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Sample records for lemon citrus limon

  1. SCREENING FITOKIMIA, AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN ANTIMIKROBA PADA BUAH JERUK LEMON(Citrus limon DAN JERUK NIPIS (Citrus aurantiifolia

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    Anindya Nirmala Permata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The desire to live healthy by eating natural foods and drinks into the lifestyle of the community. Orange becomes one of the fruits that become functional food to maintain and maintain health. The purpose of this research is to know the difference of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity on Citrus limon and Citrus aurantiifolia. The research method is laboratory experimental research with descriptive analysis. This research was conducted in February-April 2017 at the Laboratory of Plant Biological Microbiology and Plant Chemistry Department of Biology State University of Malang. Phytochemical screening by color reaction method, total phenol with Folin Ciocalteu method, antioxidant activity with DPPH method and antimicrobial activity with disc method. Screening results show the presence of saponins and alkaloids but there are no flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Total phenol test showed total phenol content in Lemon (Citrus limon of 110,25 mg GAE / 100ml while in Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia 116,5 mg GAE / 100ml. The antioxidant activity of Lemon Citrus (Citrus limon 49.593 g / ml and Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia 49.589g / ml. Antimicrobial activity test obtained the highest zone of resistance at 100% concentration of each citrus fruit. The conclusion of this study is that there is a difference of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in both oranges, where the lemon fruits (C.limon antioxidant activity is higher than and Lime (C. aurantiifolia, while the antimicrobial activity of lemon (C. aurantiifolia is higher Rather than lemon (C.limon.

  2. Seedless induced mutant in highly seeded lemon (Citrus limon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.; Vardi, Aliza; Elhanati, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: We have reported earlier on the induction of a seedless mutant in ''Eureka'' lemon. Further irradiation work with gamma rays was performed with another lemon cultivar, ''Israeli Villafranca''. This highly prolific cultivar has usually up to 25 seeds per fruit. Budwood of ''Villafranca'' was exposed to 50 Gy gamma rays from a Co source at the Nuclear Soreq Centre (by courtesy of Mr. R. Padova). Buds from M 1 V 1 plants (usually buds 3 to 15) were individually budded in the nursery on sour orange, as well as buds from non-irradiated material. Out of 120 M 1 V 2 plants grown in the field at 3x2 m spacing one tree bore completely seedless fruit. Fruit on adjacent trees had 22 seeds on the average. The selected tree has been observed for two seasons and found to bear normal seedless fruit. M 1 V 3 trees from budwood of the selected original tree have been raised. Some of these have started bearing. Nearly all fruits are completely seedless, with a maximum number of 1 seed per fruit. (author)

  3. Potencial antioxidante de extratos de sementes de limão (Citrus limon Antioxidant potential of lemon seed extracts (Citrus limon

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    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como principais objetivos avaliar o comportamento do óleo de soja acrescido de extratos de sementes de limão (Citrus limon, em diferentes concentrações, por meio da estabilidade oxidativa e medir a atividade antioxidante através do método do radical livre DPPH e compostos fenólicos totais. A concentração de 2.400 mg.kg-1 para o extrato de sementes de limão, variedade galego, foi a que conferiu melhor estabilidade oxidativa ao óleo de soja. As atividades antioxidantes máximas e os valores da concentração de extrato natural suficientes para obter 50% do efeito máximo, estimado em 100% (EC50, determinados pelo DPPH para o extrato e ácido gálico foram 70,58%, 69,94 μg.mL-1 e 75,07%, 64,73 μg.mL-1, respectivamente. A concentração de compostos fenólicos totais, determinada pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteu foi de 76 mg.g-1. Foi possível concluir que o extrato de sementes de limão galego possui ação antioxidante natural, podendo ser aplicado em alimentos.The present study aimed at evaluating the behavior of the soybean oil with the addition of lemon seed extracts (Citrus limon, in different concentrations, through oxidative stability and also at measuring the antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical method and total phenolic compounds. The concentration of 2,400 mg.kg-1 for the lemon seed extract, galego variety, was the one that provided the soybean oil with the best oxidative stability. The maximum antioxidant activities and the concentration values of the natural extract sufficient to obtain 50% of maximum effect, estimated at 100% (EC50, determined by DPPH for the extract and gallic acid were 70.58%, 69.94 μg.mL-1 and 75.07%, 64.73 μg.mL-1, respectively. The concentration of total phenolic compounds, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, was of 76 mg.g-1. Thus, it can be said that the lemon seed extract, galego, presents natural antioxidant action demonstrating potential to be used in

  4. Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon) cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Tamer, El M.K.; Schwab, W.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus limon possesses a high content and large variety of monoterpenoids, especially in the glands of the fruit flavedo. The genes responsible for the production of these monoterpenes have never been isolated. By applying a random sequencing approach to a cDNA library from mRNA isolated from the

  5. Chemical guide parameters for Spanish lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, José; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Ibarz, Albert; Coll, Luís; Hernández, Julio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2014-11-01

    To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice extracted from the Spanish lemon varieties, chemical composition of 92 direct and 92 reconstituted samples were investigated. In direct lemon juice, titratable acidity was 52.4 g/L, being the citric acid the main component. Glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were 7.9, 7.3 and 4.5 g/L, respectively. Predominant mineral was potassium (1264.2mg/L), followed by phosphorous (306 mg/L), calcium (112 mg/L) and magnesium (92.6 mg/L). Hesperidin ranged from 257 to 484.8 mg/L, while water soluble pectins varied between 164.8 and 550 mg/L. Similar values were obtained in reconstituted lemon juice. There are different parameters that did not reach or exceeded the limits proposed by the European Association of the Industry of Juices and Nectars. These levels should be taken into account to modify the present reference guideline and that Spanish lemon juices are not discarded for to have lower or bigger values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative Study of the Effect of Sample Pretreatment and Extraction on the Determination of Flavonoids from Lemon (Citrus limon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A.; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Flavonoids have shown to exert multiple beneficial effects on human health, being also appreciated by both food and pharmaceutical industries. Citrus fruits are a key source of flavonoids, thus promoting studies to obtain them. Characteristics of these studies are the discrepancies among sample pretreatments and among extraction methods, and also the scant number of comparative studies developed so far. Objective Evaluate the effect of both the sample pretreatment and the extraction method on the profile of flavonoids isolated from lemon. Results Extracts from fresh, lyophilized and air-dried samples obtained by shaking extraction (SE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and superheated liquid extraction (SHLE) were analyzed by LC–QTOF MS/MS, and 32 flavonoids were tentatively identified using MS/MS information. ANOVA applied to the data from fresh and dehydrated samples and from extraction by the different methods revealed that 26 and 32 flavonoids, respectively, were significant (p≤0.01). The pairwise comparison (Tukey HSD; p≤0.01) showed that lyophilized samples are more different from fresh samples than from air-dried samples; also, principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination among sample pretreatment strategies and suggested that such differences are mainly created by the abundance of major flavonoids. On the other hand, pairwise comparison of extraction methods revealed that USAE and MAE provided quite similar extracts, being SHLE extracts different from the other two. In this case, PCA showed a clear discrimination among extraction methods, and their position in the scores plot suggests a lower abundance of flavonoids in the extracts from SHLE. In the two PCA the loadings plots revealed a trend to forming groups according to flavonoid aglycones. Conclusions The present study shows clear discrimination caused by both sample pretreatments and extraction methods. Under the studied

  7. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect.

  8. Fatty acids profile and alteration of lemon seeds extract (Citrus limon) added to soybean oil under thermoxidation.

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    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2013-10-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating fatty acids profile and the total alteration of lemon seeds extract added to soybean oil under thermoxidation, verifying the isolated and synergistic effect of these antioxidants. Therefore, Control treatments, LSE (2,400 mg/kg Lemon Seeds Extract), TBHQ (mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180°C for 20 h. Samples were taken at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analyzed as for fatty acid profile and total polar compounds. Results were subjected to variance analyses and Tukey tests at a 5% significance level. An increase in the percentage of saturated fatty acids and mono-unsaturated, and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed, regardless of the treatments studied. For total polar compounds, it was verified that Mixtures 1 and 2 presented values lower than 25% with 20 h of heating, not surpassing the limits established in many countries for disposal of oils and fats under high temperatures, thus proving the synergistic effect of antioxidants.

  9. Micropropagation of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Komal; Sharma, R; Singh, P K; Singh, Govind

    2013-01-01

    A micropropagation protocol was developed for multiplication of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) using nodal explants. The maximum shoot regeneration was observed on low level of BAP (0.1 mg l(-1)) or kinetin (0.5 mg l(-1)). BA was recorded to be better than kinetin in terms of number of days taken to bud break. The maximum number of shoots per explant was observed on 0.1 mg l(-1) BA and 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin. Shoot proliferation decreased with increasing concentration of BA alone, but in case of a combination of BA and NAA (0.1 mg l(-1) each), it increased with increasing concentration of BA up to 10.0 mg l(-1). None of the treatments including BA or kinetin alone or BA in combination with NAA produced significantly more shoots for commercial exploitation. In the case of a combination of BA + kinetin + IBA, the maximum (5.5 shoots per explants) proliferation was observed on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) BA + 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA or 0.25 mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA. Regenerated shoots showed root induction on MS basal medium or on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA. It is concluded that a five-fold increase (1.0 mg l(-1) BA + 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA) in axillary shoot proliferation, while seven-fold increase (0.25 mg/l mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA) during the second cycle of multiplication could be obtained using the two plant growth regulator combinations. PCR amplification with 14 different random primers confirmed no somaclonal variant up to two cycles of shoot multiplication.

  10. In vitro and in vivo effect of Citrus limon essential oil against sarcoptic mange in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of lemon oil (Citrus limon) on Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The mite samples were collected from naturally infected rabbits. The lemon oil was prepared in six concentrations by dilution with distilled water (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 %). In vitro a...

  11. Volatile constituents of the peel and leaf oils of Citrus limon L. Burm. f. from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayedoun, M.A.; Sossou, P.V.; Mardarowicz, M.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The peel and leaf oils ofCitrus limon L. from Benin were analyzed by capillary GC on two columns of different polarity, and by GCIMS. In these oils 42 and 27 components were identified, representing over 99.7% ofthe oils. The main constituents of the lemon peel oil were limonene (70.4%), y-terpinene

  12. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, and Citrus grandis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Sholeh Saeb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading, and there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. The genus Citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae has many biologically active secondary metabolites. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extract of Lemon (Citrus limon, Mandarin (Citrus reticulata and Pummelo (Citrus grandis against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The fresh Citrus leaves were shade-dried and powdered. Antimicrobial metabolites were extracted from them by 80% methanol for extract and using a Clevenger-type apparatus for essential oil. Eight different concentrations of the each leaf extract and essential oil were prepared. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay of Citrus leaves metabolites were subjected against four bacterial strains by agar disc diffusion and E-test method. Results: In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of different Citrus leaf extracts were determined against all four food-borne pathogens. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had potent antimicrobial activity against all four pathogens, and the C. limon leaf essential oil was effective on Gram-positive bacteria. S. typhi was resistant against two leaves essential oils. Conclusions: The results showed that there was no antimicrobial activity effect in all extracts on tested bacteria. In this study, the antibacterial effect of essential oil of Citrus leaves on four strains of pathogenic microorganisms was confirmed. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had the most powerful antimicrobial properties, suggesting its potential application as natural preservative in foods or an effective medicine against different pathogenic microbes. Key words: Antibacterial activity, E-test, Citr

  13. Fermentation potentials of Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa juice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fermentation potentials of yeast isolates from Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa for the fermentation of juice extracts of C. limon and H. sabdariffa. Isolation and morphological studies of yeast cells were carried out by standard protocols. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) ...

  14. Spectrophotometric quantification of antioxidant phytochemicals in juices from four different varieties of citrus limon, indigenous to Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosa, M.K.; Hussain, A.I.; Riaz, H.; Aslam, K.; Chatha, S.A.S.; Zia, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research work was carried out to quantify the total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoides, vitamin C contents, reported as antioxidants, in juices of four varieties of Pakistani Citrus limon. Juice was extracted from fresh lemon samples using classical method and subjected to study the various quality parameters. The total phenolic contents from juices of Citrus limon, determined following the Folin-Ciocalteu assay were found in the range of 690.62-998.29 mg/L, showing the significant inter-varietals variations. The total flavonoids and vitamin C contents from juices of Citrus limon were found in the range of 211.36-220.34 and 18.87-25.1 mg/L, respectively. Whereas, the total carotenoides contents of Citrus limon juices were found in a low concentrations i.e. 0.05-0.08 mg/L. The statistical analysis showed significant (p 0.05) variation in total flavonoids contents among different varieties of Citrus limon. (author)

  15. Participation of the phosphoinositide metabolism in the hypersensitive response of Citrus limon against Alternaria alternata

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    XIMENA ORTEGA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon seedlings inoculated with Alternaria alternata develop a hypersensitive response (HR that includes the induction of Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, E. C. 4.3.1.5 and the synthesis of scoparone. The signal transduction pathway involved in the development of this response is unknown. We used several inhibitors of the Phosphoinositide (PI animal system to study a possible role of Inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 in the transduction of the fungal conidia signal in Citrus limon. The HR was only partially inhibited by EGTA, suggesting that not only external but internal calcium as well are necessary for a complete development of the HR. In this plant system, Alternaria alternata induced an early accumulation of the second messenger IP3. When lemon seedlings were watered long term with LiCl, an inhibitor of the phosphoinositide cycle, the IP3 production was reduced, and the LiCl-watered plants could neither induce PAL nor synthesize scoparone in response to fungal conidia. Furthermore, neomycin, a Phospholipase C (PLC, E. C. 3.1.4.3 inhibitor, also inhibited PAL induction and scoparone synthesis in response to A. alternata. These results suggest that IP3 could be involved in the signal transduction pathway for the development of the HR of Citrus limon against A. alternata

  16. Comportamento de catorze porta-enxertos para o limão eureka km 47 na região de Araraquara-SP Behaviour of fourteen rootstocks for eureka lemon [Citrus limon (L Burm. F. ] cv. km 47, in Araraquara, SP, Brazil

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    José Orlando de Figueiredo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de 14 porta-enxertos para o limão 'Eureka km 47' [Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.], clone nucelar, em experimento instalado em 1991, na Fazenda Fittipaldi, Araraquara-SP. Os porta-enxertos foram: tangelos 'Orlando' e 'Seminole' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macfad., tangerinas 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka e 'Sunki' [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka], limões 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Rugoso da África' (C. jambhiri Lush. e 'Volkameriano Catania 2' (C. volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq., laranja 'Caipira DAC' [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], laranja 'Azeda Doble Cálice' (C. aurantium L., trifoliatas 'EEL'e 'Kryder 8-5' [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], citrange 'Morton' [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], C. karna Raf. e C. pennivesiculata (Lush. Tanaka. As produções foram avaliadas no período de 1998 a 2002. As maiores produções médias em peso de frutos estiveram relacionadas aos porta-enxertos C. pennivesiculata e tangerina 'Cleópatra' (>220 kg/planta. Entre os porta-enxertos que induziram as mais baixas produções, estão C. karna, os dois tangelos, os dois trifoliatas e a 'Caipira DAC' (Fourteen rootstocks were compared in a trial started in 1991, for Eureka lemon cv. km 47, nucellar clone, in Araraquara, Brazil. The rootstocks tested were Orlando and Seminole tangelos (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macfad., Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, Sunki mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka], Rangpur Lime (C. limonia Osbeck, Rough Lemon cv. African (C. jambhiri Lush., and Volkamerican cv Catania 2 (C. volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq., sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck] cv. Caipira DAC, sour orange (C. aurantium L., Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. EEL, P. trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. Kryder 8-5, Morton citrange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], C. karna Raf. and C. pennivesiculata (Lush. Tanaka. Yield was measured by weight of fruits per tree, for a period of

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  18. Regulation of Vacuolar pH in Citrus limon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln Taiz

    2005-06-22

    The primary objective of this grant was to characterize the vacuolar V-ATPase of lemon fruits. Lemon fruit vacuoles have an internal pH of about 2.5. Since a typical plant vacuole has a luminal pH of around 5.5, the lemon fruit V-APTase must have special properties which allow it to acidify the lumen to such a low pH: (1) it might have a different structure; (2) it might have a different H{sup +}/ATP stoichiometry; and (3) it might be regulated differently. During the course of the investigations (which began in 1996) they characterized these aspects of the V-ATPases of both lemon fruits and lime fruits. They examined lime fruits because of the availability of both acidic limes with a low vacuolar pH and sweet limes, which have a much higher vacuolar pH. The existence of two types of lime fruits allowed a comparison of the V-ATPases of the two varieties. In this report they are including two publications from 1996 and 1997 as background for the later publications. A review article with Heven Sze on V-ATPase nomenclature was also generated during the funding period. In addition to the studies on citrus fruit vacuoles, they also initiated studies in two new areas: polar auxin transport and the regulation of stomatal opening by UV-B irradiation. These studies were intended to serve as a basis of future separate grants, but the proposals they submitted on these topics were not funded.

  19. Lemon (Citrus limon, Burm.f.) essential oil enhances the trans-epidermal release of lipid-(A, E) and water-(B6, C) soluble vitamins from topical emulsions in reconstructed human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgimigli, L; Gabbanini, S; Berlini, E; Lucchi, E; Beltramini, C; Bertarelli, Y L

    2012-08-01

    Topical bioavailability of lipid- and water-soluble vitamins is a critical issue for protecting or anti-ageing formulations. Using 17-day-old SkinEthic(®) reconstructed human epidermis, we investigated (at 34°C) the role of lemon EO in enhancing the penetration of α-tocopherol (E) and retinyl acetate (A), pyridoxine (B(6)) and ascorbic acid (C), released from O/W or W/O emulsions. D-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene (65.9, 2.2 and 0.5%w/w of the oil) had skin permeability coefficients Ps (10(-3) cm h(-1)) of 0.56 ± 0.03 (or 0.73 ± 0.02), 0.72 ± 0.05 (or 0.98 ± 0.05) and 0.84 ± 0.04 (or 1.14 ± 0.04), respectively, when incorporated in a W/O (or O/W) emulsion. Vitamins B6, C and A had Ps values of (3.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-3), (7.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-3) and (0.37 ± 0.02) × 10(-5) cm h(-1), respectively, and their flux through the skin was enhanced by a factor of 4.1, 3.4 and 5.8, respectively, in the presence of lemon EO. The penetration of vitamin E was nine-fold enhanced. Lemon EO produced only reversible modification of TEWL, and it is a safe and effective penetration enhancer for topical administration of lipid- and water-soluble vitamins. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Antimicrobial synergism and cytotoxic properties of Citrus limon L., Piper nigrum L. and Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Miloš M; Jovanović, Katarina K; Marković, Tatjana Lj; Marković, Dejan Lj; Gligorijević, Nevenka N; Radulović, Siniša S; Kostić, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina M; Soković, Marina D

    2017-11-01

    The chemical composition, antimicrobial and synergistic effect, and cytotoxic activity of Citrus limon (lemon), Piper nigrum (green pepper) and Melaleuca alternifoila (tea tree) essential oils (EOs) were investigated. Chemical analyses of essential oils were tested by GC-FID and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity assay was conducted using microdilution method against several oral bacteria and Candida spp. originating from the humans with oral disorders. The synergistic antimicrobial activity was evaluated using checkerboard method. The cytotoxicity evaluation of EOs was assessed using MTT test. Limonene (37.5%) and β-pinene (17.9%) were the major compounds in C. limon oil, β-pinene (34.4%), δ-3-carene (19.7%), limonene (18.7%) and α-pinene (10.4%) in P. nigrum oil and terpinen-4-ol (38.6%) and γ-terpinene (21.7%) in M. alternifolia oil. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was achieved by tested three EOs, with C. limon oil being the strongest against bacteria and M. alternifolia oil strongest against fungi. The EOs demonstrated synergism; their combined application revealed an increase in antimicrobial activity. All tested essential oils showed lower cytotoxic activity in comparison with the positive control, and the obtained results confirmed a dose-dependent activity. The results of this study encourage use of tested EOs in development of a novel agent intended for prevention or therapy of corresponding oral disorders. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Evaluation of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) as rootstock for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lakesh.Sharma

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... rootstock for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under in vitro conditions ... INTRODUCTION. Around the world, citrus is one of the .... to summarize the general effect of different concentrations of NaCl on rough lemon on the ...

  2. Evaluation of central nervous system effects of Citrus limon essential oil in mice

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    Lidianne Mayra Lopes Campêlo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities of Citrus limon (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, essential oil (EO were investigated in animal models. The EO (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg injected by oral route (p.o. in mice caused a significant decrease in the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to thirty days after the administration and the dose of 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Additionally, C. limon essential oil was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. The administration of FLU (10 mg/kg, i.p., GABA A-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZD receptor antagonist, antagonized the effect of C. limon essential oil at higher dose. This C. limon essential oil was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by picrotoxin (PIC at higher dose. In the same way, the anticonvulsant effect of the EO was affected by pretreatment with flumazenil, a selective antagonist of benzodiazepine site of GABA A receptor. These results suggest a possible CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice that needs further investigation.

  3. Behavioral effects of Citrus limon and Punica granatum combinations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2017-02-01

    Dietary supplements are becoming more influential as viable treatment for common chronic diseases and to promote normal development and functions of all system including brain. Disorders like anxiety and depression may be managed through healthier variations is dietary pattern, since there are indications that diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins diminish anxiety and depression. Hence this investigation was planned to assess the behavioral effects of Citrus limon and Punica granatum in two combination doses i.e. 0.4 + 5 ml/kg and 0.2 + 8 ml/kg C. limon and P. granatum respectively in rats. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects were explicitly judged twice during 15 days using forced swimming and open field tests and elevated plus maze. In open field test C. limon and P. granatum showed increase in distance travelled, number of central entries and number of rearing's at 0.4 + 5 ml/kg combination, in the elevated plus maze, number of open arm entries were found to be augmented and in forced swimming test, there was decline in duration of immobility and rise in duration of climbing at both combinations i.e. 0.4 + 5 ml/kg and 0.2 + 8 ml/kg C. limon and P. granatum. These results suggest that C. limon and P. granatum at 0.4 + 5 ml/kg combination have anxiolytic and antidepressant effect.

  4. Effect of gamma-irradiation and colchicine on cell division and differentiation of xylem elements in citrus limon juice vesicle cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Aysha; Chauhan, Y.S.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of varying doses of gamma irradiation on cell division and cytodifferentiation of tracheary elements in cultured juice vesicles of Citrus limon (L) Burmann var. Assam lemon were investigated. Low radiation doses stimulated cell division and differentiation of xylem fibres, sclereids and tracheids in explants given up to 10 Gy of gamma rays. Although cell division and cytodifferentiation of fibers and sclereids occurred in explants exposed to 150 dose of Gy radiation, the intensity of differentiation was much less than that induced by 10 Gy radiation dose. Amongst the differential elements, tracheids were more sensitive to radiation than fibres and sclereids. The requirement of cell division for differentiation of xylem cells was also studied by using different concentrations of colchicine in Citrus limon juice vesicle cultures. It was found that the low concentrations of colchicine permitted normal cell division and also resulted in normal differentiation of xylem cells; higher colchicine concentration, however, inhibited cell division as well as differentiation and resulted in an abnormal differentiation of tracheary element. A positive correlation between intensity of nucleic acid staining and cell division in both the above-mentioned experiments was qualitatively confirmed by Azur B staining test of nucleic acid. Thus, it was concluded that juice vesicle parenchyma cells go through nucleic acid synthesis, followed by cell division before differentiation. (author)

  5. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda.

  6. Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus in lemon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Figueroa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV was monitored in different lemon varieties derived from shoot tip grafted (STG selections proven to be free of CTV before planting. The trial was planted in November, 2007, with a randomized four-block design with four replications. This experiment was originally established to compare selected clones with their duplicates recovered by STG. The selected clones were originally nucellar clones kept in the germplasm bank in the field for 30 to 40 years, so the plants were naturally infected with CTV. The lemon varieties tested were two lines of both Frost Eureka and Limoneira 8A Lisbon and one line of Feminello Santa Teresa and Genoa EEAT. Plants were grafted on Poncirus trifoliata Flying Dragon, except for Eureka lemon, which was grafted on 79 AC [Citrus reshni x (C. paradisi x P. Trifoliata]. Direct immunoprinting-ELISA with 3DF1+3CA5 monoclonal antibodies (Plant Print Diagnostics, Valencia was used to determine the presence of CTV in field samples. Each sample was composed of four young shoots collected from the four sides of each tree. Two diagnoses were performed, one in September 2009 and another in September 2010. STG trees showed significant differences in CTV infection among them. The variety most infected with CTV was Limoneria 8 A and the least infected was Feminello Santa Teresa. Infected plants were found in a random distribution in the plot. All selected lemon trees were CTV positive. CTV spread will be monitored until 100% of all varieties show positive.

  7. The study of Bacteriocin of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Citrus limon effects against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis in acne patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mais E.

