularly important to design and develop new foods for which no previous information is available. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Bissap is an herbaceous plant and an important source of vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, which confer a number of potential health benefits to derived products. The consumption of Bissap in beverage form is widespread in Africa and Asia, but not yet in Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main drivers of consumer acceptance of a traditional African beverage made from Bissap to which they had not been previously exposed. First, three focus groups (n = 22 were performed in Portugal to characterize the sensory profile of four Bissap beverages, to reveal perceptions and attitudes towards Bissap beverages, and to identify potential choice attributes. Subsequently, a full-profile conjoint analysis (n = 99 was performed, where consumers evaluated 37 Bissap beverage profiles, aiming to estimate choice attribute importance and to identify relevant market segments. Focus group findings showed that consumers would choose Bissap because they perceived as a healthy choice, and due to its novelty. The conjoint study showed an ideal profile for a Bissap beverage costing €0.99/L, <18 kcal/100 mL, packaged in Tetra-pack, light red color, and containing labeling information about antioxidants and Bissap. Four clusters of consumers were identified: price sensitive, body concerned, packaging attracted, and demanding, highlighting the most influential choice attributes: price, calories, and packaging. Findings provide useful guidance for new product development of an African product in the European lifestyle. Results might be useful from a nutraceutical point of view and to the food/beverages industry.

  8. 77 FR 12896 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66458; File No. 600-9] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency Registration February 24, 2012. I... Act provides that in the event any self- regulatory organization is no longer in existence or has...

  9. Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

    2000-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

  10. A case of clear cell sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have made...... this designation obsolete. The true incidence remains unknown, but CCS is believed to represent less than one percent of all sarcomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 22-year-old patient presented with a mass sized 2.6×2.7×2.7cm of the left gluteal region, pain, and malaise. Initially, the symptoms were interpreted...

  11. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  12. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma developing in pacemaker pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V

    2008-11-01

    An octagenerian woman developed clear cell hidradenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm of eccrine sweat gland origin, 4 years following pacemaker implantation in her right lateral chest. The tumor immunohistochemically mimicked a metastatic lobular breast carcinoma, for example, strongly positive estrogen, weakly positive progesterone, and weakly reactive mammoglobin. A complete surgical excision of the tumor was complemented with ipsilateral dissection of involved adjacent axillary lymph nodes. Recommended irradiation was refused by the patient. Retrospective 3-year mammogram review, 2-year postsurgery follow-up, and complete postmortem evaluation failed to prove a primary breast malignancy or other metastatic lesion elsewhere.

  13. Effect of alcoholic beverages on progeny and reproduction of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dias Figueiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alcohol is the most commonly consumed substance in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcoholic beverages on male reproduction and possible alterations in their offspring. The mice were divided into 4 groups: beer, wine, cachaça (a type of sugarcane rum, with ethanol concentrations of 1.9 g/kg, and control group treated with PBS. The treatment period was 35 days. The animals which received cachaça, demonstrated significant weight loss in the testes and epididymis. The alcoholic beverages promoted significant testosterone level and fertilization index diminution, and morphological alterations in the spermatozoa. The beer group presented decreased implantation sites and a high frequency of dominant lethal. The number of reabsorptions in the wine group was increased. The fermented beverages presented higher potential to induce visceral malformations, while the cachaça caused fetal skeletal malformations. The cachaça treated group presented a negative impact on semen quality and fertilization potential. The treatment with different alcoholic beverages, during spermatogenesis, demonstrated contrasting degrees of induction of toxic effects, interfering in a general aspect in male reproductive performance, fetal viability during intrauterine life, and birth defects. From the data, it is possible to infer that the distillated beverage caused more harmful effects to reproduction in this study.

  14. Beverage-Specific Alcohol Sale and Cardiovascular Mortality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Recent research evidence suggests that the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverage may have a differential effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and CVD mortality rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Method. Age-standardized male and female CVD mortality data for the period 1970–2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat. Time-series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages and CVD mortality rates. Results. Vodka consumption as measured by sales was significantly associated with both male and female CVD mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would result in a 5.3% increase in the male CVD mortality rate and a 3.7% increase in the female rate. The consumption of beer and wine were not associated with CVD mortality rates. Conclusions. The findings from this study suggest that public health efforts should focus on both reducing overall consumption and changing beverage preference away from distilled spirits in order to reduce cardiovascular mortality rates in Russia.

  15. Marketing Food and Beverages to Youth Through Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Elbel, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sports (e.g., M&M's with National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing logo) generate positive feelings, excitement, and a positive self-image among adults and children. Despite this, self-regulatory pledges made by food companies to limit exposure of unhealthy products to children have not improved the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children. We reviewed the literature about sports-related food marketing, including food and beverage companies' use of sports sponsorships, athlete endorsements, and sports video games. This review demonstrates that sports sponsorships with food and beverage companies often promote energy-dense, nutrient-poor products and while many of these promotions do not explicitly target youth, sports-related marketing affects food perceptions and preferences among youth. Furthermore, endorsement of unhealthy products by professional athletes sends mixed messages; although athletes may promote physical activity, they simultaneously encourage consumption of unhealthy products that can lead to negative health outcomes. We argue that more athletes and sports organizations should stop promoting unhealthy foods and beverages and work with health experts to encourage healthy eating habits among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Colorimetric Analysis of Hibiscus Beverages and their Potential Antioxidant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, G A; Vanegas-Espinoza, P E; Escudero-Gilete, M L; Heredia, F J; Paredes-López, O; Del Villar-Martínez, A A

    2018-05-25

    In food industry, roselle beverages and their subproducts could be functional ingredients since they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds with improved performance due to their important anthocyanins content. The aim of this study was to analyze anthocyanin content and antioxidant properties of aqueous infusions elaborated with color contrasting Hibiscus materials and design a mathematical model in order to predict color-composition relationship. Color measurements of beverages from roselle (Negra, Sudan and Rosa) were made by transmission spectrophotometry, anthocyanins quantification was determined by HPLC, and antioxidant potential was evaluated by in vitro methods (ABTS and FRAP assays). Beverages prepared with particle size minor of 250 μm presented until 4- and 2- times more anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity respectively, in comparison to beverages prepared with powders with particle size major of 750 μm. Positive correlations among pigments composition and color parameters were found (p Hibiscus beverages with high anthocyanin content. The obtained models could be an important tool to be used in food industry for pigment characterization or functional compounds with potential health benefits.

  17. Reducing calories and added sugars by improving children's beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Cabili, Charlotte; Hedley Dodd, Allison

    2013-02-01

    Because childhood obesity is such a threat to the physical, mental, and social health of youth, there is a great need to identify effective strategies to reduce its prevalence. The objective of this study was to estimate the mean calories from added sugars that are saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (calories from added sugars both at and away from school. Overall, these changes translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10% savings in energy intake across all students (8% among children in elementary school and 11% in middle and high schools). Eighty percent of the daily savings were attributed to beverages consumed away from school, with results consistent across school level, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages at home contributed the greatest share of empty calories from added sugars. Such findings indicate that parental education should focus on the importance of reducing or eliminating sugar-sweetened beverages served at home. This conclusion has implications for improving children's food and beverage environments for food and nutrition educators and practitioners, other health care professionals, policy makers, researchers, and parents. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low energy Kombucha fermented milk-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates manufacturing of fermented beverages from two types of milk (1 % w/w and 2.2 % w/w fat by applying of Kombucha, which contains several yeasts and bacterial strains. The starter was the inoculum produced from previous Kombucha fermentation. The applied starter concentrations were: 10 % v/v, 15 % v/v and 20 % v/v. Also, the traditional yoghurt starter was used to produce the control samples. All fermentations were performed at 42oC and the changes in the pH were monitored. The fermentation process was about three times faster in the control yoghurt than in the Kombucha samples. Influence of Kombucha inoculum concentration on the rate of fermentation appeared not to be significant. All fermentations were stopped when the pH reached 4.4. After the production, the quality of the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha was determined and compared with the quality of the control yoghurt samples. It was concluded that the difference in fat contents in milks affects the difference in quantities of other components in the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha. Sensory characteristics of the beverages manufactured from the partially skimmed milk are much better than those of the fermented beverages produced from the low fat milk.

  19. Sodium chloride-citrate beverages attenuate hypovolemia in men resting 12 h at 2800 m altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J E; Farrell, P A; Loomis, J L; Fedele, M J; West, J; Rössler, A; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H

    1998-10-01

    The mechanism for reduction and restoration of total body water and plasma volume (PV) during initial exposure to acute altitude (ALT) is not clear but may involve involuntary dehydration; i.e., delayed voluntary fluid intake. Ten men (24 +/- SD 3 yr, 180.8 +/- 8.1 cm height, 78.8 +/- 12.8 kg weight, 1.99 +/- 0.19 m2 surface area, and 12.2 +/- 4.0% body fat) were in a semi-reclining position for 12 h in a chamber at 2800 m (539 mmHg) ALT or at 321 m (732 mmHg; ground). They ate a controlled breakfast (450 kcal + 3 ml x kg(-1) H2O) on the ground, and lunch and dinner at ALT (or on the ground) for a total daily intake of 2850 kcal (14% PRO, 67% CHO, 16% fat, 2.6g NaCl). At hour 10 they consumed fluid-electrolyte beverages or water (12 ml x kg(-1), 948 ml x d(-1)) in 4 sessions at weekly intervals. Beverage compositions were: a) 185 mEq x L(-1) Na+, 283 mOsm x kg(-1); b) 21.6 mEq x L(-1) Na+, 365 mOsm x kg(-1); c) water at ALT; and d) water on the ground. After 10 h at ALT % deltaPV (Hb-Hct) decreased (p < 0.05) by: a) 9.0 +/- SE 1.5%; b) 6.2 +/- 1.7%; c) 7.4 +/- 2.2%; and d) by 9.0 +/- 2.4%, respectively. After drinking from 1000-1030 h, PV at 1200 h changed by: a) +8.3 +/- SE 2.0% (p < 0.05); b) +2.8 +/- 2.7% (NS); c) -0.9 +/- 1.5% (NS); and d) by +0.8 +/- 3.5% (NS), respectively. The similar ground-induced hypovolemia suggests a response to confinement rather than an ALT effect and involuntary dehydration does not appear to be implicated. The significant increase in PV after consuming the (a) NaCl-NaCitrate beverage indicates that drink ionic composition appears to be more important than its osmolality for restoring PV in these conditions. Practical considerations: Because this hypovolemia was probably due to the confinement rather that reduced ambient pressure, appropriate countermeasures could be consumption of isotonic beverages, elastic stockings, leg exercise, and leg elevation.

  20. Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-06-01

    Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. Our paper offers a method for estimating revenues from an excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages that governments of various levels could direct towards obesity prevention. We construct a model projecting beverage consumption and tax revenues based on best available data on regional beverage consumption, historic trends and recent estimates of the price elasticity of sugar-sweetened beverage demand. The public health impact of beverage taxes could be substantial. An estimated 24% reduction in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from a penny-per-ounce sugar-sweetened beverage tax could reduce daily per capita caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages from the current 190-200 cal to 145-150 cal, if there is no substitution to other caloric beverages or food. A national penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could generate new tax revenue of $79 billion over 2010-2015. A modest tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could both raise significant revenues and improve public health by reducing obesity. To the extent that at least some of the tax revenues get invested in obesity prevention programs, the public health benefits could be even more pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl T; McGorray, Susan P; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement.

  2. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, E.; Zanoni, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD

  3. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, E; Zanoni, G [Passavant Impianti, Novate Milanese (Italy)

    1992-03-01

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD.

  4. Flavored alcoholic beverages: an international marketing campaign that targets youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, James F; Johnsson, Diane

    2005-09-01

    Flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) were first introduced into the alcohol market in the early I980s in the form of wine coolers. FABs are sweet, relatively low alcohol content beverages that are designed for "entry-level" drinkers. The alcohol industry has introduced new products and production methods to expand the category's popularity. Research suggests that they are popular with underage drinkers, particularly teenage girls, and that the industry uses marketing practices that appear to target youth. FABs are now marketed globally, and their production and marketing vary by country based on national regulatory restraints. In the United States, industry representations that the products are malt beverages for regulatory purposes appears to violate many state laws because the alcohol in the FABs is derived from distilled spirits. Recommendations for regulatory reform, including new legal definitions of FABs, increased taxes, and restrictions on availability, are applicable at both national and state levels.

  5. Association of a Community Campaign for Better Beverage Choices With Beverage Purchases From Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Glenn E.; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. Objective To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. Design, Setting, and Partipicants This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor’s product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. Exposures The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Main Outcomes and Measures Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Results Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (−19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, −369 fl oz; 95% CI, −469 to −269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (−15.3%) in HC stores and remained stable (−0.6%) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, −342 fl oz

  6. Beverage and water intake of healthy adults in some European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional surveys frequently collect some data of consumption of beverages; however, information from different sources and different methodologies raises issues of comparability. The main objective of this review was to examine the available techniques used for assessing beverage intake in European epidemiological studies and to describe the most frequent method applied to assess it. Information of beverage intake available from European surveys and nutritional epidemiological investigations was obtained from gray literature. Twelve articles were included and relevant data were extracted. The studies were carried out on healthy adults by different types of assessments. The most frequent tool used was a 7-d dietary record. Only Germany used a specific beverage assessment tool (Beverage Dietary History). From the limited data available and the diversity of the methodology used, the results show that consumption of beverages is different between countries. Current epidemiological studies in Europe focusing on beverage intake are scarce. Further research is needed to clarify the amount of beverage intake in European population.

  7. The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-06-01

    Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  8. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  9. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  10. EBM, HTA, and CER: clearing the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Bryan R; Drummond, Michael; Jönsson, Bengt; Neumann, Peter J; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2010-06-01

    The terms evidence-based medicine (EBM), health technology assessment (HTA), comparative effectiveness research (CER), and other related terms lack clarity and so could lead to miscommunication, confusion, and poor decision making. The objective of this article is to clarify their definitions and the relationships among key terms and concepts. This article used the relevant methods and policy literature as well as the websites of organizations engaged in evidence-based activities to develop a framework to explain the relationships among the terms EBM, HTA, and CER. This article proposes an organizing framework and presents a graphic demonstrating the differences and relationships among these terms and concepts. More specific terminology and concepts are necessary for an informed and clear public policy debate. They are even more important to inform decision making at all levels and to engender more accountability by the organizations and individuals responsible for these decisions.

  11. Bilateral clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, W.; Yehia, D.; Alfaar, A.S.; Elshafie, M.M.; Younes, A.A.; Zaghloul, M.S.; El-Kinaai, N.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Zekri, W.; Elshafie, M.M.; Zaghloul, M.S.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Younes, A.A.; Alfaar, A.S.; Yehia, D.

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) accounts for 2-5% of all pediatric renal malignancies, and is known for its propensity to metastasize to bone and other sites. We are reporting two cases with bilateral CCSK that were diagnosed at our institution. One patient initially presented with bilateral renal masses, as well as pulmonary, hepatic and bone metastasis; while other present only with bilateral masses with no evident distant metastasis. Both patients received aggressive neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to decrease tumor size. One patient completed his designated treatment and initially showed complete remission (CR); eventually suffering from relapse. The other patient’s tumor progressed during the course of chemotherapy. Both cases manifested brain dissemination at the time of relapse or progression. This emphasizes the importance of staging stratification in CCSK. This also illustrates CCSK’s ability to metastasize to bone and other sites including the brain (a primary relapse site in our cases)

  12. Reforming taxes on wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive review of AustraliaÂ’s tax system, the taxes on alcoholic beverages recently came under scrutiny. In its initial response to the review in May 2010, the government chose to not change those taxes, even though the review recommended the wine tax switch from an ad valorem to a volumetric basis and that all beverages be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. This paper introduces a mini-symposium of three other papers aimed at contributing to what will be an on...

  13. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Levels of polonium-210 in some beverages and in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, C.H.; Huguet, M.R.; Palacios, M.A.; Oliveira, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present work is the estimation of the Polonium-210 content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, an autochton plant of South America, tea leaves, their infusion and ground coffee were analyzed as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to annual consumption of the beverages described, resulted in values from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for Polonium-210 in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq kg -1 . Doses due to the use of tobacco were not assessed since an appropriate metabolic model was not found. (author)

  15. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Risk of Becoming a Heavy Drinker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.K.; Andersen, A.T.; Sørensen, T.I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages.......Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages....

  16. What Are We Drinking? Beverages Shown in Adolescents' Favorite Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed, using a detailed coding instrument. Beverage incidents (ie, beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks, and coffee. Characters were coded with regard to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general, or adult audience. χ 2 tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0 to 25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSBs. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across characters' age groups. Almost half of young adults' (49.2%) or adults' (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSBs) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the adoption of unhealthy beverage behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of

  17. What are we drinking? Beverages shown in adolescents’ favorite TV shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. Objective This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Design Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed using a detailed coding instrument. Key measures Beverage incidents (i.e. beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks and coffee. Characters were coded with regards to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general or adult audience. Statistical analyses Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Results Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0–25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSB. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across age groups. Almost half of young adults’ (49.2%) or adults’ (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Conclusions Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSB) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the

  18. 11 CFR 100.78 - Sale of food or beverages by vendor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of food or beverages by vendor. 100.78...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.78 Sale of food or beverages by vendor. The sale of any food or beverage by... contribution, provided that the charge is at least equal to the cost of such food or beverage to the vendor, to...

  19. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299

  20. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D. H. J.; Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  1. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.; Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  2. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones: Evaluation of a common preoperative carbohydrate beverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.A.R.; Richir, M.C.; Garretsen, M.K.; van Schie, A.; Ghatei, M.A.; Holst, J.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Diamant, M.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Ligthart-Melis, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant

  3. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones: evaluation of a common preoperative carbohydrate beverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Richir, Milan C.; Garretsen, Martijn K.; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A.; Holst, Jens J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Uitdehaag, Bernard M. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E. Marelise W.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C.

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and

  4. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

  5. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  6. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56... Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  7. 11 CFR 100.138 - Sale of food and beverages by vendor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of food and beverages by vendor. 100.138...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.138 Sale of food and beverages by vendor. The sale of any food or beverage..., is not an expenditure, provided that the charge is at least equal to the cost of such food or...

  8. 29 CFR 779.388 - Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees... Service Establishments Restaurants and Establishments Providing Food and Beverage Service § 779.388 Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees. (a) A special exemption is provided in section 13...

  9. 36 CFR 702.8 - Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.8 Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings. Consumption of food and beverages in Library buildings is prohibited except at point of purchase or other authorized eating places. Under no circumstances may food or beverages be carried to the bookstacks or other...