    2018-05-01

    Research was carried out on the antibacterial effect of (Citrus limon) juice on Acnevulgaris. Samples were obtained from individuals with pimples by swabbing their faces. Natural substances that derive from plants are promising to treat disease cause Acnevulgaris, the study in vitro biological activity of the juice, as well as bacterocin cultivated and fruits was investigated on two strains of bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis). The new antimicrobial (bacteriocin and Citrus juice) is an ongoing search. This study used juice at different concentrations at (20%, 30%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). The bacteriocin produced from local P. fluorescens isolates from wound infection and majority of isolates were found to produce crude bacteriocin were (P1 and P2) in Pseudomonas agar at 37°C for 24 hrs. Crude bacteriocin and Citrus limon juice against some pathogenic skin bacteria was find to be effective juice Citrus limon aganist S. epidermidis at 100% Concentrations with a range of inhibition zone (18) mm. The isolates of P. fluorescens (P2) was positive as producer of bacteriocin with a wide inhibition growth against gram positive pathogenic bacteria with a range between (10-12) mm.

  8. Evaluation of different iron compounds in chlorotic Italian lemon trees (Citrus lemon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Patricio Rivera; Castro Meza, Blanca I; de la Garza Requena, Francisco R; Flores, Guillermo Mendoza; Etchevers Barra, Jorge D

    2007-05-01

    The severe deficiency of iron or ferric chlorosis is a serious problem of most citrus trees established in calcareous soils, as a result of the low availability of iron in these soils and the poor uptake and limited transport of this nutrient in trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of chlorotic Italian lemon trees (Citrus lemon) to the application of iron compounds to roots and stems. On comparing the effects of aqueous solutions of ferric citrate, ferrous sulphate and FeEDDHA chelate, applied to 20% of the roots grown in soil and sand, of trees that were planted in pots containing calcareous soil, it was observed that the chelate fully corrected ferric chlorosis, while citrate and sulphate did not solve the problem. EDDHA induced the root uptake of iron as well as the movement of the nutrient up to the leaves. With the use of injections of ferric solutions into the secondary stem of adult trees, ferric citrate corrected chlorosis but ferrous sulphate did not. The citrate ion expanded the mobility of iron within the plant, from the injection points up to the leaves, whereas the sulphate ion did not sufficiently improve the movement of iron towards the leaf mesophyll.

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOTAL VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM LEAVES OF CITRUS LIMON LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steamdistillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by meansof Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled GasChromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatilecomponents were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing theirretention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification wasdone by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RIvalues and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standardavailable literature.

  10. Isolation and characterization of total volatile components from leaves of citrus limon linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadambari Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steam distillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by means of Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC, Column Chromatography (CC and coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The 27 most important volatile components were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification was done by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RI values and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standard available literature.

  11. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...] australis, causal agent of sweet orange scab); and a pathogen (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, causal agent... oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), lemons (C. limon (L.) Burm. f.), four species of mandarins (C... of the reading room). The PRA, titled ``Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit, including Sweet Orange...

  12. In vitro plant regeneration in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... H S Rattanpal*1, Gagandeep Kaur2 and Monika Gupta2 ... Seeds were extracted from ripe fruits of rough lemon. ... extract and additional dose of 25 g/l sucrose. ..... important grapefruit cultivar Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.).

  13. Protective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-05-01

    Aspirin, one of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is the most highly consumed pharmaceutical product in the world. However, it has several side effects in cells. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidative activity and cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon (EOC) extracted from leaves against aspirin-induced damages in the rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6). Biochemical indicators were used to assess cytotoxicity and oxidative damages caused by aspirin treatment on IEC-6. Our results showed that the chemical characterization of EOC identified 25 compounds representing 98.19% of the total oil. The major compounds from this oil were z-citral (53.21%), neryl acetate (13.06%), geranyl acetate (10.33%), and limonene (4.23%). Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability as well as an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Contrariwise, the co-exposure of cells to aspirin and EOC alleviated every above syndrome by an increase in cell survival and decrease in SOD and CAT activities. In conclusion, the essential oil of C. limon has a potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  14. Increased and altered fragrance of tobacco plants after metabolic engineering using three monoterpene synthases from lemon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Schwab, W.; Hautum, van B.; Blaas, J.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants emit low levels of terpenoids, particularly from the flowers. By genetic modification of tobacco cv Petit Havana SR1 using three different monoterpene synthases from lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm. f.) and the subsequent combination of these three into one

  15. Evaluation of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Citrus limon essential oil and its application in margarine preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza HIMED

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic oil liquids obtained from various plant parts. The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic antioxidant agents by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and the screening of plant materials in order to identify new compounds. The study aims to evaluate the use of essential oil extract by cold pression of Citrus limon (Lisbon variety as a substitute of Tocoblend (mixture of α, β, γ and δ-tocopherol used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The major constituents of the essential oil extract Identified were Limonene (66.75% followed by β-Pinene (13.92% and γ-Terpinene (3.10%. In both DPPH scavenging and bleachability of β-carotene in linoleic acid system assays, the essential oil extract exhibited the highest activity compared to the Tocoblend. Tests conducted at pilot scale showed that the margarine elaborated with essential oil extract was more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with Tocoblend. In addition, the physicochemical properties were not modified.

  16. Limon (Citrus Limon Kabuklarının Kimyasal Bileşimi ve Hayvan Yemi Olarak Değerlendirilmesi (İngilizce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Sadat Fakoor Janati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, limon kabuklarının; bileşimindeki ham protein, fosfor, kalsiyum, bakır, manganez, demir, çinko, sodyum, potasyum ve diğer bazı kimyasal bileşenler nedeni ile yem olarak kullanılabilirliği araştırılmıştır. Limon kabuklarında bulunan protein miktarı (%9.42, yağ (%4.98, kül (%6.26, selüloz (%15.18, sodyum (755.5 mg/100g, potasyum (8600 mg/100g, kalsiyum (8452.5 mg/100g, bakır (4.94 mg/100g, demir (147.65 mg/100g, magnezyum (1429.50 mg/100g, çinko (13.94 mg/100g ve fosfor (6656 mg/100g İran ulusal hayvan yemi standardı ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Yağ, protein ve selüloz miktarlarının bu standardı karşılayabildiği görülmüştür.

  17. Citrus lemon essential oil: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Smaoui, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2017-08-03

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is a flowing plant belonging to the Rutaceae family. Citrus plants constitute one of the main valuable sources of essential oil used in foods and medicinal purposes. In this study, we assessed chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. limon essential oil (ClEO) with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major components of the obtained ClEO. The antioxidant activities of this ClEO were determined according to the β-carotene bleaching assay, as well as by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For antimicrobial activity, agar well diffusion method was used and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as well as the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined. The in situ effect of the ClEO was evaluated through physicochemical parameters (pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as well as against L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat model. Twenty one components were identified in the ClEO and the two dominant compounds were limonene (39.74%) and β-Pinene (25.44%). This ClEO displayed an excellent DPPH scavenging ability with an extract concentration providing 50% inhibition (IC 50 ) of 15.056 μg/ml and a strong β-carotene bleaching inhibition after 120 min of incubation with an IC 50 of 40.147 μg/ml. The MICs varied from 0.039 to 1.25 mg/ml for Gram positive bacteria and from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria. The meat preserving potential of ClEO was investigated against L. monocytogenes. ClEO successfully inhibited development of L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat. The application of ClEO at a 0.06 and 0.312 mg/g, may open new promising opportunities for the prevention of contamination from and growth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly L. monocytogenes, during minced beef meat storage at 4 °C. Additionally, during

  18. In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Kawthar Ae

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl). Their cytotoxic and mitogenic proliferation activities were also studied in human leukemia HL60 cells and mouse splenocytes by CCK8 assay. In addition, genotoxic/ antigenotoxic activity was explored in mouse splenocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay. Lemon peels had the highest of TPC followed by grapefruit and mandarin. In contrast, mandarin peels contained the highest of TFC followed by lemon and grapefruit peels. Among the extracts, lemon peel possessed the strongest antioxidant activity as indicated by the highest DPPH radical scavenging, the lowest effective concentration 50% (EC50= 42.97 ?g extract/ mL), and the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC=0.157). Mandarin peel exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 77.8 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells, whereas grapefruit and lemon peels were ineffective antileukemia. Further, citrus peels possessed immunostimulation activity via augmentation of proliferation of mouse splenocytes (Tlymphocytes). Citrus extracts exerted noncytotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities through remarkable reduction of CAs induced by cisplatin in mouse splenocytes for 24 h. The phytochemical constituents of the citrus peels may exert biological activities including anticancer, immunostimulation and antigenotoxic potential.

  19. Comparison of heat and mass transfer of different microwave-assisted extraction methods of essential oil from Citrus limon (Lisbon variety) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Moayyedi, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    Dried and fresh peels of Citrus limon were subjected to microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), respectively. A comparison was made between MAHD and SFME with the conventional hydrodistillation (HD) method in terms of extraction kinetic, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwaves and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable differences between the constituents of essential oils obtained by MAHD and SFME, in comparison with HD. Antioxidant analysis of the extracted essential oils indicated that microwave irradiation did not have adverse effects on the radical scavenging activity of the extracted essential oils. The results of this study suggest that MAHD and SFME can be termed as green technologies because of their less energy requirements per ml of essential oil extraction.

  20. Investigation of Peripheral Effects of Citrus Limon Essential Oil on Somatic Pain in Male Wistar Rats: Role of Histaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mojtahedin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: One of the plants used in traditional medicine is lemon which has analgesic effect. However, little research has been performed on the analgesic effect of lemon and mechanisms of action with an emphasis on neurotransmitters systems. Therefore, the present study set to investigate the peripheral effects of lemon essential oil on somatic pain using formalin test with an emphasis on histaminergic system in male Wistar rats. Materiala & Methods: Sixty male rats weighing approximately 200-250g and aged 14-16 wk were divided into 10 groups: sham (Salin + Formalin 1% intraplantar, three treatment groups with lemon essential oil (EO (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, three treatment groups with Chlorpheniramine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, 1 treatment group with Histamine (10 mg/kg, 1 pretreatment group with Chlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg + EO (50mg/kg, and 1 pretreatment group with Histamine (10 mg/kg + EO (50 mg/kg. Formalin test was used to assess somatic pain. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA. Results:  Intraperitoneal injection of lemon essential oil reduced the pain response induced by formalin in both phases (P<0.05. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine and lemon essential oil enhanced the analgesic response in both phases (P<0.05. Conclusion: Lemon essential oil had analgesic effects, probably caused by the histaminergic system.

  1. The relationships among lemons, limes and citron: a chromosomal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R; Soares Filho, W S; Brasileiro-Vidal, A C; Guerra, M

    2005-01-01

    Lemons, limes and citron constitute a group of closely related Citrus species, whose species delimitations and taxonomic relationships are unclear. In order to identify karyotypic similarities and species relationships within this group, the CMA+/DAPI- banding pattern and the distribution of the 5S and 45S rDNA sites of 10 accessions of lime, lemon, and citron were investigated. The four cultivars of C. limon analyzed showed the same pattern of CMA+ bands and rDNA sites, suggesting that they originated from a single germplasm, later differentiated by distinct somatic mutations. The lemons C. jambhiri, C. limonia and C. volkameriana displayed karyotypes very similar to each other, but they differed from C. limon by the absence of a single chromosome with one band in each telomere. The limes, C. aurantifolia and C. limettioides, seemed less related to each other and exhibited different heteromorphic chromosome pairs. In C. aurantifolia, the presence of a chromosome type unknown in all other Citrus species cytologically known so far supports the assumption that this accession may be derived from a hybrid with a species from the subgenus Papeda or from another genus. Citrus medica was the only homozygous accession of this group and all of its chromosome types were clearly represented in limes and lemons, some of them forming heteromorphic pairs. The analysis of the distribution of rDNA sites allowed a further refinement of the comparison among accessions. The lemons and limes were heterozygous for all rDNA sites, whereas C. medica was entirely homozygous. These data support the hypothesis that C. medica is a true species while the other nine accessions are hybrids. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effect of citrus lemon oil on growth and adherence of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Feifei; Yu, Zhifen; Wang, Li; Chen, Shuanglu; Guo, Maoding

    2013-07-01

    In order to exploit novel anticaries agents, we investigated the effects of citrus lemon oil (CLO), a type of natural product, on growth and adherence of the primary oral cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The growth inhibitory effect was explored with a micro-dilution assay. Adherence was analyzed by colony counts on the respective surfaces and the adherence inhibition rate (AIR). Real time-PCR was used to investigate the effects of CLO on transcription of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) encoding genes, gtfB, C and D. Neson-Somogyi method was used to measure the effects of CLO on Gtf activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CLO against S. mutans was 4.5 mg/ml. The CLO effectively reduced the adherence of S. mutans on glass surface (the AIR were from 98.3 to 100 %, P > 0.05) and saliva-coated enamel surface (the AIR were from 54.8 to 79.2 %, P < 0.05). CLO effectively reduced the activity of Gtf and the transcription of gtfs in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CLO can effectively inhibit the growth and the adherence to glass and saliva-coated enamel surfaces of S. mutans. It can also inhibit the transcription of gtfs, as well as the Gtf enzyme activity.

  3. Native bees in blooming orange (Citrus sinensis) and lemon (C. limon) orchards in Yucatán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    GRAJALES-CONESA, Julieta; MELÉNDEZ-RAMÍREZ, Virginia; CRUZ-LÓPEZ, Leopoldo; SÁNCHEZ, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la riqueza y la abundancia de abejas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) en huertas de naranja y limón en floración en Yucatán, México. Se colectaron ocho especies de abejas; el 98% de los especímenes correspondió a Apis mellifera, y el 2% restante a abejas nativas. Estos hallazgos se discuten con base en la ecología de las abejas nativas y en estudios previos en la misma área de estudio.

  4. Constituintes químicos e estudos toxicológicos do óleo essencial extraído das folhas de Citrus limon Burn (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.L. Campelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização química do óleo essencial de folhas de Citrus limon (Rutaceae resultou na identificação de mistura de monoterpenos (limoneno, linalol, cis-óxido de limoneno, trans-óxido de limoneno, citronelal, neral, geranial, nerol e acetato de geranil. As estruturas dos compostos do óleo essencial foram identificadas por GC/MS, por comparação com dados da literatura. Os efeitos da administração crônica oral do óleo essencial de folhas de Citrus limon foram investigados sobre parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos em camundongos Swiss machos. Os animais (n = 10/grupo foram tratados por via oral diariamente durante 30 dias com óleo essencial de folhas de Citrus limon, nas doses de 50, 100 ou 150 mg kg-1 de massa corporal e os parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos avaliados. O tratamento não causou nenhuma morte ou toxicidade nos animais. A administração do óleo essencial não alterou os parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos e a massa dos órgãos, exceto por diminuição de 21 e 11% em uréia e ácido úrico, respectivamente, e 9%, nos níveis plasmáticos de aspartato transaminase (AST. Para os parâmetros hematológicos, houve pequenas mudanças nas contagens de neutrófilos, linfócitos, eosinófilos e monócitos, mas estes não foram diferentes dos valores de referência. Além disso, houve diminuição significativa nos triglicerídeos detectado nos animais tratados com dose de 150 mg kg-1 de óleo essencial. Em conclusão, a administração crônica de óleo essencial não induziu nenhum efeito de risco na maioria dos parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos estudados em camundongos Swiss machos. No entanto, a diminuição dos níveis de uréia e ácido úrico em doses elevadas, sugere um possível efeito de insuficiência renal e aumento no teor de AST, sugerindo possível sobrecarga hepática que deve ser investigada com mais detalhe.

  5. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The origin of limes and lemons has been a source of conflicting taxonomic opinions. Biochemical studies, numerical taxonomy and recent molecular studies suggested that cultivated Citrus species result from interspecific hybridization between four basic taxa (C. reticulata,C. maxima,C. medica and C. micrantha). However, the origin of most lemons and limes remains controversial or unknown. The aim of this study was to perform extended analyses of the diversity, genetic structure and origin of limes and lemons. The study was based on 133 Citrus accessions. It combined maternal phylogeny studies based on mitochondrial and chloroplastic markers, and nuclear structure analysis based on the evaluation of ploidy level and the use of 123 markers, including 73 basic taxa diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel markers. The lime and lemon horticultural group appears to be highly polymorphic, with diploid, triploid and tetraploid varieties, and to result from many independent reticulation events which defined the sub-groups. Maternal phylogeny involves four cytoplasmic types out of the six encountered in the Citrus genus. All lime and lemon accessions were highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three and even the four ancestral taxa genomes. Molecular polymorphism between varieties of the same sub-group was very low. Citrus medica contributed to all limes and lemons and was the direct male parent for the main sub-groups in combination with C. micrantha or close papeda species (for C. aurata, C. excelsa, C. macrophylla and C. aurantifolia--'Mexican' lime types of Tanaka's taxa), C. reticulata(for C. limonia, C. karna and C. jambhiri varieties of Tanaka's taxa, including popular citrus rootstocks such as 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' and 'Rough' lemons), C. aurantium (for C. limetta and C. limon--yellow lemon types--varieties of Tanaka's taxa) or the C. maxima × C. reticulate hybrid (for C. limettioides--'Palestine sweet' lime types--and C

  6. PERTUMBUHAN MATA TUNAS JERUK KEPROK (CITRUS NOBILIS HASIL OKULASI PADA BERBAGAI MEDIA TANAM DAN UMUR BATANG BAWAH ROUGH LEMON (C. JAMBHIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiek Kartika Suharsi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate keprok (Citrus nobilis budding seed development on various growing media and age of C. jambhiri rootstock. The design of experiment was complete randomized groups with 2 factors and 3 replications. The growing media consisted of soil, charcoal husk, sheep’s manure, compost, and vermi-compost. Rough lemon citrus rootstock’s age were 8, 11, and 14 months. The results showed that the growing media of soil:charcoal husk:compost or vermicompost mixture of [1:1:1] (v:v:v was the best media for increasing keprok bud growing. Rough lemon rootstock of 8 and 11 months age were the best rootstock for keprok. Rough lemon rootstock of 14 month age stimulated growth of keprok bud faster than that of 8 and 11 month age of rootstock.

  7. As (V) biosorption in an aqueous solution using chemically treated lemon (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Rangel, Vania Marilyn; Cortés-Martínez, Raúl; Villanueva, Ruth Alfaro Cuevas; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of biosorbents to remove metals and metalloids from contaminated water systems has gained great usage in various parts of the world. The objective of the current study was to test lemon peels as biosorbents for As (V). Lemon peels were chemically characterized and arsenic contact experiments were performed to determine the adsorption capacity of the peels using different empirical models. The model that fit the experimental data was the Lagergren empirical model with a correlation coefficient of R= 0.8841. The results show that lemon peels were able to retain 474.8 μg of As (V)/g of biosorbent. Lemon agro-industrial waste can be useful in the removal of heavy metals, such as arsenic, from aqueous media. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jambhiri Lemon, Rough Mediterranean. Citrus latifolia Lime, Persian Oriental. Citrus limon Lemon..., Oriental. Citrus reticulata x C. sinensis = Citrus nobilis Orange, king Mediterranean, Melon, Oriental...

  9. Induction of apoptosis by Citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (HL-60) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomona; Sakaguchi, Ikuyo; Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

    2003-01-01

    Limonene is a primary component of citrus essential oils (EOs) and has been reported to induce apoptosis on tumor cells. Little is known about induction of apoptosis by citrus EOs. In this study, we examined induction of apoptosis by Citrus aurantium var. dulcis (sweet orange) EO, Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) EO and Citrus limon (lemon) EO. These EOs induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells and the apoptosis activities were related to the limonene content of the EOs. Moreover, sweet orange EO and grapefruit EO may contain components besides limonene that have apoptotic activity. To identify the components with apoptotic activity, grapefruit EO was fractionated using silica gel columns, and the components were analyzed by GC-MS. The n-hexane fraction contained limonene, and the dichloromethane fraction (DF) contained aldehyde compounds and nootkatone. Decanal, octanal and citral in the DF showed strong apoptotic activity, suggesting that the aldehyde compounds induced apoptosis strongly in HL-60 cells.

  10. Fermented Citrus Lemon Reduces Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jinn Lillian Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented lemon juice displays a variety of important biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capabilities. The aim of the present study is to investigate hepatic-protective effects of no-sugar-added fermented lemon juice (FLJ for liver inflammation caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Rats are divided into six groups: H2O, CCl4 + H2O, CCl4 + silymarin, and CCl4 plus three different FLJ doses by oral administration, respectively. The results show that the contents of plasma ALT and AST, hepatic lipid peroxidation, splenomegaly, and liver water are reduced significantly in rats under FLJ treatment, and pathological examination of liver fibrosis is improved. The reduced hepatic injury by increasing liver soluble protein and glutathione and albumin is observed in FLJ treated groups, and FLJ has comparable efficacies to medicine silymarin in liver therapies. The no-sugar-added FLJ differs from traditional fermentation by adding lots of sugar and prevents any hidden sugar intake while taking it as a complimentary treatment for liver inflammation. The green color and the taste of sourness are both associated with treating and healing the liver based on the five-element theory in traditional Chinese medicine, and the green and sour FLJ may be applied to the ancient theory in preventing hepatic injury accordingly.

  11. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  12. Evidence of Recombinant Citrus tristeza virus Isolate Occurring in Acid Lime cv. Pant Lemon Orchard in Uttarakhand Terai Region of Northern Himalaya in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaywant Kumar; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Biswas, Kajal Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The present study for the first time describes biological and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) occurring in the Terai area of Uttarakhand State in Northern Himalaya region of India. Direct antigen coated-ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the CTV infection in Acid lime cv. Pant lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) orchards of Pantnagar with an estimated disease incidence of 16.6-20.5 %. To know the biological and genetic properties, an isolate, CTV Pant 4 was characterized. Isolate Pant 4 could be graft transmitted to Kinnow, Nagpur and Darjeeling mandarins, Mosambi sweet orange, Kagzi lime, Sweet lime, Sour orange but not to Rough lemon. The sequence analyses of the 5'ORF1a (3038 nucleotides) of LPro domain and 3'end (2058 nt) covering ORF7-ORF10 regions of the CTV genome revealed that Pant 4 was closely related to the previously reported Indian CTV isolate, Kpg3 from Northeastern Himalaya region with 97 and 98 % sequence identity, respectively. Whereas, it differed from the previously reported CTV isolate B165 from Southern India with 79 and 92 % identity, respectively for 5'ORF1a and 3' end regions. Recombination and SplitsTree decomposition analyses indicated that CTV isolate Pant 4 was a recombinant isolate originating from Kpg3 as a major and B165 as a minor donor.

  13. Volatile fraction composition and physicochemical parameters as tools for the differentiation of lemon blossom honey and orange blossom honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Carot, Jose M; Domenech, Eva; Escriche, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Volatile fraction profile and physicochemical parameters were studied with the aim of evaluating their effectiveness for the differentiation between lemon blossom honey (Citrus limon L.) and orange blossom honey (Citrus spp.). They would be useful complementary tools to the traditional analysis based on the percentage of pollen. A stepwise discriminant analysis constructed using 37 volatile compounds (extracted by purge and trap and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and physicochemical and colour parameters (diastase, conductivity, Pfund colour and CIE L a b) together provided a model that permitted the correct classification of 98.3% of the original and 96.6% of the cross-validated cases, indicating its efficiency and robustness. This model proved its effectiveness in the differentiation of both types of honey with another set of batches from the following year. This model, developed from the volatile compounds, physicochemical and colour parameters, has been useful for the differentiation of lemon and orange blossom honeys. Furthermore, it may be of particular interest for the attainment of a suitable classification of orange honey in which the pollen count is very low. These capabilities imply an evident marketing advantage for the beekeeping sector, since lemon blossom honey could be commercialized as unifloral honey and not as generic citrus honey and orange blossom honey could be correctly characterized. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using lemon leaves extract and its application for antimicrobial finish on fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankar, Padma S.; Shukla, Dhara

    2012-06-01

    Preparation of silver nanoparticles have been carried out using aqueous extract of lemon leaves ( Citrus limon) which acts as reducing agent and encapsulating cage for the silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles have been used for durable textile finish on cotton and silk fabrics. Remarkable antifungal activity has been observed in the treated fabrics. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles derived from lemon leaves showed enhancement in activity due to synergistic effect of silver and essential oil components of lemon leaves. The present investigation shows the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles by biotransformation using the extract of lemon leaves by controlled reduction of the Ag+ ion to Ag0. Further the silver nanoparticles were used for antifungal treatment of fabrics which was tested by antifungal activity assessment of textile material by Agar diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola. Formation of the metallic nanoparticles was established by FT-IR, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy.

  15. Evaluation des activités antioxydante et antibactérienne de l’huile essentielle de Citrus limon (variété Lisbon extraite par hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza HIMED

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude porte sur l’évaluation des propriétés antioxydante et antibactérienne de l’huile essentielle de Citrus limon (Lisbon extraite par hydrodistillation et analysée par GC-MS. Le pouvoir antioxydant est évalué par le test au DPPH et le test de blanchissement du β-carotène. L’activité antibactérienne vis-à-vis de neuf souches bactériennes (deux à Gram positif et sept à Gram négatif est évaluée par la méthode des aromatogrammes et la méthode de dilution d’agar pour déterminer les CMI. L’extraction a donné un rendement moyen de 1,34±0,012%. Cette huile essentielle a montré des propriétés antioxydante et antibactérienne importantes. La concentration efficace qui réduit 50 % du DPPH en solution est de 0,09±0,001 µg/ml qui exprime une activité antioxydante plus importante que celle de α-tocopherol, ce résultat a été confirmé par le test de blanchissement du β-carotène. Les bactéries testées ont montré une sensibilité à l’huile essentielle. Ces activités sont liées à la richesse de l’huile essentielle en monoterpènes (81,01%.