  10. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  11. Setting clear expectations for safety basis development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORENO, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA)

  12. Employment Trends; Eating and Beverage Establishments 1958 to 1968, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

    Employment in eating and beverage establishments has grown tremendously in Louisiana. In 1940, United States Census figures showed that 18,400 were employed in the industry, and by 1969, the number had increased to 31,000. The situation in Louisiana may not be typical of other states because of a sharp increase in catering services to offshore oil…

  13. Uniqueness of Ethiopian traditional alcoholic beverage of plant origin, tella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooha Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many kinds of traditional fermented beverages in Ethiopia, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages. Tella, tej, areki, borde, and shamita are drinks that each household brews to treat guests. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. Therefore, the basic production method is the same, but the tastes may vary. One of the most consumed fermented alcoholic beverages is tella, which is made mostly with barley but wheat, maize, sorghum, and teff are utilized depending on the region. Its production process shows the similarity to beer: addition of malt and gesho which has the same function as hops in beer. The main fermentation yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharification of cereal starch seems to depend on malt. However, the degree of alcoholic fermentation is low and alcohol content varies between 2 and 6%. Lactic acid bacteria are very active in tella so pH ranges 4–5 give typical tastes such as sourness, sweetness, and bitterness. As the Ethiopian economy improves, more people drink western style beers. Tella has not been commercialized yet, so the process has not been standardized and modernized. Considering the case of Korean makgeolli and the Ethiopian creativity of utilizing gesho in tella, Ethiopia should pay more attention to tella for globalization.

  14. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 ev...

  15. Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1990-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of caffeine-containing beverages is related to the prevalence and severity of premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily total fluid consumption. A secondary objective was to determine whether daily total fluid consumption itself is related to premenstrual syndrome. The study is based on 841 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health, and daily fluid consumption, which was mailed to female university students in Oregon. Analysis of the data revealed that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages was strongly related to the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. Among women with more severe symptoms, the relation between consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome was dose-dependent, with prevalence odds ratios equal to 1.3 for consumers of one cup of a caffeine-containing beverage per day and increasing steadily to 7.0 for consumers of eight to 10 cups per day. The effects were apparent among both caffeine-containing tea/coffee consumers and caffeine-containing soda consumers. The observed effects were only slightly reduced when daily total fluid consumption was controlled. Daily total fluid consumption also was related to the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms although the effects were large only for consumers of 13-19 cups of fluid per day (the largest amount studied).

  16. Determination of Caffeine in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNunzio, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the equipment, procedures, and results for the determination of caffeine in beverages by high performance liquid chromatography. The method is simple, fast, accurate, and, because sample preparation is minimal, it is well suited for use in a teaching laboratory. (JN)

  17. Characteristics of fermented plant beverages in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charernjiratrakul, W.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beverages was light brown and dark brown. An ester smell was occasionally detected. The fermented plant beverages had sour flavor that developed during fermentation and a little sweetness from residual sugar. The taste was related to the amounts of organic acid and sugar as measured in the ranges of 0.98-7.13% (pH 2.63-3.72 and 0.21-4.20%, respectively. The levels of alcohols measured as ethanol were between 0.03-3.32% and methanol in a range of 0.019 0.084%. Methanol production was dependent on both the fermentation process and the plant used. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were not detected in any sample, whereas other microbes were detected in some samples as were total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold in amounts that differed depending on the fermentation time and also the level of sanitation of the production process.

  18. Food and Beverage Industry ESL Workplace Literacy Curriculum for Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol; And Others

    The Workplace Literacy Curriculum for Food and Beverage was developed for English-as-a-Second-Language classes for workers in participating hotels in Arlington County, Virginia, through a national workplace literacy grant with the cooperation of the Arlington County Chamber of Commerce. It is based on an analysis of tasks and interactions at the…

  19. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity among Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Bucher Della Torre, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from...

  20. Effects of three classes of alcoholic beverages on chloroquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three different types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine and gin) on the absorption of chloroquine in the stomach and intestine of rats were determined. The in situ loop method and in situ re-circulation technique were used to determine the absorption of chloroquine [CQ] in the stomach and intestine ...

  1. Monitoring of laryngopharyngeal reflux: Influence of meals and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Conrad F.; Mathus-Vliegen, Lisbeth M. H.; Devriese, Pieter P.; van Leeuwen, Justin A. M. J.; Semin, Astrid

    2003-01-01

    Ambulatory 24-hour double-probe pH monitoring seems to be the best test to measure reflux. Artifacts caused by intake of acid foods and beverages have to be excluded, necessitating a time-consuming manual review of the 24-hour data. Dietary restrictions used to bypass these artifacts would interfere

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIAL DAIRY FERMENTED BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILLA SOARES MENDONÇA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Technical Regulation on Identity and Quality of Whey-based Drinks establish few parameters to dairy beverages, which may impair standardized product providing to the consumer. The ingathering of the physicochemical characteristics provides information that allow the standardization of the product and provide safety to the consumer, whereas the rheological characterization in important for the processing. Samples of five commercial brands of strawberry flavored dairy beverages, with ten to fourteen days of manufacture, from three different batches were analyzed in triplicate in order to study the percentage of protein, fat, pH, titratable acidity, total dry extract, fixed mineral residue and lactose. It was performed a colorimetric determination and verification of the presence of starch .The rheological tests were carried out in a rotational rheometer and the data was adjusted by Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The statistical analysis was executed by an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test with 5% significance. The analysis showed that the percentages of lipids of three brands were below the required by legislation. Furthermore, the presence of starch in the composition was detected for all analyzed beverages. Both for the physicochemical and rheological parameters the brands of dairy beverage examined differed between themselves in several parameters. These results indicated the need to establish well-defined identity and quality standards aiming at product quality control and consumer safety improvement.

  3. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001 Section 57.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001 Section 56.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous...

  5. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  6. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-07-25

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

  7. Butanol Production from Leftover Beverages and Sport Drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raganati, Francesca; Procentese, Alessandra; Montagnaro, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to identify an alternative disposal process for the industry of high-sugar-content beverages (HSCBs) and (2) to contribute to the study of butanol production from non-edible feedstocks. HSCBs were used as a renewable feedstock to produce butanol by

  8. Changes in the quality of zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the effects of extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) alone or in combination with refrigeration at 6C were evaluated for six (6) weeks duration. Results shows that the total viable bacterial count increased from 0.9 ± 0.01 log10 cfu/ml to ...

  9. Statistical Feature Extraction and Recognition of Beverages Using Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. PANCHARIYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for extraction of features from data generated from an electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry. In this approach statistical features of the meaningful selected variables from current response signals are extracted and used for recognition of beverage samples. The proposed feature extraction approach not only reduces the computational complexity but also reduces the computation time and requirement of storage of data for the development of E-tongue for field applications. With the reduced information, a probabilistic neural network (PNN was trained for qualitative analysis of different beverages. Before the qualitative analysis of the beverages, the methodology has been tested for the basic artificial taste solutions i.e. sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. The proposed procedure was compared with the more conventional and linear feature extraction technique employing principal component analysis combined with PNN. Using the extracted feature vectors, highly correct classification by PNN was achieved for eight types of juices and six types of soft drinks. The results indicated that the electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry with reduced feature was capable of discriminating not only basic artificial taste solutions but also the various sorts of the same type of natural beverages (fruit juices, vegetable juices, soft drinks, etc..

  10. Determination of Caffeine Content in Non-Alcoholic Beverages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that Burn®, XL energy drink® and Red Bull® had the highest amount of caffeine. It was however noted that though most of the non-alcoholic beverages had high caffeine content they had no label claim. Key Words: Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC), Ultra violet visible (UV/VIS), ...

  11. Impact of Gatorade Beverage on Elite Female Badminton Players’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Mehraein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sports beverages assumed as one the principle factor on players' performance, and impact on their indicators, noticeably. Gatorade beverage is one of this primary beverages that in present study focused on its impact on elite female badminton players' performance in Iran. In the present survey has been considered in 2 groups of Gatorade and control that included 79 participants. The data has been got based on 24 hours’ recall questionnaire on three different days in every week. As well, skin folds’ brachial triceps index was applied for body fat percent assessment. To quantity VO2max, Shuttle runs sub-maximal test was used. Also, for controlling fluid intake in every two groups based on players’ body weight,150 ml per every 70 kg weight for every 15 minutes was recommended. Besides, for control of blood volume changes related to plasma blood glucose, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sodium, and potassium was measured during three time periods of zero, 30 minutes after the start and 90 minutes after the start. To end, to measure performance, standardized tests measure the indicators: aerobic power, speed, flexibilityy, agility, muscular strength, and endurance were used. The results showed that supply adequate water and fluids in during of sport, play a critical role in gaining the high level of female badminton players’ performance. In truth, the players who supply enough water shown better performance as compared with those who provide Gatorade beverage.

  12. Implementation of California State School Competitive Food and Beverage Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Hutchinson, Krista S.; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which…

  13. Obesity, international food and beverage industries and self-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how large international companies in the breakfast cereal, snack, and beverage industries address the issue of obesity, and how their strategies are governed by various forms of self-regulation. In a first step, we study websites of ten companies and identify five different...

  14. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge,

  15. Monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B; King, L; Baur, L; Rayner, M; Lobstein, T; Monteiro, C; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing food choices related to non-communicable diseases. The monitoring of populations' exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions, and the content of these promotions, is necessary to generate evidence to understand the extent of the problem, and to determine appropriate and effective policy responses. A review of studies measuring the nature and extent of exposure to food promotions was conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food promotions via dominant media platforms. A step-wise approach, comprising 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' monitoring activities, was designed. This approach can be used to assess the frequency and level of exposure of population groups (especially children) to food promotions, the persuasive power of techniques used in promotional communications (power of promotions) and the nutritional composition of promoted food products. Detailed procedures for data sampling, data collection and data analysis for a range of media types are presented, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators for assessing exposure to and power of food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions. The proposed framework supports the development of a consistent system for monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions for comparison between countries and over time. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Designing new foods and beverages for the ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I. A.

    2009-01-01

     - Introduction  - Consumer-led new product development: the concept and process in the food and beverage industry  - Consumer-led food product development for the ageing: the case of home meal replacements  - Conclusions and future trends  - Acknowledgements  - References...

  17. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  18. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  19. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  20. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  1. School wellness policies and foods and beverages available in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-08-01

    Since 2006-2007, education agencies (e.g., school districts) participating in U.S. federal meal programs are required to have wellness policies. To date, this is the only federal policy that addresses foods and beverages sold outside of school meals (in competitive venues). To examine the extent to which federally required components of school wellness policies are associated with availability of foods and beverages in competitive venues. Questionnaire data were collected in 2007-2008 through 2010-2011 school years from 892 middle and 1019 high schools in nationally representative samples. School administrators reported the extent to which schools had required wellness policy components (goals, nutrition guidelines, implementation plan/person responsible, stakeholder involvement) and healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages available in competitive venues. Analyses were conducted in 2012. About one third of students (31.8%) were in schools with all four wellness policy components. Predominantly white schools had higher wellness policy scores than other schools. After controlling for school characteristics, higher wellness policy scores were associated with higher availability of low-fat and whole-grain foods and lower availability of regular-fat/sugared foods in middle and high schools. In middle schools, higher scores also were associated with lower availability of 2%/whole milk. High schools with higher scores also had lower sugar-sweetened beverage availability and higher availability of 1%/nonfat milk, fruits/vegetables, and salad bars. Because they are associated with lower availability of less-healthy and higher availability of healthier foods and beverages in competitive venues, federally required components of school wellness policies should be encouraged in all schools. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Applying and influence of polymer materials for packaging dairy beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’s inoculum cultivated on a black tea sweetened with sucrose. The beverage was packed in a different packaging materials: polyamid-polyethylen (PA/PE coextruded foil bags and polyprophylen (PP cups closed with aluminium (Al foil lids under atmospheric conditions (ATM. Beverages were storaged for 15 days at 4°C. The quality of kombucha inoculum, milk and obtained kombucha fermented milk beverage were analysed. Characterization of the packaging materials was done by investigating physico-mechanical, barrier and structural properties. The composition and changes in the headspace atmosphere, after production and during the storage, were analysed. The influence of packaging material properties and packaging conditions on the biochemical transformations of the milk’s components (the content of: lactose, L-lactic acid, D-galactose, ethanol, B1 and B2 vitamins influenced by kombucha starter were analysed as well. On the bases of the obtained results of characterisation of packaging materials, it can be concluded that PA/PE and PP materials are proper to be used for analysed beverage’s packaging. Also, there is no significant difference in content of components which were quantified, between analysed materials in correlation with the packed fermented milk beverage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  3. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2017-01-01

    Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's Food and Beverage Promotion on Television to Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Smith, Marietta E; Mathur, Suman J; Sargent, James D; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionally poor foods are heavily advertised to children on television. Whether those same products are also advertised to parents on television has not been systematically examined. This study is a content analysis of advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages aired over US network, cable, and syndicated television for 1 year (2012 to 2013). The target audience of each advertisement was defined as children or parents based on advertisement content, where parent-directed advertisements included emotional appeals related to family bonding and love. Advertisement characteristics and patterns of airtime were compared across target audience, and the proportion of total airtime devoted to advertisements targeting parents was computed. Fifty-one children's food or beverage products were advertised over the study year, 25 (49%) of which were advertised directly to parents. Parent-directed advertisements more often featured nutrition and health messaging and an active lifestyle than child-directed advertisements, whereas child-directed advertisements more frequently highlighted fun and product taste. Over all products, 42.4% of total airtime was devoted to advertisements that targeted parents. The products with the most amount of airtime over the study year were ready-to-eat cereals, sugar-sweetened beverages, and children's yogurt, and the proportion of total advertisement airtime for those products devoted to parents was 24.4%, 72.8%, and 25.8%, respectively. Television advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages frequently targeted parents with emotional appeals and messaging related to nutrition and health. Findings are of concern if exposure to such advertisements among parents may shape their beliefs about the appropriateness of nutritionally questionable children's foods and beverages. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Food and beverage advertising during children's television programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, P; Macken, A; Leddin, D; Cullen, W; Dunne, C; Gorman, C O

    2015-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming.

  6. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  7. 76 FR 45730 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposing regulations to facilitate customer access to clearing and to bolster risk management through... and execution of customer transactions on a DCM or SEF on terms that have a reasonable relationship to... a reasonable relationship to the best terms available by prohibiting restrictions in customer...

  8. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification by temporal clear corneal and superior clear corneal approach: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikose AS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Archana Sunil Nikose, Dhrubojyoti Saha, Pradnya Mukesh Laddha, Mayuri Patil Department of Ophthalmology, N.K.P. Salve Institute and LMH, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Cataract surgery has undergone various advances since it was evolved from ancient couching to the modern phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA remains one of the most common complications. The introduction of sutureless clear corneal incision has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured limbal incision and scleral tunnel. A clear corneal incision has the benefit of being bloodless and having an easy approach, but SIA is still a concern.Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the SIA in clear corneal incisions with temporal approach and superior approach phacoemulsification. Comparisons between the two incisions were done using keratometric readings of preoperative and postoperative refractive status.Methodology: It was a hospital-based prospective interventional comparative randomized control trial of 261 patients conducted in a rural-based tertiary care center from September 2012 to August 2014. The visual acuity and detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done and the cataract was graded according to Lens Opacification Classification System II. Patients were divided for phacoemulsification into two groups, group A and group B, who underwent temporal and superior clear corneal approach, respectively. The patients were followed up on day 1, 7, 30, and 90 postoperatively. The parameters recorded were uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, and keratometry. The mean difference of SIA between 30th and 90th day was statistically evaluated using paired t-test, and all the analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc. software.Results: The mean postoperative SIA in group A was 0.998 D on the 30th day, which

  9. Food and Beverage Management: An Introduction. Food and Beverage Management Module. Operational Management Programme. Increasing Opportunities for Supervisors and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is designed to prepare them for the more detailed units in this series, including those on food and beverage control, production, and provision. The document begins with advice on how to use the unit. Three sections cover the following topics: (1)…

  10. Estimation of beverage consumption and associated caloric intake in adult Czech population. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Věra; Hubáček, Jaroslav A; Zimmelová, Petra; Velemínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults. To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake. There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  11. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-02

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. © 2013.

  12. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women’s daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. PMID:24041722

  13. CLEAR BRANDY” PRODUCTION USING ALPHA ACID EXTRACT FROM HOPS IN THE BIOCIDAL CONTROL OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiana Amélia de Oliveira e Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major problem in the production of “clear brandy” is the contamination of the must by bacteria of the species Lactobacillus. To overcome this problem, this work intends to evaluate the usage of the alpha acids from hop extract (Humulus lupulus as antibacterial agent during brandy production. In addition, the maximum cell recycling was evaluated during the clear brandy production. Preliminary experiments using the Sabourand synthetic medium added with 40 ppm of the alpha acids reduced the cell viability of L. casei and L. plantarum bacteria from 108 CFU.mL-1 to 105 CFU.mL-1 and showed no effect in the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These experiments were conducted at 120 rpm and 25°C. The clear brandy production (200 L using the same alpha acids concentration (40 ppm and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell recycling (14 times showed no contamination by bacteria. Then, the clear brandy was distilled in a 160 L cooper distiller. The clear brandy produced with and without alpha acids, was analyzed in the Laboratory of Alcohol and Beverages as well as in the Laboratory of Spectroscopy of the Cuban Research Institute of the Sugarcane Derivatives (ICIDCA in Spanish in Havana and showed similarities in their composition and sensorial chemical analysis.

  14. Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-02-12

    Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences

  15. Alcoholic beverage intake and risk of lung cancer: the California Men's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Slezak, Jeff M; Caan, Bette J; Quinn, Virginia P

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of alcoholic beverage consumption on the risk of lung cancer using the California Men's Health Study. The California Men's Health Study is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men ages 45 to 69 years who are members of the Kaiser Permanente California health plans. Demographics and detailed lifestyle characteristics were collected from surveys mailed between 2000 and 2003. Incident lung cancer cases were identified by health plan cancer registries through December 2006 (n=210). Multivariable Cox's regression was used to examine the effects of beer, red wine, white wine (including rosé), and liquor consumption on risk of lung cancer adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, body mass index, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema, and smoking history. There was a significant linear decrease in risk of lung cancer associated with consumption of red wine among ever-smokers: hazard ratio (HR), 0.98; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.96-1.00 for increase of 1 drink per month. This relationship was slightly stronger among heavy smokers (>or=20 pack-years): HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00. When alcoholic beverage consumption was examined by frequency of intake, consumption of >or=1 drink of red wine per day was associated with an approximately 60% reduced lung cancer risk in ever-smokers: HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.14-1.08. No clear associations with lung cancer were seen for intake of white wine, beer, or liquor. Moderate red wine consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjusting for confounders. Our results should not be extrapolated to heavy alcohol consumption.

  16. Acute impact of caffeinated alcoholic beverages on cognition: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Laurence; Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Paille, François

    2017-06-02

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that are supposed to counteract sleepiness, increase energy, maintain alertness and reduce symptoms of hangover. Cognitive enhancing seems to be related to many compounds such as caffeine, taurine and vitamins. Currently, users mostly combine psychostimulant effects of energy drinks to counteract sedative effects of alcohol. However, recent literature suggests that this combination conducts to feel less intoxicated but still impaired. The goal of the present article is to review cognitive impact and subjective awareness in case of caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) intoxication. PubMed (January 1960 to March 2016) database was searched using the following terms: cognitive impairments, alcohol, energy drinks; cognition, alcohol, caffeine. 99 papers were found but only 12 randomized controlled studies which explored cognitive disorders and subjective awareness associated with acute CAB or AED (alcohol associated with energy drinks) intoxication were included. The present literature review confirmed that energy drinks might counteract some cognitive deficits and adverse effects of alcohol i.e. dry mouth, fatigue, headache, weakness, and perception of intoxication due to alcohol alone. This effect depends on alcohol limb but disappears when the complexity of the task increases, when driving for example. Moreover, studies clearly showed that CAB/AEDs increase impulsivity which conducts to an overconsumption of alcohol and enhanced motivation to drink compared to alcohol alone, potentiating the risk of developing addictive behaviors. This is a huge problem in adolescents with high impulsivity and immature decision making processes. Although energy drinks counteract some cognitive deficits due to alcohol alone, their association promotes the risk of developing alcohol addiction. As a consequence, it is necessary to better understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these interactions in order to better prevent the development

  17. An Evaluation of the Healthiness of the Indian Packaged Food and Beverage Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra; Dunford, Elizabeth; Crossley, Rachel; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Rayner, Mike; Neal, Bruce

    2017-10-09

    Availability of less-healthy packaged food and beverage products has been implicated as an important driver of obesity and diet-related disease. An increasing number of packaged foods and beverages are sold in India. Our objective was to evaluate the healthiness of packaged foods sold by India's largest manufacturers. Healthiness was assessed using the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system and the World Health Organization's European Regional Office (WHO Euro) Nutrient Profile Model. Sales-value-weighted mean healthiness and the proportions of "healthy" products (using a validated HSR cut-off of ≥3.5, and products meeting WHO Euro criteria as healthy enough to market to children) were calculated overall, by company and by food category. Nutrient information for 943 products sold by the 11 largest Indian manufacturers was obtained from nutrient labels, company websites or directly from the manufacturer. Healthiness was low overall (mean HSR 1.8 out of 5.0 stars) with a low proportion defined as "healthy" by both HSR (17%) and also by WHO Euro criteria (8%). There were marked differences in the healthiness of similar products within food categories. Substantial variation between companies (minimum sales-value-weighted mean HSR 0.5 for Company G, versus maximum HSR 3.0 for Company F) was a result of differences in the types of products sold and the nutritional composition of individual products. There are clear opportunities for India's largest food companies to improve both the nutritional quality of individual products and to improve their product mix to include a greater proportion of healthy products.

  18. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  19. Exposure to bisphenol A from drinking canned beverages increases blood pressure: randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in plastic bottles and inner coating of beverage cans, and its exposure is almost ubiquitous. BPA has been associated with hypertension and decreased heart rate variability in the previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased BPA exposure from consumption of canned beverage actually affects blood pressure and heart rate variability. We conducted a randomized crossover trial with noninstitutionalized adults, who were aged ≥60 years and recruited from a local community center. A total of 60 participants visited the study site 3 times, and they were provided the same beverage in 2 glass bottles, 2 cans, or 1 can and 1 glass bottle at a time. The sequence of the beverage was randomized. We then measured urinary BPA concentration, blood pressure, and heart rate variability 2 hours after the consumption of each beverage. The paired t test and mixed model were used to compare the differences. The urinary BPA concentration increased after consuming canned beverages by >1600% compared with that after consuming glass bottled beverages. Systolic blood pressure adjusted for daily variance increased by ≈4.5 mm Hg after consuming 2 canned beverages compared with that after consuming 2 glass bottled beverages, and the difference was statistically significant. The parameters of the heart rate variability did not show statistically significant differences.The present study demonstrated that consuming canned beverage and consequent increase of BPA exposure increase blood pressure acutely. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The Enzymatic Approach to Making of Alcoholic Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbar Mirzarakhmetova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast invertase was applied for treatment of alcoholic beverages with the aim of transformation of higher alcohols into alkylfructosides. Gas-liquid chromatography of treated water-alcoholic medium containing 3.0 mg/l isoamyl alcohol and 4% saccharose by immobilized invertase had shown the convertion of 40% isoamyl alcohol, which amounts to 1.8 mg/l absolute alcohol. Other parameters remained at the previous level. The high level of enzyme activity was observed when the initial concentration of sucrose in the reaction mixture attained 4.0-12.5%. Tasting of treated samples indicated the improvement of quality and degustational properties of beverages, they had softer and more harmonious taste and aroma in comparison with control sample and finished Vodka, which completed the cycle of technological processing.

  1. Employment Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Persky, Joseph J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes on net employment. Methods. We used a macroeconomic simulation model to assess the employment impact of a 20% SSB tax accounting for changes in SSB demand, substitution to non-SSBs, income effects, and government expenditures of tax revenues for Illinois and California in 2012. Results. We found increased employment of 4406 jobs in Illinois and 6654 jobs in California, representing a respective 0.06% and 0.03% change in employment. Declines in employment within the beverage industry occurred but were offset by new employment in nonbeverage industry and government sectors. Conclusions. SSB taxes do not have a negative impact on state-level employment, and industry claims of regional job losses are overstated and may mislead lawmakers and constituents. PMID:24524492

  2. Food and beverage policies and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-01

    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: (1) the policy serves important social goal(s); (2) the policy is likely to be effective at achieving those goal(s); (3) less burdensome options are not likely to be effective at achieving the goals; (4) the policy is fair.

  3. Effect of light on the quality of beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perscheid, M.; Zuern, F.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been known that the quality of beverages is influenced by light. Such light-induced changes are dependent on the kind of container, since its light permeability determines the energy and intensity of radiation which causes the change. In previous investigations we studied the influence of light on wine. We found a positive correlation between the transmission spectrum of the bottle glass and the degree of change in the wine. A theoretic discussion is given on the influence of light on fruit juices, furthermore, experiments are suggested, which in our opinion are suitable to investigate the influence of light on beverages. We propose the use of a special xenon gas-discharge lamp as radiation source to obtain fast and reproducible results. (orig.) [de

  4. Production and storage stability of non alcoholic banana beverage powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugula, J K; Lyimo, M H; Kessy, F L

    1994-02-01

    Powder for an instant, non-alcoholic beverage formulation was manufactured by sundrying and ovendrying of a popular dessert ('silk') banana variety. The reconstituted beverage was organoleptically acceptable. The effect of traditional sundrying on mats and ovendrying methods on product quality was investigated. Sundrying resulted in losses of Vitamin A, C and total sugar contents by 74, 91 and 63%, while ovendrying losses were 73, 90 and 62%, respectively. Nutrient losses during storage for three months in transparent polythene bags reached 93, 93 and 70% in sundried samples and 84, 99 and 55% in ovendried samples, respectively. The moisture content of sundried and ovendried samples increased by 12 and 17%, respectively, during storage. The increase in microbial load in this period was higher in sundried samples.

  5. Kombucha - functional beverage: Composition, characteristics and process of biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Siniša L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a refreshing beverage obtained by the proces of biotransformation of sugared tea with a tea fungus. Kombucha is also frequently called "tea fungus" in the literature, although there is actually no fungus involved in the fermentation. The tea fungus is a symbiotic association of native yeasts and Acetobacteriaceae species fermenting sugared (5-10% black tea (0.2-0.5% into a kombucha beverage. After about 7-10 days incubation at room temperature, kombucha is ready. Growth patterns of tea fungus microorganisms during the biotransformation process of kombucha are not well documented. Tea fungus produces many substances, which with the supply of tea nutrients, give the drink its unusual flavour and healthy properties.

  6. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....

  7. Levels of 210Po in some beverages and in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, C.H.; Huquet, M.R.; Palacios, M.A.; Oliveira, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present work is the estimation of the 210 Po content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, tea leaves, their infusions and ground coffee were analyzed, as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to the annual consumption of the beverages described were found to be from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for 210 Po in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq*kg -1 to 80 Bq*kg -1 . Lung doses due to the use of tobacco vary from 75 μSv*y -1 to 600 μSv*y -1 . (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  8. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  9. Grocery store beverage choices by participants in federal food assistance and nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Henderson, Kathryn E; Tripp, Amanda S

    2012-10-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages are a target for reduction in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about sugar-sweetened beverages purchased with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This paper describes purchases of non-alcoholic refreshment beverages among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and SNAP. Grocery store scanner data from a regional supermarket chain were used to assess refreshment beverage purchases of 39,172 households in January-June 2011. The sample consisted of families with a history of WIC participation in 2009-2011; about half also participated in SNAP. Beverage spending and volume purchased were compared for WIC sampled households either using SNAP benefits (SNAP) or not (WIC-only). Analyses were completed in 2012. Refreshment beverages were a significant contributor to expenditure on groceries by SNAP and WIC households. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for 58% of refreshment beverage purchases made by SNAP households and 48% of purchases by WIC-only households. Soft drinks were purchased most by all households. Fruit-based beverages were mainly 100% juice for WIC-only households and sugary fruit drinks for SNAP households. SNAP benefits paid for 72% of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases made by SNAP households. Nationwide, SNAP was estimated to pay at least $1.7 to $2.1 billion annually for sugar-sweetened beverages purchased in grocery stores. Considerable amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages are purchased by households participating in WIC and SNAP. The SNAP program pays for most of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases among SNAP households. The upcoming SNAP reauthorization could be a good time to reconsider the program priorities to align public funds with public health. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah; H.O. Sherif; S.I. Hawash

    2017-01-01

    Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been con...

  11. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  12. Factors that influence the reinforcing value of foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    Behavioral economic principles state that as the cost of a product increases, purchasing or consumption of that product will decrease. To understand the impact of behavioral economics on ingestive behavior, our laboratory utilizes an operant behavior paradigm to measure how much work an individual will engage in to get access to foods and beverages. This task provides an objective measure of the reinforcing value. We have shown that consumption of the same high fat snack food every day for two weeks reduces its reinforcing value in lean individuals, but increases its reinforcing value in a subset of obese individuals. This increase in the reinforcing value of food predicts future weight gain. Similarly, we have shown that repeated intake of caffeinated soda increases its reinforcing value in boys, but not in girls. This increase in reinforcing value is not related to usual caffeine consumption, but may be associated with positive, subjective effects of caffeine that are more likely to be reported by boys than by girls. Because food and beverage reinforcement relates to real-world consumption, it is important to determine factors that increase or decrease the reinforcing value and determine the consequences of these responses. We are especially interested in determining ways to shift the behavioral economic curve in order to develop novel strategies to decrease the reinforcing value of less healthy snack foods and beverages, such as soda, potato chips and candy and to increase the reinforcing value of healthier foods and beverages, such as water, fruits, and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility Management System: A Beverage Industry Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Rita; David, Fátima; Abreu, Rute

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to analyse policies inherent to the Corporate Social Responsibility Management System (CSRMS) of a company that produce diet and light beverage, iced teas, juice drinks and bottled waters. This management system is based on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as “concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis” (EC, Green paper – Promotin...

  15. Pilot Overmyer looks over food selections and experiments with beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Overmyer, using beverage container and drinking straw secured in meal tray assembly (ASSY), experiments with microgravity chararcteristics of liquid on middeck in front of forward lockers. Overmyer also looks over packages of food attached to middeck lockers in meal tray assemblies. Carry-on food warmer appears overhead and other meal tray assemblies, personal hygiene mirror assy, personal hygiene kit, and portrait of G.W.S. Abbey, JSC's Director of Flight Operations, appear on lockers.

  16. Position of Serbia on the international market of alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Đorović, Milutin; Stevanović, Simo; Lazić, Verica

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both the world and domestic markets of alcoholic beverages. Namely, for the last 21 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis were used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading exporters and...

  17. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  18. Caffeine and theobromine levels in selected Nigerian beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteng, M U; Eyong, E U; Eka, O U; Umoh, I B; Ebong, P E; Ettarh, R R

    1999-01-01

    Caffeine and theobromine contents (mg/g) were determined in samples of selected Nigerian beverage products. The beverages were cocoa (Milo, Bournvita, Rosevita and Enervita), coffee (Nescafe, Bongo, and Maxwell House decaffeinated) and tea (Lipton). The theobromine contents of samples of Milo, Bournvita, Rosevita, Enervita, Nescafe, Bongo, Maxwell House decaffeinated coffee and Lipton were 62.10+/-5.21, 64.80+/-6.72, 82.80+/-4.43, 80.37+/-6.80, 27.00+/-4.31, 14.67+/-2.90, 23.46+/-3.13 and 12.60+/-1.52, respectively. The corresponding caffeine contents of these samples were 2.78+/-0.43 (Milo), 3.17+/-0.36 (Bournvita), 0.92+/-0.51 (Rosevita), 1.05+/-0.68 (Enervita), 93.66+/-8.91 (Nescafe), 6.47+/-2.42 (Bongo), 37.22+/-5.34 (Lipton), and 0.21+/-0.11 (Maxwell House decaffeinated coffee). Semi-processed cocoa beverages (Rosevita and Enervita) had significantly (p Nescafe contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of caffeine compared to Maxwell House (decaffeinated coffee) and Bongo. Levels of caffeine in Lipton tea were moderate.

  19. Antioxidant flavonols from fruits, vegetables and beverages: measurements and bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAN CROZIER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonols are polyphenolic secondary plant metabolites that are present in varying levels in commonly consumed fruits, vegetables and beverages. Flavonols have long held an interest for nutritionists, which has increased following a Dutch study in the early 1990’s showing that dietary intake of flavonols was inversely correlated with the incidence of coronary heart disease. The main factors that have hindered workers in the field of flavonol research are (i the accurate measurement of these compounds in foods and biological samples, and (ii a dearth of information on their absorption and metabolism. This review aims to highlight the work of the authors in attempting to clarify the situation. The sensitive and selective HPLC procedure to identify and quantify common flavonols and their sugar conjugates is described. In addition, the results of an on-going screening program into the flavonol content of common produce and beverages are presented. The bioavailability of dietary flavonols is discussed with reference to an intervention study with onions, as well as pilot studies with tea, red wine and cherry tomatoes. It is concluded that flavonols are absorbable and accumulate in plasma and that consuming high flavonol-containing varieties of fruits and vegetables and particular types of beverages could increase their circulatory levels

  20. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewater from Beverage Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, H.; Mahmood, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimization. The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. Beverage industry requires huge amount of fresh water, generating considerable amount of polluted waste water during different processes including drink production, washing bottles, plant washdown as well as washing the floors and the general work area. Most of the industries do not reuse the waste water and consuming bulk of fresh water. The beverage industry is one of the major industries in Pakistan and the present study was conducted on the beverage/soft drink industry at Hattar Industrial Estate, Hattar, Pakistan to assess the feasibility of reuse of wastewater form bottle washing plant by conducting treatment test, like dilution of the waste water in different ratios, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. (author)

  1. A Zero-Gravity Cup for Drinking Beverages in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Weislogel, Mark; Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    2011-01-01

    To date, the method for astronauts to drink liquids in microgravity or weightless environments is to suck the liquid from a bag or pouch through a straw. A new beverage cup works in microgravity and allows astronauts to drink liquids from a cup in a manner consistent with that on Earth. The cup is capable of holding beverages with an angled channel running along the wall from the bottom to the lip. In microgravity, a beverage is placed into the cup using the galley dispenser. The angled channel acts as an open passage that contains only two sides where capillary forces move the liquid along the channel until it reaches the top lip where the forces reach an equilibrium and the flow stops. When one sips the liquid at the lip of the channel, the capillary force equilibrium is upset and more liquid flows to the lip from the reservoir at the bottom to re-establish the equilibrium. This sipping process can continue until the total liquid contents of the cup is consumed, leaving only a few residual drops about the same quantity as in a ceramic cup when it is drunk dry on Earth.

  2. Antioxidant properties of commercial alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Hóvári, Judit

    2003-04-01

    Recent interest in food phenolics has increased greatly, because of their antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities. Popular beverages in the world include tea, coffee, cocoa, beer, wine and fruit/vegetable juices. All of these beverages contain phenolic compounds. In present study total polyphenol content and in vitro antioxidant properties were investigated in 16 red wines, 5 white wines, 5 lager beers, 3 dark beers, 17 fruit juices and 5 vegetable juices. High polyphenol content was measured in red wines (1720 +/- 546 mg x L(-1)) and in some fruit juices such as elderberry and prunes (5,680 and 1,807 mg x L(-1), respectively). The concentration of polyphenols was between 159 and 5,680 mg x L(-1) in fruit juices and between 255 and 696 mg x L(-1) in vegetable ones, while low level of phenolics was observed in dark and lager beers and white wines (473, 376 and 392 mg x L(-1), respectively). All samples exhibited significant antioxidant properties such as hydrogen-donating ability, reducing power, chelating ability and total antioxidant status (TAS) value. These antioxidant properties strongly correlated with the total polyphenol content of the beverages.

  3. Position of Serbia on the international market of alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both the world and domestic markets of alcoholic beverages. Namely, for the last 21 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis were used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading exporters and importers of wine, beer and distilled alcoholic beverages were defined, with special emphasis on the importance of Serbia, i.e. its position in the global market for all these products. Pursuant to the above, and importance of analyzed product groups for the domestic market, i.e. agroindustry and the economy as a whole, this paper specially studies balances, structure, dynamics and regional orientation of foreign trade exchange in wine, beer, and distilled alcoholic beverages. In addition, the paper points to the needs, capabilities, measures and directions of further development of domestic production and export of products analyzed.