  16. Increased and Altered Fragrance of Tobacco Plants after Metabolic Engineering Using Three Monoterpene Synthases from Lemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Schwab, Wilfried; van Hautum, Bianca; Blaas, Jan; van der Plas, Linus H. W.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Verhoeven, Harrie A.

    2004-01-01

    Wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants emit low levels of terpenoids, particularly from the flowers. By genetic modification of tobacco cv Petit Havana SR1 using three different monoterpene synthases from lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm. f.) and the subsequent combination of these three into one plant by crossings, we show that it is possible to increase the amount and alter the composition of the blend of monoterpenoids produced in tobacco plants. The transgenic tobacco plant line with the three introduced monoterpene synthases is emitting β-pinene, limonene, and γ-terpinene and a number of side products of the introduced monoterpene synthases, from its leaves and flowers, in addition to the terpenoids emitted by wild-type plants. The results show that there is a sufficiently high level of substrate accessible for the introduced enzymes. PMID:14718674

  17. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Orellana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil. cv. Fino were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment and 1.35 (T2 treatment, which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Yleaf and stem (Ystem water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Yleaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Ystem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Yleaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Ystem - Yleaf  = DY was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees.

  18. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  19. Metabolism of s-triazine herbicides in tea and citrus plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakhniashvili, Kh.A.; Durmishidze, S.V.; Gigauri, M.Sh.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied processes involved in assimilation, transport, and conversion of 14 C-atrazine and 14 C-simazine in plants of tea (Thea sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.), and orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). The main products of metabolism of the investigated herbicides in different organs of the indicated plants are isolated and identified. It is established that conjugates of hydroxytriazined with peptides and proteins accumulate in the plant cell. A new pathway of atrazine metabolism is clarified in the work, the indicated pathway involving two-component conjugates with peptides and glucose. The authors discuss the role played by oxidative conversions in detoxication of atrazine and simazine in the investigated plants, and identify the end products of oxidation

  20. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  1. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Orellana, Y.; Ortuno, M. F.; Conejero, W.; Ruiz-Sanchez, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. cv. Fino) were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS) threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment) and 1.35 (T2 treatment), which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Y{sub l}eaf) and stem (Y{sub s}tem) water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF) and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Y{sub l}eaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Y{sub s}tem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Y{sub l}eaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Y{sub s}tem - Y{sub l}eaf {Delta}{Psi}) was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC) was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees. (Author) 40 refs.

  2. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi,Eduardo Augusto; Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves

    2006-01-01

    Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf) and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale) incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka), and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citr...

  3. Aplicación de modelos matemáticos al proceso de secado asistido por infrarrojos de descartes de limón (Citrus limon (L. Burm. F. Cv. Genova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Puente-Díaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desechos agroindustriales son uno de los principales problemas ambientales a nivel mundial. Debido a las altas exigencias de calidad, la comercialización de limones de exportación genera grandes cantidades de desechos. Los descartes de limón contienen fibra, pectina, potasio, calcio y vitamina C. Por lo tanto, es importante desarrollar alternativas de procesamiento de estos sub-productos para agregarles valor y aumentar su vida útil. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue la aplicación del secado asistido por infrarrojos, como tecnología emergente, para estudiar el efecto de la temperatura de proceso sobre las cinéticas de secado de descartes de limón a 30, 40 y 50°C. Se utilizaron seis modelos matemáticos de capa fina encontrados en literatura para representar la cinética experimental. Basándose en análisis estadístico, el modelo Logarítmico presentó el mejor ajuste. Los valores de la difusividad efectiva del agua se estimaron en el rango de 9.45× 10-10 – 3.71× 10-9 m/s2. El valor de la energía de activación fue 55.90 kJ/mol.

  4. Uji Efektivitas Jeruk Nipis (Citrus aurantifolia dalam Mempercepat Laju Disinfeksi Bakteri Escheria Coli pada Proses Solar Water Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprian Saprian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS memerlukan waktu rata-rata berkisar antara 5-6 jam untuk dapat membunuh bakteri 3-4 Log pada air berkapasitas maksimal 2 liter atau 1 jam dengan suhu di atas 50°C. Penelitian terbaru menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengkombinasikan SODIS dengan psoralens, zat aktif seperti yang terdapat pada jeruk Lemon (Citrus Limon dapat menginaktivasi bakteri hingga 5,6 Log reduksi dalam rentang waktu 30 menit pada suhu 29°C. Mengingat faktor ketersediaan dan harga jeruk lemon di Indonesia maka pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengamatan dengan menggunakan jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar potensi jeruk nipis untuk dipergunakan dalam mempercepat laju disinfeksi pada proses SODIS. Adapun faktor-faktor yang akan dipelajari terkait dengan hubungan antara variasi dosis jeruk nipis, perubahan pH dan suhu air terhadap efisiensi inaktivasi bakteri yang mampu dihasilkan. Variasi jeruk nipis yang digunakan adalah 0%, 2%, 4% dan 6% dengan variasi waktu 0 menit, 30 menit, 60 menit dan 120 menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan SODIS dengan menggunakan jeruk nipis mampu menginaktivasi E. coli sebesar 5.4 Log dengan waktu 1 jam pada suhu 32°C. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa Jeruk nipis berpotensi untuk digunakan dalam mempercepat laju disinfeksi E. coli pada air minum. Kata Kunci : SODIS, E.coli, Psoralens, Jeruk Nipis

  5. Reprogramming of a defense signaling pathway in rough lemon and sweet orange is a critical element of the early response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus infected by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) has caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry. No resistant genotypes have been identified in citrus species or close relatives. Among citrus varieties, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) has been considered tolerant...

  6. Cytological Aspects on the Effects of a Nasal Spray Consisting of Standardized Extract of Citrus Lemon and Essential Oils in Allergic Rhinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Lydia; Naviglio, Daniele; Armone Caruso, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new formulation of nasal spray was set up based on the extract of lemon pulp, obtained by using a new solid-liquid technology of extraction, added to pure Aloe juice, soluble propoli, and essential oils of Ravensara and Niaouly. It was tested in a clinical study in which 100 subjects were recruited for a period of one month. Nasal scraping was used for collecting samples and after the application of the May-Grünwald Giemsa standard technique, glass slides were analysed by using optical microscope with a 1000x oil immersion. A control group constituted of ten people was recruited as control and this group was administered with physiological solution (saline solution). The comparison of results obtained before and after the application of nasal spray showed a total reduction of eosinophils granulocytes and mast cells; clinical data were confirmed by improvement of clinical pictures of patients. The lemon-based nasal spray was a good alternative to conventional medicine for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic and vasomotor rhinopathy. PMID:23304560

  7. Aplicaciones terrestres de bajo volumen con abamectin y spinosad para el control químico del minador de los cítricos en limoneros Abamectin and spinosad low volume applications to control citrus leafminer on lemon trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Salas

    2008-07-01

    oil on adult trees. Low volume applications were performed during three consecutive citrus cropping seasons on seven-year-old lemon trees, using 2 l of solution per tree. Evaluated treatments were: abamectin (1.8 g a. i. /ha and spinosad (24 g a. i. /ha, both combined with mineral oil and compared to a non treated control. Two applications per year were made with 15-day intervals. Weekly samples were picked up to evaluate the percentage of leaves with live larvae. Foliar damage was estimated at the end of the study from previously marked flushes. Abamectin and spinosad controlled the pest during 14 days and the percentage of foliar damage was lower than 3.5%. Citrus leafminer control by both treatments allows us to switch products, taking advantage of two active ingredients and avoiding possible resistance problems.

  8. Traceability of 'Limone di Siracusa PGI' by a multidisciplinary analytical and chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, M; Fabroni, S; Costa, C; Rapisarda, P

    2016-11-15

    Food traceability is increasingly relevant with respect to safety, quality and typicality issues. Lemon fruits grown in a typical lemon-growing area of southern Italy (Siracusa), have been awarded the PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) recognition as 'Limone di Siracusa'. Due to its peculiarity, consumers have an increasing interest about this product. The detection of potential fraud could be improved by using the tools linking the composition of this production to its typical features. This study used a wide range of analytical techniques, including conventional techniques and analytical approaches, such as spectral (NIR spectra), multi-elemental (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Li, Sr) and isotopic ((13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O) marker investigations, joined with multivariate statistical analysis, such as PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis), to implement a traceability system to verify the authenticity of 'Limone di Siracusa' production. The results demonstrated a very good geographical discrimination rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, J M; Sétamou, M

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.

  10. Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

    2006-06-01

    Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status.

  11. Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    yeasts correlate positively with the standard yeast (Saccharomyces ... and most plant cells fermentation produces ... Saccaromyces boulardii to maintain and restore the natural flora in the gastrointestinal tract. S. .... Fruits, vegetable, drinks and other ... The. Alcoholic Fermentation of Yeast-. Juice". Proceedings of the Royal.

  12. Fermentation Potentials of Citrus Limon and Hibiscus Sabdariffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    body), fermentation produces lactic acid and lactate, carbon dioxide .... hydrometer, sugar refractor meter (made in. England) and ... The medium was allowed to gel and the. PDA plates were .... investment : Analysis of trends and issues in the ...

  13. Variability of 137Cs and 40K soil-to-fruit transfer factor in tropical lemon trees during the fruit development period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, H.; Cid, A.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Zamboni, C.B.; Rizzotto, M.; Valladares, D.L.; Juri Ayub, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation we evaluate the soil uptake of 137 Cs and 40 K by tropical plants and their consequent translocation to fruits, by calculating the soil-to-fruit transfer factors defined as F v = [concentration of radionuclide in fruit (Bq kg −1 dry mass)/concentration of radionuclide in soil (Bq kg −1 dry mass in upper 20 cm)]. In order to obtain F v values, the accumulation of these radionuclides in fruits of lemon trees (Citrus limon B.) during the fruit growth was measured. A mathematical model was calibrated from the experimental data allowing simulating the incorporation process of these radionuclides by fruits. Although the fruit incorporates a lot more potassium than cesium, both radionuclides present similar absorption patterns during the entire growth period. F v ranged from 0.54 to 1.02 for 40 K and from 0.02 to 0.06 for 137 Cs. Maximum F v values are reached at the initial time of fruit growth and decrease as the fruit develops, being lowest at the maturation period. As a result of applying the model a decreasing exponential function is derived for F v as time increases. The agreement between the theoretical approach and the experimental values is satisfactory. - Highlights: ► We assessed the transfer of 137 Cs and 40 K from soil to fruits in tropical plants. ► A mathematical model was developed to describe the dry mass growth of lemon fruits. ► The transfer factors ranged from 0.54 to 1.02 for 40 K and from 0.02 to 0.06 for 137 Cs. ► Maximum values of transfer factors were reached in the initial phase of fruit growth. ► The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results was satisfactory.

  14. Concentration of lemon pectin extract by ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Stechina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Current annual lemon production in Argentina is about 900 thousand t. 75% is used industrially to obtain pasteurized juice concentrate. Since 40 - 45 % of citrus fruit content is peel and seeds, the annual lemon residue yield is 360 thousand t. Lemon peel contains about 30% (B.S. of peptic substances with an important commercial value due to its gelling and thickening properties for food, chemical, pharmacological and cosmetic products. Membrane processes have many applications in food manufacture. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ultrafiltration operating variables on instant permeate flow (Fp and on the energy requirement for pectin extract concentration from lemon peel. A DDS lab module was used, lab 20-772 model with synthetic material membranes, 9 kDa, shear force, the intrinsic membrane resistance (Rm being 3*1013 m -1 . Results show that Fp decrease caused by polarization induced resistance occurrence and the influence of operating variables on Fp offer relevant data to estimate the energy requirement in relation to feeding flow at constant temperature, which may be compared to pectin concentration increase in the retained flow in relation to initial extract concentration.

  15. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... therefore opposed importation of fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay until its effectiveness could be validated...'' imports. The commenter stated that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus... metric tons, which is less than 3 percent of U.S. production. Uruguay's total fresh orange and lemon...

  16. Effects of different pollination combinations on fruit set in some lemon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay DEMİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some new lemon varieties and some standart lemon varieties were used as plant material in the planned project. The effects of selfing, crossing and reciprocal crossing methods on fruit set were investigated. The study was carried out in Batı Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute’s fruit department station in 2011-2012 years. In the study, it was determined the effects of self-pollination, naturel open pollination and reciprocal pollination on fruit set of limon varieties (BATEM Pınarı, BATEM Sarısı, Interdonato, Kütdiken, Italyan Memeli, Meyer, Lamas. According to results, İtalyan Memeli lemon with 35.17% was determined the highest rate on account of percentage of fruits at harvest time.

  17. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Perveen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  18. Determination of limonin and nomilin contents in different citrus cultivars using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, H.; Hassan, S.; Sahar, S.; Akram, W.; Sahar, S.

    2013-01-01

    High perlorrnance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was done to quantify the amount of limonoids (nomilin and nomilin) in seven selected citrus cultivars. According to the HPLC analysis red blood orange (Citrus sinensis var red blood orange) had maximum amount of limonin (479.77 ug/rnl.), while rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) had no limonin content. in case of nomonin, rough lemon (Citrus jambhir) had maximum amount of nomilin (54.23 micro g/ML)) while succari (citrus sinensis var succari) had very low amount of nomilin (0.37 micro g/Ml). (author)

  19. The Use of Alginate in Lemon Extract Effervescent Powder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdinah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on the use of alginate in lemon (Citrus medica var lemon extract effervescent powder production has conducted. The aims of the research are to determine the optimum concentration of alginate used in lemon extract effervescent powder to produced best product and acceptance consumen.The lemon extract effervescent powder formula consisted of lemon extract powder, sucrose, aspartame, salt and effervescent mix (citric acid-tartrat acid-sodium bicarbonat. The alginate used in this study was extracted from Sargassum filipendula sea weed. The concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production was varied from 1; 2; 3 and 4%. The parameters observed to see the quality of the product were moisture content, ash content, pH, viscosity and organoleptic value (flavor, taste, viscosity, effec effervescent, effect sparkle and acceptance. Analysis of dietary fiber, sugar content, vitamin C content, total titratable acids, TPC and E.Coli to the best product. The result showed that the higher the concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production, the higher viscousness and the lower the organoleptic value. The optimum concentration of alginate used in the lemon extract effervescent powder processing was 1%. The characteristic this product 7.60% moisture content, 0.86% insoluble dietary fiber , 7.92% soluble dietary fiber, 3.74% sugar content, 55,26 mg/100 g vitamin C, 134.15 mL 0.1 NaOH/100 mL total titratable acids, 20 cPs viscosity, <2.5x102 coloni/mL TPC and E.Coli negative.

  20. Control del minador de la hoja de los cítricos Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton en plantas de limonero en vivero con insecticidas sistémicos Control of citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in nursery lemon plants with systemic insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Salas

    2006-12-01

    , several foliar sprays insecticides are needed every 10 to 15 days during the growing season. In this paper, CLM control in nursery lemon plants with systemic insecticides imidacloprid and thiametoxam, applied by "drench", is reported. Treatments were imidacloprid at 0.035, 0.105 and 0.175 g a.i. and thiametoxam at 0.025, 0.075 and 0.125 g a.i per plant in a five-liter container. An unsprayed control was included. CLM was effectively controlled from November to March (120 days approximately with medium and high doses, and from 25 to 45 days with low doses of both insecticides. In one of the trials, imidacloprid and thiametoxam low doses did not control CLM. Considering the obtained results, it would be more appropriate to use imidacloprid 35% SC (0,105 g a. i. per plant and thiametoxam 25% WG (0,075 g a. i. per plant for citrus leafminer control in greenhouse plants.

  1. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.; Vardi, Aliza

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  2. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  3. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros Genetic evaluation of selections and hybrids of rangpur lime, volkamer and rough lemons rootstocks for Valência orange trees in the presence of the citrus sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    genótipos Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 3810 (1648, Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 5320 (1644, Limão- Cravo x Citrange- Carrizo (1524, Citrus pennivesiculata (880, Limão- Cravo x Trifoliata- Swingle A (1707, Rangpur- Rose- Lemon 124684 (864, Rangpur- Red -Lime D33.47 (867 e Limão- Cravo -Ipanema (1522. Dentre os 10 melhores genótipos para produção de frutos e para eficiência produtiva, apenas três são coincidentes: Rangpur- Rose -Lime (868, Citrus pennivesiculata (880 e Limão- Cravo-Ipanema (1522.This study aimed to perform the genetic evaluation of fruit production, productive efficiency and growth of Valência orange (Citrus sinensis trees scions grafted on selections and hybrids of Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Volkamer (C. volkameriana and Rough (C. jambhiri lemons rootstocks grown in the presence of the Citrus Sudden Death (CSD. In an affected endemic area for CSD 36 genotypes of these rootstocks were evaluated, represented by five plants each one, measured in five harvests from the third to seventh years after planting. Seven of them showed symptoms of CSD: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Rough lemon 58329 (1655 and Limão Cravo x Swingle B (1695. For selection and breeding purposes, genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated and individual genotypic values were predicted for all traits by the REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure. The analysis of fruit production in five harvests showed selective accuracy of 84.59% revealing that a greater number of harvests is unnecessary. Selection of the best seven genotypes led to a genetic gain of 11.5% for fruit production while the selection of the very best genotype provided an estimated genetic gain of 16.3%. The higher predicted genetic means (>70.0 kg.pl-1 for fruit production were obtained for the genotypes Ipanema Rangpur Lime (1522, Santa Bárbara Red Lime (884

  4. 78 FR 46249 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... citrus fruit group for Valencia oranges, you may choose seventy-five percent (75%) of the maximum price... lemons (Imperial, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura Counties).'' The commenters... Coastal counties produce lemons that bloom up to three times per year due to their moderate growing...

  5. The effect of cold aqueous extract of lemon peel against types of bacteria isolated from the cooling devices Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of citrus peel lemon against the bacterial strains obtained from the filters of air conditioners have been selected based on the presence most in these filters such as Streptococcus, Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas, E coli. agar well diffusion method used to evaluate antibacterial activity of citrus peels water extract. through the results became clear to us that the cold aqueous extract of lemon peel showed a significant effect on the growth of bacterial species through the diameters of inhibition zone that appeared in all concentrations of the extract (125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/ml. Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus spp were the most affected Where the diameters of inhibition zone (18, 15, 12, 0, 0 mm respectively, while The Gram-negative bacteria E coli least affected. The results obtained in this study indicate that citrus lemon peel can be used in the treatment of diseases caused by organisms for the purposes of the pharmaceutical.

  6. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food. The lemon oil and lemon essence (derived from lemons) content may be adjusted in accordance with... juice, as defined in this paragraph, may be preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration...

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Amorim

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o. and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  9. Comportamiento de las exportaciones de limón persa (Citrus latifolia tanaka) al mercado de los Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Francisco; Suarez, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the behavior of Persian lemon, also known as Tahiti lemon (Citrus latifolia Tanaka),exports to the United States market, which stands out as the main market worldwide, during 2011-2015. Materials and methods. Multiple databases were used, as well as the compilation of reports applicable to the citrus chain obtained from secondary sources for the three countries analyzed and interviews with experts from Mexico, Guatemala and Colombia. Ex...

  10. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  11. Efficient micropropagation of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... 2Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, ... 2007 data, India is the largest producer of lemons .... Values represent mean±SE, values within each column followed by the same letters are not significantly ..... ICALTD Asian Citrus rehabilitation conference.

  12. Discrimination of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains using Mexican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two strains of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were studied for six years in Yaounde in the forest zone of Cameroon. These strains, SNCL2 and SNCL4, were characterized on Lisbon lemon in Nyombe in the littoral zone of Cameroon. They were inoculated onto combinations of Mexican lime/citrange Troyer. The virulent strain ...

  13. Two of a kind but different: Luminescent carbon quantum dots from Citrus peels for iron and tartrazine sensing and cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimitakos, Theodoros; Kasouni, Athanasia; Sygellou, Lamprini; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Troganis, Anastasios; Stalikas, Constantine

    2017-12-01

    Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon peels were used to synthesize two different kinds of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) via an unsophisticated and inexpensive carbonization procedure. The proposed synthesis is straightforward and adheres to the principles of green chemistry since no organic solvents are used and no toxic by-products are formed, while the residual resources employed facilitate the large scale synthesis of dots. The Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon peels are proved to be excellent precursors for the synthesis of CQDs with highly practical applications. The CQDs display strong excitation-independent, blue fluorescence, which is stable over time. Splendid water dispersibility, photostability and stability over a wide range of pH are some of the main advantages of the CQDs, which enable them to be used as a fluorescent probes. Although many of their features are alike, our findings demonstrate that each kind of the CQDs lend itself to quite distinct analytical applications. The developed fluorescent probes possess high potential for sensitive and selective detection of Fe 3+ (Citrus sinensis CQDs) and tartrazine (Citrus limon CQDs) via a quenching mechanism. The decrease in fluorescence intensity is in linear relationship with the concentrations of Fe 3+ and tartrazine in the ranges of 0.01-1.0μM and 0.6-23.5μΜ, respectively. Moreover, their low cytotoxicity reinforces their applicability towards cell bioimaging and intracellular detection of Fe 3+ , which were further studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Hiramitsu, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-β-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsola...

  15. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  16. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  17. Isolation, characterization and modification of citrus pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KRATCHANOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange and lemon peels were used for obtaining pectic polysaccharides. Citrus peels were previously treated with 96% ethanol, and the obtained alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS were subjected to a sequential extraction with hot distilled water and hot 0.5% HCl. Water- and acid-extracted orange (WEOP and AEOP and lemon (WELP and AELP pectins were obtained. Acid extraction gave higher yields of pectin than water extraction and lemon peels were richer in pectin. Comparative investigations were carried out with chromatographically purified commercial citrus pectin (CPCP. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of all pectins was accomplished. It was found that pectins were similar in anhydrouronic acid content (AUАC, 69-81%, but differed in their degree of methylesterification (DM, 55-81%. Generally water-extracted pectins were with higher DM. Both orange pectins were with higher DM and degree of acetylation (DA, 2%, in comparison with the corresponding lemon pectins. Water-extracted pectins were with higher degree of feruloylation (DF, 0.12-0.34%. To our knowledge this is the first report on the estimation of ester-linked ferulic acid in orange and lemon peel pectins. Pectic polysaccharides differed in molecular weight and homogeneity. WELP was with the highest molecular weight and homogeneity. The pectins contained D-galacturonic and D-glucuronic acids, L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose and D-xylose. All investigated pectins showed immunostimulating activity by complement activation in the classical pathway at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL. Pectic polysaccharides were modified with endopolygalacturonase. Enzyme-modified CPCP and WEOP had higher anti-complementary activity than the corresponding initial pectins.

  18. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS BLIGHT (Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest citrus producer in the world, being responsible for more than 20% of its production, which is, however still low due to phytosanitary issues such as citrus blight. Citrus blight is an anomaly whose causes still have not yet been determined, therefore there are no efficient control measures to minimize the production losses with the use of resistant varieties being considered the most appropriate method. However, little is known about the genes involved in the defense response of the plants to this anomaly. Considering that many physiological alterations associated with plant stress responses are controlled at a transcriptional level, in this study we sought the identification and characterization of the gene expression products differentially expressed in the response to the citrus blight. Through the suppressive subtractive hybridization technique, expressed cDNA libraries were built using mRNAs isolated from "Cravo" lemon tree roots (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck under "Pera" orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck of healthy and sick plants. 129 clones were obtained by subtraction and their sequences were compared in databases. 34 of them linked to proteins associated to stress processes, while the others were similar to sequences of unknown functions or did not present similarity with sequences deposited in the databases. 3 genes were selected and their expressions were studied by RT - qPCR in real-time. Plants with citrus blight presented an increase of the expression level in two of those genes, suggesting that these can be directly involved with this anomaly.

  19. Evaluation of the Tolerance of Some Citrus Rootstocks to Citrus Nematode in Greenhouse (Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammad Alian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Citrus nematode is one of the most important damaging nematodes of citrus trees, spreading widely in most areas under citrus planting causing dieback, the gradual decline of trees and crop decrease in citrus orchards. Eighty citrus cultivars and species are sensitive to this nematode. From other nematode hosts, we can refer to olive, fig, medlar, persimmon, pear and grapevine. Surveys Full filled in Mazandaran province is indicative of the widespread of this nematode in citrus horticulture and the level of infection in some samples is so high, thus it is necessary to use different ways of controlling this parasite. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out for 2 successive years and the reaction of sin citrus rootstocks including Citromelo, Poncirus, Sour Orange, Bakraee, Rough lemon and Off-type to citrus nematode under controlled conditions in the greenhouse was evaluated. Three months years old plants of this rootstock Were planted in completely random design with 5 replications in pots containing the population of 40 larvae per cubic centimeter of soil and after six months, the level of infection of roots was investigated and then the most tolerable rootstock for nematode was introduced on the basis of the least population of young females and adult females injected in one gram of root volume. Results and Discussion: Experiment results on the basis of LSD test in two successive years indicated that there is a meaningful statistical difference between Citrumelo and poncirus Poncirus with the least population of nematode of adult female on the root and other treatments the results show that sour orange and off-type rootstocks are the most sensitive to citrus nematode, poncirus Poncirus and Citrumelo are the most tolerable to nematode Bakraee and Rough lemon are in the biotype group with average tolerance (relatively sensitive to citrus nematode. Purpose of this research is to assess the sensitivity level of six citrus

  20. Evaluation of the effects of light source and plant materials in psyllid trapping levels in the traps for citrus shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), the principle vector for Huanglongbing (HLB), has been reported to be transported in truckloads of oranges in Florida. Citrus, especially Key limes and lemons, are shipped to the U.S. from Mexican states that are heavily infested with HLB and live, infected psyllids c...