  4. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Savarese, Maria Flavia; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aragri, Adriana; Cirillo, Carla; Vozzella, Letizia; Zito, Francesco Paolo; Verlezza, Viviana; Efficie, Eleonora; Buyckx, Maxime

    2011-10-14

    There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p beverages. The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  5. Online marketing of food and beverages to children: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Mendelson, Rena; Farrell, Amber; Wong, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to assess websites sponsored by food and beverage manufacturers that have pledged to market branded food and beverage products to children responsibly, by ratifying the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI). A content analysis was conducted of 24 purposively sampled websites sponsored by 10 companies that promote food and beverage products to children. All are participant members of the CFBAI. Of the 24 websites analyzed, the majority targeted children below age 12 (83%). An array of innovative online marketing techniques, most notably free website membership (63%), leader boards (50%), adver-games (79%), and branded downloadable content (76%), were used to encourage children's engagement with branded food and beverage promotions. Food and beverage manufacturers are engaging children with dynamic online marketing techniques that challenge regulatory codes governing broadcast media. These techniques may contradict the spirit of the CFBAI. Innovative regulatory guidelines are needed to address modern marketing media.

  6. Texture Adaption in Dysphagia: Acceptability Differences Between Thickened and Naturally Thick Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschke, Marco; Seehafer, Peggy

    The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the acceptability between thickened and naturally viscous beverages. This was an exploratory, cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty-eight healthy volunteers rated overall liking/disliking of a selection of each of three thickened drinks and three beverages of natural viscosity pre- and postconsumption. Mean ratings were subjected to statistical analysis done with t tests. Although all naturally thick beverages evoked good expectations, there were significant differences in expected acceptance of thickened fluids concerning the kind of beverage. Postconsumption of naturally thick beverages were rated significantly better than thickened. The findings suggest an alternative offer of naturally thick drinks and waiver of thickening water when viscosity adaption is needed. The sufficient and safe oral fluid intake in dysphagia requires compliance to dietetic recommendations. Naturally thick beverages can contribute to increase the appeal of texture-modified diet.

  7. Does the sale of sweetened beverages at school affect children's weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Zavodny, Madeline

    2011-11-01

    In response to the increase in children's weight in recent decades, many states, school districts, and schools in the United States have limited or eliminated the sale of sweetened beverages at school. These policies are promoted for their potential to reduce childhood overweight and obesity, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated. Using a large nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K), this study explores the relationship between children's access to sweetened beverages at school in 5th and 8th grade, their purchases and total consumption of these beverages, and their weight. We find almost no evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to heavier weight or greater risk of overweight or obesity among children. We also find limited evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to higher total consumption of these beverages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-04-01

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  9. Perceived service delivery and productivity in the food and beverage sector in Potchefstroom / Adam Herman Viljoen

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, Adam Herman

    2012-01-01

    The importance of management in the food and beverage sector as well as managing food and beverage service employees are crucial aspects that influence quality service delivery. The food and beverage sector is a large service orientated segment of the greater tourism industry, and effective management of employees is therefore necessary since employees are regarded as the primary resource through which establishments deliver services. One might further argue that an employee is...

  10. Analisis Pelaksanaan Penempatan Karyawan Departemen Food & Beverage di Hotel Mutiara Merdeka Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Herianto, Meyzi; ", Artman

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted at the Department of Food & Beverage at Hotel Mutiara Merdeka Pekanbaru. This is because this company is one of the service companies are quite well known and has been standing long enough dipekanbaru.The purpose of this study is to investigate or analyze the placement of employees in the Department of Food & Beverage at Hotel Mutiara Merdeka Pekanbaru. The research methods include the location of the research conducted at the Department of Food & Beverage at Hotel...

  11. Beverages-Food Industry Cluster Development Based on Value Chain in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lasmono Tri Sunaryanto; Gatot Sasongko; Ira Yumastuti

    2014-01-01

    This study wants to develop the cluster-based food and beverage industry value chain that corresponds to the potential in the regions in Java Economic Corridor. Targeted research: a description of SME development strategies that have been implemented, composed, and can be applied to an SME cluster development strategy of food and beverage, as well as a proven implementation strategy of SME cluster development of food and beverage. To achieve these objectives, implemented descriptive methods, ...

  12. Sugary beverage taxation in South Africa: Household expenditure, demand system elasticities, and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Nicholas; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    South Africa faces a severe and growing obesity epidemic. Obesity and its co-morbidities raise public and private expenditures on healthcare. Sugary beverages are heavily consumed in South Africa and are linked to the onset of overweight and obesity. Excise taxation of sugary beverages has been proposed and adopted in other settings as a means to reduce harms from their consumption. A tax on the sugar content of non-alcoholic beverages has been proposed for implementation in South Africa, how...

  13. Food and Beverage Marketing in Schools: A Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Velazquez, Cayley E.; Black, Jennifer L.; Potvin Kent, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing interest from government agencies, non-governmental organizations and school boards in restricting or regulating unhealthy food and beverage marketing to children, limited research has examined the emerging knowledge base regarding school-based food and beverage marketing in high-income countries. This review examined current approaches for measuring school food and beverage marketing practices, and evidence regarding the extent of exposure and hypothesized associations with c...

  14. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management - The Drinks Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Murphy, J. (2013) The Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management - The Drinks Handbook, Goodfellows Publishing Ltd, Oxford, England. The Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management - The Drinks Handbook is an authoritative resource and comprehensive training guide, essential for all students, bartenders, sommeliers, mixologists, waiters and food and beverage practitioners the world over. Written and configured in an accessible and user-friendly style, packed with ...

  15. Determination of trace U in beverages and mineral water using SSNTD (solid state nuclear track detector)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Junying; Zheng Liping; Cheng Yulin; Hao Xiuhong

    1991-01-01

    Trace U in beverages and mineral water has been estimated using the fission track analysis technique. The U contents in beverages vary from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 1.65 ± 0.07 ppb, with an average of 0.93 ± 0.05 ppb. The mean U content in mineral water is 9.20 ± 0.16 ppb, which is 10 times higher than that in other beverages

  16. Automated clearing system and the banking sector performance: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated clearing system and the banking sector performance: the Nigerian experience. ... Abstract. This study investigated the impact of automated clearing system on the Nigerian banking system. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  17. Dragnet: A Case Study of the CLEAR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musa, Samuel; Keegan, Matt; Kyser, Giles

    2007-01-01

    ...). The quickest way to describe CLEAR is to mention a quote from Ron Huberman, assistant deputy superintendent, Office of Information and Strategic Services at CPD "CLEAR automates everything we do in...

  18. Can children discriminate sugar-sweetened from non-nutritively sweetened beverages and how do they like them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne C de Ruyter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, and which of the two types of beverage they liked best. METHODS: 89 children aged 5 to 12 tasted seven non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, for a total of 14 beverages. We used Triangle tests to check their ability to discriminate between the matched versions, and a 5-point scale to measure how much the children liked each individual beverage. RESULTS: Overall, 24% of children appeared to be genuinely capable of distinguishing between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages. The mean ± SD score for how much the children liked the non-nutritively sweetened beverages was 3.39 ± 0.7 and that for the sugar-sweetened beverages 3.39 ± 0.6 (P = 0.9 on a scale running from 1 (disgusting to 5 (delicious. The children preferred some beverages to others irrespective of whether they were sugar-sweetened or non-nutritively sweetened (P = 0.000. Children who correctly identified which of three drinks contained the same sweetener and which one was different also showed no preference for either type. CONCLUSION: We found that about one in four children were able to discriminate between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages but children liked both varieties equally. Non-nutritively sweetened beverages may therefore be an acceptable alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages although water remains the healthiest beverage for children.

  19. Calories from beverages purchased at 2 major coffee chains in New York City, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-10-01

    Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and 73 Dunkin' Donuts stores during the spring of 2007. For each purchase, we obtained the calorie content from the company's Web site; these values were adjusted to account for self-reported customization of the drink. We included 1,127 beverage purchases at Starbucks and 1,830 at Dunkin' Donuts in our analyses. Brewed coffee or tea averaged 63 kcal, and blended coffee beverages averaged 239 kcal. Approximately two-thirds of purchases at Starbucks and one-fourth of purchases at Dunkin' Donuts were blended coffee beverages. Calories in blended coffee beverages are high; on average, customers bought 12% of a 2,000-kcal diet. Policy changes to provide for calorie posting at the point of purchase could increase customer awareness of the calories in these beverages; modifying standard formulations of blended coffee beverages, such as using low-fat milk or smaller serving sizes, would also reduce calorie content.

  20. Processed dairy beverages pH evaluation: consequences of temperature variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiana Vargas; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the pH from processed dairy beverages as well as eventual consequences deriving from different ingestion temperatures. 50 adults who accompanied children attended to at the Dentistry School were randomly selected and they answered a questionnaire on beverages. The beverages were divided into 4 groups: yogurt (GI) fermented milk (GII), chocolate-based products (GIII) and fermented dairy beverages (GIV). They were asked which type, flavor and temperature. The most popular beverages were selected, and these made up the sample. A pH meter Quimis 400A device was used to verify pH. The average pH from each beverage was calculated and submitted to statistical analysis (Variance and Tukey test with a 5% significance level). for groups I, II and III beverages, type x temperature interaction was significant, showing the pH averages were influenced by temperature variation. At iced temperatures, they presented lower pH values, which were considered statistically significant when compared to the values found for the same beverages at room temperature. All dairy beverages, with the exception of the chocolate-based type presented pH below critical level for enamel and present corrosive potential; as to ingestion temperature, iced temperature influenced pH reducing its values, in vitro.

  1. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2012-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on ]orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials were changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle was redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  2. Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Purchased for Children at Fast-Food Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Breck, Andrew; Elbel, Brian

    2016-11-01

    To determine consumer and fast-food purchase characteristics associated with the purchase of a sugar-sweetened beverage, as well as calories and grams of sugar, for children at a fast-food restaurant. We completed cross-sectional analyses of fast-food restaurant receipts and point-of-purchase surveys (n = 483) collected during 2013 and 2014 in New York City and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey. Caregivers purchased beverages for half of all children in our sample. Approximately 60% of these beverages were sugar-sweetened beverages. Fast-food meals with sugar-sweetened beverages had, on average, 179 more calories than meals with non-sugar-sweetened beverages. Being an adolescent or male, having a caregiver with a high school degree or less, having a caregiver who saw the posted calorie information, ordering a combination meal, and eating the meal in the restaurant were associated with ordering a sugar-sweetened beverage. Purchases that included a combination meal or were consumed in the restaurant included more beverage grams of sugar and calories. Characteristics of fast-food purchases appear to have the largest and most important association to beverage calories for children at fast-food restaurants. Targeting fast-food restaurants, particularly combination meals, may improve childhood obesity rates.

  3. Reach Out and Eat: Food and Beverages Depicted in Books for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jessica L; Linchey, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A; Patel, Anisha I

    2015-11-01

    To examine food and beverage depictions in books for preschoolers. Books for preschoolers from Reach Out and Read (ROR; n = 42), public library (n = 27), and Publisher's Weekly booklists (n = 31) were examined for nutritive and empty-calorie food and beverage depictions. It was found that 66% of books depicted at least 1 food or beverage. More books depicted nutritive items than empty-calorie items (87.5% vs 54.7%, P foods. When selecting books for ROR, it may be important to consider food and beverage depictions and messages. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R

    2012-12-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deal or no deal? The prevalence and nutritional quality of price promotions among U.S. food and beverage purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Xue, Ya; Harding, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    This study examines trends in the prevalence of price promotions among packaged food and beverage purchases, differences in prevalence by household race/ethnicity or income, and the association between price promotions and the nutritional profile of purchases. This cross-sectional study utilizes a dataset of 90 million purchases from 38,744 (2008) to 45,042 (2012) US households in 2008-2012. Chi-square tests were used to examine whether the proportion of purchases with price promotions changed over time or differed by household race/ethnicity or income. T-tests were used to compare purchased products' nutritional profiles. Prevalence of price promotions among packaged food and beverage purchases increased by 8% and 6%, respectively, from 2008 to 2012, with both reaching 34% by 2012. Higher-income households had greater proportions of purchases with price promotions than lower-income households. Asian households had the highest proportion of purchases with any price promotion, followed by non-Hispanic whites. While total price-promoted packaged food purchases had higher mean energy, total sugar, and saturated fat densities than purchases with no price promotions, absolute differences were small. Prevalence of price promotions among US household purchases increased from 2008 to 2012 and was greater for higher-income households. No clear associations emerged between presence of price promotions and nutritional quality of purchases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Comparison of seven optical clearing methods for mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Zhu, Jingtan; Yu, Tingting; Zhu, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a variety of tissue optical clearing techniques have been developed to reduce light scattering for imaging deeper and three-dimensional reconstruction of tissue structures. Combined with optical imaging techniques and diverse labeling methods, these clearing methods have significantly promoted the development of neuroscience. However, most of the protocols were proposed aiming for specific tissue type. Though there are some comparison results, the clearing methods covered are limited and the evaluation indices are lack of uniformity, which made it difficult to select a best-fit protocol for clearing in practical applications. Hence, it is necessary to systematically assess and compare these clearing methods. In this work, we evaluated the performance of seven typical clearing methods, including 3DISCO, uDISCO, SeeDB, ScaleS, ClearT2, CUBIC and PACT, on mouse brain samples. First, we compared the clearing capability on both brain slices and whole-brains by observing brain transparency. Further, we evaluated the fluorescence preservation and the increase of imaging depth. The results showed that 3DISCO, uDISCO and PACT posed excellent clearing capability on mouse brains, ScaleS and SeeDB rendered moderate transparency, while ClearT2 was the worst. Among those methods, ScaleS was the best on fluorescence preservation, and PACT achieved the highest increase of imaging depth. This study is expected to provide important reference for users in choosing most suitable brain optical clearing method.

  7. 17 CFR 39.7 - Fraud in connection with the clearing of transactions on a derivatives clearing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with the clearing of transactions on a derivatives clearing organization. 39.7 Section 39.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.7 Fraud in connection...

  8. Beyond Television: Children's Engagement with Online Food and Beverage Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brady

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children's dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context. Objective This study explores children's engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ryerson University Summer Day Camp to participate in a single one-on-one semi-structured interview. Results A total of 83 children (age 7 to 13 years; mean 9.99 years; 56.3% boys, 43.8% girls participated in the study. Fewer children thought that there is food, drink, or candy advertising on the internet (67.7% than on television (98.8% (p > 0.001. Awareness of online marketing increased with age: 7 to 8 year olds (23.67%; 4, 9 to 10 years (63.89%; 23, 11 to 12 years (86.96%; 20; 13 years (100%; 9. Over one-third of children had visited a website after seeing the address advertised on television (n = 32; 38.55% or on product package (n = 29; 34.94%. Conclusions Branded internet sites, commonly featured on television and product packaging, offer new opportunities for marketers to reach children with messages promoting commercial food and beverage items. These websites are subsequently spread via word-of-mouth through children's peer networks. The independent impact of web-based food, drink and candy marketing, as well as the synergistic effect of multi-channel product promotion, on children's dietary intake merits further investigation.

  9. Application of infrared portable sensor technology for predicting perceived astringency of acidic whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow-Ying; Mutilangi, William; Plans, Marcal; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Formulating whey protein beverages at acidic pH provides better clarity but the beverages typically develop an unpleasant and astringent flavor. Our aim was to evaluate the application of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in predicting astringency of acidic whey protein beverages. Whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) from different manufacturers were used to formulate beverages at pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.9. Trained panelists using the spectrum method of descriptive analysis tested the beverages providing astringency scores. A portable Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflectance spectrometer was used for spectra collection that was analyzed by multivariate regression analysis (partial least squares regression) to build calibration models with the sensory astringency scores. Beverage astringency scores fluctuated from 1.9 to 5.2 units and were explained by pH, protein type (WPC, WPI, or WPH), source (manufacturer), and their interactions, revealing the complexity of astringency development in acidic whey protein beverages. The WPC and WPH beverages showed an increase in astringency as the pH of the solution was lowered, but no relationship was found for WPI beverages. The partial least squares regression analysis showed strong relationship between the reference astringency scores and the infrared predicted values (correlation coefficient >0.94), giving standard error of cross-validation ranging from 0.08 to 0.12 units, depending on whey protein type. Major absorption bands explaining astringency scores were associated with carboxylic groups and amide regions of proteins. The portable infrared technique allowed rapid prediction of astringency of acidic whey protein beverages, providing the industry a novel tool for monitoring sensory characteristics of whey-containing beverages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between socioeconomic status and beverage consumption in children: The Cuenca Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla Tobarra, Marta; García Hermoso, Antonio; Lahoz García, Noelia; Notario Pacheco, Blanca; Lucas de la Cruz, Lidia; Pozuelo Carrascosa, Diana P; García Meseguer, María José; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente A

    2018-01-19

    beverage consumption constitutes a source of children's daily energy intake. Some authors have suggested that consumption of caloric beverages is higher in children with a low socioeconomic position because families limit their spending on healthy food in order to save money. the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and Spanish children's beverage consumption. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sub-sample of 182 children (74 girls) aged 9-11 from the province of Cuenca (Spain). Beverage consumption was assessed using the YANA-C assessment tool, validated for HELENA study. Data for parental socioeconomic status were gathered by using self-reported occupation and education questions answered by parents and classified according to the scale proposed by the Spanish Society of Epidemiology. beverage intake was higher in children belonging to a middle-status family than in those of upper socioeconomic status (p = 0.037). The energy from beverages was similar in most water intake categories, except for water from beverages (p = 0.046). Regarding other beverages categories, middle-status children had higher consumption levels. In contrast, lower status children drank more fruit juices and skimmed milk. All of these do not show statistically significant differences. our study did not find significant associations between beverages consumption and socioeconomic status in children. In fact, intake for most beverage categories was higher in middle-status children than in both other socioeconomic groups. Future research is needed in order to identify this complex relation between socioeconomic inequality and beverage intake behavior.