  1. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of 'Shatangju' Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.

  2. Characterization of the 'Xiangshui' lemon transcriptome by de novo assembly to discover genes associated with self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Ding, Feng; He, Xinhua; Luo, Cong; Huang, Guixiang; Hu, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Seedlessness is a desirable character in lemons and other citrus species. Seedless fruit can be induced in many ways, including through self-incompatibility (SI). SI is widely used as an intraspecific reproductive barrier that prevents self-fertilization in flowering plants. Although there have been many studies on SI, its mechanism remains unclear. The 'Xiangshui' lemon is an important seedless cultivar whose seedlessness has been caused by SI. It is essential to identify genes involved in SI in 'Xiangshui' lemon to clarify its molecular mechanism. In this study, candidate genes associated with SI were identified using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 61,224 unigenes were obtained (average, 948 bp; N50 of 1,457 bp), among which 47,260 unigenes were annotated by comparison to six public databases (Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO). Differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of no-, self-, and cross-pollinated stigmas with styles of the 'Xiangshui' lemon. Several differentially expressed genes that might be associated with SI were identified, such as those involved in pollen tube growth, programmed cell death, signal transduction, and transcription. NADPH oxidase genes associated with apoptosis were highly upregulated in the self-pollinated transcriptome. The expression pattern of 12 genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A putative S-RNase gene was identified that had not been previously associated with self-pollen rejection in lemon or citrus. This study provided a transcriptome dataset for further studies of SI and seedless lemon breeding.

  3. 7 CFR 29.1031 - Lemon (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lemon (L). 29.1031 Section 29.1031 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1031 Lemon (L). Yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 49 FR 16755, Apr. 20...

  4. Resistance of citrus genotypes to Phyllocnitis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M S; Vendramim, J D; Lourenção, A L; Pitta, R M; Martins, E S

    2011-01-01

    The development and reproduction of the citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, were evaluated in six citrus genotypes in order to identify genotypes with resistance traits that could be applied in a program for the development of citrus varieties resistant to the citrus leafminer. Tests were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14h photophase). Seedlings of each genotype tested were infested with eggs obtained from a stock colony of CLM maintained on 'Cravo' lemon (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck), and the duration and survival of the eggs, larval and pupal stages, pupal size and weight, fecundity and longevity of adults, and sex ratio were evaluated. No influence was observed on the duration and survival of eggs, larvae and pupae of P. citrella. However, pupae obtained in the hybrid C x R(4) were significantly smaller and lighter than pupae from the remaining treatments. Adult females from the hybrids C x R(4) and C x R(315) were the least fecund. However, the lowest value for the corrected reproductive potential (CRP) was recorded in the hybrid C x R(315), suggesting that this genotype is the least favorable for the development and reproduction of CLM. On the other hand, the highest CRP value obtained in the 'Rugoso' lemon confirms the susceptibility of this genotype, indicating it as the most suitable for CLM.

  5. Fenologics characteristics of the ‘Siciliano’ lemon tree on two rootstocks influenced by liming and boron addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Grassi Filho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study was developed with disturbed samples of an Oxisol, in which ‘Siciliano’ lemon trees seedlings (C. limon were grafted on sour orange tree (C. aurantium and rangpur lime tree (C. limonia. The experiment consisted of three basis saturation levels (50, 70 and 90 percent and three boron doses (0.5; 1.5 and 4.5 mg dm-3 in the planting with 3x3x2 factorial experimental design with four replications. Mineral composition of the "Siciliano" lemon leaves as well as root system development in sour orange tree were higher than the rangpur lime tree. There was no effect in the interaction basis saturarion level and the boron doses for any of the evaluated parameters.O presente estudo foi desenvolvido na UNESP/Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil, num solo identificado como Oxisol, onde foram plantadas mudas de limoeiro ‘Siciliano’ (C. limon enxertadas em laranjeira ‘Azeda’ (C. aurantium e em limoeiro ‘Cravo’ (C. limonia. O experimento consistiu em três níveis de saturação por bases (50%, 70% e 90% e três doses de boro (0,5; 1,5 e 4,5 mg dm-3 no plantio em esquema fatorial de 3x3x2, com quatro repetições. Houve diferentes comportamentos entre os porta-enxertos no que se refere à composição mineral de folhas de limoeiro ‘Siciliano’, bem como, no desenvolvimento do sistema radicular, sendo maior na laranjeira azeda em relação ao limoeiro cravo. Não houve nenhum efeito na interação de níveis de saturação por bases e doses de boro para nenhum dos parâmetros avaliados.

  6. The traditional irrigation technique of Lake Garda lemon--houses (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Vitale, Nicola; Fausti, Federico; Bettoni, Barbara; Bonati, Sara; Peli, Marco; Pietta, Antonella; Tononi, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Between 16th and 19th centuries the North-Western side of Lake Garda was seat of an important district which, at the time of its maximum splendour between 18th and 19th centuries, produced and exported lemons and citrus even toward the Northern Europe and the Russia. The limonaie del Garda (Lake-Garda lemon-houses), the local name of the citrus orchards, were settled on terraces built on steep slopes, with landfill taken from the Eastern side of the lake, and closed by greenhouses during late autumn and winter in order to protect the cultivations. The terraces were built nearby streams, they were South-Eastern exposed and protected by walls from the cold winds. Thanks in fact to the Lake Garda microclimate, lemon trees were not cultivated in pots, as in the typical orangeries of mid-latitudes Europe, but directly in the soil. Here the citrus cultivation technique reached a remarkably high degree of standardisation, with local cultivar as the Madernino or lemon from Maderno, and it involved, as in modern industrial districts, all the surrounding land in order to satisfy the needing of required materials to build the terraces, the walls, the greenhouses and the wooden frames to hold the branches laden with fruits. Due to the great water requirement of lemon trees during summer, which is estimated to range from 150 to 300 ℓ every ten days, the water management played a key role in the cultivation technique. The traditional irrigation technique was standardized as well. During our surveys, we observed that most of the lemon-houses still conserve little stone flumes along the walls upslope to the terraces, with spillways every adult tree, i.e. about every 4 m. The flumes were filled with water taken from an upstream reservoir, built nearby a stream. The spillways were activated with a backwater obtained by means of a sand bag placed within the flume, just downstream to the spillway itself. In order to avoid any excavation, spilled water was driven to the base of each

  7. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF......) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate...... of whole was the highest for the LE (p by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p

  8. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  9. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  10. Citrus Peel Additives for One-Pot Triazole Formation by Decarboxylation, Nucleophilic Substitution, and Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Desiree E.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory experiment consists of three different reactions occurring in the same flask: a cycloaddition reaction, preceded by decarboxylation and nucleophilic substitution reactions. The decarboxylation and cycloaddition reactions occur using identical Cu(I) catalyst and conditions. Orange, lemon, and other citrus fruit…

  11. Ergodicity of the generalized lemon billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingyu [Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801-2302 (United States); Mohr, Luke; Zhang, Hong-Kun, E-mail: hongkun@math.umass.edu; Zhang, Pengfei [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, UMass Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we study a two-parameter family of convex billiard tables, by taking the intersection of two round disks (with different radii) in the plane. These tables give a generalization of the one-parameter family of lemon-shaped billiards. Initially, there is only one ergodic table among all lemon tables. In our generalized family, we observe numerically the prevalence of ergodicity among the some perturbations of that table. Moreover, numerical estimates of the mixing rate of the billiard dynamics on some ergodic tables are also provided.

  12. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of ‘Shatangju’ Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of ‘Shatangju’ mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), ‘Shatangju’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of ‘Shatangju’ mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and ‘Shatangju’ mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in ‘Red tangerine vs Canton lemon’. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways. PMID:28081213

  13. Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    In Sylhet region of Bangladesh it is locally known as Zara lemon and available in the local. *Corresponding ... While the lemon or orange are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy segments, the citron's pulp is ... Then washing of the explant took place with distilled water for. 3 to 4 times. Before inoculation soaking of the ...

  14. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities.

  15. Changes in the Composition of Aromatherapeutic Citrus Oils during Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of some commercial Citrus oils, lemon, sweet orange, and tangerine, designated for aromatherapy, was examined before and after partial evaporation in a stream of nitrogen. The intact oils contained the expected mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes, with hydrocarbons dominating and lesser amounts of oxygenated analogues making up the remainder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to follow alterations in the relative amounts of the various components present as evaporation proceeded. Changes were marked, and in particular more volatile components present in the intact oils rapidly disappeared. Thus the balance of content was shifted away from monoterpene hydrocarbons towards the analogous alcohols and carbonyl compounds. The results of this differential evaporation are discussed and possible consequences for aromatherapy use are noted. The case of lemon oil was especially interesting as the relative amount of citral, a known sensitizer, remaining as time elapsed represented an increasing percentage of the total oil.

  16. [Effect of variation of lemon intake and walking in daily life on various indicators of muscle mass and blood biochemistry in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimiko; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Kato, Yoji; Miyake, Yukiko; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsushi; Harada, Toshihide; Aoi, Satomi; Ikeda, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the factors considered to change body composition and blood biochemistry indicators in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women. These changes result from exercise by walking as part of their daily activities and lemon consumption by women who live on the small islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan's largest citrus fruit (lemon)-producing region. Between September 2011 and March 2012, we recorded the daily lemon consumption and the number of steps taken by 101 middle-aged and elderly female lemon farmers. We also measured their body dimensions, body compositions, and blood pressure pulse wave velocity and conducted blood tests before and after the survey period. The results before and after the survey period were compared by the t-test and associations were determined on the basis of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Covariance structural analysis was carried out to determine causal associations. From the results of covariance structure analysis, lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item examined. The third item, i.e., "the factors related to arteriosclerosis," was affected indirectly via citric acid and fatigue, and anticoagulation was shown. The fourth item, i.e., "the factors related to maintenance of muscle mass," which is affected by menopausal years and the change in walking speed, was shown to be associated with the second item, i.e., "the factors related to lipid metabolism." Menopausal years affected the first, third and fourth items. Lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item. Lemon has been shown to indirectly affect the third item through citric acid. Walking affected the second item, the level of total cholesterol, such as HDL cholesterol, through the fourth item. The importance of providing services that lead to sustained physical activity and a well-balanced metabolism between lipids and carbohydrates has been shown.

  17. Oxygenated heterocyclic compounds to differentiate Citrus spp. essential oils through metabolomic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jerome; Liberto, Erica; Beolor, Jean-Claude; Brevard, Hugues; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise and discriminate 44 authenticated commercial samples of citrus essential oils (EO) from seven species (bergamot, lemon, bigarade, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime) by analysing the non-volatile oxygenated heterocyclic compounds (OHC) by UHPLC/TOF-HRMS, multivariate data analysis (PCA, PLS-DA) and metabolomic strategies; the OHC fraction includes coumarins, furocoumarins, and polymethoxylated flavonoids. Two different approaches were adopted: (i) targeted profiling based on quantifying 18 furocoumarins and coumarins, some of which are regulated by law, and (ii) targeted fingerprinting based on 140 OHCs reported in citrus essential oils, from which 38 discriminant markers were defined. This approach correctly discriminated the Citrus species; its "sensitivity" to relatively low adulteration rate (10%) was highly satisfactory. The proposed method is complementary to that of analysing the citrus EO volatile part by GC techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm, while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.

  19. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  20. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y; Harisha, C R; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P K

    2014-01-01

    Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.

  1. Ionization with accelerated high energy electrons as quarantine treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Río, M.A. del; Jacas, J.

    2002-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest. Spanish citrus exports to countries such as the USA or Japan are subjected to a mandatory quarantine treatment consisting of exposure of fruits to a low temperatures. Some citrus (''Fino'' lemon, ''Fortune'' mandarin) are very sensitive to this kind of treatment and can not be treated this way. Therefore, alternative treatments are necessary. In this study, high energy electrons were investigated as an alternative quarantine treatment against C. capitata in citrus. Survival of the different instars (egg to old pupae) of C. capitata reared in an artificial medium was assessed when exposed to different doses between 0 and 1 kGy. Both pupariation and adult emergence were almost prevented at 0.25 kGy, and no viable adults were obtained at 0.50 kGy. When artificially infested fruits (in both ''Fino'' lemon and ''Fortune'' mandarin) were exposed to 1 kGy, 100% mortality was obtained. Finally, quality (texture, color index, maturity index, juice yield, ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, physiological alterations and organoleptic characteristics) of irradiated (1 kGy) and non irradiated fruit were compared. High energy electron irradiation resulted in unacceptable damage to ''Fortune'' mandarin, but quality of ''Fino'' lemon resulted unaltered even when evaluated one month after irradiation. Therefore high energy electrons could be a useful alternative to cold quarantine treatment for ''Fino'' lemons. (author) [es

  2. Extraction, Modelling and Purification of Flavonoids from Citrus Medica Peel

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parvathi Nandan; Vangalapati Meena

    2015-01-01

    Soxhlet extraction technique is widely employed for the extraction and separation of chemical constituents in the medicinal plants. Citrus medica L commonly called as Citron belongs to family Rutaceae, is a slow-growing shrub. It is mainly cultivated for the production of edible fruits which are sour in taste like lime and lemon and the main content of a citron fruit is the thick rind, which is very adherent to the segments. From the phytochemical analysis the peel extract is rich source of p...

  3. Properties and antioxidant activity of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2012-10-01

    Properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. Films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (pfish skin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiyelaagbe, I O. Vol 10, No 1 (2005) - Articles Growth of Lemon (Citrus Limon L. Buru) in response to Water Stress and shading. Abstract · Vol 10, No 1 (2005) - Articles Growth response of Juvenile Passion Fruit (Passiflora Edulis, F. Falvicarpa) to organic and inorganic fertilizer in South Western Nigeria Abstract.

  6. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Goncu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and yeast counts of kefirs were determined at 1st, 10th and 20th days of storage. The addition of apple and lemon fiber enhanced rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of kefirs (p<0.01. Apple and lemon fiber could be used for kefir production at a rate of 0.25 or 0.5 %.

  7. Pectins from the albedo of immature lemon fruitlets have high water binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Roswitha; Clark, Christopher J; Sharrock, Keith; Hallett, Ian C; MacRae, Elspeth A

    2004-04-01

    The white part of citrus peel, the albedo, has a special role in water relations of both fruit and leaves from early on in fruit development. In times of drought, this tissue acts as a water reservoir for juice sacs, seeds and leaves. When water was injected into the albedo, free water was undetectable using magnetic resonance imaging. Microscopy showed tightly packed cells with little intercellular space, and thick cell walls. Cell wall material comprised 21% of the fresh albedo weight, and contained 26.1% galacturonic acid, the main constituent of pectin. From this, we postulated that pectin of the cell wall was responsible for the high water-binding capacity of the immature lemon albedo. Cell wall material was extracted using mild procedures that keep polymers intact, and four pectic fractions were recovered. Of these fractions, the SDS and chelator-soluble fractions showed viscosities ten and twenty times higher than laboratory-grade citrus pectin or the other albedo-derived pectins. The yield of these two pectins represented 28% of the cell walls and 62% of the galacturonic acid content of immature lemon albedo. We concluded that, from viscosity and abundance, these types of pectin account for the high water-binding capacity of this tissue. Compositional analyses showed that the two highly viscous pectic fractions differ in galacturonic acid content, degree of branching and length of side chains from the less viscous albedo-derived pectins. The most striking feature of these highly viscous pectins, however, was their high molecular weight distribution compared to the other pectic fractions.

  8. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of lemon balm Kombucha

    OpenAIRE

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.; Cvetković Dragoljub D.; Markov Siniša L.; Tumbas Vesna T.; Savatović Slađana M.

    2007-01-01

    Kombucha is a beverage traditionally produced by metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of lemon balm kombucha as well as of particular control samples was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals of lemon balm kombucha and lemon balm tea was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Acetic acid, Kombucha samples and heat-denaturated kombucha showed significant antimicro...

  10. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Busra Goncu; Asli Celikel; Mutlu B. Guler-Akin; M. Serdar Akin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively) and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus ...

  11. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification and SYBR green real-time PCR methods for the detection of Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus in citrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Dasgupta, I; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2014-07-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus (CMBV) is an important pathogen in southern India spread by infected citrus propagules. One of the measures to arrest the spread of CMBV is to develop methods to screen and certify citrus propagules as CMBV-free. The methods loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and SYBR green real-time PCR (SGRTPCR) have been developed for the efficient detection of CMBV in citrus propagules. This paper compares the sensitivities of LAMP and SGRTPCR with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of CMBV. Whereas PCR and LAMP were able to detect CMBV from a minimum of 10 ng of total DNA of infected leaf samples, SGRTPCR could detect the same from 1 ng of total DNA. Using SGRTPCR, the viral titres were estimated to be the highest in rough lemon and lowest in Nagpur Mandarin of the five naturally infected citrus species tested. The results will help in designing suitable strategies for the sensitive detection of CMBV from citrus propagules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Limon Ekşisi Üretimi Üzerine Bir Araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Uçan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, limon ekşisi açık kazanda ve vakum altında olmak üzere iki farklı yöntemle üretilmiş, limon ekşilerinin bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri incelenmiştir. Limon suyunun, limon ekşisine işlenmesiyle pH değerlerinde yaklaşık %50 azalma, titrasyon asitliğinde ise yaklaşık 8-10 kat artış belirlenmiştir. Açık kazanda üretilen limon ekşisi örneklerinde askorbik asit içeriği kaybının, vakumda üretilenlere göre %48.36 daha fazla olduğu belirlenmiştir. Limon ekşisi örneklerinde en yüksek toplam fenolik ve karotenoid madde içeriği açık kazanda üretilenlerde tespit edilmiştir. Her iki yöntem ile üretilen örneklerin L* ve Hueo değerlerinde azalışlar, a*, b* ve Croma* değerlerinde ise artışlar olmuştur. En yüksek esmerleşme indeksi ve HMF (hidroksimetilfurfural miktarı, açık kazanda üretilen örneklerde, en yüksek antioksidan aktivite değeri ise vakumda altında üretilen örneklerde tespit edilmiştir. Limon ekşisi örneklerinde tartarik, kuinik, okzalik, malik, sitrik ve süksinik olmak üzere 6 adet organik asit belirlenmiştir. Organik asit içerikleri en fazla vakum altında üretilen limon ekşisi örneklerinde belirlenmiştir.

  13. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  14. Effect of intercropping of maize in citrus orchards on citrus leaf miner infestation and population of its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Khan, M.A.; Qasam, M.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of intercropping of maize fodder in months of monsoon (July to October), in Faisalabad, Pakistan, on infestation of citrus leaf miner (CLM) (Phyllocnistis citrella Stanton) and its predators. Lemon, Kinnow, Grapefruit and Musambi intercropped with and without maize were selected for recording data on these insects. Percent leaf miner infestation and number of predators were recorded from randomly selected branches of citrus trees. Results showed that intercropped plots of each variety had low infestation of citrus miner and high population of coccinellids and Chrysoperla carnea and Musambi was 8.40+-0.144 and 12.72+-0.171 in intercropped and 9.12+-0.169 and 14.52+-0.200 in wihtout intercropped plots, respectively. Interaction of population of Chrysoperla carnea and coccinellids was non-significant for months, varieties and intercropping but was significant within months, varieties and intercropping. The possibility of using maize fodder as intercrop in autumn in citrus is discussed. (author)

  15. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into α-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments.

  16. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  17. Estimation of the number of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus that visit adult citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano

    2004-03-01

    Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree.

  18. Juan's Dilemma: A New Twist on the Old Lemon Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Vanessa; Sorey, Timothy; Balandova, Evguenia; Palmquist, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    When life hands you lemons, make a battery! In this article, the authors describe an activity they refer to as "Juan's Dilemma," an extension of the familiar lemon-battery activity (Goodisman 2001). Juan's Dilemma integrates oxidation and reduction chemistry with circuit theory in a fun, real-world exercise. The authors designed this activity for…

  19. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  20. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  1. Identification of Genes Associated with Lemon Floral Transition and Flower Development during Floral Inductive Water Deficits: A Hypothetical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Xue; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Zhu, Jiao; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Huang, Hua-Bin; Yue, Jian-Qiang; Gao, Jun-Yan; Du, Yu-Xia; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is a key factor to induce flowering in many woody plants, but reports on the molecular mechanisms of floral induction and flowering by water deficit are scarce. Here, we analyzed the morphology, cytology, and different hormone levels of lemon buds during floral inductive water deficits. Higher levels of ABA were observed, and the initiation of floral bud differentiation was examined by paraffin sections analysis. A total of 1638 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing. DEGs were related to flowering, hormone biosynthesis, or metabolism. The expression of some DEGs was associated with floral induction by real-time PCR analysis. However, some DEGs may not have anything to do with flowering induction/flower development; they may be involved in general stress/drought response. Four genes from the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family were further investigated. Ectopic expression of these genes in Arabidopsis changed the flowering time of transgenic plants. Furthermore, the 5' flanking region of these genes was also isolated and sequence analysis revealed the presence of several putative cis -regulatory elements, including basic elements and hormone regulation elements. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these promoters were investigated under water deficit treatment. Based on these findings, we propose a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions, which will enable us to further understand the molecular mechanism of water deficit-regulated flowering in citrus. Based on gene activity during floral inductive water deficits identified by RNA sequencing and genes associated with lemon floral transition, a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions is proposed.

  2. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies. PMID:27902727

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships of Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjor, Tshering; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that “true citrus fruit trees” could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Penjor

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions

  5. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis fruits in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Puglisi

    Full Text Available Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis, a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi, sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata. This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  7. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Ivana; De Patrizio, Alessandro; Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano; Cacciola, Santa Olga

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  8. Botanical insecticides in controlling Kelly's citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on organic grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-12-01

    Kelly's citrus thrips, Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was first recorded in Cyprus in 1996 and became an economic citrus pest. In Cyprus, Kelly's citrus thrips larvae cause feeding damage mainly on immature lemon and grapefruit fruits. Use of botanical insecticides is considered an alternative tool compared with synthetic chemicals, in offering solutions for healthy and sustainable citrus production. During 2008-2010, the efficacy of the botanical insecticides azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W and Oikos 10 EC), garlic extract (Alsa), and pyrethrins (Vioryl 5%SC) was evaluated in field trials against Kelly's citrus thrips larval stage I and II aiming at controlling the pest's population and damage to organic grapefruit fruits. In each of the trial years treatments with pyrethrins and azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W) were the most effective against Kelly's citrus thrips compared with the untreated control (for 2008: P extract showed the lowest effect from all the botanicals used compared with the untreated control.

  9. Effect of Citrus floral extracts on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre)

    OpenAIRE

    Grajales-Conesa,Julieta; Meléndez Ramírez,Virginia; Cruz-López,Leopoldo; Sánchez Guillén,Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Citrus floral extracts on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre). Stingless bees have an important role as pollinators of many wild and cultivated plant species in tropical regions. Little is known, however, about the interaction between floral fragrances and the foraging behavior of meliponine species. Thus we investigated the chemical composition of the extracts of citric (lemon and orange) flowers and their effects on the foraging behavi...

  10. The Phytotoxicity of Designated Pollutants on Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Only seeds collected from those flowers exposed during pollin 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...acid exposure during pollination lowered the germination rate of mature seeds. Plant injury was chiefly a function of acid concentration, but amount...TESTS Species Name Variety Barley Hordeum vulgare L. CM67 Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pinto Citrus Citrus limon (L.) Lupe Lemon Lettuce Lactuca sativa

  11. Improvement of the half-embryo test for detection of gamma-irradiated grapefruit and its application to irradiated oranges and lemons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Y.; Uchiyama, S.; Saito, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The duration of the half-embryo test used for identification of gamma-irradiated grapefruit was shortened by increasing germination temperature to 35 degrees C. Maximum shooting percentages were reached within 3 days. Gibberellin application reduced the required incubation time to 2 days. Half-embryos extracted from irradiated orange and lemon gave similar results to those of grapefruit. This half-embryo test is proposed as an identification method for irradiated citrus. Assessment can be made after 3 to 4 days when shooting percentage is greater than 50%

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of lemon balm Kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage traditionally produced by metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of lemon balm kombucha as well as of particular control samples was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals of lemon balm kombucha and lemon balm tea was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Acetic acid, Kombucha samples and heat-denaturated kombucha showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria. However, there was no activity against yeasts and moulds. Kombucha showed higher antioxidant activity than tea sample for all applied sample volumes.