  11. Trends in Energy Intake from Alcoholic Beverages among US Adults by Sociodemographic Characteristics, 1989-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-07-01

    Long-term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. This study examined shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. This study was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data from the 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Adults aged ≥19 years (N=39,298) were targeted. A subset of alcoholic beverage consumers (n=7,081) were studied. Survey weighted mean per capita per day intakes (among all participants, both consumers of alcoholic beverages and nonconsumers) and contributions of beer, wine, and liquor/mixed drinks to total alcoholic beverage energy were determined. Multivariable regression models were used to examine trends in the proportion of alcoholic beverage consumers and the per consumer intakes (among consumers of alcoholic beverages only). Per capita intakes from alcoholic beverages increased from 49 kcal/capita/day in 1989-1991 to 109 kcal/capita/day in 2003-2006 (Pbeverages on any given day increased significantly from 1989-1991 to 2009-2012 (P for overall increasing trend beverage calories increased between 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 (Pbeverage intake for less educated consumers across time. These results indicate there has been an increase in the proportion of US adults who drink on any given day and an increase in calories consumed from alcoholic beverages when drinking occurs. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Food and beverage advertising on children's TV channels in Argentina: Frequency, duration, and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovirosa, Alicia; Zapata, María E; Gómez, Paula; Gotthelf, Susana; Ferrante, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been identified as one of the determinants of unhealthy food and beverage consumption in the child population. To determine the frequency and duration of food and beverage advertising in children's programming and the nutritional quality of advertised food and beverages. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Children's cable and broadcast channel programming was recorded in two periods: over the week and on the weekend. The type, quantity, and duration of commercials were recorded. The nutritional quality of advertised food and beverages was analyzed. A total of 402.3 hours of children's programming were recorded. In total, 3711 commercials were identified. Among these, 20.9% corresponded to food and beverages, i.e., an average of 1.9 ± 1.0 commercials per hour or equivalent to 0.68 ± 0.36 min/hour. Dairy products, candies, and fast-food meals were the most advertised food products. Only a third of advertised food and beverages (35.8%) were categorized as healthy as per the nutrient profiling system. Based on the traffic light labeling system, 50% of advertised food and beverages were high in sugar, 25% were high in saturated fat, and approximately 15% were high in sodium or fat. Food and beverage advertising accounted for 20% of television advertising time. The most advertised products were dairy products, followed by candies and sweet snacks, fast-food meals, and beverages. Two-thirds of advertised food and beverages were considered unhealthy. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  13. Effect of alcoholic beverages on progeny and reproduction of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiro, Fernanda Dias; Bispo, Ana Clara Cerato; Guarido, Karla Lorena; Marianno, Priscila; Costa, Gabriel de Araújo; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Salles, Maria José Sparça

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alcohol is the most commonly consumed substance in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcoholic beverages on male reproduction and possible alterations in their offspring. The mice were divided into 4 groups: beer, wine, cachaça (a type of sugarcane rum), with ethanol concentrations of 1.9 g/kg, and control group treated with PBS. The treatment period was 35 days. The animals which received cachaça, demonstrated significant weight loss in the test...

  14. Isotope methods for the control of food products and beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillou, C; Reniero, F [Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    The measurement of the stable isotope contents provides useful information for the detection of many frauds in food products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotopic ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS) are the two main analytical techniques used for the determination of stable isotope contents in food products. These analytical techniques have been considerably improved in the last years offering wider possibilities of applications for food analysis. A review of the applications for the control of food products and beverages is presented. The need for new reference materials is discussed. (author)

  15. Isotope methods for the control of food products and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, C.; Reniero, F.

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of the stable isotope contents provides useful information for the detection of many frauds in food products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotopic ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS) are the two main analytical techniques used for the determination of stable isotope contents in food products. These analytical techniques have been considerably improved in the last years offering wider possibilities of applications for food analysis. A review of the applications for the control of food products and beverages is presented. The need for new reference materials is discussed. (author)

  16. Global ballast water management and the "same location" concept: a clear term or a clear issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Pavliha, Marko

    2013-03-01

    The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified.

  17. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  18. Differences in trouble per litre of different alcoholic beverages - A global comparison with the GENACIS dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin; Ferris, Jason; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K; Graham, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Different alcoholic beverages are seen as causing more or less trouble, with spirits historically often seen as the most troublesome. Differences in the "trouble per litre" could reflect differences in the beverages themselves (e.g., faster effect of stronger beverages, additives/contaminants in informal beverages), or could reflect characteristics of those drinking each beverage. Using two alternative definitions of beverage choice and measures of personal and of social consequences of drinking, the paper examines trouble per litre among beer, wine and spirits drinkers in 19 different societies represented in the GENACIS dataset. There is no general pattern which holds across cultures of more or less trouble being associated with a particular beverage type. Wine seems to be less associated with trouble than beer or spirits in a number of societies, but there are counter-instances in other societies. There is no overall trend across cultures in comparing trouble associated with beer and with spirits. In a number of societies, drinkers with no predominant beverage report more problems than those mainly drinking beer or wine. Controlling for gender and age reduces the tilt towards less trouble from wine drinking, particularly for social consequences of drinking.

  19. Consumption of caffeinated beverages and the awareness of their caffeine content among Dutch students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora J A E; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the knowledge of caffeine content of a variety of caffeinated beverages among Dutch university students. A pencil-and-paper survey was conducted among N = 800 Dutch students. Most participants (87.8%) reported consuming caffeinated beverages during the

  20. Viscosity of Dysphagia-Oriented Cold-Thickened Beverages: Effect of Setting Time at Refrigeration Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although extensive literature is available on the viscosity of thickened beverages with food thickeners, no attempt has been made to study the effect of setting time on the viscosity of pudding-like cold-thickened beverages with xanthan gum (XG)-based thickeners by using a rheometer. In particular, it is of considerable practical…

  1. Genotoxicity study of an experimental beverage made with quinua, kiwicha and kañiwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia D.P. Huaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic evaluation is an important step for a product that is aimed for human consumption. A beverage composed of pseudocereals with highly nutritious elements like quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L. and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen was prepared to reduce lipid contents in a group of volunteers. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an experimental beverage using two in vitro tests that have been validated by international agencies. For the Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100 with and without microsomal fraction (S9 were used. Four doses of the beverage were tested and also a possible protective effect (same four doses of beverage added to plates with mutagens. Cultures of binucleated lymphocytes and five doses of the beverage were used for the micronucleus test. Both Ames and the micronucleus tests showed the beverage has not genotoxic effect in all tested doses. However, in evaluating the possible protective effect of the beverage, it would be evident that on the contrary, the mutagenic effect of mutagens used for each strain is enhanced. These results suggest that additional tests should be performed to check the genotoxic potential of this beverage before consumption.

  2. The diuretic action of weak and strong alcoholic beverages in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polhuis, Kristel C.M.M.; Wijnen, Annemarthe H.C.; Sierksma, Aafje; Calame, Wim; Tieland, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB),

  3. 76 FR 22913 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance of the Paiute Tribe of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...: A. ``Alcoholic Beverage(s)'' means and shall include beer, wine, and liquor, as herein defined. B... Paiutes. ``Band'' means any one of the five constituent Bands. C. ``Beer'' means a product that contains..., and is obtained by fermentation, infusion, or decoction of any malted grain. Such products may or may...

  4. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US adults, overall and by body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y Claire

    2014-03-01

    We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (adults aged ≥ 20 years; n = 23 965). Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P = .005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P < .001). Among overweight and obese adults, calories from solid-food consumption were higher among adults consuming diet beverages compared with SSBs (overweight: 1965 kcal/day vs 1874 kcal/day; P = .03; obese: 2058 kcal/day vs 1897 kcal/day; P < .001). The net increase in daily solid-food consumption associated with diet-beverage consumption was 88 kilocalories for overweight and 194 kilocalories for obese adults. Overweight and obese adults drink more diet beverages than healthy-weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight.

  5. Industry self-regulation to improve student health: quantifying changes in beverage shipments to schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescott, Robert F; Fitzpatrick, Brendan M; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    We developed a data collection and monitoring system to independently evaluate the self-regulatory effort to reduce the number of beverage calories available to children during the regular and extended school day. We have described the data collection procedures used to verify data supplied by the beverage industry and quantified changes in school beverage shipments. Using a proprietary industry data set collected in 2005 and semiannually in 2007 through 2010, we measured the total volume of beverage shipments to elementary, middle, and high schools to monitor intertemporal changes in beverage volumes, the composition of products delivered to schools, and portion sizes. We compared data with findings from existing research of the school beverage landscape and a separate data set based on contracts between schools and beverage bottling companies. Between 2004 and the 2009-2010 school year, the beverage industry reduced calories shipped to schools by 90%. On a total ounces basis, shipments of full-calorie soft drinks to schools decreased by 97%. Industry self-regulation, with the assistance of a transparent and independent monitoring process, can be a valuable tool in improving public health outcomes.

  6. High fructose corn syrup use in beverages: Composition, manufacturing, properties, consumption, and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been used in beverages for more than 30 years. Technology to produce it was developed in the 1960s, it was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (sugar) in the 1970s, and it fully replaced sucrose in the USA in m...

  7. Analysis of the structure of a product line of alcoholic beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agalarova, C.; Askadullina, A.; Tilburg, van A.

    2012-01-01

    AB This article deals with marketing decisions on the optimal product line of alcoholic beverages manufactured under the brand name «Praskoveyskoe». KEY WORDS Product line, turnover analysis, ABC-analysis, production of alcoholic beverages, policy to optimize a product line INTRODUCTION A product

  8. Just Noticeable Differences and Weber fraction of oral thickness perception of model beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, S.; Dop, M.C.; Graaf, de C.; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rheological properties of beverages contribute considerably to texture perception. When developing new beverages, it is important to have knowledge on the smallest differences of viscosity which a consumer can discriminate. Thickness is the sensory attribute most commonly used to describe the

  9. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt, and...

  10. Nitrate and nitrite content in bottled beverages by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Yong-Hong; Chen, Feng; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite levels in six types of beverages--total of 292 individual samples from 73 brands (four bottles each)--from Guangzhou city in China were evaluated by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained nitrate. Nitrate and nitrite ranges were 0.43-46.08 and safety of Chinese bottled beverages.

  11. Analysis of Caffeine in Beverages Using Aspirin as a Fluorescent Chemosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan; Loxley, Kristen; Sheridan, Patrick; Hamilton, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is an alkaloid stimulant that is popular in beverages. Fluorescence-coupled methods have been used to measure the caffeine content in coffee, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, and cosmetics. In this experiment, we have developed a method for detecting caffeine in beverages utilizing the effect of the caffeine…

  12. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  13. Caregiver and adolescent responses to food and beverage marketing exposures through an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Zytnick, Deena; Onufrak, Stephen; Harris, Jennifer L; Wethington, Holly; Kingsley, Beverly; Park, Sohyun

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine noted that current food and beverage marketing practices promote unhealthful diets. However, little public health research has been conducted on food marketing directed toward adolescents, especially using caregiver- and adolescent-reported data. We assessed perceived frequency of food/beverage advertising exposure and common locations of food/beverage marketing exposure for adolescents using 2012 Summer ConsumerStyles and YouthStyles survey data on US adults ≥18 years of age and their children ages 12-17 (n=847), respectively. Exposure to advertisements for fast food, soda, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water were categorized as food/beverage categories with the highest, at least daily, exposure reported for fast food. Caregivers more frequently reported that adolescents viewed all food/beverage advertisements ≥1 time/day than the adolescents reported (chi-square tests, pfood/beverage marketing most frequently on television followed by at the supermarket. Our study showed that adolescents reported lower frequency of food and beverage advertising exposure than their caregivers. Further research may be needed to verify self-reported exposure data on food and beverage advertising as a way to obtain data for use in research on its relationship with diet quality and obesity.

  14. Do Preschools Offer Healthy Beverages to Children? A Nationwide Study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children’s beverage consumption patterns have received increased attention in light of the obesity epidemic in this group. In day care centers (DCCs, children spend up to 10 h a day, and typically consume half to three quarters of their daily food intake. The purpose of the study was to investigate what beverages are typically served to children in preschools in Poland, and to evaluate the practices associated with adding sugar and other sweetening agents to beverages. Methods: Direct interviews with preschools staff were conducted with a questionnaire regarding offered beverages and adding sugar and other sweetening agents. The menu of 10 consecutive days and inventory reports were analyzed to verify information. Results: A total of 720 preschools were included in the study. Cocoa and milk coffee substitute were served in 95% of preschools, followed by compote (92%, tea (84%, fruit/herbal tea (73% and water (69%. Water was the only beverage available between meals (93% DCCs. 86% of preschools added sugar to tea/cocoa/coffee substitute drinks, and 74% to compote. Conclusions: In the majority of preschools, beverages which are not recommended were offered. Such an assortment of beverages and common practice of sweetening can increase the amount of added sugar in a children diet. Nutrition education and legal regulations concerning the assortment of beverages served in preschools are urgently needed.

  15. 27 CFR 17.134 - Determination of unfitness for beverage purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of unfitness for beverage purposes. 17.134 Section 17.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... an alcoholic concentration of 15% and tasted. Sale or use for beverage purposes is indicative of...

  16. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with

  17. 75 FR 39960 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... beverages at certain restaurants within the community. DATES: Effective Date: This Code is effective as of... Initiative Vote of the People Regarding the Sale of Alcoholic Beverages at Certain Restaurants Within the... Possession while at the same time providing an important source of revenue for the continued operation and...

  18. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    .... FDA 1993-N-0259 (Formerly Docket No. 1993N-0085)] Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard... evidence from two studies puts previous concerns to rest concerning the effects of DEHP consumption in... increase costs for consumers for beverages packaged in plastic bottles. However, this rule does not...

  19. An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea; Biró, Marianna; Dénes, Andrea; Dogan, Yunus; Hajdari, Avni; Kalle, Raivo; Reade, Benedict; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nedelcheva, Anely; Quave, Cassandra L; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2015-07-21

    Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response. Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli. Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments. Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = −0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = −0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed

  1. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S

    2017-03-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response. Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli. Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments. Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage ( r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation ( r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage ( r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control ( r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage ( P < 0.001). Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed

  2. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    OpenAIRE

    Mamede,Maria Eugênia de Oliveira; Kalschne,Daneysa Lahis; Santos,Adriana Pereira Coelho; Benassi,Marta de Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A) was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B), pineapple (C), jabuticaba (D), mango (E) and cashew (F). The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Ove...

  3. Impact of Added Sugar Information of Front-of-Pack Labels on Consumers’ Beverage Health Perception Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeyoung; House, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Front-of-package (FOP) labels with voluntary and mandatory disclosure of added sugar levels for beverages on consumer perceptions of how healthy the beverages are. Three groups of beverages were investigated: 1) 100% fruit juice (containing sugar but no added sugar); 2) sugar-sweetened beverages (containing sugar and added sugar); and 3) diet soft drink (containing no sugar). In general, added sugar information seems to play an important role in perception of...

  4. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  5. Cassava starch as a stabilizer of soy-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drunkler, Northon Lee; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Ida, Elza Iouko; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2012-10-01

    Soy-based beverages are presented as healthy food alternatives for human nutrition. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) starch is relatively inexpensive, widely available in Brazil and is broadly used by the food industry due to its desired properties that result from pasting. The objective of this study was to develop soy-based beverages with good sensory quality using native cassava starch as a stabilizer and maintaining the nutritional value that makes this product a functional food. The developed formulations featured a range of cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations, which were tested in a 2² experimental design with three central points. The results of sensory analysis showed that the studied variables (cassava starch and soybean extract concentrations) did not have a significant effect with respect to a 5% probability level. When considering the apparent viscosity, on the other hand, the variables had a significant effect: the increase in soybean extract and cassava starch concentrations caused an increase in the viscosity of the final product. The profile of isoflavones in the tested formulations was similar to the profiles reported in other papers, with a predominance of the conjugated glycosides over the aglycone forms.

  6. Recycling of beverage containers in the Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This study researched existing recycling systems, presented pertinent data on the beverage and transportation industries, and evaluated the potential of recycling beverage bottles and cans in the Northwest Territories. The study first describes the history and existing concepts of recycling, provides a general description of recycling methods with advantages and disadvantages, and highlights particular approaches taken by other provinces. Markets for the Northwest Territories are also discussed, including the potential of recoverable material, anticipated recovery rates, transportation to markets, and present recycling operations. Three strategies are identified for the southwest, northwest, and the eastern Region. Recycling is preferred for aluminium cans, glass beer bottles, plastic bottles, and glass wine and liquor bottles in that order. The report recommends a limited program for aluminium cans and beer bottles to begin immediately. Beer bottles should be refilled either in Alberta or the Northwestern Territories and aluminium cans should be compacted and shipped to recycling markets in southern Canada or the United States. The program should first be implemented in areas serviced by Alberta and accessible by truck or barge from Hay River. A program implementation plan is also included. 8 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Adding Flavor to Beverages with Non-Conventional Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ravasio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs during their primary and secondary metabolism. In the beverage industry, these volatiles contribute to the the flavor and aroma profile of the final products. We evaluated the fermentation ability and aroma profiles of non-conventional yeasts that have been associated with various food sources. A total of 60 strains were analyzed with regard to their fermentation and flavor profile. Species belonging to the genera Candida, Pichia and Wickerhamomyces separated best from lager yeast strains according to a principal component analysis taking alcohol and ester production into account. The speed of fermentation and sugar utilization were analysed for these strains. Volatile aroma-compound formation was assayed via gas chromatography. Several strains produced substantially higher amounts of aroma alcohols and esters compared to the lager yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. Consequently, co-fermentation of this lager yeast strain with a Wickerhamomyces anomalus strain generated an increased fruity-flavour profile. This demonstrates that mixed fermentations utilizing non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity can enhance the flavour profiles of fermented beverages.

  8. Digital junk: food and beverage marketing on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise; Chapman, Kathy; Chapman, Simon; Gill, Tim; King, Lesley

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the amount, reach, and nature of energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing on Facebook. We conducted a content analysis of the marketing techniques used by the 27 most popular food and beverage brand Facebook pages in Australia. We coded content across 19 marketing categories; data were collected from the day each page launched (mean = 3.65 years of activity per page). We analyzed 13 international pages and 14 Australian-based brand pages; 4 brands (Subway, Coca-Cola, Slurpee, Maltesers) had both national and international pages. Pages widely used marketing features unique to social media that increase consumer interaction and engagement. Common techniques were competitions based on user-generated content, interactive games, and apps. Four pages included apps that allowed followers to place an order directly through Facebook. Adolescent and young adult Facebook users appeared most receptive to engaging with this content. By using the interactive and social aspects of Facebook to market products, EDNP food brands capitalize on users' social networks and magnify the reach and personal relevance of their marketing messages.

  9. Aminocarminic acid in E120-labelled food additives and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Leonardo; Scordino, Monica; Gargano, Maria; Lazzaro, Francesco; Borzì, Marco A; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method was developed for investigating aminocarminic acid occurrence in E120-labelled red-coloured-beverages and in E120 additives, with the aim of controlling the purity of the carmine additive in countries where the use of aminocarminic acid is forbidden. The carminic acid and the aminocarminic acid were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-tandem mass spectrography (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). The method was statistically validated. The regression lines, ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L, showed r(2 )> 0.9996. Recoveries from 97% to 101% were obtained for the fortification level of 50 mg/L; the relative standard deviations did not exceed 3%. The LODs were below 2 mg/L, whereas the LOQs did not exceed 4 mg/L. The method was successfully applied to 27 samples of commercial E120-labelled red-coloured beverages and E120 additives, collected in Italy during quality control investigations conducted by the Ministry. The results demonstrated that more than 50% of the samples contained aminocarminic acid, evidencing the alarming illicit use of this semi-synthetic carmine acid derivative.

  10. Digital Junk: Food and Beverage Marketing on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise; Chapman, Kathy; Chapman, Simon; Gill, Tim; King, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the amount, reach, and nature of energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing on Facebook. Methods. We conducted a content analysis of the marketing techniques used by the 27 most popular food and beverage brand Facebook pages in Australia. We coded content across 19 marketing categories; data were collected from the day each page launched (mean = 3.65 years of activity per page). Results. We analyzed 13 international pages and 14 Australian-based brand pages; 4 brands (Subway, Coca-Cola, Slurpee, Maltesers) had both national and international pages. Pages widely used marketing features unique to social media that increase consumer interaction and engagement. Common techniques were competitions based on user-generated content, interactive games, and apps. Four pages included apps that allowed followers to place an order directly through Facebook. Adolescent and young adult Facebook users appeared most receptive to engaging with this content. Conclusions. By using the interactive and social aspects of Facebook to market products, EDNP food brands capitalize on users’ social networks and magnify the reach and personal relevance of their marketing messages. PMID:25322294

  11. Role of fermented beverages in the maintenance of weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación

    2016-07-12

    Obesity is a very prevalent disease with multiple chronic complications that decrease or disappear after a small (5-10%) but maintained weight loss. Nevertheless, maintaining weight loss after the treatment is very difficult and it involves one of the biggest challenges to control this epidemic. Although the reasons that contribute to regain the lost weight are diverse and related to the biological response to caloric restriction and the lack of adherence to treatment, up to 20% of the patients are able to keep it off. The keys to success, involve the maintenance of healthy habits, exercise and a reasonable daily calorie intake to allow a normal way of life, without sacrificing the social life. At this point, learning to distinguish food and drink options in a society where social life often revolves around the table is very important. We review the keys to keep the weight off after a diet as well as the role of fermented beverages such as beer, in this process. In conclusion, maintenance the weight loss is harder than losing it. The mild-to-moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as beer is not associated with weight increase.

  12. Can children discriminate sugar-sweetened from non-nutritively sweetened beverages and how do they like them?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kas, R.; Olthof, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a

  13. Contribution of beverages to energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Vossenaar, M.; Doak, C.M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Beverages are selected based on availability, culture, taste preference, health, safety and social context. Beverages may be important to energy and to the macronutrient and micronutrient quality of overall intake. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of beverages to the dietary

  14. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger....122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any passenger...

  15. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.535 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... an aircraft on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the...

  16. 14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.577 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished...

  17. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and... certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land unless each food and beverage tray...

  18. The Clearing : Heidegger’s Lichtung and the big scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities.Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  19. The Clearing: Heidegger’s Lichtung and The Big Scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities. Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  20. Energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage refills at fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan H; Elbel, Brian

    2017-09-01

    To identify demographic and consumer characteristics associated with refilling a soft drink at fast-food restaurants and the estimated energy content and volume of those refills. Logistic and linear regression with cross-sectional survey data. Data include fast-food restaurant receipts and consumer surveys collected from restaurants in New York City (all boroughs except Staten Island), and Newark and Jersey City, New Jersey, during 2013 and 2014. Fast-food restaurant customers (n 11795) from ninety-eight restaurants. Thirty per cent of fast-food customers ordered a refillable soft drink. Nine per cent of fast-food customers with a refillable soft drink reported refilling their beverage (3 % of entire sample). Odds of having a beverage refill were higher among respondents with a refillable soft drink at restaurants with a self-serve refill kiosk (adjusted OR (aOR)=7·37, Prestaurant (aOR=4·45, P<0·001). KFC (aOR=2·18, P<0·001) and Wendy's (aOR=0·41, P<0·001) customers had higher and lower odds, respectively, of obtaining a refill, compared with Burger King customers. Respondents from New Jersey (aOR=1·47, P<0·001) also had higher odds of refilling their beverage than New York City customers. Customers who got a refill obtained on average 29 more 'beverage ounces' (858 ml) and 250 more 'beverage calories' (1046 kJ) than customers who did not get a refill. Refilling a beverage was associated with having obtained more beverage calories and beverage ounces. Environmental cues, such as the placement and availability of self-serve beverage refills, may influence consumer beverage choice.

  1. The use of fruit extracts for production of beverages with high antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tarko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can cause many diseases of the circulatory and nervous system as well as tumors. There are many ways of preventing and treating these diseases including the consumption of products that contain significant amounts of antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols and antioxidative vitamins. However, currently food stores offer mainly convenient food, ready-to-eat foodstuffs or highly processed products. During numerous technological treatments they have been deprived of many valuable compounds occurring in fresh products. Therefore, an important element of the food production technology is to ensure a proper composition of valuable human health-promoting compounds, mostly vitamins, minerals and polyphenols in final food product. Consumers often and willingly drink beverages. They are also a good starting base for supplementation. Drinks can be enriched with polyphenols, which may reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, owing to their antiradical potential. The aim of this study was to use the fruit extracts for beverages enrichment in order to increase their antioxidative potential and polyphenol content. For the experiment the fruits of Cornelian cherry, lingonberry, elderberry, hawthorn and Japanese quince were used. Fruit was extracted with 80% ethanol, and then thickened by distillation under reduced pressure. Extracts were used to enrich the apple, orange and grapefruit beverages. Antioxidative activity and total polyphenols content in final beverages were determined. Also, sensory analysis was carried out. The fortification of tested beverages resulted in an increased antioxidative activity and total polyphenol content in case of all applied fruit extracts. Among the beverages composed, the best antioxidative properties were found in a beverage of red grapefruit, whereas the best organoleptically evaluated was the orange beverage. The scores of on the sensory evaluation revealed that the addition of

  2. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult females in Mexico. Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax on SSBs might help to significantly reduce added sugars intake in Mexico. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009–10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008–12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  4. 75 FR 77576 - General Regulations and Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... derivatives clearing organization (DCO) Core Principles A (Compliance), H (Rule Enforcement), N (Antitrust... commission merchant (FCM) that is also registered as a securities broker-dealer (FCM/BD), and make certain...

  5. Work-in-process clearing in supply chain operations planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selcuk, B.; Fransoo, J.C.; Kok, de A.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we provide insights into the effectiveness of the clearing function concept in a hierarchical planning context. The clearing function is a mathematical representation of the relation between the Work-In-Process (WIP) and the throughput of a production process. We use it in a

  6. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept document was developed as a first step in developing the Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture (NASA/TM-2011-216956). The CLEAR operational concept defines how the system will be used by the Constellation Program and what needs it meets. The document creates scenarios for major elements of the CLEAR architecture. These scenarios are generic enough to apply to near-Earth, Moon, and Mars missions. The CLEAR operational concept involves basic assumptions about the overall program architecture and interactions with the CLEAR system architecture. The assumptions include spacecraft and operational constraints for near-Earth orbit, Moon, and Mars missions. This document addresses an incremental development strategy where capabilities evolve over time, but it is structured to prevent obsolescence. The approach minimizes flight hardware by exploiting Internet-like telecommunications that enables CLEAR capabilities to remain on Earth and to be uplinked as needed. To minimize crew time and operational cost, CLEAR exploits offline development and validation to support online teleoperations. Operational concept scenarios are developed for diagnostics, repair, and functional test operations. Many of the supporting functions defined in these operational scenarios are further defined as technologies in NASA/TM-2011-216956.

  7. The Nordic power market: Are there alternatives to expensive clearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerdrum, Per Kaare; Poulsson, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The Enron scandal of 2002 has set focus on counter party risk in the Nordic power market and is an important cause of increased clearing of bilateral financial power contracts. The article discusses whether expensive clearing is always the best tool for dealing with counter party risk

  8. The problem of clear air turbulence: Changing perspectives in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse ... that weather is a predominant cause of aviation accidents, accounting for ... clear air turbulence, wind shear and wake-vortex effects. Here .... ters a region of turbulence, the pilot informs the ground control about the location and extent.

  9. The Effectiveness of Clear Speech as a Masker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Van Engen, Kristin; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is established that speaking clearly is an effective means of enhancing intelligibility. Because any signal-processing scheme modeled after known acoustic-phonetic features of clear speech will likely affect both target and competing speech, it is important to understand how speech recognition is affected when a competing speech signal…

  10. A New Type of distributed Enamel based Clearing Electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T; Caspers, Friedhelm; Hellmond, P; Métral, E; Wendel, J C; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    Clearing electrodes can be used for electron cloud (EC) suppression in high intensity particle accelerators. In this paper the use of low and highly resistive layers on a dielectric substrate are examined. The beam coupling impedance of such a structure is evaluated. Furthermore the clearing efficiency as well as technological issues are discussed.

  11. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  12. Clear exterior finishes : finding the balance between aesthetics and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Daniel; Marc S. Hirsch; Ken McClelland; Alan S. Ross; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    Consumers can easily be confused by the abundance of choices to make when selecting a clear wood finish. There are many types of clear finishes with different characteristics and product claims. This article is designed to help consumers sort out the different finishes and effectively choose which product would be best for their purpose. First, we cover the causes and...

  13. Implications of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax when substitutions to non-beverage items are considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Zhen, Chen; Bilger, Marcel; Nonnemaker, James; Farooqui, Assad M; Todd, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2006 Homescan panel, we estimate the changes in energy, fat and sodium purchases resulting from a tax that increases the price of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by 20% and the effect of such a tax on body weight. In addition to substitutions that may arise with other beverages, we account for substitutions between SSBs and 12 major food categories. Our main findings are that the tax would result in a decrease in store-bought energy of 24.3kcal per day per person, which would translate into an average weight loss of 1.6 pounds during the first year and a cumulated weight loss of 2.9 pounds in the long run. We do not find evidence of substitution to sugary foods and show that complementary foods could contribute to decreasing energy purchases. Despite their significantly lower price elasticity, the tax has a similar effect on calories for the largest purchasers of SSBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Support for Food and Beverage Worksite Wellness Strategies and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Employed U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Pan, Liping; Kimmons, Joel; Foltz, Jennifer; Park, Sohyun

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is high among U.S. adults and is associated with obesity. Given that more than 100 million Americans consume food or beverages at work daily, the worksite may be a venue for interventions to reduce SSB consumption. However, the level of support for these interventions is unknown. We examined associations between workday SSB intake and employees' support for worksite wellness strategies (WWSs). We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Web-based annual surveys that gather information on health-related attitudes and behaviors. Study setting was the United States. A total of 1924 employed adults (≥18 years) selected using probability-based sampling. The self-reported independent variable was workday SSB intake (0, food/drink, (3) available healthy options, and (4) less available SSB. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for sociodemographic variables, employee size, and availability of cafeteria/vending machine. About half of employees supported accessible free water (54%), affordable healthy food/drink (49%), and available healthy options (46%), but only 28% supported less available SSB. Compared with non-SSB consumers, daily SSB consumers were significantly less supportive of accessible free water (adjusted odds ratio, .67; p < .05) or less available SSB (odds ratio, .49; p < .05). Almost half of employees supported increasing healthy options within worksites, although daily workday SSB consumers were less supportive of certain strategies. Lack of support could be a potential barrier to the successful implementation of certain worksite interventions.

  15. A simple formula for determining globally clear skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.N.; George, A.T.; Mace, G.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Surface measurements to serve as {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes} are of primary importance in the development of retrieval algorithms using satellite measurements to predict surface irradiance. The most basic algorithms of this type deal with clear sky (i.e., cloudless) top-to-surface shortwave (SW) transfer, serving as a necessary prerequisite towards treating both clear and cloudy conditions. Recently, atmosphere SW cloud forcing to infer the possibility of excess atmospheric absorption (compared with model results) in cloudy atmospheres. The surface component of this ratio relies on inferring the expected clear sky SW irradiance to determine the effects of clouds on the SW energy budget. Solar renewable energy applications make use of clear and cloud fraction climatologies to assess solar radiation resources. All of the above depend to some extent on the identification of globally clear sky conditions and the attendant measurements of downwelling SW irradiance.

  16. Hunter versus CIE color measurement systems for analysis of milk-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ni; Barbano, David M; Drake, Mary Anne

    2018-06-01

    The objective of our work was to determine the differences in sensitivity of Hunter and International Commission on Illumination (CIE) methods at 2 different viewer angles (2 and 10°) for measurement of whiteness, red/green, and blue/yellow color of milk-based beverages over a range of composition. Sixty combinations of milk-based beverages were formulated (2 replicates) with a range of fat level from 0.2 to 2%, true protein level from 3 to 5%, and casein as a percent of true protein from 5 to 80% to provide a wide range of milk-based beverage color. In addition, commercial skim, 1 and 2% fat high-temperature, short-time pasteurized fluid milks were analyzed. All beverage formulations were HTST pasteurized and cooled to 4°C before analysis. Color measurement viewer angle (2 vs. 10°) had very little effect on objective color measures of milk-based beverages with a wide range of composition for either the Hunter or CIE color measurement system. Temperature (4, 20, and 50°C) of color measurement had a large effect on the results of color measurement in both the Hunter and CIE measurement systems. The effect of milk beverage temperature on color measurement results was the largest for skim milk and the least for 2% fat milk. This highlights the need for proper control of beverage serving temperature for sensory panel analysis of milk-based beverages with very low fat content and for control of milk temperature when doing objective color analysis for quality control in manufacture of milk-based beverages. The Hunter system of color measurement was more sensitive to differences in whiteness among milk-based beverages than the CIE system, whereas the CIE system was much more sensitive to differences in yellowness among milk-based beverages. There was little difference between the Hunter and CIE system in sensitivity to green/red color of milk-based beverages. In defining milk-based beverage product specifications for objective color measures for dairy product

  17. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Demand and Tax Simulation for Federal Food Assistance Participants: A Case of Two New England States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jithitikulchai, Theepakorn; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2018-06-19

    Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is a major concern in the efforts to improve diet and reduce obesity in USA, particularly among low-income populations. One of the most commonly proposed strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is increasing beverage prices through taxation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether and how price-based policies could reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among participants in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Using point-of-sale data from a regional supermarket chain (58 stores), we estimated the responsiveness of demand to sugar-sweetened beverage price changes among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-participating families with young children. Own-price and cross-price elasticities for non-alcoholic beverages were estimated using a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System model. The study found evidence that a tax-induced sugar-sweetened beverage price increase would reduce total sugar-sweetened beverage purchases among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants, who were driven by purchase shifts away from taxed sodas and sports drinks to non-taxed beverages (bottled water, juice, milk). The substitution of non-taxed caloric beverages decreases the marginal effects of the sugar-sweetened beverage tax, yet the direct tax effects are large enough to reduce the overall caloric intake, with the average net reduction in monthly calories from sugar-sweetened beverages estimated at around 8% for a half-cent per ounce tax and 16% for a one cent per ounce tax. A beverage price increase in the form of an excise tax would reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and increase healthier beverage purchases among low-income families.

  19. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  20. 78 FR 54507 - Clearing Agency; the Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... risk arising from the potential need to liquidate a particular clearing member's margin collateral, OCC... by improving OCC's risk management process related to deposits as margin collateral of concentrated... and Policy so that OCC has discretion to disapprove as margin collateral for a particular clearing...

  1. Chemical clearing and dehydration of GFP expressing mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Becker

    Full Text Available Generally, chemical tissue clearing is performed by a solution consisting of two parts benzyl benzoate and one part benzyl alcohol. However, prolonged exposure to this mixture markedly reduces the fluorescence of GFP expressing specimens, so that one has to compromise between clearing quality and fluorescence preservation. This can be a severe drawback when working with specimens exhibiting low GFP expression rates. Thus, we screened for a substitute and found that dibenzyl ether (phenylmethoxymethylbenzene, CAS 103-50-4 can be applied as a more GFP-friendly clearing medium. Clearing with dibenzyl ether provides improved tissue transparency and strikingly improved fluorescence intensity in GFP expressing mouse brains and other samples as mouse spinal cords, or embryos. Chemical clearing, staining, and embedding of biological samples mostly requires careful foregoing tissue dehydration. The commonly applied tissue dehydration medium is ethanol, which also can markedly impair GFP fluorescence. Screening for a substitute also for ethanol we found that tetrahydrofuran (CAS 109-99-9 is a more GFP-friendly dehydration medium than ethanol, providing better tissue transparency obtained by successive clearing. Combined, tetrahydrofuran and dibenzyl ether allow dehydration and chemical clearing of even delicate samples for UM, confocal microscopy, and other microscopy techniques.

  2. Chemical clearing and dehydration of GFP expressing mouse brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Klaus; Jährling, Nina; Saghafi, Saiedeh; Weiler, Reto; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Generally, chemical tissue clearing is performed by a solution consisting of two parts benzyl benzoate and one part benzyl alcohol. However, prolonged exposure to this mixture markedly reduces the fluorescence of GFP expressing specimens, so that one has to compromise between clearing quality and fluorescence preservation. This can be a severe drawback when working with specimens exhibiting low GFP expression rates. Thus, we screened for a substitute and found that dibenzyl ether (phenylmethoxymethylbenzene, CAS 103-50-4) can be applied as a more GFP-friendly clearing medium. Clearing with dibenzyl ether provides improved tissue transparency and strikingly improved fluorescence intensity in GFP expressing mouse brains and other samples as mouse spinal cords, or embryos. Chemical clearing, staining, and embedding of biological samples mostly requires careful foregoing tissue dehydration. The commonly applied tissue dehydration medium is ethanol, which also can markedly impair GFP fluorescence. Screening for a substitute also for ethanol we found that tetrahydrofuran (CAS 109-99-9) is a more GFP-friendly dehydration medium than ethanol, providing better tissue transparency obtained by successive clearing. Combined, tetrahydrofuran and dibenzyl ether allow dehydration and chemical clearing of even delicate samples for UM, confocal microscopy, and other microscopy techniques.

  3. Controling the scattering of Intralipid by using optical clearing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiang; Luo Qingming; Zhu Dan; Tuchin, Valery V

    2009-01-01

    Optical clearing agents (OCAs) with high refractive indices and hyperosmolarity can enhance the penetration of light in tissues by reducing scattering in tissues. However, the mechanism of tissue optical clearing is not much clear for the complex interaction between tissues and OCAs. In this work, Intralipid was mixed with different concentrations of OCAs, i.e. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,2-propanediol, poly-ethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) and poly-ethylene glycol 400 (PEG400). Except for PEG200 and PEG400 that make aggregation of particles, the others kept the mixture uniform. The reduced scattering coefficients of uniform mixtures were predicted with Mie theory and measured by a commercially available spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. The results show that all of the OCAs used enhance the optical clearing effect of Intralipid. If OCAs do not change the structure of Intralipid, Mie theory prediction matches well with the measurements. And the higher the refractive index of OCA, the smaller the reduced scattering coefficient. A simple formula deduced can quantitatively predict the optical clearing effect caused by OCAs. This work is helpful for clarifying the mechanism of tissue optical clearing, which will make the effect of optical clearing of tissue predictable and controllable.