  13. Heavy metals binding properties of esterified lemon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Altundogan, Hamdi Soner [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Tumen, Fikret, E-mail: ftumen@firat.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    Sorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} onto a carboxyl groups-rich material prepared from lemon was investigated in batch systems. The results revealed that the sorption is highly pH dependent. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the equilibrium was achieved in the range of 30-240 min for different metal ions and sorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model for all metals studied. Relative sorption rate of various metal cations was found to be in the general order of Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The binding characteristics of the sorbent for heavy metal ions were analyzed under various conditions and isotherm data was accurately fitted to the Langmuir equation. The metal binding capacity order calculated from Langmuir isotherm was Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Cr{sup 3+}. The mean free energy of metal sorption process calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich parameter and the Polanyi potential was found to be in the range of 8-11 kJ mol{sup -1} for the metals studied showing that the main mechanism governing the sorption process seems to be ion exchange. The basic thermodynamic parameters of metals ion sorption process were calculated by using the Langmuir constants obtained from equilibration study. The {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}H{sup o} values for metals ion sorption on the lemon sorbent showed the process to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Relatively low {Delta}H{sup o} values revealed that physical adsorption significantly contributed to the mechanism.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of citrus peel extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatha, S.A.S.; Hussain, A.I.; Asi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of three different locally grown citrus varieties; grape fruit, lemon and mussambi, was assessed using some antioxidant assays like estimation of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC), percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity. The yield of extracts was found in the range of 17.92-30.8%. TPC, TFC, percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH radical scavenging capacity of different citrus peel extracts were found in range of 2.72 - 3.77 g/100g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), 2.20-2.98 g/100g as Catechine Equivalent (CE), 68.20 - 91.78% and 19.53 - 41.88 mg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) variations in the yield and antioxidant potentials of the extracts with respect to different species and solvent systems. From the results it is reasonable to say that methanolic extracts of citrus peels have exhibited varying degree of antioxidant potentials. (author)

  15. CITRUS AS A COMPONENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Duarte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are native to southeastern Asia, but are present in the Mediterranean basin for centuries. This group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries and, in the case of orange, mandarin and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allows them to achieve a high level of fruit quality, even better than in the regions where they came from. Citrus fruits are present in the diet of the peoples living on the Mediterranean basin, at least since the time of the Roman Empire. In the 20th century they became the main crop in various agricultural areas of the Mediterranean, playing an important role in the landscape, in the diet of the overall population, and also in international trade. They are present in the gardens of palaces and monasteries, but also in the courtyards and orchards of the poorest families. Their fruits are not only a refreshing dessert, but also a condiment, or even a major component of many dishes. Citrus fruits have well-documented nutritional and health benefits. They can actually help prevent and cure some diseases and, above all, they are essential in a balanced and tasty diet.

  16. The Lemon Screamer, the Lasagna Cell, and the Physics Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Courtney W.; Nicholson, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Described is a demonstration which uses two electrodes attached to a piezoelectric buzzer that operates when inserted into a lemon. The calculation of cell potentials and the effects demonstrated are discussed. (CW)

  17. (HLB) infected citrus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... 1Departments of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul ... Huanglongbing (HLB) disease, also known as citrus ..... Huanglongbing: A destructive, newly-emerging,.

  18. Semi-automatic Citation Correction with Lemon8-XML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Suhonos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lemon8-XML software application, developed by the Public Knowledge Project (PKP, provides an open-source, computer-assisted interface for reliable citation structuring and validation. Lemon8-XML combines citation parsing algorithms with freely-available online indexes such as PubMed, WorldCat, and OAIster. Fully-automated markup of entire bibliographies may be a genuine possibility using this approach. Automated markup of citations would increase bibliographic accuracy while reducing copyediting demands.

  19. Extraction, characterisation, and enzymatic degradation of lemon peel pectins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J.M.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    The albedo of Spanish lemons (16.0% w/w of lemon fresh weight) was extracted to obtain a chelating agent soluble pectin fraction, a diluted sodium hydroxide soluble pectin fraction and a residue (4.2, 1.8, and 5.0% w/w of fresh albedo, respectively). These fractions represented 61.3, 12.4, and 10.4%

  20. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  1. Microjets of citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Dickerson, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The rupture of oil glands in the citrus exocarp is a common experience to the discerning citrus consumer. When peeled, oil cavities housed with the citrus exocarp often rupture outwardly in response to externally applied bending stresses. Bending of the peel compresses the soft material surrounding the glands, the albedo, increasing fluid pressure. Ultimately, the fluid pressure exceeds the failure strength of the outermost membrane, the flavedo. The ensuing high-velocity discharge of oil and exhaustive emptying of oil glands creates a novel method for jetting small quantities of the aromatic and volatile oil. We compare the jetting behavior across five citrus hybrids through high-speed videography and material testing of exocarps. The jetting oil undergoes an initial acceleration surpassing 5,000 gravities, reaching velocities in excess of 10 m/s. Film of citrus jets and mimicking jets in the lab reveal their high level of instability is caused by irregular and non-circular orifice geometry. Through material characterization and bending simulations, we rationalize the combination of material properties necessary to generate the internal gland pressures required for explosive dispersal.

  2. Biodiesel from lemon and lemon grass oil and its effect on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivagar, R.; Sundararaj, S.; Vignesh, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    In the present scenario many developing countries are depending on oil producing nations for their fuel resources. Due to demand and scarcity of the fuel, there has been a huge increase in fuel prices. The vehicular population is also continuously increasing and becoming a great menace to peoples. This paper aims to provide an alternate solution for petroleum based fuels. It suggests that biodiesel produced from lemon and lemon grass oil can be used as an alternative fuel. This work investigates the thermal performance of four stroke diesel engine using blends of biodiesel and diesel as a fuel. Performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were measured at different loads for diesel and various combination of biofuel (L10, L20, and L30). The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained is about 26.12%for L20 which is slightly higher than that of diesel (24.91%). Engine experimental results showed that exhaust emissions including CO2 and HC were reduced by 6% and 5% for L20 mixture of biodiesel whereas CO emission was as same as diesel. However, there was increase in NOxby 26% to the diesel fuel.

  3. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... for all germplasm and budwood destined for propagation in nurseries within the State, construction and... movement of citrus nursery stock is considered to be a high-risk pathway for citrus canker and citrus..., we did not initiate rulemaking at that time to establish such a systems approach. Rather, we decided...

  4. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... that seed transmission may occur. The pathogen can also be transmitted by two insect vectors in the... by the Secretary prior to movement. Citrus canker is a plant disease that is caused by a complex of....75-6. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the...

  5. Nutritive value of citrus co-products in rabbit feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlos de Blas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulps from different citrus fruits are relevant agro-industrial co-products in the Mediterranean area in terms of amounts produced and availability. Moreover, part of the product is dehydrated, which increases its interest in monogastric species such as rabbits. Seventy eight samples from various Spanish producers using several types of fresh fruits (orange, tangerine, lemon and pomelo and different processing methods of orange and tangerine samples (either fresh or dried after adding Ca(OH2 were analysed for their chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Average dry matter (DM contents of ash, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin (ADL, soluble fibre, crude protein (CP, insoluble neutral and acid detergent CP, ether extract and gross energy were 49.0, 226, 139, 12.1, 213, 71.2, 13.1, 4.2, 30.5 g and 17.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Mean DM and CP in vitro digestibility were 86.7 and 95.6%, respectively. Digestible energy was estimated to be 15.1 MJ/kg DM. A high variability (coefficient of variation from 17% for CP to 60% for ADL was observed among the samples for most of the traits studied, which was partially explained by the effects of type of fruit and processing. Lemon pulps had on average higher ash and fibre but lower sugar contents than the other pulps. Dehydration processes increased ash content (almost double than for fresh pulp due to lime addition. As regards the current results, citrus pulp has potential for use in rabbit diets as a source of energy and soluble fibre.

  6. LEMON - LHC Era Monitoring for Large-Scale Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babik, Marian; Hook, Nicholas; Lansdale, Thomas Hector; Lenkes, Daniel; Siket, Miroslav; Waldron, Denis; Fedorko, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    At the present time computer centres are facing a massive rise in virtualization and cloud computing as these solutions bring advantages to service providers and consolidate the computer centre resources. However, as a result the monitoring complexity is increasing. Computer centre management requires not only to monitor servers, network equipment and associated software but also to collect additional environment and facilities data (e.g. temperature, power consumption, cooling efficiency, etc.) to have also a good overview of the infrastructure performance. The LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system is addressing these requirements for a very large scale infrastructure. The Lemon agent that collects data on every client and forwards the samples to the central measurement repository provides a flexible interface that allows rapid development of new sensors. The system allows also to report on behalf of remote devices such as switches and power supplies. Online and historical data can be visualized via a web-based interface or retrieved via command-line tools. The Lemon Alarm System component can be used for notifying the operator about error situations. In this article, an overview of the Lemon monitoring is provided together with a description of the CERN LEMON production instance. No direct comparison is made with other monitoring tool.

  7. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm and lemon essential oil (0.08- 0.12- 0.16% completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  8. Role of the pathotype-specific ACRTS1 gene encoding a hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of host-selective ACR-toxin in the rough lemon pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yuriko; Kamei, Eri; Miyamoto, Yoko; Ohtani, Kouhei; Masunaka, Akira; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gomi, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Peever, Tobin L; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2012-08-01

    The rough lemon pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-selective ACR-toxin and causes Alternaria leaf spot disease of the rootstock species rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) and Rangpur lime (C. limonia). Genes controlling toxin production were localized to a 1.5-Mb chromosome carrying the ACR-toxin biosynthesis gene cluster (ACRT) in the genome of the rough lemon pathotype. A genomic BAC clone containing a portion of the ACRT cluster was sequenced which allowed identification of three open reading frames present only in the genomes of ACR-toxin producing isolates. We studied the functional role of one of these open reading frames, ACRTS1 encoding a putative hydroxylase, in ACR-toxin production by homologous recombination-mediated gene disruption. There are at least three copies of ACRTS1 gene in the genome and disruption of two copies of this gene significantly reduced ACR-toxin production as well as pathogenicity; however, transcription of ACRTS1 and production of ACR-toxin were not completely eliminated due to remaining functional copies of the gene. RNA-silencing was used to knock down the remaining ACRTS1 transcripts to levels undetectable by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The silenced transformants did not produce detectable ACR-toxin and were not pathogenic. These results indicate that ACRTS1 is an essential gene in ACR-toxin biosynthesis in the rough lemon pathotype of A. alternata and is required for full virulence of this fungus.

  9. Kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in un-pasteurized Iranian lemon juice during regular storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, A; Niakousari, M

    2008-05-15

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life stability of un-pasteurized lemon juice filled in clear or dark green glass bottles. Presence of light, time and temperature affect the ascorbic acid retention in citrus juices. Bottles were stored at room temperature (27 +/- 3 degrees C) and in the refrigerator (3 +/- 1 degrees C). Total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and pH value were measured every three weeks and analysis was carried out on ascorbic acid content by means of titration method in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The study was carried out for 12 weeks after which slight changes in color, taste and apparent texture in some samples were observed and ascorbic acid content reduced by 50%. Soluble solids content, pH value and total acidity were 5.5 degrees Brix, 2.73 and 5 g/100 mL, respectively which appeared not to be significantly influenced by storage time or conditions. Ascorbic acid content initially at 38.50 mg/100 mL was sharply reduced to about 22 mg/100 mL within the first three weeks of storage. The final ascorbic acid content of all samples was about 15 mg/100 mL. The deteriorative reaction of ascorbic acid in the juice at all conditions followed a first-order kinetic model with activation energy of 137 cal mol(-1).

  10. Inhibitory effect of a formulated extract from multiple citrus peels on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 246.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Etoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Formulated Citrus Peel Extract (GL made from the peels of six citrus fruits available in Japan, namely navel oranges, citrus hassaku, citrus limon, citrus natsudaidai, citrus miyauchi and satsuma, was initially developed as a cosmetic product to protect skin from UV irradiation. Anecdotal evidences of anti-cancer property of GL have been reported by consumers based on the cases such as topical application for melanoma, and oral ingestion for prostate, lung and liver cancers.Those anecdotal reports stimulated us to investigate anti-tumorigenesis activity of GL. In the previous study, we reported that the topical application of GL inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation by decreasing inflammatory gene parameters.Objective: In this study, we mainly investigated the effect of GL on translocation of NF-kB together with production of nitric-oxide and TNF-α induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells.Results: This investigation showed that GL decreased the release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from macrophage RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL suppressed the expression of iNOS and nuclear translocation of NF-kB in RAW264.7 cells, inhibited the degradation of IκB-α, and scavenged hydroxyl radicals (DMPO/OH adduct in vitro.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GL suppresses the inflammation in vitro, and exerts chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of production of TNF-α and iNOS proteins due to the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB and oxidative stress. GL appears to be a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.Keywords: GL, Citrus peel extract, anti-inflammation, Nitric oxide, iNOS, NF-kB, TNF-α

  11. Influence of the Sting Nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudalus, on Young Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D T

    1985-10-01

    The sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, was associated with poor growth of citrus in a central Florida nursery. Foliage of trees was sparse and chlorotic. Affected rootstocks included Changsha and Cleopatra mandarin orange; Flying Dragon, Rubidoux, and Jacobsen trifoliate orange; Macrophylla and Milam lemon; Palestine sweet lime; sour orange; and the hybrids - Carrizo, Morton, and Rusk citrange and Swingle citrumelo. Root symptoms included apical swelling, development of swollen terminals containing 3-5 apical meristems and hyperplastic tissue, coarse roots, and a reduction in the number of fibrous roots. Population densities as high as 392 sting nematodes per liter soil were detected, with 80% of the population occurring in the top 30 cm of soil; however, nematodes were detected to 107 cm deep. Although an ectoparasite, the nematode was closely associated with citrus root systems and was transported with bare root nursery stock. Disinfestation was accomplished by hot water treatment (49 C for 5 minutes).

  12. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  13. Games in the classroom: the market of lemons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Palacio García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Classroom games are a pedagogical tool for the appropriation of concepts and enrich traditional microeconomic classes with the methodology of experimental economics. This article presents an example of participatory research that seeks to collaboratively change the learning process. We propose the lemons-market game: an experimental protocol, programed for laboratory sessions, that motivates students to debate about adverse selection due to information asymmetries, that is, about the extent to which good-quality goods are expelled from the market by inferior-quality goods (lemons.

  14. Determination of root activity pattern in citrus under irrigation (Tumbaco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizaga, Jorge; Calvache, Marcelo

    1992-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Tumbaco, province of Pichincha, from january to april 1991. The objective of the study was to determine the root activity patterns in citrus. Tangerine plants of two varieties(common and willowleaf on rugged lemon pattern) three years old were used. A solution of Na H 2 PO 4 labeled with 3 2 P was applied at four distances: 0.30, 0.60, 0.90 and 1.20 m, distributed in a circle around the trees. Leaf samples were taken at 20,37 and 64 days after application and 3 2 P activity was determined. Statistical analysis of the data showed a highly significant variation between treatments and two ranges of significance were defined: the first one included the treatments at 0.30 and 0.60 m, and the second, the treatments at 0.90 and 1.20 m. At the same time soil moisture data were collected. These data demonstrated the relation between soil moisture and root activity and efficiency. With the obtained information it can be concluded that in trees over three years old, and in Tumbaco conditions of citrus management and ecology, the best distance to apply fertilizer is in circles located at 0.30 to 0.60 . from the trunck of tree

  15. A novel hybridization approach for detection of citrus viroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, N; Serra, P; Olmos, A; Duran-Vila, N

    2009-04-01

    Citrus plants are natural hosts of several viroid species all belonging to the family Pospiviroidae. Previous attempts to detect viroids from field-grown species and cultivars yielded erratic results unless analyses were performed using Etrog citron a secondary bio-amplification host. To overcome the use of Etrog citron a number of RT-PCR approaches have been proposed with different degrees of success. Here we report the suitability of an easy to handle northern hybridization protocol for viroid detection of samples collected from field-grown citrus species and cultivars. The protocol involves: (i) Nucleic acid preparations from bark tissue samples collected from field-grown trees regardless of the growing season and storage conditions; (ii) Separation in 5% PAGE or 1% agarose, blotting to membrane and fixing; (iii) Hybridization with viroid-specific DIG-labelled probes and detection with anti-DIG-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and autoradiography with the CSPD substrate. The method has been tested with viroid-infected trees of sweet orange, lemon, mandarin, grapefruit, sour orange, Swingle citrumello, Tahiti lime and Mexican lime. This novel hybridization approach is extremely sensitive, easy to handle and shortens the time needed for reliable viroid indexing tests. The suitability of PCR generated DIG-labelled probes and the sensitivity achieved when the samples are separated and blotted from non-denaturing gels are discussed.

  16. ANTIBIOFILM EFFECTS of Citrus limonum and Zingiber officinale Oils on BIOFILM FORMATION of Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella terrigena SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcioglu, Nermin Hande; Sahal, Gulcan; Bilkay, Isil Seyis

    2016-01-01

    Microbial cells growing in biofilms, play a huge role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains belonging to 3 different Klebsiella species ( K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena ), cooccurences' effect on biofilm formation amount and anti-biofilm effects of Citrus limon and Zingiber officinale essential oils on biofilm formations of highest biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena strains were determined. Anti-biofilm effects of Citrus limon and Zingiber officinale essential oils on biofilm formations of highest biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena strains were investigated. 57% of K. ornithinolytica strains and 50% of K. oxytoca strains were found as Strong Biofilm Forming (SBF), there wasn't any SBF strain in K. terrigena species. In addition to this, clinical materials of urine and sperm were found as the most frequent clinical materials for strong biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica and K. oxytoca isolations respectively (63%; 100%) Secondly, all K. ornithinolytica strains isolated from surgical intensive care unit and all K. oxytoca strains isolated from service units of urology were found as SBF. Apart from these, although the amount of biofilm, formed by co-occurence of K. ornithinolytica - K. oxytoca and K. oxytoca - K. terrigena were more than the amount ofbiofilm formed by themselves separately, biofilm formation amount of co-occurrence of K. ornitholytica - K. terrigena strains was lower than biofilm formation amount of K. ornithinolytica but higher than biofilm formation amount of K. terrigena . The antibiofilm effects of Citrus limonum and Zingiber officinale essential oils could be used against biofilm Klebsiella aquired infections.

  17. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies. Keywords: lemon grass; essential oil; antifungal activity; anti-inflammatory effect; citral; aromatherapy ...

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Limon NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Minor, M.M.; McInteer, C.; Hansel, J.N.; Broxton, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Limon NTMS quadrangle, Colorado. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume, these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information of the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory (see, for example, Planner and others, 1981) and will not be included in this report

  19. Genomic Variability of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV Isolates Introduced into Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabid Lbida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomic variability of the coat protein gene of Citrus tristeza virus isolates obtained from old Meyer lemon introductions in Morocco and more recent budwood introductions from Spain were studied. The coat protein gene of the virus was amplified directly from infected tissue by immunocapture RT-PCR and analysed by single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP and sequencing. Each isolate consisted of several related genomic variants, typical of a quasi-species. Although SSCP analysis has only limited typing ability it could be used in an initial screening to discriminate between isolates of different origin and to analyse the genomic structure of each isolate. Sequence analysis showed that the isolates of Spanish origin were closely related to mild isolates characterised in Florida and in Portugal. The Meyer lemon isolate on the other hand was related to severe strains of Meyer lemon characterised in Florida some years ago and to other severe strains from Brasil. A knowledge of the coat protein gene sequence is useful to trace the origin of the isolates.

  20. Effect of Nigerian citrus ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism was tested using 45 consenting individuals in apparent good health and between the ages of 25 and 35 years. The subjects were moderate social drinkers matched in terms of body weight and build. The results obtained showed that on ...

  1. Quality Matters: Influences of Citrus Flush Physicochemical Characteristics on Population Dynamics of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various Diaphorina citri life stages. Adult D. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of D. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. Young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated with higher densities of all D. citri life stages. All D. citri life stages were positively correlated with higher nitrogen-carbon (N:C, nitrogen:sulfur (N:S and nitrogen:calcium (N:Ca ratios in leaf tissue, while densities of adults were negatively related to calcium, manganese and boron levels. Concentrations of total and essential amino acids were highest in phloem sap of young expanding flush shoots in both grapefruit and lemon, but dramatically declined as flush shoots matured. The sulfur-containing amino acids cystine, methionine and taurine occurred only in younger flush shoots. In contrast, cystathionine was only present in phloem sap of mature shoots. These results clearly indicate that young citrus flush shoots are a nutritionally richer diet relative to mature shoots, thus explaining their preference by D. citri for feeding and reproduction. Conversely, tissue hardness and the lower nutritional quality of mature flush shoots may limit oviposition and immature development. The data suggest that both physical characteristics and nutritional composition of flush shoots and their phloem sap are important factors regulating host colonization and behavior of D. citri, and this interaction can impact the dynamics and spread of HLB in citrus groves.

  2. Quality Matters: Influences of Citrus Flush Physicochemical Characteristics on Population Dynamics of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Catherine R.; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Nelson, Shad D.; Telagamsetty, Srilakshmi; Jifon, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various Diaphorina citri life stages. Adult D. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of D. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. Young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated with higher densities of all D. citri life stages. All D. citri life stages were positively correlated with higher nitrogen-carbon (N:C), nitrogen:sulfur (N:S) and nitrogen:calcium (N:Ca) ratios in leaf tissue, while densities of adults were negatively related to calcium, manganese and boron levels. Concentrations of total and essential amino acids were highest in phloem sap of young expanding flush shoots in both grapefruit and lemon, but dramatically declined as flush shoots matured. The sulfur-containing amino acids cystine, methionine and taurine occurred only in younger flush shoots. In contrast, cystathionine was only present in phloem sap of mature shoots. These results clearly indicate that young citrus flush shoots are a nutritionally richer diet relative to mature shoots, thus explaining their preference by D. citri for feeding and reproduction. Conversely, tissue hardness and the lower nutritional quality of mature flush shoots may limit oviposition and immature development. The data suggest that both physical characteristics and nutritional composition of flush shoots and their phloem sap are important factors regulating host colonization and behavior of D. citri, and this interaction can impact the dynamics and spread of HLB in citrus groves. PMID:28030637

  3. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, António G.; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Sørensen, Susanne O.; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains. PMID:25081519

  4. The potential for citrus cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus collections of pathogen-free plants are needed for breeding, research, and distribution to the user community. The Citrus Research Board funded research project “Development of cryotherapy as an improved method of eliminating graft transmissible pathogens in Citrus” sought to use cryotherapy,...

  5. Lemon peel oil – A novel renewable alternative energy source for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, B.; Thundil Karuppa Raj, R.; Nanthagopal, K.; Krishnan, Rahul; Subbarao, Rayapati

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biofuel is extracted from lemon peels through steam distillation process. • Lemon peel oil is found to be a potential, renewable alternate eco-friendly fuel. • Significant vibration is observed with 100% lemon peel oil. • Reduction of CO, HC and smoke emission are observed with lemon peel oil blends. • Lemon peel oil blends are showed higher brake thermal efficiency than diesel fuel. - Abstract: The present research work has embarked on to exploit the novel renewable and biodegradable source of energy from lemon fruit rinds. A systematic approach has been made in this study to find the suitability of lemon peel oil for internal combustion engines and gensets applications. Extracted lemon peel oil is found to exhibit comparatively very low viscosity, flash point and boiling point than that of conventional diesel. Various blends of lemon peel oil have been prepared with conventional diesel with volumetric concentration of 20%, 40%, 50% and 100% and their physical and chemical properties are evaluated for its suitability in direct injection diesel engine. Lower cetane index of lemon peel oil significantly influences the ignition delay period and peak heat release rate that lead to the penalty in NOx emissions. Interestingly, the diesel engine performance characteristics have been improved to a remarkable level with higher proportions of lemon peel oil in the blends. In addition, the reduction of BSCO, BSHC and smoke emission is proportional to the lemon oil concentration in the blends. Overall diesel engine characteristics indicated that lemon peel oil can partially or completely replace the petroleum diesel usage to a great extent in developing countries like India.

  6. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    OpenAIRE

    Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered n...

  7. Resource consumption and environmental impacts of the agrofood sector: life cycle assessment of italian citrus-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance.

  8. Anti-Stress Effects of Lemon Balm-Containing Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scholey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis has been used historically and contemporarily as a modulator of mood and cognitive function, with anxiolytic effects following administration of capsules, coated tablets and topical application. Following a pilot study with lemon balm extract administered as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised M. officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults’ self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral “costs” at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix.

  9. Lemon Effect of Green Agricultural Products and Its Marketing Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the lemon effect of green agricultural products,analyzes the formation reasons of the lemon effect of green agricul-tural products and summarizes problems brought by the effect,such as malicious deception and high price.The paper proposes countermeasures toavoid the lemon effect of green agricultural products from a perspective of marketing.The first is to strengthen the quality supervision of green agri-cultural products,upgrade the quality of products,and build up branded products.The government should foster the main body of the products andguide the main body to realize the importance of brand construction and management.The second is to construct a sales channel system of greenagricultural products,making use of the trading center of modern green agricultural products to sell products,developing a long term partnershipwith processing industries,big supermarket and restaurants,making use of internet and selling products online and offline.The third is to propagatethe products.Make a good use of advertisement,personal sales,propagation and public relations to accelerate the healthy development of greenagricultural market.

  10. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs: orange (Citrus sinensis L., lemon (Citrus limonum L. and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37% for orange essential oil (EO; linalyl acetate (37.28%, linalool (23.36%, for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%, β-pinene (17.04% and γ-terpinene (13.46% for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  11. Concentrations of p-synephrine in fruits and leaves of Citrus species (Rutaceae) and the acute toxicity testing of Citrus aurantium extract and p-synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbo, M D; Larentis, E R; Linck, V M; Aboy, A L; Pimentel, A L; Henriques, A T; Dallegrave, E; Garcia, S C; Leal, M B; Limberger, R P

    2008-08-01

    Dietary supplements containing bitter orange unripe fruit extract/p-synephrine are consumed worldwide for lose weight. This study were conducted to determine the concentration of p-synephrine in unripe fruits and leaves from Citrus aurantium Lin, C. sinensis Osbeck, C. deliciosa Ten, C. limon Burm and C. limonia Osbeck, collected in Southern Brazil, and to evaluate the acute toxicity of C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine. A high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was optimized and validated for determination of p-synephrine. The results indicate that all of analyzed samples present p-synephrine in amounts that range from 0.012% to 0.099% in the unripe fruits and 0.029 to 0.438% in the leaves. Acute oral administration of C. aurantium extracts (2.5% p-synephrine, 300-5,000 mg/kg) in mice produced reduction of locomotor activity, p-synephrine (150-2,000 mg/kg) produced piloerection, gasping, salivation, exophtalmia and reduction in locomotor activity, which was confirmed in spontaneous locomotor activity test. All the effects were reversible and persisted for 3-4h. The toxic effects observed seem to be related with adrenergic stimulation and should alert for possible side effects of p-synephrine and C. aurantium.

  12. Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, J.; Abid, H.; Hussain, A.

    2010-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit juices by combined treatments of citrus fruit essential oils and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Somolinos, María; Ouazzou, Abdenour Ait; Condón, Santiago; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2012-09-17

    This work approaches the possibility of combining mild heat treatments with citrus fruit essential oils (EOs) to improve the effectiveness of heat treatments and thus to reduce treatment intensity. Concentrations between 10 and 200 μL/L of lemon, mandarin, or orange EO were tested at 54 °C for 10 min in laboratory media, determining that 200 μL/L of each EO was necessary to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction of the initial Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration. A relationship could be established between sublethally injured cells after the heat treatment and inactivated cells after the combined process. In apple juice, the synergism in the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 when adding 200 μL/L of lemon EO might suppose a reduction in the treatment temperature (of 4.5 °C) or in the treatment time (by 5.7 times) within the range of temperature assayed (54-60 °C). Addition of 75 μL/L of lemon EO was determined to achieve the same synergistic effect of the combined treatment when the initial inoculum was reduced from 3×10(7) to 3×10(4) CFU/mL. Since the addition of lemon EO did not decrease the hedonic acceptability of apple juice, the proposed combined treatment could be further studied and optimized for the production of new minimally processed juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ADOPCIÓN DE INNOVACIONES EN LIMON ‘PERSA’ (Citrus latifolia Tan. EN TLAPACOYAN, VERACRUZ. USO DE BITÁCORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Almaguer-Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de mejorar la eficiencia de la adopción de innovaciones tecnológicas en el cultivo de limón ‘Persa’ en San Pedro Tlapacoyan, Veracruz e incrementar el rendimiento de este frutal y la relación beneficio/costo (B/C de esta actividad eco- nómica, se empleó la “metodología de innovación de la bitácora”, la cual se trabajó con 26 productores de esta comunidad durante tres ciclos de producción: 2005/2006, 2006/2007 y 2007/2008. Esta metodología consistió en realizar un diag- nóstico, recomendaciones (asesoría, seguimiento, evaluación y control de innovaciones realizadas por el productor, por parte de un prestador de servicios profesionales. Las variables evaluadas fueron porcentaje de adopción de innovaciones, atributos de productores, ingresos, costos de producción, rendimiento y relación B/C. En el primer ciclo de producción se obtuvo un rendimiento de 5.24 t∙ha-1 y relación beneficio/costo de 1.55, atribuible al reducido porcentaje de adopción de innovaciones, que fue de 15. Después de aplicar la metodología propuesta, los ingresos del segundo ciclo se incremen- taron 64 % con respecto a los del ciclo inicial, y 41 % entre 2006/07 y 2007/08. La relación B/C aumentó 68 % (de 1.56 a 2.28, lo cual se asoció al incremento de 29.6 del porcentaje de adopción de innovaciones.

  15. Timpanismo em bovinos, secundário à obstrução esofágica por Citrus limon (limão siciliano)

    OpenAIRE

    Panziera, Welden; Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele M.; Gonçalves, Maiara A.; Driemeier, David

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: Timpanismo ruminal consiste na distensão acentuada do rúmen e retículo, devido a incapacidade do animal em expulsar gases produzidos durante o processo fisiológico da fermentação. O timpanismo pode ser ocasionado de forma primária, por formação de espuma estável, ou secundária, devido a anormalidades funcionais e/ou físicas que interferem na eructação. Nesse trabalho, são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da ocorrência de timpanismo secundário em bov...

  16. Essential oil from lemon peels inhibit key enzymes linked to neurodegenerative conditions and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from lemon (Citrus limoni) peels on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography. Antioxidant properties of the oil and inhibition of pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenate were also assessed. The essential oil inhibited AChE and BChE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. GC analysis revealed the presence of sabinene, limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, linalyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, the essential oil exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by ferric reducing property, Fe(2+)-chelation and radicals [DPPH, ABTS, OH, NO] scavenging abilities. The inhibition of AChE and BChE activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

  17. Physico-chemical and viscoelastic properties of high pressure homogenized lemon peel fiber fraction suspensions obtained after sequential pectin extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, K.L.D.D.; Panozzo, A.; Moelants, K.; Debon, S.J.J.; Desmet, C.; Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.; Wallecan, J.; Hendrickx, M.E.G.

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of high pressure homogenized lemon peel cell wall fiber suspensions, obtained after sequential selective pectin extraction, were investigated in the current study. For comparison, a general pectin extraction was additionally performed on lemon peel under acid thermal

  18. Incorporation of citrus essential oils into bacterial cellulose-based edible films and assessment of their physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrarti, L.; Indriyati

    2017-03-01

    The use of edible films in food protection and preservation has recently gained more interest since they offer several advantages over synthetic packaging materials. Biocellulose (BC) offers great opportunity as edible film due to their unique physical and mechanical properties. In this study, biocellulose films were prepared by solution casting with addition of 30% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 30% glycerol as the homogenizer and plasticizer, respectively. Furthermore, various citrus essential oils (EOs) including lemon, lime, and sweet orange were added at 50% w/w of BC dried weight. The solutions were then cast on the tray and allowed to dry in the air convection oven at 40°C overnight. The films were characterized for water solubility, tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), water vapour transmission rate (WVTR), and color. Those characteristics may influence consumer acceptability of the packaged products. Results revealed that addition of lemon and sweet orange EOs into BC-based edible film decreased water solubility and TS, but improved EB, as these oils acted as plasticizers in the film. However, different trend was observed for BC-based film incorporated with lime oil, which had higher solubility and TS, but lower EB and WVTR compared with that of control film. Addition of citrus EOs into BC-based films did not have much effect on color properties as stated in L*, a*, and b* values.

  19. Effects of lemon juice on the reproductive hormones of female wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lemon juice has been used by Mediterranean women as their main method of contraception. In the Nigerian traditional society, women of child bearing age are advised against the intake of lemon if they want to conceive because it is believed to have contraceptive effect. This necessitated the investigation of the effect of ...

  20. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  1. Effect of pectin edible coating enriched with essential oils of citrus on strawberry quality during refrigerated storage and shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Abdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest life of strawberry fruit is very short due to humidity and high metabolic activity. In order to extend the shelf life and quality of strawberry (cv. parous, effects of pectin coating enriched with different concentrations of lemon and orange peel essential oil were assessed at 20˚C for 6 days or 5˚C to 12 days. The experiment conducted based on a complete randomized design (CDR in 3 replications with 6 treatments including control (distilled water, pectin (1%, pectin enriched with orange peel essential oil (0.5 and 1% and pectin containing lemon peel essential oil (0.5 and 1%. Fruit quality was evaluated by marketing, weight loss, anthocyanin content, ascorbic acid content, total protein and chlorophyll of calyx every 3 days. Based on results coating fruits with citrus essential oil carried by pectin delayed the change in weight loss, total protein, anthocyanin content, maintained ascorbic acid content of fruits and also reduced chlorophyll destruction of calyx. The results showed that pectin coating containing lemon essential oil had a significant effect on the maintaining the visual quality of the fruit during the storage, delayed the weight loss and showed better results compared to the other coatings and to the control fruit. In addition, the maximum content of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin were obtained for strawberries coated with pectin containing lemon essential oil 1% after 12 days storage of fruits at 5˚C. All coatings significantly reduced weight loss of fresh strawberries during storage at 5˚C and 20˚C compared to the uncoated fruits. Results indicated that adding high concentrations (1% of orange peel essential oil into pectin coatings did not improve quality of fruits. In addition, it was found that adding orange peel essential oil to pectin coating accelerate decay of fruits. Based on results, pectin coating containing 1% lemon essential oil considered an appropriate treatment to improve shelf life and storage

  2. Drought Tip: Irrigating Citrus with Limited Water

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    As an evergreen in California's Mediterranean climate, with wet winters and dry summers, citrus requires some water all year long. Depending on the cultivar and rootstock, citrus can sustain certain levels of drought stress.

  3. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  4. Social learning in juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttridge, Tristan L; van Dijk, Sander; Stamhuis, Eize J; Krause, Jens; Gruber, Samuel H; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Social learning is taxonomically widespread and can provide distinct behavioural advantages, such as in finding food or avoiding predators more efficiently. Although extensively studied in bony fishes, no such empirical evidence exists for cartilaginous fishes. Our aim in this study was to experimentally investigate the social learning capabilities of juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris. We designed a novel food task, where sharks were required to enter a start zone and subsequently make physical contact with a target in order to receive a food reward. Naive sharks were then able to interact with and observe (a) pre-trained sharks, that is, 'demonstrators', or (b) sharks with no previous experience, that is, 'sham demonstrators'. On completion, observer sharks were then isolated and tested individually in a similar task. During the exposure phase observers paired with 'demonstrator' sharks performed a greater number of task-related behaviours and made significantly more transitions from the start zone to the target, than observers paired with 'sham demonstrators'. When tested in isolation, observers previously paired with 'demonstrator' sharks completed a greater number of trials and made contact with the target significantly more often than observers previously paired with 'sham demonstrators'. Such experience also tended to result in faster overall task performance. These results indicate that juvenile lemon sharks, like numerous other animals, are capable of using socially derived information to learn about novel features in their environment. The results likely have important implications for behavioural processes, ecotourism and fisheries.

  5. Machine learning applied to the prediction of citrus production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, I.; Mazza, S.M.; Combarro, E.F.; Giménez, L.I.; Gaiad, J.E.

    2017-07-01

    An in-depth knowledge about variables affecting production is required in order to predict global production and take decisions in agriculture. Machine learning is a technique used in agricultural planning and precision agriculture. This work (i) studies the effectiveness of machine learning techniques for predicting orchards production; and (ii) variables affecting this production were also identified. Data from 964 orchards of lemon, mandarin, and orange in Corrientes, Argentina are analysed. Graphic and analytical descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, principal component analysis and Biplot were performed. Production was predicted via M5-Prime, a model regression tree constructor which produces a classification based on piecewise linear functions. For all the species studied, the most informative variable was the trees' age; in mandarin and orange orchards, age was followed by between and within row distances; irrigation also affected mandarin production. Also, the performance of M5-Prime in the prediction of production is adequate, as shown when measured with correlation coefficients (~0.8) and relative mean absolute error (~0.1). These results show that M5-Prime is an appropriate method to classify citrus orchards according to production and, in addition, it allows for identifying the most informative variables affecting production by tree.

  6. Machine learning applied to the prediction of citrus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, I.; Mazza, S.M.; Combarro, E.F.; Giménez, L.I.; Gaiad, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge about variables affecting production is required in order to predict global production and take decisions in agriculture. Machine learning is a technique used in agricultural planning and precision agriculture. This work (i) studies the effectiveness of machine learning techniques for predicting orchards production; and (ii) variables affecting this production were also identified. Data from 964 orchards of lemon, mandarin, and orange in Corrientes, Argentina are analysed. Graphic and analytical descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, principal component analysis and Biplot were performed. Production was predicted via M5-Prime, a model regression tree constructor which produces a classification based on piecewise linear functions. For all the species studied, the most informative variable was the trees' age; in mandarin and orange orchards, age was followed by between and within row distances; irrigation also affected mandarin production. Also, the performance of M5-Prime in the prediction of production is adequate, as shown when measured with correlation coefficients (~0.8) and relative mean absolute error (~0.1). These results show that M5-Prime is an appropriate method to classify citrus orchards according to production and, in addition, it allows for identifying the most informative variables affecting production by tree.

  7. Machine learning applied to the prediction of citrus production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Díaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth knowledge about variables affecting production is required in order to predict global production and take decisions in agriculture. Machine learning is a technique used in agricultural planning and precision agriculture. This work (i studies the effectiveness of machine learning techniques for predicting orchards production; and (ii variables affecting this production were also identified. Data from 964 orchards of lemon, mandarin, and orange in Corrientes, Argentina are analysed. Graphic and analytical descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, principal component analysis and Biplot were performed. Production was predicted via M5-Prime, a model regression tree constructor which produces a classification based on piecewise linear functions. For all the species studied, the most informative variable was the trees’ age; in mandarin and orange orchards, age was followed by between and within row distances; irrigation also affected mandarin production. Also, the performance of M5-Prime in the prediction of production is adequate, as shown when measured with correlation coefficients (~0.8 and relative mean absolute error (~0.1. These results show that M5-Prime is an appropriate method to classify citrus orchards according to production and, in addition, it allows for identifying the most informative variables affecting production by tree.

  8. The use of sodium carbonate to improve curing treatments against green and blue moulds on citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Pilar; Usall, Josep; Torres, Rosario; Abadias, Maribel; Smilanick, Joseph L; Viñas, Immaculada

    2004-08-01

    The effectiveness of curing oranges and lemons at 33 degrees C for 65h followed by storage under ambient and cold-storage conditions was investigated. This treatment effectively reduced the incidence of Penicillium digitatum (Pers) Sacc and P italicum Wehmer decay on inoculated and naturally infected oranges and lemons stored at 20 degrees C for 7 days. However, it failed to control green and blue mould infections on fruits placed in long-term cold storage, except green mould on oranges, which was effectively controlled. Dipping fruits in a sodium carbonate solution (20 g litre(-1)) for 2.5 min following a curing treatment at 33 degrees C for 65 h satisfactorily reduced green and blue mould incidence during subsequent long-term storage at 4 degrees C on oranges and at 10 degrees C on lemons. The efficacy was greater on injured fruits inoculated after the combination of treatments was applied, achieving a 60-80% reduction in decay in comparison with the curing treatment alone in all cases. A significant reduction of blue mould was also observed on fruits inoculated both before the treatments and on those re-inoculated after the treatments, demonstrating both protectant and eradicant activity. Thus, combining curing at 33 degrees C for 65 h with sodium carbonate treatment effectively controlled these post-harvest diseases on artificially inoculated citrus fruits and protected against re-infection. With naturally inoculated lemons, curing followed by sodium carbonate significantly reduced both green and blue mould incidence, but was not superior to curing alone. With naturally infected oranges, curing significantly reduced blue mould, but decay was not reduced further when followed by sodium carbonate treatment.

  9. Modeling the effect of pH on biosorption of heavy metals by citrus peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiewer, Silke; Patil, Santosh B.

    2008-01-01

    Biosorption by materials such as citrus peels could be a cost effective technique for removing toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Orange peels, lemon peels and lemon-based protonated pectin peels (PPP) had Langmuir sorption capacities of 0.7-1.2 mequiv./g (39-67 mg/g) of Cd per biosorbent dry weight. A potentiometric titration was interpreted using a continuous pK a spectrum approach. It revealed four acidic sites with pK a values of 3.8, 6.4, 8.4 and 10.7, and a total site quantity of 1.14 mequiv./g. Sorption isotherms of untreated citrus peels showed an unusual shape with two plateau values. Protonated pectin peels on the other hand showed a typical Langmuir behavior with a higher sorption capacity than untreated peels. At lower pH, metal binding was reduced due to increased competition by protons. This was modeled using pH-sensitive isotherm equations. It was not necessary to assume four binding sites; using one site with pK a 3.8 and a quantity of 1.14 mequiv./g was sufficient. It was possible to accurately predict metal uptake at one pH using the metal binding constant determined at a different pH. A 1:1 stoichiometry model fit the sorption isotherms shape better than a 1:2 stoichiometry. For constant pH, the 1:1 stoichiometry reduces to the Langmuir model

  10. Modeling the effect of pH on biosorption of heavy metals by citrus peels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiewer, Silke [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)], E-mail: ffsos@uaf.edu; Patil, Santosh B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2008-08-30

    Biosorption by materials such as citrus peels could be a cost effective technique for removing toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Orange peels, lemon peels and lemon-based protonated pectin peels (PPP) had Langmuir sorption capacities of 0.7-1.2 mequiv./g (39-67 mg/g) of Cd per biosorbent dry weight. A potentiometric titration was interpreted using a continuous pK{sub a} spectrum approach. It revealed four acidic sites with pK{sub a} values of 3.8, 6.4, 8.4 and 10.7, and a total site quantity of 1.14 mequiv./g. Sorption isotherms of untreated citrus peels showed an unusual shape with two plateau values. Protonated pectin peels on the other hand showed a typical Langmuir behavior with a higher sorption capacity than untreated peels. At lower pH, metal binding was reduced due to increased competition by protons. This was modeled using pH-sensitive isotherm equations. It was not necessary to assume four binding sites; using one site with pK{sub a} 3.8 and a quantity of 1.14 mequiv./g was sufficient. It was possible to accurately predict metal uptake at one pH using the metal binding constant determined at a different pH. A 1:1 stoichiometry model fit the sorption isotherms shape better than a 1:2 stoichiometry. For constant pH, the 1:1 stoichiometry reduces to the Langmuir model.

  11. Inducible expression of Bs2 R gene from Capsicum chacoense in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) confers enhanced resistance to citrus canker disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendín, Lorena Noelia; Orce, Ingrid Georgina; Gómez, Rocío Liliana; Enrique, Ramón; Grellet Bournonville, Carlos Froilán; Noguera, Aldo Sergio; Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; Marano, María Rosa; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Filippone, María Paula

    2017-04-01

    Transgenic expression of the pepper Bs2 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) pathogenic strains which contain the avrBs2 avirulence gene in susceptible pepper and tomato varieties. The avrBs2 gene is highly conserved among members of the Xanthomonas genus, and the avrBs2 of Xcv shares 96% homology with the avrBs2 of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), the causal agent of citrus canker disease. A previous study showed that the transient expression of pepper Bs2 in lemon leaves reduced canker formation and induced plant defence mechanisms. In this work, the effect of the stable expression of Bs2 gene on citrus canker resistance was evaluated in transgenic plants of Citrus sinensis cv. Pineapple. Interestingly, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of epicotyls was unsuccessful when a constitutive promoter (2× CaMV 35S) was used in the plasmid construction, but seven transgenic lines were obtained with a genetic construction harbouring Bs2 under the control of a pathogen-inducible promoter, from glutathione S-transferase gene from potato. A reduction of disease symptoms of up to 70% was observed in transgenic lines expressing Bs2 with respect to non-transformed control plants. This reduction was directly dependent on the Xcc avrBs2 gene since no effect was observed when a mutant strain of Xcc with a disruption in avrBs2 gene was used for inoculations. Additionally, a canker symptom reduction was correlated with levels of the Bs2 expression in transgenic plants, as assessed by real-time qPCR, and accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species. These results indicate that the pepper Bs2 resistance gene is also functional in a family other than the Solanaceae, and could be considered for canker control.

  12. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value.

  13. Rizobactérias e promoção do crescimento de plantas cítricas Rhizobacteria and growth promotion of citrus plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se três experimentos em casa de vegetação para verificar a possibilidade de as rizobactérias atuarem como promotoras do crescimento de plantas cítricas. Ao todo, testaram-se 10 isolados de Pseudomonas do grupo fluorescente, 13 de Bacillus e sete de outras bactérias rizosféricas em porta-enxertos utilizados na citricultura: tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni, limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia e limoeiro 'Volcameriano' (Citrus volkameriana. Dependendo do porta-enxerto, sete isolados de Pseudomonas, um de Bacillus e um de outra bactéria rizosférica tiveram efeito benéfico sobre a matéria seca de raízes ou de parte aérea, indicando uma alta proporção de promotores de crescimento entre as bactérias do primeiro grupo. Procedeu-se também à contagem de bactérias fluorescentes do gênero Pseudomonas e de bactérias não-fluorescentes em raízes de tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e de limoeiro 'Cravo', procedentes de viveiro de mudas e do campo. Ambos os grupos bacterianos tiveram sua multiplicação favorecida na rizosfera de tangerineira 'Cleópatra', em condições de viveiro.Three greenhouse trials were carried out to verify if rhizobacteria can promote citrus plant growth. Ten isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonads, thirteen of Bacillus spp. and seven of other rhizospheric bacteria were tested in three rootstocks seedlings: 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni, rangpure lime (Citrus limonia and Volkamerian lemon (Citrus volkameriana. Depending on the rootstock, seven Pseudomonads, one isolate of Bacillus and one of other rhizospheric bacteria increased the root or shoot dry weight, indicating a high proportion of growth promoters among the fluorescent Pseudomonads. Also, fluorescent Pseudomonads and non fluorescent bacteria were counted in the roots of nursery seedlings and field plants of Citrus reshni and Citrus limonia. The growth of both bacterial groups was favored in the Citrus reshni rhizosphere under nursery

  14. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  15. Phytostabilisation potential of lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Stend) Wats) on iron ore tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, M; Dhal, N K; Patra, P; Das, B; Reddy, P S R

    2012-01-01

    The present pot culture study was carried out for the potential phytostabilisation of iron ore tailings using lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) a drought tolerant, perennial, aromatic grass. Experiments have been conducted by varying the composition of garden soil (control) with iron ore tailings. The various parameters, viz. growth of plants, number of tillers, biomass and oil content of lemon grass are evaluated. The studies have indicated that growth parameters of lemon grass in 1:1 composition of garden soil and iron ore tailings are significantly more (-5% increase) compared to plants grown in control soil. However, the oil content of lemon grass in both the cases more or less remained same. The results also infer that at higher proportion of tailings the yield of biomass decreases. The studies indicate that lemongrass with its fibrous root system is proved to be an efficient soil binder by preventing soil erosion.

  16. A refreshing beverage from mature coconut water blended with lemon juice

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, O. P.; Archana, B. S.; Singh, Asha; Raju, P. S.; Bawa, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Coconut water obtained from the mature coconuts was blended with lemon juice to develop a refreshing beverage. The levels of total soluble solids (°Brix) in the coconut beverage and lemon juice (%), were optimized using response surface methodology and considering pH, CIE L* value and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability) as responses. A number total of 14 experiments were carried out following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) keeping 6 expe...

  17. The relationship between growth stages and aroma composition of lemon basil Ocimum citriodorum Vis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kateb, H.; DONALD, M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce volatiles depending on the season, growth cycle and time of year. Lemon basil “Ocmium basilicum var.citrodorum” possesses three growth stages; pre-flowering, full flowering and post-flowering. The volatiles of lemon basil infusions either increased or decreased throughout the growth cycle. Oxygenated compounds were the predominant class detected. Volatiles such as citral (neral+geranial), eucalyptol and estragole contribute to the flavor profile and may contribute in the plant ...

  18. Evaluation of resistance to asiatic citrus canker among selections of pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease of citrus in Brazil and in several other citrus-producing countries. ACC management is problematic, and bactericides such as copper can be reasonably efficacious but do not completely control...

  19. 77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... occur. The pathogen can also be transmitted by two insect vectors in the family Psyllidae: Diaphorina... California due to the presence of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), a vector of the bacterial pathogen that causes... INFORMATION: Background Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be...