  4. Electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH of beverages and coconut water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavalittamrong, B; Pidatcha, P; Thavisri, U

    1982-09-01

    Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the need for intravenous therapy. Beverages (i.e. Cola, Sprite etc.) and coconut water may be used as sources of oral fluid when glucose-electrolyte solution is not available. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of these soft drinks, the basic data such as electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH were determined. The electrolytes of the beverages were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water, especially potassium. The osmolarity of the beverages, which were 693 mOsm/l, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (288 mOsm/l); pH of the beverages (3.1) was more acidic (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (5.4). While the sugar content of the beverages, which were 8.7 gm/dl, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (1.1 gm/dl). On comparison, all brands of beverages would give more calories than the coconut water however the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than any brand of soft drink beverage.

  5. A Review of Heavy Metal Concentration and Potential Health Implications of Beverages Consumed in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chibueze Izah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beverages are consumed in Nigeria irrespective of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Beverages may be alcoholic (wine, spirits, and beers or non-alcoholic (soft drink, energy drinks, candies, chocolates, milks. Notwithstanding, most beverages are packed in cans, bottles, and plastics. This paper reviews the concentration of heavy metals from some commercially-packaged beverages consumed in Nigeria. The study found that heavy metal concentrations, including iron, mercury, tin, antimony, cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, and manganese, seldom exceed the maximum contaminant level recommended by the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and the World Health Organization (WHO as applicable to drinking water resources. The occurrence of heavy metals in the beverages could have resulted from the feedstocks and water used in their production. Consumption of beverages high in heavy metal could be toxic and cause adverse effect to human health, depending on the rate of exposure and accumulation dosage. This study concludes by suggesting that heavy metal concentration in the feedstocks and water should be monitored by producers, and its concentration in beverages should also be monitored by appropriate regulatory agencies.

  6. Dietary fiber content and associated antioxidant compounds in Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Arranz, Sara; Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2007-09-19

    The beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers is widely consumed in Mexico. Polyphenols contained in plant foods are frequently associated with dietary fiber. The aim of this work is to quantify the dietary fiber, associated polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of the Roselle flower and the beverage traditionally prepared from it and its contribution to the Mexican diet. Roselle flower contained dietary fiber as the largest component (33.9%) and was rich in phenolic compounds (6.13%). Soluble dietary fiber was 0.66 g/L in beverage, and 66% of total extractable polyphenols contained in Roselle flower passed to the beverage and showed an antioxidant capacity of 335 micromoL trolox equivalents/100 mL beverage measured by ABTS. These data suggest that Roselle flower beverage intake in the Mexican diet may contribute around 166 and 165 mg/per serving to the intake of dietary fiber and polyphenols, respectively. The health benefits from consumption of Hibiscus beverage could be of considerable benefit to the whole population.

  7. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrapnel, William

    2015-09-23

    Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the "small change" in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high.

  8. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shrapnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the “small change” in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high.

  9. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents' Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Wong, Diandra; Musicus, Aviva; Hammond, David

    2016-02-01

    US states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how such labels may influence parents and which labels are most impactful. In this study, 2381 demographically and educationally diverse parents participated in an online survey. Parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions: (1) no warning label (control); (2) calorie label; or (3-6) 1 of 4 text versions of a warning label (eg, Safety Warning: Drinking beverages with added sugar[s] contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Parents chose a beverage for their child in a vending machine choice task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in receiving beverage coupons. Regression analyses controlling for frequency of beverage purchases were used to compare the no warning label group, calorie label group, and all warning label groups combined. Significantly fewer parents chose an SSB for their child in the warning label condition (40%) versus the no label (60%) and calorie label conditions (53%). Parents in the warning label condition also chose significantly fewer SSB coupons, believed that SSBs were less healthy for their child, and were less likely to intend to purchase SSBs. All P values parents' understanding of health harms associated with overconsumption of such beverages and may reduce parents' purchase of SSBs for their children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. [Extent of advertising of tobacco and alcoholic beverages in a sample of Spanish weeklies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborero Cao, G

    1991-01-01

    Advertising undoubtedly influences our daily habits. In this sense, the promotion of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages is no exception, being a potential stimulus for their use. For the purpose of studying different aspects of the cigarette and alcoholic beverage advertising which appeared in a sample os Spanish weeklies was taken, these being six of the weeklies having one of the largest circulations, three of which were aimed mainly at women readers, while the other three were general information magazines. The advertising of these two products represents a significant percentage of the total advertising printed in the magazines studied (11%). The promotion of alcoholic beverages widely surpasses that of cigarettes (by 7 to 1). With regard to the groups of alcoholic beverages, whisky in the leading beverage advertised. The topics to which reference is made in the advertising slogans are widely varied, are lacking in informative elements and are limited to means of persuading one to identify with said product. Marked differences are observed between the magazines of providing general information magazines and those preferably aimed at women with regard to the amount and content of the advertising of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages. The methodological differences arising on studying the advertising-use relationship are discussed. Lastly, a number of activities for contradicting the effect of the massive advertising of cigarettes ald alcoholic beverages appearing in our weeklies are proposed.

  11. The relationship between sweetened beverage consumption and risk of heart failure in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Iffat; Wolk, Alicja; Larsson, Susanna C

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether sweetened beverage consumption is associated with risk of heart failure (HF) in a large prospective population-based study of men. A population-based cohort comprising 42,400 men, 45-79 years of age, was followed from 1998 through 2010. Sweetened beverage consumption was assessed by utilising a food frequency questionnaire. Incident events of HF were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Cox regression analyses were implemented to investigate the association between sweetened beverage consumption and HF. During a mean follow-up time of 11.7 years, a total of 4113 HF events were identified. We observed a positive association between sweetened beverage consumption and risk of HF after adjustment for other risk factors (p for trend beverages per day had a statistically significant higher risk of developing HF (23%, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.35) compared to men who were non-consumers. Our finding that sweetened beverage consumption is associated with higher risk of HF could have implications for HF prevention strategies. Additional prospective studies investigating the link between sweetened beverage consumption and HF are therefore needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Non-Alcoholic Beverages from Fermented Cereals with Increased Oligosaccharide Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazina Juodeikiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively. Beverages fermented by LAB had lower pH values and ethanol volume fraction compared to the yeast-fermented beverage. The acceptability of the beverage fermented by Lactobacillus sakei was higher than of Pediococcus pentosaceus- or yeast-fermented beverages and similar to the acceptability of commercial kvass made from malt extract. The results showed that extruded rye, xylanolytic enzymes and LAB can be used for production of novel and safe high-value non-alcoholic beverages.

  13. Potential of fermented papaya beverage in the prevention of foodborne illness incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh, S.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is recognized as an emerging infectious disease. The incidence of foodborne infections is common and the majority cases are undiagnosed or unreported. Apart from some diarrhea or minor gastrointestinal problem, some foodborne pathogenic microbes may cause death, particularly to those people with weakened immune system. In this study, we have developed a new fermented papaya beverage using symbiotic culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria under controlled biofermentation process. An in-vitro assessment of fermented papaya beverage against few foodborne pathogenic microorganism was conducted to determine its minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99. Three types of foodborne pathogen: Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 53648, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (isolated from infectious chicken were selected. From minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99 assay, both fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages have shown 100% killing rate against three selected foodborne pathogenic microbes. Inversely, non-fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages indicated no inhibition at all. In fact, further dilution of fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages demonstrated different degree of MBC>99 and brix value, but the pH value remained less than 3.5. These findings indicated the combination of soluble solid compounds presents in both fermented papaya beverage and product acidity play an important role in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The preliminary promising results of this work have shown that the great potential of fermented papaya beverages as a preventive measure to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness.

  14. Clear-PEM, a dedicated PET camera for mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results suggest that Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) can offer a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Metabolic images from PEM contain unique information not available from conventional morphologic imaging techniques and aid in expeditiously establishing the diagnosis of cancer. A dedicated machine seems to offer better perspectives in terms of position resolution and sensitivity. This paper describes the concept of Clear-PEM, the system presently developed by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN for an evaluation of this approach. This device is based on new crystals introduced by the Crystal Clear as well as on modern data acquisition techniques developed for the large experiments in high energy physics experiments.

  15. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  16. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  17. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  18. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been considered as the basis for full scale design of the industrial capacity of 1600 m3/day treatment plant. Final effluent characteristics after treatment comply with Egyptian legalizations after reducing COD and BOD5 by about 97% and 95% respectively. So it is recommended to reuse treated effluent in textile industry in dyeing process.

  19. A Commentary on the Limits of Alcoholic Beverage Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamani, Allaman; Beccaria, Franca; Einstein, S

    2017-11-01

    Providing one set of policy measures for all countries as if they were a single, homogeneous entity does not appear to be evidence-based, according to recent research on the effectiveness of alcoholic beverage control policies. Contextual and cultural determinants-social, economic, demographic, cultural and political-appear to be major factors of influencing change in drinking trends, drinking patterns and drinking-related harms. The variable interplay between contextual determinants and alcohol control policy measures implies diverse impacts on consumption and harm according to time, and to the different countries and groups of countries. In addition, epidemiology research manifests some limitations when applied to alcohol drinking and results are transferred from one culture to another. The conditions of individual cultures and countries should be considered when planning and evaluating alcohol control policies. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. TLC analysis of some phenolic compounds in kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during tea fungus fermentation. The method used for this study was thin layer chromatography with two different systems. The main phenolic compounds in the samples with green tea were catechin and epicatechin, and in the samples with black tea it was quercetin.

  1. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  2. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    , while two of three studies, including both men and women, found direct associations between SSB consumption and stroke; however, the association was significant among women only. All included studies examining vascular risk factors found direct associations between SSB consumption and change in blood...... pressure, blood lipid or blood sugar. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed studies generally showed that SSB intake was related to vascular risk factors, whereas associations with vascular events were less consistent. Due to a limited number of published papers, especially regarding vascular events, the strength......OBJECTIVE: A high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to weight gain, obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the influence on CVD risk remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to summarize current evidence for an association between SSB consumption and cardiovascular risk...

  3. Price and income elasticities of demand for alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, S I; Levy, D

    1983-01-01

    Estimating the demand for alcoholic beverages represents a difficult statistical problem. A number of studies have attempted to estimate the demand for beer, wine, distilled spirits, or total alcohol consumption. The results vary widely according to country of study, data used, and model and statistical technique. For the United States, most studies find the demand for beer to be relatively price inelastic, at around -0.3. The demand for distilled spirits appears to be unitary price elasticity or somewhat greater, around -1.5. The evidence on wine is too sketchy to draw any conclusions. There is no strong evidence of substitutability among beer, wine, and distilled spirits based on econometric models, nor evidence that advertising plays a strong role in the aggregate demand for beer, wine, or distilled spirits. The main policy implication is that price increases to control consumption will have a stronger impact on the consumption of distilled spirits than on beer.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE BEVERAGE INDUSTRY PREVENTIVE ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nepovinnykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Market demand for foods with low fat content has been expanding, but for low-fat foods good organoleptic properties need new food ingredients and solutions. Food hydrocolloids, polysaccharides and milk proteins, now are widely used in various industries, including the dairy industry, performing various functions: to thicken aqueous solutions, foaming and stabilizing foams and others. We studied the functional and technological properties and developed technology of new types of oxygencontaining beverages (smoothies on the basis of cheese whey, natural fruit and berry juices and purees and dietary fibres «Citri-Fi», including non-starch polysaccharides (guar gum and xanthan gum, contributing to the formation of a specific texture and drink as stabilizers oxygen foam. When creating new kinds of smoothies performed construction flavored beverage profile, the definition of rational parameters of preparation and entering dietary fibres; selection of the optimal concentration of dietary fiber for the formation of the desired consistency (texture drink; study of quality and safety of new types of drinks and justification expiration dates. Based on the studies found that the use as stabilizers structure oxygen smoothie dietary fibres «Citri-Fi» in concentrations of 0.8 – 1 % and non-starch polysaccharides at concentrations of 0.1 - 0.3 % contributes to the production of foams drinks with a sufficiently high magnification. Increasing the dose of dietary fibres in making smoothies viscosity increases and weighting system, drink bad whipped, there is separation of the product into phases, the system becomes thermodynamically unstable. Production technology and recipes for new types of smoothies with dietary fibres. Preventive orientation developed oxygenated drinks allows to include them in the diet of patients with chronic heart failure, which is confirmed by appropriate investigations.

  5. Overweight adolescents' brain response to sweetened beverages mirrors addiction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Claus, Eric D; Hudson, Karen A; Filbey, Francesca M; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Lisdahl, Krista M; Kong, Alberta S

    2017-08-01

    Many adolescents struggle with overweight/obesity, which exponentially increases in the transition to adulthood. Overweight/obesity places youth at risk for serious health conditions, including type 2 diabetes. In adults, neural substrates implicated in addiction (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), striatum, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area) have been found to be relevant to risk for overweight/obesity. In this study, we examined three hypotheses to disentangle the potential overlap between addiction and overweight/obesity processing by examining (1) brain response to high vs. low calorie beverages, (2) the strength of correspondence between biometrics, including body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance, and brain response and (3) the relationship between a measure of food addiction and brain response using an established fMRI gustatory cue exposure task with a sample of overweight/obese youth (M age = 16.46; M BMI = 33.1). Greater BOLD response was observed across the OFC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), nucleus accumbens, right amygdala, and additional frontoparietal and temporal regions in neural processing of high vs. low calorie beverages. Further, BMI scores positively correlated with BOLD activation in the high calorie > low calorie contrast in the right postcentral gyrus and central operculum. Insulin resistance positively correlated with BOLD activation across the bilateral middle/superior temporal gyrus, left OFC, and superior parietal lobe. No relationships were observed between measures of food addiction and brain response. These findings support the activation of parallel addiction-related neural pathways in adolescents' high calorie processing, while also suggesting the importance of refining conceptual and neurocognitive models to fit this developmental period.

  6. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest

  7. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Signal, Louise; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Maher, Anthony

    2013-02-11

    High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest policies that restrict sponsorship of

  8. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Almost two-thirds of boys and girls consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Boys consumed an average 164 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.3% of total daily caloric intake. Girls consumed an average 121 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 7.2% of total daily caloric intake. •Among both boys and girls, older youth had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to younger children. •Non-Hispanic Asian boys and girls consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic boys and girls. Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children (1). Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children (2-6). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. youth aged 2-19 years for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  9. Sugar-sweetened Beverage Consumption Among U.S. Adults, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •Approximately one-half of U.S. adults consumed at least one sugar-sweetened beverage on a given day. •Men consumed an average 179 kilocalories (kcal) from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.9% of total daily caloric intake. Women consumed an average 113 kcal from sugar-sweetened beverages, which contributed 6.1% of total caloric intake. •Young adults had the highest mean intake and percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened beverages relative to older adults. •Non-Hispanic Asian men and women consumed the least calories and the lowest percentage of total calories from sugar-sweetened beverages compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men and women. Sugar-sweetened beverages are a major contributor of calories and added sugars to diets of U.S. adults (1). Studies have found that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to weight gain, metabolic syndrome, dental caries, and type 2 diabetes in adults (2-4). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend reducing added sugars consumption to less than 10% of total calories per day and, specifically, to choose beverages with no added sugars (1). This report presents results for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among U.S. adults aged 20 and over for 2011-2014 by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Investigating adolescents' sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits in China, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Han; Chiang, Timothy C; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang

    2018-05-25

    Background China has undergone rapid Westernization and established dramatic social reforms since the early 21st century. However, health issues led to challenges in the lives of the Chinese residents. Western fast food and sweetened beverages, two food options associated with chronic diseases and obesity, have played key roles to alter adolescents' dietary patterns. This study aims to examine the association between adolescents' visits to Western fast food restaurants and sweetened beverage consumption. Methods Applying three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) between 2006 and 2011 (n = 1063), we used generalized Poisson regression (GPR) to investigate the association between adolescents' Western fast food restaurant visits and sweetened beverage consumption, as the popularity of fast food and sweetened beverages has skyrocketed among adolescents in contemporary China. A linear-by-linear association test was used as a trend test to study general patterns between sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits. We adjusted all models with sweetened beverage consumption frequency, four food preferences (fast food, salty snacks, fruits and vegetables), school status, gross household income, provinces, rural/urban regions, age and gender. Results From the results of the trend test, frequent sweetened beverage consumption was highly associated with more Western fast food restaurant visits among Chinese adolescents in the three waves (p beverage consumption or did not drink them at all, had much less likelihood of visiting Western fast food restaurants (p beverage consumption was highly associated with Western fast food restaurant visits in contemporary China. Further actions are needed from the Chinese central government to create a healthier dietary environment for adolescents.

  11. 19 CFR 4.60 - Vessels required to clear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contiguous country otherwise than by sea. (c) Vessels which will merely transit the Panama Canal without... of clearance and related papers shall be surrendered. (e) No vessel shall be cleared for the high...

  12. How to Successfully Build a Clear Label Paradigm : Ingredient Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Careful labeling and consumer education may make the difference for the future success of individual ingredients and the products that rely on them. The second of a two-part report on a clear label strategy.

  13. Clear cell HCC: an imitator of hepatic adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A 60-year old male patient was complaining of a postprandial heartburn and of abdominal distension. Physical examination was normal except for nodular, painless hepatomegaly. Ultrasonographic examination of the liver showed diffuse increased echogenicity and coarse echotexture. A large mixed echogenic mass is seen in the right hepatic lobe. Computerized tomography showed heterogeneously hypodense mass lesions with fatty change on non-contrast scans and enhance heterogeneously on both arterial phase and venous phase postcontrast scans. Following true-cut biopsy, it was ascertained to be a clear cell HCC. Clear cell HCC may include large fatty areas and this is often misdiagnosed to be an adenoma. Clear cell HCC is characterized by high female prevalence, high rate of association with liver cirrhosis and has no significant difference in prognosis compared with non-clear cell HCC

  14. Reconstruction of Clear-PEM data with STIR

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, M V; Rodrigues, P; Trindade, A; Oliveira, N; Correia, M; Cordeiro, H; Ferreira, N C; Varela, J; Almeida, P

    2006-01-01

    The Clear-PEM scanner is a device based on planar detectors that is currently under development within the Crystal Clear Collaboration, at CERN. The basis for 3D image reconstruction in Clear-PEM is the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR). STIR is an open source object-oriented library that efficiently deals with the 3D positron emission tomography data sets. This library was originally designed for the traditional cylindrical scanners. In order to make its use compatible with planar scanner data, new functionalities were introduced into the library's framework. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the Clear-PEM scanner acquisitions were used as input for image reconstruction with the 3D OSEM algorithm available in STIR. The results presented indicate that dual plate PEM data can be accurately reconstructed using the enhanced STIR framework.

  15. Two cases of seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Takashi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Kimura, Tetsunori

    2017-03-01

    Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells (SKBCC) is an extremely rare histopathological variant of seborrheic keratosis that has histological similarities to melanoma in situ. We herein report two cases of SKBCC and provide the first description of the dermoscopic features of this condition, in addition to the histopathological findings. Both of the two lesions showed typical histological architectures of seborrheic keratosis with rows or focal clusters of monomorphic clear cells with abundant pale cytoplasm and small round nucleus in the basal layer. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that most clear cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE12) in a peripheral pattern but were negative tor Melan-A. Dermoscopy revealed typical features of ordinary seborrheic keratosis, while unfortunately did not reflect the presence of basal clear cells. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Verminderen antibioticagebruik in de vleeskuikensector : CLEAR Helpdeskvraag 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Harn, van J.; Veldkamp, T.; Stockhofe, N.; Melchior, M.B.; Emous, van R.A.; Kense, M.

    2011-01-01

    Questions from participants and advisors in the CLEAR project with regard to reduction of the use of antibiotics in the broiler sector are answered. Advice and suggestions for further research are given.

  17. Bridge pressure flow scour for clear water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The equilibrium scour at a bridge caused by pressure flow with critical approach velocity in clear-water simulation conditions was studied both analytically and experimentally. The flume experiments revealed that (1) the measured equilibrium scour pr...

  18. An Investigation of Loop Seal Clearings in ATLAS SBLOCA Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeonsik; Cho, Seok; Kang, Kyoungho; Park, Hyunsik; Min, Kyeongho; Choi, Namhyeon; Park, Jonggook; Kim, Bokdeuk; Choi, Kiyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In most of the SBLOCA cases, the pressure of the upper-head region will increase mainly owing to the accumulated steam and water inventory in the upper-plenum. This build-up pressure acts as a suppression force to the core water level, and resultantly the core water level will decrease possibly up to and/or below the top of the active core region. Simultaneously, the downcomer water level will increase owing to the evacuated water inventory from the lower part of the core region. This unbalanced hydro-static pressure between the core and downcomer region acts as a potential pushing force to the reactor coolant pump (RCP) side intermediate leg. The potential pushing force will be increased with time to overcome the hydro-static head in the upflow intermediate leg. The unbalanced hydro-static pressure can finally be dissolved with the occurrence of the loop seal clearing. A minimum core collapsed water level, located below the elevation of the loop seal bottom leg in the ATLAS tests, is taken at this time. Since the loop seal bottom leg is located below the core top for typical PWR plants such as an APR1400, the water level depression may uncover the core upper regions until the core water level recovers with the progress of the clearing of the loop seal upflow leg. At this moment, the core temperature may increase to a peak cladding temperature (PCT) owing to an excessive core uncovery by the minimum core collapsed water level. Therefore, the loop seal clearing phenomenon is very important with respect to the PCT occurrence, which is one of the most important parameters to insure the safety of the reactor system. The loop seal clearing behavior seems to be closely related to the break location and break size. Usually, a loop seal in the break loop is cleared first, and the number of loop seal clearings is dependent on the break size. The larger the break size, the more the loop seals that are cleared. An investigation of LSC in the SBLOCA for DVI line and CL breaks

  19. Trends in added sugars from packaged beverages available and purchased by US households, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ostrowski, Jessica D; Li, Kuo-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Background: The US Food and Drug Administration's updated nutrition labeling requirements will include added sugars starting in July 2018, but no measure currently exists to identify the added sugar content of products and what it represents among purchases. Beverages are one of the first targets for reducing added sugar consumption, and hence are the focus here. Objective: Our goal was to estimate trends in added sugars in nonalcoholic packaged beverage products available in the United States and to estimate amounts of added sugars obtained from these beverages given the purchases of US households overall and by subpopulations. Design: On the basis of nutrition label data from multiple sources, we used a stepwise approach to derive the added sugar content of 160,713 beverage products recorded as purchased by US households in 2007-2012 (345,193 observations from 110,539 unique households). We estimated the amounts of added sugars obtained from packaged beverages US households reported buying in 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012, overall and by subpopulations based on household composition, race/ethnicity, and income. The key outcomes are added sugars in terms of per capita grams per day and the percentage of calories from packaged beverages. Results: Packaged beverages alone account for per capita consumption of 12 g/d of added sugars purchased by US households in 2007-2012, representing 32-48% of calories from packaged beverages. Whereas the absolute amount of added sugars from beverages has not changed meaningfully over time, the relative contribution of added sugars to calories from beverages has increased. Non-Hispanic black households and low-income households obtain both higher absolute and relative amounts of added sugars from beverages than non-Hispanic white households and high-income households (all P beverages at both the product level and the population level in the United States and can be used for comparisons after the revised nutrition labels are

  20. Fluid or Fuel? The Context of Consuming a Beverage Is Important for Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, Keri; Chambers, Lucy; Yeomans, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-containing beverages have a weak effect on satiety, limited by their fluid characteristics and perhaps because they are not considered ‘food’. This study investigated whether the context of consuming a beverage can influence the satiating power of its nutrients. Eighty participants consumed a lower- (LE, 75 kcal) and higher-energy (HE, 272 kcal) version of a beverage (covertly manipulated within-groups) on two test days, in one of four beverage contexts (between-groups): thin versions of the test-drinks were consumed as a thirst-quenching drink (n = 20), a filling snack (n = 20), or without additional information (n = 20). A fourth group consumed subtly thicker versions of the beverages without additional information (n = 20). Lunch intake 60 minutes later depended on the beverage context and energy content (p = 0.030): participants who consumed the thin beverages without additional information ate a similar amount of lunch after the LE and HE versions (LE = 475 kcal, HE = 464 kcal; p = 0.690) as did those participants who believed the beverages were designed to quench-thirst (LE = 442 kcal, HE = 402 kcal; p = 0.213), despite consuming an additional 197 kcal in the HE beverage. Consuming the beverage as a filling snack led participants to consume less at lunch after the HE beverage compared to the LE version (LE = 506 kcal, HE = 437 kcal; p = 0.025). This effect was also seen when the beverages were subtly thicker, with participants in this group displaying the largest response to the beverage’s energy content, consuming less at lunch after the HE version (LE = 552 kcal, HE = 415 kcal; pbeverage can affect the impact of its nutrients on appetite regulation and provide further evidence that a beverage’s sensory characteristics can limit its satiating power. PMID:24945526

  1. Characterization of Volatile Compounds from Ethnic Agave Alcoholic Beverages by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Escalante-Minakata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic Agave alcoholic beverages such as raicilla, sisal, tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol and pulque have been analyzed by gas chromatography and headspace solid-phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS. There were 105 compounds identified, eleven were classified as major compounds and the others were classified as minor compounds. Seventeen minor compounds could be used as authenticity markers since they were beverage specific. Cluster analysis (CA showed that Agave alcoholic beverages could be distinguished by multivariate analysis of major compounds; however, the analysis of minor compounds provided a better fingerprinting.

  2. Alcoholic beverages induce superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, K; Kawasaki, Y; Ozaki, T; Tsuda, S; Yamaguchi, T; Takano, Y; Mizuguchi, Y

    2011-01-01

    We found that hot alcoholic beverages were effective in inducing superconductivity in FeTe 0.8 S 0.2 . Heating the FeTe 0.8 S 0.2 compound in various alcoholic beverages enhances the superconducting properties compared to a pure water-ethanol mixture as a control. Heating with red wine for 24 h leads to the largest shielding volume fraction of 62.4% and the highest zero resistivity temperature of 7.8 K. Some components present in alcoholic beverages, other than water and ethanol, have the ability to induce superconductivity in the FeTe 0.8 S 0.2 compound.

  3. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zito Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2 compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2, during a solid (SM and a liquid meal (LM on: a gastric volume, b caloric intake, c ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2, ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1 were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min. Total gastric volumes (TGV were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS. Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p 2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66 or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95. Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p 2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1. No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  4. Geophysical study of the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of geophysical studies in the Clear Lake region of California, north of San Francisco, have revealed a prominent, nearly circular negative gravity anomaly with an amplitude of more than 25 milligals (mgal) and an areal extent of approximately 250 square miles and, in addition, a number of smaller positive and negative anomalies. The major negative gravity anomaly is closely associated with the Clear Lake volcanic field and with an area characterized by hot springs and geothermal fields. However, the anomaly cannot be explained by mapped surface geologic features of the area. Aeromagnetic data in the Clear Lake region show no apparent correlation with the major negative gravity anomaly; the local magnetic field is affected principally by serpentine. An electrical resistivity low marks the central part of the gravity minimum, and a concentration of earthquake epicenters characterizes the Clear Lake volcanic field area. The primary cause of the major negative gravity anomaly is believed to be a hot intrusive mass, possibly a magma chamber, that may underlie the Clear Lake volcanic field and vicinity. This mass may serve as a source of heat for the geothermal phenomena in the area. Other smaller gravity anomalies in the Clear Lake region are apparently caused by near-surface geologic features, including relatively dense units of the Franciscan Formation and less dense Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rock units.

  5. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  6. Clear-Sky Narrowband Albedo Datasets Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Arduini, R. F.; Hong, G.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of clouds requires an accurate estimate of the clear-sky radiances for a given scene to detect clouds and aerosols and to retrieve their microphysical properties. Knowing the spatial and angular variability of clear-sky albedo is essential for predicting the clear-sky radiance at solar wavelengths. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project uses the near-infrared (NIR; 1.24, 1.6 or 2.13 μm) and visible (VIS; 0.63 μm) channels available on the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) to help identify clouds and retrieve their properties. Generally, clear-sky albedo for a given surface type is determined for conditions when the vegetation is either thriving or dormant and free of snow. The clear-sky albedos are derived using a radiative transfer parameterization of the impact of the atmosphere, including aerosols, on the observed reflectances. This paper presents the method of generating monthly clear-sky overhead albedo maps for both snow-free and snow-covered surfaces of these channels using one year of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) CERES products. Maps of 1.24 and 1.6 μm are being used as the background to help retrieve cloud properties (e.g., effective particle size, optical depth) in CERES cloud retrievals in both snow-free and snow-covered conditions.

  7. Clearing of ventilating emissions in low temperature environment of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. Sh; Rafalskaya, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The method of high-temperature processing of streams of the ventilating air which is a subject clearing from organic pollutions is developed. Data about its efficiency, including on a number of economic parameters are obtained. Results of work are recommended for use, first of all, by development clearing plasma-thermal reactors (CPTR) for clearing air, especially from toxic substances, and also for large technological clearing installations, containing organic ventilating emissions (OVE). It is created experimental CPTR. Laws of the expiration of a plasma jet in stream of OVE limited by cylindrical walls, water-cooled channel are experimentally investigated. Dependences of a trajectory and long-range the plasma jet blown radially in stream of OVE are received. Heat exchange of stream of OVE with walls of CPTR after blowing a plasma jet is experimentally investigated; dependences of distribution of temperatures on length of a reactor and a thermal stream in a wall of channel of CPTR are received. Are investigated chemical compound of OVE after plasma-thermal clearing, some experimental data by formation of oxides of nitrogen and mono-oxide of carbon during clearing are received.

  8. A large, switchable optical clearing skull window for cerebrovascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yanjie; Yu, Tingting; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Tonghui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Intravital optical imaging is a significant method for investigating cerebrovascular structure and function. However, its imaging contrast and depth are limited by the turbid skull. Tissue optical clearing has a great potential for solving this problem. Our goal was to develop a transparent skull window, without performing a craniotomy, for use in assessing cerebrovascular structure and function. Methods: Skull optical clearing agents were topically applied to the skulls of mice to create a transparent window within 15 min. The clearing efficacy, repeatability, and safety of the skull window were then investigated. Results: Imaging through the optical clearing skull window enhanced both the contrast and the depth of intravital imaging. The skull window could be used on 2-8-month-old mice and could be expanded from regional to bi-hemispheric. In addition, the window could be repeatedly established without inducing observable inflammation and metabolic toxicity. Conclusion: We successfully developed an easy-to-handle, large, switchable, and safe optical clearing skull window. Combined with various optical imaging techniques, cerebrovascular structure and function can be observed through this optical clearing skull window. Thus, it has the potential for use in basic research on the physiopathologic processes of cortical vessels. PMID:29774069

  9. Snack and beverage consumption and preferences in a sample of Chinese children - Are they influenced by advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yu, Yang; King, Lesley; Li, Mu

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of unhealthy snack and beverages can lead to childhood obesity, which has become a major concern globally. Television food advertisements may influence children's snack and beverages preferences. This article aims to explore children's snack and beverage consumption habits; examine the extent of television advertising for non-core (energy-dense, nutrient poor) snack and beverages; and assess the influence of television advertising on children's snack and beverages preferences in Harbin, China. The study consisted of two components, a recall survey on the snack and beverage consumption and preferences of 9-11 years old school children; and recording snack and beverage advertisements on three popular television channels. Odds Ratio (OR) was used to estimate the likelihood of children selecting particular snack and beverages as their top three choices according to whether their preferences were influenced by television advertisements. The majority of children consumed non-core snacks (100%) and beverages (80%) in the four weeks prior to the survey. Nearly 40% of television food advertisements were for non-core snacks and beverages. Non-core snacks (OR of 1.13) and non-core beverages (OR of 1.23) were more likely chosen as children's top three snack/beverage choices, particularly, "puffed food and tubers" snack and carbonated beverages (OR of 1.31 and 1.45, respectively). The snack and beverage preferences appeared to be influenced by television advertisements in this sample of Chinese children, highlighting the potential health and nutritional value of policy to reduce advertising of non-core foods in China.

  10. Changes in biotic and abiotic processes following mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Elise; Ruttenberg, Benjamin I.

    2008-12-01

    Mangrove forests, important tropical coastal habitats, are in decline worldwide primarily due to removal by humans. Changes to mangrove systems can alter ecosystem properties through direct effects on abiotic factors such as temperature, light and nutrient supply or through changes in biotic factors such as primary productivity or species composition. Despite the importance of mangroves as transitional habitats between land and sea, little research has examined changes that occur when they are cleared. We examined changes in a number of biotic and abiotic factors following the anthropogenic removal of red mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle) in the Panamanian Caribbean, including algal biomass, algal diversity, algal grazing rates, light penetration, temperature, sedimentation rates and sediment organic content. In this first study examining multiple ecosystem-level effects of mangrove disturbance, we found that areas cleared of mangroves had higher algal biomass and richness than intact mangrove areas. This increase in algal biomass and richness was likely due to changes in abiotic factors (e.g. light intensity, temperature), but not biotic factors (fish herbivory). Additionally the algal and cyanobacterial genera dominating mangrove-cleared areas were rare in intact mangroves and included a number of genera that compete with coral for space on reefs. Interestingly, sedimentation rates did not differ between intact and cleared areas, but the sediments that accumulated in intact mangroves had higher organic content. These findings are the first to demonstrate that anthropogenic clearing of mangroves changes multiple biotic and abiotic processes in mangrove forests and that some of these changes may influence adjacent habitats such as coral reefs and seagrass beds. Additional research is needed to further explore the community and ecosystem-level effects of mangrove clearing and their influence on adjacent habitats, but it is clear that mangrove conservation is an

  11. Anterior Crossbite and Crowding Correction with a Series of Clear Aligners Involving Lower Incisor Extraction: "The Clear Way" Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaskar, Naval Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The Clear Aligner can be used to correct tooth movement without involving extraction, surgery, and other adjunct orthopaedic appliances. Some forms ofattachments are required with clear aligners to achieve all major types of orthodontic tooth movements. The Clear Aligner is a procedure that can be performed by a clinician with computer simulation/calculation. Since the Clear Aligner can be fabricated in steps, it is readily available to change the treatment sequence throughout the course of the treatment in cases of complex malocclusions. The patient can receive any necessary dental procedures with ease during the course of the treatment. The treatment can also be easily resumed even if the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. The purpose of this article is to report dental anterior crossbite correction with a series of Clear Aligners without the use of any forms of attachments. The Clear Aligner could be used as an alternative in appropriate cases for those who are reluctant with conventional appliances.

  12. A study on indigenous fermented foods and beverages of Kokrajhar, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutika Narzary

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The application of scientific methodology in the processing of such fermented foods and beverages would contribute to sustainability of regional economy by boosting the livelihood of the rural people.

  13. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  14. Market structure, price rigidity, and performance in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: industrial concentration, price rigidity, technical efficiency, price-cost margin, Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP), new empirical industrial organization (NEIO), Indonesian food and beverages industry, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), system of equations

  15. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Among all food and beverages-related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P food and beverages-focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. © 2015 APJPH.

  16. Dynamic technical inefficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Maman; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between industrial concentration and technical inefficiency in the Indonesian food and beverages industry using a dynamic performance measure (dynamic technical inefficiency) that accounts for the presence of adjustment costs.

  17. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  18. Survival of enteric pathogens in common beverages: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, N K; Wisniewski, T R; Franson, T R

    1988-06-01

    This in vitro study was undertaken to determine the potential for survival of enteric pathogens in common drinking beverages. Three carbonated soft drinks, two alcoholic beverages, skim milk, and water were inoculated with Salmonella, Shigella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and quantitative counts were performed over 2 days. Our studies showed poorest survival of all three organisms in wine, and greatest growth in milk and water. Beer and cola allowed survival of small numbers of Salmonella and E. coli at 48 h, whereas sour mix and diet cola were sterile by 48 h. Survival features may correlate with pH of the beverages. These observations may be useful in guiding travellers for appropriate beverage consumption while visiting areas endemic for "traveller's diarrhea."

  19. Effect of brewing conditions on antioxidant properties of rosehip tea beverage: study by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlyasoğlu, Huri; Arpa, Tuba Eda

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of brewing conditions (infusion time and temperature) on the antioxidant properties of rosehip tea beverage. The ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of rosehip tea beverage were analysed. A two-factor and three-level central composite design was applied to evaluate the effects of the variables on the responses. The best quadratic models were obtained for all responses. The generated models were validated under the optimal conditions. At the optimal conditions, the rosehip tea beverage had 3.15 mg 100 mL -1 of ascorbic acid, 61.44 mg 100 mL -1 of TPC, and 2591 µmol of FRAP. The best brewing conditions for the rosehip tea beverage were found to be an infusion time of 6-8 min at temperatures of 84-86 °C.

  20. Beverage Intake in Early Childhood and Change in Body Fat from Preschool to Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnain, Syed Ridda; Singer, Martha R.; Bradlee, M. Loring; Moore, Lynn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is closely associated with adult obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This study's aim was to determine the effects of beverage intake patterns on body composition from early childhood into adolescence in the Framingham Children's Study.