  20. A L-type lectin gene is involved in the response to hormonal treatment and water deficit in Volkamer lemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Dayse Drielly Sousa Santana; Emiliani, Giovanni; Bartolini, Paola; Podda, Alessandra; Centritto, Mauro; Luro, François; Carratore, Renata Del; Morillon, Raphaël; Gesteira, Abelmon; Maserti, Biancaelena

    2017-11-01

    Combination of biotic and abiotic stress is a major challenge for crop and fruit production. Thus, identification of genes involved in cross-response to abiotic and biotic stress is of great importance for breeding superior genotypes. Lectins are glycan-binding proteins with a functions in the developmental processes as well as in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. In this work, a lectin like gene, namely ClLectin1, was characterized in Volkamer lemon and its expression was studied in plants exposed to either water stress, hormonal elicitors (JA, SA, ABA) or wounding to understand whether this gene may have a function in the response to multiple stress combination. Results showed that ClLectin1 has 100% homology with a L-type lectin gene from C. sinensis and the in silico study of the 5'UTR region showed the presence of cis-responsive elements to SA, DRE2 and ABA. ClLectin1 was rapidly induced by hormonal treatments and wounding, at local and systemic levels, suggesting an involvement in defence signalling pathways and a possible role as fast detection biomarker of biotic stress. On the other hand, the induction of ClLectin1 by water stress pointed out a role of the gene in the response to drought. The simultaneous response of ClLectin1 expression to water stress and SA treatment could be further investigated to assess whether a moderate drought stress may be useful to improve citrus performance by stimulating the SA-dependent response to biotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Citrus and Prunuscopia-like retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asíns, M J; Monforte, A J; Mestre, P F; Carbonell, E A

    1999-08-01

    Many of the world's most important citrus cultivars ("Washington Navel", satsumas, clementines) have arisen through somatic mutation. This phenomenon occurs fairly often in the various species and varieties of the genus.The presence of copia-like retrotransposons has been investigated in fruit trees, especially citrus, by using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences. Amplification products from a genotype of each the following species Citrus sinensis, Citrus grandis, Citrus clementina, Prunus armeniaca and Prunus amygdalus, were cloned and some of them sequenced. Southern-blot hybridization using RT clones as probes showed that multiple copies are integrated throughout the citrus genome, while only 1-3 copies are detected in the P. armeniaca genome, which is in accordance with the Citrus and Prunus genome sizes. Sequence analysis of RT clones allowed a search for homologous sequences within three gene banks. The most similar ones correspond to RT domains of copia-like retrotransposons from unrelated plant species. Cluster analysis of these sequences has shown a great heterogeneity among RT domains cloned from the same genotype. This finding supports the hypothesis that horizontal transmission of retrotransposons has occurred in the past. The species presenting a RT sequence most similar to citrus RT clones is Gnetum montanum, a gymnosperm whose distribution area coincides with two of the main centers of origin of Citrus spp. A new C-methylated restriction DNA fragment containing a RT sequence is present in navel sweet oranges, but not in Valencia oranges from which the former originated suggesting, that retrotransposon activity might be, at least in part, involved in the genetic variability among sweet orange cultivars. Given that retrotransposons are quite abundant throughout the citrus genome, their activity should be investigated thoroughly before commercializing any transgenic citrus plant where the transgene(s) is part

  2. Antifungal activity of lemon, eucalyptus, thyme, oregano, sage and lavender essential oils against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is very important to find out the protection of products of natural origin as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. The promising alternative is the use of the essential oils (EOs. Essential oils from plants have great potential as a new source of fungicide to control the pathogenic fungi.The main objective of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus LABILL., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. sage (Salvia officinalis L. and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia MILLER. EOs against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes and their ability to affect the growth. It was tested by using the vapor contact with them. At first both tested isolates were identified by using PCR method. Sequence data of 18S rRNA supported the assignment of these isolates to the genus Aspergillus and species A. niger (ITS region: KT824061; RPB2: KT824060 and A. tubingensis (ITS region: KT824062; RPB2: KT824059. Second, EO antifungal activity was evaluated. The effect of the EO volatile phase was confirmed to inhibit growth of A. niger and A tubingensis. EOs were diluted in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide final volume of 100 μL. Only 50 μL this solution was distributed on a round sterile filter paper (1 x 1 cm by micropipette, and the paper was placed in the center of the lid of Petri dishes. Dishes were kept in an inverted position. The essential oils with the most significant activity were determined by method of graded concentration of oils - minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs. The most effective tested EOs were oregano and thyme oils, which totally inhibited growth of tested isolates for all days of incubation at 0.625 μL.cm-3 (in air with MFDs 0.125 μL.cm-3 (in air. Lavender EO was less active aginst tested strains (MIDs 0.313 μL.cm-3. The results showed that the tested EOs had antifungal activity, except lemon and eucalyptus. Sage EO was the only

  3. Citrus allergy from pollen to clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna Iorio

    Full Text Available Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39% to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica, confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 α and β in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.

  4. The effect of drying temperatures on antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents in citrus seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Uslu, Nurhan; Ghafoor, Kashif

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of drying temperature on antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of citrus seeds and oils were studied. Kinnow mandarin seed, dried at 60 °C, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Orlendo orange seed had the maximum total phenolic content and α-tocopherol content, with a value of 63.349 mg/100 g and 28.085 mg/g (control samples), respectively. The antioxidant activity of Orlendo orange seed (63.349%) was higher than seeds of Eureka lemon (55.819%) and Kinnow mandarin (28.015%), while the highest total phenolic content was found in seeds of Kinnow mandarin, followed by Orlendo orange and Eureka lemon (113.132). 1.2-Dihydroxybenzene (13.171), kaempferol (10.780), (+)-catechin (9.341) and isorhamnetin (7.592) in mg/100 g were the major phenolic compounds found in Kinnow mandarin. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant acid in all oils, which varied from 44.4% (dried at 80 °C) to 46.1% (dried at 70 °C), from 39.0% (dried at 60 °C) to 40.0% (dried at 70 °C). The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of citrus seeds and tocopherol content of seed oils were significantly affected by drying process and varied depending on the drying temperature.

  5. Life cycle assessment of Italian citrus-based products. Sensitivity analysis and improvement scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2010-07-01

    Though many studies concern the agro-food sector in the EU and Italy, and its environmental impacts, literature is quite lacking in works regarding LCA application on citrus products. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts of citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance. In particular, it is part of a research aimed to estimate environmental burdens associated with the production of the following citrus-based products: essential oil, natural juice and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The life cycle assessment of these products, published in a previous paper, had highlighted significant environmental issues in terms of energy consumption, associated CO(2) emissions, and water consumption. Starting from such results the authors carry out an improvement analysis of the assessed production system, whereby sustainable scenarios for saving water and energy are proposed to reduce environmental burdens of the examined production system. In addition, a sensitivity analysis to estimate the effects of the chosen methods will be performed, giving data on the outcome of the study. Uncertainty related to allocation methods, secondary data sources, and initial assumptions on cultivation, transport modes, and waste management is analysed. The results of the performed analyses allow stating that every assessed eco-profile is differently influenced by the uncertainty study. Different assumptions on initial data and methods showed very sensible variations in the energy and environmental performances of the final products. Besides, the results show energy and environmental benefits that clearly state the improvement of the products eco-profile, by reusing purified water use for irrigation, using the railway mode for the delivery of final products, when possible, and adopting efficient technologies, as the mechanical vapour recompression, in the pasteurisation and

  6. Utilization of citrus crops processing by-products in the preparation of tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available After processing of citrus fruits (e.g. lemon, orange, grapefruit, mandarin for juice and essential oils production, approximately 50% of the original fruit mass is left as waste material. Citrus crops processing by-products are valuable components as they contain nutrients such as pectins, saccharides, carotenoids, some vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and substances with antioxidant activity. Utilisation of these kind of side products in the recipe of various cereal product led to enhancement of final product nutritional value and better sensory attributes as well as improvement of product functional properties. In this work was studied the effect of orange and mandarin dietary fibre application at level 5 and 10% (w/w in tarhana preparation and the influence on tarhana fermentation process. Chemical analysis showed, that dietary fibre preparations reached higher concentration of ash, fat and total dietary fibre compared to wheat flour. Wheat flour exhibited higher moisture content and protein concentration than citrus dietary fibre preparations. Orange and mandarin dietary fibre preparations showed higher values of water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity and least gellation concentration compared to wheat flour. Application of fruit dietary fibre preparations to tarhana recipe caused a rapid decrease in pH from 4.70 - 5.02 to values 4.31 - 4.51 during fermentation process. Reducing saccharides served as an available source of energy for fermenting microbiota and their concentration decreased from 24.5 - 32.8 to 2.2 - 0.2 g/kg after 144 h incubation. Fermentation also led to lactic acid (1.67 - 2.09 g/kg and acetic acid (1.91 - 2.53 g/kg production as a consequence of present microorganisms metabolic activity. Sensory evaluation of samples showed, that higher proportion of citrus dietary fibre preparations (10% negatively affected taste, odour, consistency and sourness. Among all prepared tarhana samples with proportion of citrus

  7. Effects of Lemon Balm on the Oxidative Stability and the Quality Properties of Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, You-Jung; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on various quality and antioxidant activity of hamburger patties. Lemon balm extract (LBE) showed the highest amount of total polyphenol (801.00 mg TAE/g DW) and flavonoids (65.05 mg RA/g DW). The IC50 value of DPPH hydroxyl scavenging of LBE was 132 ?g/mL. The hamburger patties were prepared by 0% (N), 0.1% (L1), 0.5% (L2), and 1.0% (L3) of the lemon balm powder. The addition of lemon balm powder incre...

  8. [Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong

    2010-08-01

    By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.

  9. New data visualization of the LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, Fedorko; Veronique, Lefebure; Daniel, Lenkes; Omar, Pera Mira

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, new requirements have been received for visualization of monitoring data: advanced graphics, flexibility in configuration and decoupling of the presentation layer from the monitoring repository. Lemonweb is the data visualization component of the LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system. Lemonweb consists of two subcomponents: a data collector and a web visualization interface. The data collector is a daemon, implemented in Python, responsible for data gathering from the central monitoring repository and storing into time series data structures. Data is stored on disk in Round Robin Database (RRD) files: one file per monitored entity, with set of entity related metrics. Entities may be grouped into a hierarchical structure, called “clusters” and supporting mathematical operations over entities and clusters (e.g. cluster A + cluster B /clusters C – entity XY). Using the configuration information, a cluster definition is evaluated in the collector engine and, at runtime, a sequence of data selects is built, to optimize access to the central monitoring repository. In this article, an overview of the design and architecture as well as highlights of some implemented features will be presented.

  10. Bazı limon çeşitlerinde meyve tutumu üzerine farklı tozlanma kombinasyonlarının etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Gülay; TURGUTOĞLU, Ertuğrul; KURT, Şenay

    2015-01-01

    Çalışmada “Turunçgillerde Aşı Gözü Seleksiyon Sertifikasyonu ve Çeşit Geliştirme Projesi” sonucunda tescil edilmiş bazı yeni limon çeşitleri (BATEM Sarısı, BATEM Pınarı) ile ülkemizde yetiştiriciliği yapılan bazı önemli limon çeşitleri (İnterdonato, Kütdiken, İtalyan Memeli, Meyer ve Lamas) kullanılmıştır. Bu çeşitlerin; kendileme, serbest tozlanma ve karşılıklı kontrollü tozlama koşullarında meyve tutma oranlarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 2011 ve 2012 yıllarında BATEM Sarısı, BATEM Pınar...

  11. Citrus water use in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vahrmeijer, JT

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available scheduling is needed to justify the quantity of water needed for the production of citrus. Models, which are formidable tools to predict water use and crop performance, are therefore vital to provide accurate estimates of citrus water use across different...

  12. Understanding the dynamics of citrus water use

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, NJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of water use of citrus orchards is important in order to prevent stress developing in the orchard and to avoid wasting precious water resources. Measurement of citrus orchard water use is not possible under all environ-mental...

  13. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  14. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway - RNAi evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    In silico analyses of the draft genome of Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid, for genes within the Ribonucleic acid interference(RNAi), pathway was successful. The psyllid is the vector of the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is linked to citrus gree...

  15. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction......) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid......-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found...

  16. LEMONS - A Tool for the Identification of Splice Junctions in Transcriptomes of Organisms Lacking Reference Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Levin

    Full Text Available RNA-seq is becoming a preferred tool for genomics studies of model and non-model organisms. However, DNA-based analysis of organisms lacking sequenced genomes cannot rely on RNA-seq data alone to isolate most genes of interest, as DNA codes both exons and introns. With this in mind, we designed a novel tool, LEMONS, that exploits the evolutionary conservation of both exon/intron boundary positions and splice junction recognition signals to produce high throughput splice-junction predictions in the absence of a reference genome. When tested on multiple annotated vertebrate mRNA data, LEMONS accurately identified 87% (average of the splice-junctions. LEMONS was then applied to our updated Mediterranean chameleon transcriptome, which lacks a reference genome, and predicted a total of 90,820 exon-exon junctions. We experimentally verified these splice-junction predictions by amplifying and sequencing twenty randomly selected genes from chameleon DNA templates. Exons and introns were detected in 19 of 20 of the positions predicted by LEMONS. To the best of our knowledge, LEMONS is currently the only experimentally verified tool that can accurately predict splice-junctions in organisms that lack a reference genome.

  17. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  18. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  19. Increasing frost risk associated with advanced citrus flowering dates in Kerman and Shiraz, Iran: 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer M; Grab, Stefan W; Thompson, Dave I; Roshan, Gholamreza

    2014-10-01

    Flowering dates and the timing of late season frost are both driven by local ambient temperatures. However, under climatic warming observed over the past century, it remains uncertain how such impacts affect frost risk associated with plant phenophase shifts. Any increase in frost frequency or severity has the potential to damage flowers and their resultant yields and, in more extreme cases, the survival of the plant. An accurate assessment of the relationship between the timing of last frost events and phenological shifts associated with warmer climate is thus imperative. We investigate spring advances in citrus flowering dates (orange, tangerine, sweet lemon, sour lemon and sour orange) for Kerman and Shiraz, Iran from 1960 to 2010. These cities have experienced increases in both T max and T min, advances in peak flowering dates and changes in last frost dates over the study period. Based on daily instrumental climate records, the last frost dates for each year are compared with the peak flowering dates. For both cities, the rate of last frost advance lags behind the phenological advance, thus increasing frost risk. Increased frost risk will likely have considerable direct impacts on crop yields and on the associated capacity to adapt, given future climatic uncertainty.

  20. Effect of Citrus floral extracts on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Grajales-Conesa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Citrus floral extracts on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre. Stingless bees have an important role as pollinators of many wild and cultivated plant species in tropical regions. Little is known, however, about the interaction between floral fragrances and the foraging behavior of meliponine species. Thus we investigated the chemical composition of the extracts of citric (lemon and orange flowers and their effects on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis. We found that each type of flower has its own specific blend of major compounds: limonene (62.9% for lemon flowers, and farnesol (26.5%, (E-nerolidol (20.8%, and linalool (12.7% for orange flowers. In the foraging experiments the S. pectoralis workers were able to use the flower extracts to orient to the food source, overlooking plates baited with hexane only. However, orange flower extracts were seemingly more attractive to these worker bees, maybe because of the particular blend present in it. Our results reveal that these fragrances are very attractive to S. pectoralis, so we can infer that within citric orchards they could be important visitors in the study area; however habitat destruction, overuse of pesticides and the competitive override by managed honeybees might have put at risk their populations and thus the ecological services they provide to us.

  1. Pectic oligosacharides from lemon peel wastes: production, purification, and chemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, Jose L

    2013-10-23

    Lemon peel wastes were extracted with water to remove free sugars and other soluble compounds, and the insoluble solid was employed as a substrate for the manufacture of pectin-derived oligosaccharides by processing with hot, compressed water. When water-extracted lemon peel wastes were treated with water at 160 °C, the oligomer concentration reached the maximum value (31 g/L). Autohydrolysis liquors were subjected to two membrane filtration stages (diafiltration followed by concentration), yielding a refined product containing about 98 wt % of oligomers at a global yield of 14 kg/100 kg oven-dry lemon peel. The concentrate contained oligogalacturonides (with DP in the range of 2-18) and arabinooligosaccharides (with DP in the range of 2-8).

  2. PENGARUH AROMATERAPI INHALASI LEMON TERHADAP PENURUNAN NYERI PERSALINAN KALA I FASE AKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Cholifah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research to describe the effects of lemon aromatherapy inhalation on the reduction of first stage  labor pain in the active phase. The study was a quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test non equivalent control group design. Mann-Whitney bivariable analysis and linear regression for multivariable analysis. The result of this study was average of labor pain in aromatherapy group was  4.74 + 1.327 wich is lower  than  control group 5.79 + 1.316. Result of Mann-Whitney test is  P 0.001 < 0.05. External variables which influence the labor pain was anxiety  with  the value of P < 0.05. There is inhaled lemon aromatherapy effect on reducing first stage labor pain  in active phase. Keywords: lemon aromatherapy inhalation, labor pain, first stage, active phase

  3. Prospection et première caractérisation moléculaire de l’exocortis (Citrus exocortis viroid, CEVd dans la région du Gharb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'Bark OUANTAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are graft and mechanically transmissible agents, disseminated through budding. A field survey was conducted, during July 2013, for citrus viroids in the Gharb region. A total of 53 samples were collected and used for inoculation of ‘Etrog’ lemon before being tested by RT-PCR for the detection of exocotris (Citrus exocortis viroid, CEVd. The results showed that CEVd was widespread in the region with an infection rate of 84.9% in the analyzed samples. After genomic sequencing, a study of the genetic diversity was conducted on three representative local isolates of CEVd. The comparison between the nucleotide sequences of Moroccan CEVd isolates revealed a genetic diversity of less than 3%.

  4. Produção de mudas cítricas em diferentes porta-enxertos e substratos comerciais Citrus nursery production with different rootstocks and commercial substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Fochesato

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o desenvolvimento de duas variedades-copa enxertadas sobre diversos porta-enxertos e produzidas em substratos comerciais sob ambiente protegido. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, no período de fevereiro a novembro/2004. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2x3x3, sendo testados: 2 variedades-copa (laranjeira "Valência" - C. sinensis [L.] Osbeck e tangerineira "Montenegrina" - C. sinensis Tenore, 3 porta-enxertos (Trifoliata - C. sinensis [L.] Raf.; citrangeiro "C13" - Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck x P. trifoliata [L.] Raf.; e limoeiro "Cravo" - C. limonia Osbeck e 3 substratos comerciais (Comercial 1, 2 e 3, e As mudas foram produzidas em citropotes de quatro litros, com sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. A análise revelou que o substrato Comercial 2 possibilitou maior desenvolvimento vegetativo às variedades-copa. O porta-enxerto citrangeiro "C13" pode ser uma alternativa aos porta-enxertos tradicionais usados no Brasil.The vegetative development of citrus nursery varieties grafted on three rootstocks at greenhouse conditions under different commercial substrates was evaluated. The experiment, randomized blocks, in a 2x3x3 factorial, was conducted at the research station of the Uiversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, from February to November 2004. The treatments were two citrus varieties ('Valencia' Orange - Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. and 'Montenegrina' mandarin - Citrus deliciosa Ten., citrus rootstoocks (Trifoliate orange - C. sinensis (L. Raf., citrange 'C13' - P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. and 'Rangpur' lemon - C. limonia Osb. and substrates (Commercial 1, 2, and 3. Plants were grown in containers (4 L with drip irrigation system. The Commercial 2 substrate showed the best performance in inducing plant growth. The citrange 'C13' may be an alternative to

  5. Crescimento vegetativo de plantas cítricas no norte e noroeste do Paraná Vegetative growth of citrus trees in north an northwest of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em Paranavaí e Londrina-PR, os fluxos de crescimento vegetativo dos ramos de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertada sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb., limoeiro 'Volcameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Ten. e Pasq., tangerineira 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e laranjeira 'Pêra' sobre o porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo'. Ocorreram seis fluxos de crescimento em Paranavaí e sete em Londrina, no inverno, primavera, verão e outono, para todas as combinações de copa/porta-enxerto. O comprimento final dos ramos (121,2 mm a 151,6 mm não foi influenciado pelas combinações copa/porta-enxerto em Londrina, mas em Paranavaí a combinação 'Pêra'/limoeiro 'Cravo' produziu ramos mais longos que as demais. O período de crescimento dos ramos variou de 25,5 a 37,8 dias e foi menor em Paranavaí do que em Londrina, para todas as combinações de copa/porta-enxerto. Os resultados são discutidos em relação às características edafoclimáticas dos dois locais.This work evaluated in Paranavaí and Londrina, PR, Brazil, the vegetative growth fluxes of branches of 'Folha Murcha' orange on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq., 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., and 'Pêra' orange on 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. Six growth flushes were observed in Paranavaí, and seven were observed in Londrina, in winter, spring, summer, and autumn, for all scion/rootstock combinations. The final length of the branches (121.2 mm to 151.6 mm was not influenced by the scion/rootstock combinations in Londrina; in Paranavaí, however, the 'Pêra'/'Rangpur' lime combination produced longer branches than the others. The growth period of branches ranged from 25.5 to 37.8 days and was shorter in Paranavaí than in Londrina, for all scion/rootstock combinations. The results are discussed

  6. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed.

  7. Lipids in citrus sinensis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, S.; Liaquat, L.; Khalid, B.; Khan, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of citrus sinensis when subjected to different physicochemical tests showed moisture 13.2%, ash 7.5%, ester value 1.29%, free fatty acid 0.4%. iodine value 65.0% and protein value 6.0%. According to lipid analysis. the oil was classified into hydrocarbons. wax esters, sterol esters, triglycerides. free fatty acids, 1,3 and 1,2 diglycerides, alcohols, sterols, monoglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid (C/sub 12.0/ - C/sub 21.0/) composition of all lipid classes was determined with the help of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. (author)

  8. Improved annotation of the insect vector of citrus greening disease: Biocuration by a diverse genomics community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is the insect vector of the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). HLB threatens citrus production worldwide. Suppression or reduction of the insect vector usin...

  9. Annotation of the Asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuway...

  10. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  11. Laser photoacoustic system for characterization of climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits in postharvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubileo, G.; Lai, A.; Piccinelli, D.; Puiu, A.

    2005-06-01

    The emission of ethylene from climacteric fruit banana (Musa x paradisiaca L.) and non climacteric fruits lemon (Citrus limon Burm. F.) at different stages of ripening (from a few days after setting to full maturity stage) by the Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy System, developed in ENEA Frascati, was measured. A high ethylene production rate from mature banana fruit was found, as expected for climacteric fruit. Significant differences between ethylene emitted by the lemon after setting stage and by the young fruit were observed. Also ethylene emission from lemon fruits at different ripening stages (from light green to turning and full ripe) was detected. Depending on the ripening stage, differences in ethylene emission rates were found, although the emissions were low as expected for non-climacteric fruit.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Weliton Antonio Bastos de; Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves; Mendes,Beatriz Madalena Januzzi; Pavan,Alexandra; Rodriguez,Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2003-01-01

    Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck). Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod) were used...

  13. Quantitation of flavonoid constituents in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-09-01

    Twenty-four flavonoids have been determined in 66 Citrus species and near-citrus relatives, grown in the same field and year, by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Statistical methods have been applied to find relations among the species. The F ratios of 21 flavonoids obtained by applying ANOVA analysis are significant, indicating that a classification of the species using these variables is reasonable to pursue. Principal component analysis revealed that the distributions of Citrus species belonging to different classes were largely in accordance with Tanaka's classification system.

  14. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice I,b-uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ores and suggested flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sayed, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking safaga phosphate and qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (U o 3 ). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  15. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice; II,b. uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ore and suggested flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking Safaga phosphate and Qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (UO 3 ). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  16. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N. U.; Shahid, M.; Ahsan, F.; Khan, I.; Shah, M. R.; Khan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  17. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  18. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  19. Lake Garda lemon houses (Italy: Opportunities of a sensitive, marginal area in urban planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiani Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lemon houses of Lake Garda provide Ecosystem Services, due to their history and their deep rooting in the landscape. Unfortunately, Urban Planning hasn’t ever taken into account these possible benefits. In fact, it has always allowed their reuse as residences and it has sustained the conservation of the buildings only. The lack of interest in reintroducing lemon growing or other agricultural activities has produced a noticeable impoverishment of the local landscape. To overcome these limits, Urban Planning should be oriented to implement practices, which take root in and bring out the variety of local landscapes. In order to reach this result, Urban Planning may help to bring some lemon houses, especially the abandoned or the most vulnerable ones, back to their original agricultural vocation, reintroducing autopoietic agricultural techniques, which are in balance with the environment. An interdisciplinary approach may be adopted in a profitable way, to strengthen the efficiency of the Urban Planning. Aiming at this interdisciplinary approach the paper reports our first investigations concerning the contribution of different disciplines, which will help Urban Planning to consider, in case of the reuse of Lake Garda lemon houses, immaterial benefits and to reintroduce activities linked to their original vocation.

  20. Effect of marinating chicken meat with lemon, green tea, and turmeric against foodborne bacterial pathogenss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...

  1. Assessment of Mesophilic Co-Digestion of Cow Dung with Lemon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scarcity of energy (fossil) and its attendant pollution menace have provided the avenue to consider alternative sources of energy. A study was carried out on the design and construction of an Anaerobic Digester system using 1mm galvanized steel for the production of biogas from co-digestion of Cow dung and Lemon ...

  2. Level of heavy metals in soils and lemon grass in Jos, Bukuru and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Level of heavy metals in soils and lemon grass in Jos, Bukuru and environs, Nigeria. SJ Salami, EA Akande, DM Zachariah. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 13 (2) 2007: pp. 193-196. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  3. Lemon : An MPI parallel I/O library for data encapsulation using LIME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuzeman, Albert; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten

    We introduce Lemon, an MPI parallel I/O library that provides efficient parallel I/O of both binary and metadata on massively parallel architectures. Motivated by the demands of the lattice Quantum Chromodynamics community, the data is stored in the SciDAC Lattice QCD Interchange Message

  4. Prebiotic potential of pectins and pectic oligosaccharides derived from lemon peel wastes and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Schols, Henk; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and lemon peel wastes (LPW) were used to obtain two mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides (denoted as SBPOS and LPOS, respectively). Oligogalacturonides in LPOS showed a larger molecular weight, higher degree of methylation and lower degree of acetylation than the ones in

  5. Increases in arterial blood oxygen during exercise in the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BUSHNELL, PG; LUTZ, PL; STEFFENSEN, JF

    1982-01-01

    Polyethylene cannulae were implanted in pre- and post-branchial blood vessels allowing nonstressful blood sampling over a variety of activity ranges in an active tropical elasmobranch, the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris). TheP 50 was found to be 11.8 Torr at 24°C and pH of 7.7. A Bohr shift...

  6. Citrus leprosis transmission by Brevipalpus yothersi mites through non citrus hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo León M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis virus (C i LV was detected in Colombia at the eastern plains in 2004; it is a threat the disease spreads to other regions of the country. The main vector is Brevipalpus yothersi Baker (formerly identified as Brevipalpus phoenicis. This research determined the viability of B. yothersi to transmit C i LV to citrus plants, after been hosted in non-citrus plants. To virus acquisition, mites spent three days on symptomatic orange (Citrus x sinensis leaves positives to C i LV-C2; then mites were placed on six non-citrus plants (Dieffenbachia sp., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis,Codiaeum variegatum, Swinglea glutinosa, Sida acutaand Stachytarpheta cayennensis. A randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replicates was carried out. After scheduled time in non-citrus plants, mites were three days relocated on C. x sinensis healthy plants. Leaves of receptor plants, were evaluated to the occurrence or absence of symptoms and collected for RT-PCR tests. B. yothersi mites were able to transmit the C i LV virus over 85 % of Valencia orange plants (Citrus x sinensis L., after feeding from 2-20 days on non-citrus host plants. The first leprosis symptoms on C. x sinensis leaves was confirmed from 14 to 51 days after transmission. The present research work further established that C i LV-C2 is a persistently transmitted virus. The implement quarantine diagnostic measures to prevent spread of CiLV to disease-free zones is suggested.

  7. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range

  8. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range

  9. H NMR analyses of Citrus macrophylla subjected to Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is a phloem feeding insect that can host and transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is the putative causative agent of the economically important citrus disease, Huanglongbing (HLB). ACP are widespread in Florida, and are spreading in Ca...

  10. Phagostimulants for the Asian citrus psyllid also elicit volatile release from citrus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical cues that elicit orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. We identified an optimal blend ratio of formic and acetic acids that stimulate...

  11. Effect of Essential Oils of Peppermint, Lemon, Thyme and Ajwain on Performance, Blood Metabolites and Hepatic lipogenic Gene Expression of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Samadian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction Essential oils (EOs are important aromatic components of herbs and spices which are complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites consisting of low-boiling-phenylpropenes and terpenes. Their biological activities have been known and utilized since ancient times in perfumery, food preservation, flavoring, and medicine. Some of their biological activities include antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has stimulated the search for alternative feed supplements in animal production. EOs have received attention in recent years as potential ‘natural’ alternatives for replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs in animal diets due to their positive impact on growth performance and welfare. A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of EOs on broiler performance rather than the physiological effects, but the results have not been consistent (or constant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four essential oils (Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Citrus lemon, Carum copticom on growth performance, some of the serum biochemistry parameters and lipogenic gene expression in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods A total of 312, 1-day-old broiler chicks were allocated in completely randomized design to 13 groups with 6 replicate cages per treatment. After 2-day adjustment with the basal diet, the birds were randomly assigned to the corresponding experimental diets supplemented with 0 (Control, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg diet essential oils extracted from Crum capticum, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita and Cirtus lemon. The basal diet composed of maize–soybean meal prepared in our laboratory and all birds had free access to water for the entire period. Food intake and BW were recorded to determine growth performance and feed: gain ratio. At the end of the experiment (42 day blood samples (6 samples per treatment

  12. Induction of mutations in citrus for the development of resistance to Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrzycki, H.M.; Diamante de Zubrzycki, A.

    1982-01-01

    With the aim of obtaining resistance to Xanthomonas citri in citrus, mutagenic treatment was carried out with X-rays and gamma rays on buds and seedlings. As a prerequisite, attempts were made to determine some physiological and structural differences in leaves in order to evaluate and analyse the reaction to the bacterium in qualitative and quantitative terms. Citrus were found to present 3-4 annual sproutings, each having a different intensity. Grapefruit showed a greater initial increase and final length than orange, but lemon growth was greater than all the others. According to their growth, leaves clustered in three groups. Those in the middle part of the sprout showed the greatest daily increase, followed in decreasing order by those of the base and those of the apex. In orange cultivars with different degrees of reaction to Xanthomonas citri a direct association between daily growth of leaves and susceptibility was found. In fully developed leaves the number of stomata per surface unit presented an inverse ratio with susceptibility. It was observed that in a given genotype the stomata frequency per surface unit was higher in young leaves than in developed ones. Also a direct association between the leaf area and the number of stomata per leaf was found. Natural field infections were measured in leaves of developed plants. Infection in each of the 3-4 annual sproutings depends on environmental factors during the growth period and the predisposition period of the leaves. The available variation for reaction to Xanthomonas citri was higher in oranges than in grapefruit. The abscission of each leaf depends on its degree of infection, but the cultivars classed as more resistant are those requiring a smaller affected area to provoke the leaf abscission. However, abscission of a leaf is independent of the fate of the neighbouring ones. The existence of a continuous grading of infection damage within the orange cultivars suggests a genetic component for resistance

  13. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  14. (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2, 2010 69 CITRUS FARMERS PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    Emerging trends and advances in the citrus industry globally necessitates updating ... citrus is ranked first among other fruit crops by farmers (NIHORT, 2000). .... the arduous task of producing horticultural crops which are pest, diseases and ...

  15. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  16. Proximity to citrus influences Pierce's disease in Temecula Valley vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Perring, Thomas M.; Farrar, Charles A.; Blua, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Pierce's disease has caused extensive losses to grapes in the Temecula Valley. The primary vector of Pierce's disease in the region is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), which has been found in large numbers in citrus trees. We examined the role of citrus in the Temecula Valley Pierce's disease epidemic and found that citrus groves have influenced the incidence and severity of Pierce's disease in grapes. Because GWSS inhabit citrus in large numbers, California grape growers should take ad...

  17. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq TM (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  18. Current Situation of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...

  19. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  20. Citrus Tristeza Virus: An Increasing Trend in the Virus Occurrence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus orchards around the world. Here, we report, an ELISA-based indexing of citrus trees over a period of eight years (2002 to 2010) in Northwest Pakistan, revealing that the incidence of CTV is increasing mainly with the distribution ...

  1. Honey bee attractants and pollination in sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, var. Pera-Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Malerbo-Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the frequency and behavior of insects on sweet orange flowers, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, their effect on fruit production (quantity and quality, nectar and pollen collection, and the effectiveness of different attractants. Over three consecutive years, the most frequent visitor to the flowers was Apis mellifera (Africanized. Flowers visited less than ten times showed low fructification. Fruit production was 35.30% greater in uncovered flowers. Fruit mean weight was much greater in uncovered (180.2g than in covered flowers (168.5g. Fruits from the covered were more acid (1.411g of citric acid/100ml of juice than the uncovered flowers (1.164g of citric acid/100ml of juice. The number of seeds per bud was higher in the uncovered (1 seed/bud than in the covered treatment (0.8 seed/bud. Bee-HereR, eugenol, geraniol, citral, and lemon grass extract, mainly diluted in water, were effective in attracting honeybees to orchards. However, these compounds were less effective when diluted in sugar syrup. The same products had variable attractiveness to honeybees in different years.

  2. Study of chemical stability of lemon oil components in sodium caseinate-lactose glycoconjugate-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Hassan; Achouri, Allaoua; Alfaro, Maria; Pelletier, Marylène; Belanger, Denis; Britten, Michel; Fustier, Patrick

    2014-07-25

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed to quantify lemon oil components and their degradation products in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate-heated-lactose (NaC-T + Lact) glycoconjugates as wall materials at two pH values (3.0 and 6.8). NaC-T + Lact conjugates had a significantly lower solubility at both pHs. Hydrolysis prior to glycation enhanced the solubility of glycoconjugates. Glycation with lactose did not improve the emulsion activity of NaC, while caseinate glycoconjugates showed much stronger antioxidant activity than the NaC-control sample. This might be due to the presence of melanoidins formed between the sugar and amino acid compounds as supported by the increase in browning intensity. Among the SPME-fibres tested, carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) provided better results in terms of sensitivity and selectivity for oil lemon components and their degradation products. Storage studies of these emulsions demonstrated that glycated NaC-T + Lact showed protection against peroxidation compared to the control. However, acidic pH conditions altered their stability over storage time. The major off-flavor components (α-terpineol and carvone) were inhibited in emulsions stabilized with glycated NaC, particularly at pH 6.8. The use of NaC-T + Lact conjugates showed improved encapsulation efficiency and stability and could be used as potential food ingredient-emulsifiers for stabilising citrus oils against oxidative degradation in food and beverage applications.

  3. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized e...

  4. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  5. Evaluation of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) for the quality assessment of citrus liqueurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipilliti, Luisa; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Cotroneo, Antonella; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-02-27

    Citrus liqueurs are alcoholic beverages obtained by maceration. The European Parliament protects these alcoholic beverages, forbidding the addition of nature-identical flavoring substances. However, for economical and technological reasons, producers often add natural and/or synthetic flavors to the alcoholic syrup, obtaining artificial spirit drinks. The aim of this study is to investigate the authenticity of Italian liqueurs, of lemon, bergamot, and mandarin (locally known as "limoncello", "bargamino", and "mandarinetto"), comparing the carbon isotope ratios with values determined in genuine cold-pressed peel oils. Authenticity assessment was performed using headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Additional analyses were performed by direct enantioselective gas chromatography to determine the enantiomeric distribution of selected chiral volatiles and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the qualitative analyses of the samples. The method allowed confirmation of genuineness. Enantioselective gas chromatography analyses confirmed the results, demonstrating the reliability of the method.

  6. The Effect of Lemon Inhalation Aromatherapy on Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yavari kia, Parisa; Safajou, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy are amongst the most common complaints that effects on both the physical and mental conditions of the pregnant women. Due to the increasing tendency of women to use herbal medications during pregnancy, the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was investigated in this study. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Ma...

  7. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p lemon pulp (p lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. A study of the drying effect on lemon slices using a closed-type solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho-Hsien Chen; Hernandez, C.E.; Tzou-Chi Huang [National Pingtung University of Science and Technology (China). Dept. of Food Science

    2005-01-01

    An experimental closed-type dryer associated with a photovoltaic system (PV) was developed. The transparent drying cabinet was designed with high transmittance glass to decrease the reflection of direct sunlight and to offer extra direct solar heating on the raw material during drying. Parallel wiring with a local electrical grid was necessary for switching purposes if there is insufficient battery backup during peak operation. Lemon slices were dried using the closed-type solar dryer and results were compared with hot air drying at 60{sup o}C. The results indicate that the dried lemon slices using a closed-type solar dryer has better general levels of quality in terms of sensory parameters. (author)

  9. Studying, the Insecticidal Effects of Melia azedarach and Citrus limonum Extracts on Two Aphid Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Pahlavan Yali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the most principal plant food for 35 percent of the world's population, and canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important brassicaceous crops that play a major role in the development of edible oil. The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani and cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L. are the main pests of wheat and canola, respectively, which can considerably limit profitable production of these crops either through direct feeding or via transmission of plant pathogenic viruses. Although chemical control is the most effective and easiest way to control aphids, but this method causes problems such as pesticide residues in food and environment, and development of resistance to insecticides. The utilization of plant extracts is an environmentally safe method that can be used in control of these aphids. Among these, the products of the Melia seed (Melia azedarach Linnaeus and lemon peel (Citrus limonum Risso can be noted. Negative associations between phenolic compounds present in plant species and aphid’s invasion have been recorded for some aphid species. In this study, our goal was to determine the amount of phenol in plant extracts of Melia seed and lemon peel and evaluate the toxicity of these compounds on the wheat aphid and cabbage aphid in various doses after different time periods. Materials and methods: This research was conducted in a growth chamber (temperature 25 ± 1˚C, 65± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D. S. graminum and B. brassicae were bred on wheat (Pishtaz cultivar and canola (Hyola401 cultivar, respectively. The extraction of Melia seed and lemon peel was carried out and then contact toxicity bioassay was done to evaluate the insecticidal effects of these extracts on nymphs of wheat and cabbage aphids using a completely randomized design. The leaves of wheat and canola plants, impregnated with three different concentrations of each extract (10, 50 and 80 g/ml and

  10. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Abreu Almeida

    Full Text Available The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%, starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30% and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L, including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations.

  11. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição

    2015-01-01

    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations.

  12. Physiological Optics of the Eye of the Juvenile Lemon Shark (Negaprion brevirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    fUr Lher affects of ametropia ) is the distance between the second nodal point vI lhe -’otoreceptor layer. This dimension is known as the posterior...gauge on the negative effect of ametropia on visual acuity, t the size of these retinal blur circles can be calculated using the schematic eye, 96...the working distance between retinoscopist and subject eye. My retinoscopic measurements of the underwater ametropia in juvenile lemon sharks have been

  13. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFB Royer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.

  14. Monogenoid infection of neonatal and older juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae), in a shark nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joy M; Frasca, Salvatore; Gruber, Samuel H; Benz, George W

    2013-12-01

    Fifty lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris , were captured in a shallow, mangrove-fringed shark nursery at Bimini, Bahamas and examined for the presence of skin-dwelling ectoparasitic monogenoids (Monogenoidea). Sixteen sharks were infected by Dermophthirius nigrellii (Microbothriidae); the youngest host was estimated to be 3- to 4-wk-old. Infection prevalence, mean intensity, and median intensity (0.32, 2.63, and 2.0, respectively, for all sharks) were not significantly different between neonates (estimated ages 3- to 10-wk-old) and non-neonatal juveniles (estimated ages 1- to 4-yr-old), suggesting that soon after parturition lemon sharks acquire infection levels of D. nigrellii matching those of juvenile conspecifics. Monogenoids were only found on the trailing portion of the first and second dorsal fins and upper lobe of the caudal fin. The prevalence of D. nigrellii was highest on the first dorsal fin; however, the mean and median intensities of D. nigrellii were similar between fins in all but 1 case. These results raise important husbandry implications regarding the practice of preferentially seeking neonatal and other small lemon sharks for captivity.

  15. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  17. The Types of Essentials Oil Components Isolated From the Leaves of Citrus Aurantifolia and Citrus Nobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Wulandari, Mutiara Juni; Mohammad Anwar Jamaludin,, Lailatul Riska, Agustin Laela Prunama; Mumun Nurmilawati, Indra Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil or known as the eteris oil (etheric oil) was result from secondary metabolism of a plant. In general essential oil contains of citronellal, Citronelal, Citronelol, Limonen, β-Pinene dan sabinene. The components essential oil derived from citrus plants commonly used by perfume industry, on other hand it is used as essentials oil orange flavour addition in some drinks and food, and also as an antioxidant and anti cancer. One of the essential oil is produced by Citrus aurantifolia ...

  18. Inversão da sacarose utilizando ácido cítrico e suco de limão para preparo de dieta energética de Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Inversion of the sucrose using citric acid and lemon juice for preparing energetic diet of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2011-04-01

    nectar shortage, food supplementation using "inverted sugar" obtained by sucrose hydrolysis in an acid environment by heating can be supplied to the hive, forming a glucose and fructose mixture. The acid usually used in such a reaction is the citric acid, however, due to the difficulty that small producers have to obtain the product commercially, an alternative would be to replace it with lemon juice. The objective of this work was to quantify the inversion of sucrose present in Apis mellifera worker diets by employing commercial citric acid and lemon juice. A total of 21 aqueous solutions of granulated sugar at the proportion of 100 g/100 mL were prepared, placing in each one 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 5.0; 10.0; 15.0 or 20.0 mL of the juices of the Galego [Citrus aurantifolia (C. Swingle], Tahiti [Citrus latifolia Tanaka] or Cravo [Citrus limonia (L. Osbeck] lemon varieties. In addition to those, six other aqueous sucrose solutions were prepared by adding 0.0 (control; 0.16; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 g citric acid. Sucrose inversion was quantified by using the Somogyi-Nelson method. For the Cravo lemon, the lowest inversion rate was found. Regarding the addition of citric acid, it was estimated that in placing 0.1 g, the inversion was of 12.2% while with 0.16 g, an inversion of 18.8% sucrose present in the solution. The maximum amount of citric acid to be added was estimated to be 0.18 g, adopting as a criterion the mean pH of 3.3 in Africanized bee honey. If Galego, Tahiti and Cravo lemon juices are used as replacements for the citric acid, the maximum added amount should be 2.1, 3.6 and 5.3 mL, respectively, for each 100 g sugar/100 mL water, at fixed pH of 3.3. Considering the inversion rate and pH level recommended for the use of citric acid, Tahiti lemon juice provides better results.

  19. Development of New Lemon-Lime Flavored Beverage for OGTT: Acceptability and Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotwanvirat, Phawinpon; Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Parksook, Wyn; Krittiyawong, Sirinate; Hutaphat, Kritchana; Nakasatien, Soontaree; Kaocharoen, Sming; Himathongkam, Thep

    2016-05-01

    The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is essential procedure in both screening and diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM), but it is not easy to perform because of intense sweetness of the 75-g glucose test beverage causing abdominal discomfort post-testing. Therefore, the new formula of non-carbonated lemon-lime flavored beverage was developed to increase its palatability and better compliance. To develop a new non-carbonated lemon-lime flavored beverage to replace the standard beverage for OGTT Subsequently, the diagnostic value and acceptability between the new formula and the traditional 75-g OGTT formula were compared in healthy subjects. The new lemon-lime flavored formula was developed to replace the standard beverage for OGTT by adding 1,000 milligram of citric acid and 0.03 gram of lime flavor to 75 gram of anhydrous glucose to a final volume of 300 ml. The study was conducted in 30 healthy subjects who underwent the traditional 75-gram OGTT test and the new formula of OGTT beverage one week later, or vice versa, to access acceptability, indices markers of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. Palatability was determined by rating on a 9-point Hedonic Scale. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females) with the age of 33.2 ± 7.5 years and body mass index of 22.9 ± 3.5 kg/m² were enrolled. No significant difference was found between plasma glucose in 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes, insulin level (0 and 120 minutes) and four insulin surrogate markers in both traditional 75-gram OGTT and new formula of lemon-lime flavored OGTT beverage. The overall satisfaction score of the new formula OGTT was better when compared with the scores of the traditional OGTT (7.1 ± 1.8 vs. 4.7 ± 2.0). Only one subject complained about abdominal discomfort in both episode of OGTT CONCLUSION: The modified lemon-lime flavored beverage for OGTT demonstrated better acceptance in the subjects without difference in

  20. Nutritional deficiency in citrus with symptoms of citrus variegated chlorosis disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME. Silva-Stenico

    Full Text Available It is well known that citrus plants that have been infected by Xylella fastidiosa display nutritional deficiencies, probably caused by production of extracellular polymers by the bacteria that block normal nutrient flow through the xylem. The aim of this work was to study the mineral composition of specific foliar areas in different stages of infection in citrus. Thus, the concentrations of macro and micronutrients in leaves of citrus infected by X. fastidiosa were measured. Samples from four infected citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were respectively collected from Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, Neves Paulista, Gavião Peixoto and Paraíso counties. The presence of X. fastidiosa in leaves was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using specific PCR primers. To understand the variation in leaf-nutrient content in citrus plants, we used foliar nutrient values from control (non-symptomatic plants as a reference. Chemometric analysis showed that the deficiency of P and K in symptomatic trees for all orchards and high concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn were observed in chlorotic areas, although other studies revealed deficiency of zinc in leaves. This is the first report showing that a correlation between chlorotic citrus leaf and higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn are observed when infected and healthy plants were compared.

  1. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Shahid, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  2. ENERGY USE IN CITRUS PRODUCTION OF MAZANDARAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The aim of this study was to evaluate energy use in citrus production in the Mazandaran Province in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 155 farmers using a face-to-face interview method. The total energy .... control mainly were mechanised and a few of them ... fertilisers was manual; while manure application.

  3. Detection of Citrus Trees from Uav Dsms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, A. O.; Ozdarici-Ok, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to detect citrus trees from digitals surface models (DSMs) as a single source. The DSMs in this study are generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the proposed approach first considers the symmetric nature of the citrus trees, and it computes the orientation-based radial symmetry in an efficient way. The approach also takes into account the local maxima (LM) information to verify the output of the radial symmetry. Our contributions in this study are twofold: (i) Such an integrated approach (symmetry + LM) has not been tested to detect (citrus) trees (in orchards), and (ii) the validity of such an integrated approach has not been experienced for an input, e.g. a single DSM. Experiments are performed on five test patches. The results reveal that our approach is capable of counting most of the citrus trees without manual intervention. Comparison to the state-of-the-art reveals that the proposed approach provides notable detection performance by providing the best balance between precision and recall measures.

  4. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  5. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  6. The "Phantom Costs" of Florida's Citrus Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Muraro, Ronald P.; Roka, Fritz M.; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory compliance, the "phantom costs of production," is an increasingly "fact-of-life" for U.S. agriculture. A survey was developed and implemented to enumerate regulatory compliance costs for Florida's 748,500 acres citrus industry. Complying with 61 production related regulations, 643,757 hours were expended at a total annual cost of over $24.3 million.

  7. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  8. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J.; jr. Maccheroni, W.; Elsas, van J.D.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Azevedo, de J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as

  9. Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

    2009-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest

  10. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Joung; Hwang, Jung Hyun; Ko, Hyun Ji; Na, Hye Bock; Kim, Jung Hee

    2015-05-01

    The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  12. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  13. “Gold” Pressed Essential Oil: An Essay on the Volatile Fragment from Citrus Juice Industry By-Products Chemistry and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kapsaski-Kanelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present essay explores the potentials of Citrus juice industry’s by-products as alternative bioactive natural products resources. Four crude Cold Pressed Essential Oils (CPEOs, derived from orange, lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin, were studied. All CPEOs were subjected to water distillation, in order to obtain the volatile fragment, which was further fractionated with respect to distillation period in two parts, concluding to eight samples. These samples along with the four original CPEOs were assessed in relation to their phytochemical content and their repellent and larvicidal properties against Asian Tiger Mosquito. The volatiles recovery rates ranged from 74% to 88% of the CPEO. Limonene presented a significant increase in all samples ranging from 8% to 52% of the respective CPEO’s content and peaked in mandarin’s 2nd volatile fragment which comprised 97% of the essential oil. The refinement process presented clear impacts on both bioassays: a significant increase in larvicidal potency was observed, annotated best by the improvement by 1100% and 1300% of the grapefruit volatile fractions; repellence testing provided only one significant result, the decrease of landings by 50% as a response to mandarin’s second volatile fraction. The applied methodology thus may be considered for the improvement of Citrus juice industry’s by-products chemistry and bioactivity.

  14. Citrus tissue culture employing vegetative explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S

    2001-11-01

    Citrus being a number one fruit of the world due to its high nutritional value, huge production of fruits and fruit products, the citrus industry may be considered a major fruit industry. Though citrus orchard area in India is comparable to USA, the produce is far less, while its export is nil. Biotechnology has played an outstanding role in boosting the citrus industry, e.g., in Spain, which is now the biggest exporter of citrus fruit with the application of micrografting. Amongst the fruit trees, perhaps the maximum tissue culture research has been done in citrus during the past four decades, however, the results of practical value are meagre. The shortfalls in citrus tissue culture research and some advancements made in this direction along with bright prospects are highlighted, restricting the review to vegetative explants only. Whilst utilization of nucellar embryogenesis is limited to rootstocks, the other aspects, like, regeneration and proliferation of shoot meristems measuring 200 microm in length--a global breakthrough--of two commercially important scion species, Citrus aurantifolia and C. sinensis and an important rootstock, C. limonia, improvement of micrografting technique, cloning of the same two scion species as well as some Indian rootstock species, employing nodal stem segments of mature trees, of immense practical value have been elaborated. A rare phenomenon of shift in the morphogenetic pattern of differentiation from shoot bud differentiation to embryoid formation occurred during the long-term culture of stem callus of C. grandis. Stem callus-regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. grandis showed variation in their ploidy levels and a somaclonal variant of C. sinensis, which produced seedless fruits was isolated. Tailoring of rooting in microshoots to a tap root-like system by changing the inorganic salt composition of the rooting medium, resulting in 100% transplant success, and germplasm preservation through normal growth

  15. Systematic HPLC/ESI-High Resolution-qTOF-MS Methodology for Metabolomic Studies in Nonfluorescent Chlorophyll Catabolites Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julián Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs and dioxobilane-type nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolite (DNCC in peel extracts of ripened lemon fruits (Citrus limon L. was performed by HPLC/ESI-high resolution-qTOF-MS method. Compounds were identified in samples on the basis of measured accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and characteristic fragmentation profile with an implemented software postprocessing routine. Three NCC structures already identified in other vegetal tissues were present in the lemon fruit peels (Cl-NCC1; Cl-NCC2; Cl-NCC4 while a new structure not defined so far was characterized (Cl-NCC3. This catabolite exhibits an exceptional arrangement of the peripheral substituents, allowing concluding that the preferences for the NCC modifications could be a species-related matter.

  16. Citrus leprosis virus N: A New Dichorhavirus Causing Citrus Leprosis Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-González, Pedro Luis; Chabi-Jesus, Camila; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene; Tassi, Aline Daniele; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Harakava, Ricardo; Salaroli, Renato Barbosa; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2017-08-01

    Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local necrotic and chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches, and fruit and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in noncommercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013 to 2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells. However, every attempt to identify these particles by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests failed, even though all described primers for the detection of known CL-causing cileviruses and dichorhaviruses were used. Next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracts from three symptomatic samples revealed the genome of distinct, although highly related (>92% nucleotide sequence identity), viruses whose genetic organization is similar to that of dichorhaviruses. The genome sequence of these viruses showed trees and those used for the transmission of one of the characterized isolates to Arabidopsis plants were anatomically recognized as Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto. Molecular and biological features indicate that the identified viruses belong to a new species of CL-associated dichorhavirus, which we propose to call Citrus leprosis N dichorhavirus. Our results, while emphasizing the increasing diversity of viruses causing CL disease, lead to a reevaluation of the nomenclature of those viruses assigned to the genus Dichorhavirus. In this regard, a comprehensive discussion is presented.

  17. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents.

  18. Efficacy Assessment of Lemon Peel Aromatherpy Againts Airborne Bacteria Experimental Study in ICU Room of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merin Awu Sari

    2012-06-01

    Design and Method: This experimental study used post test only control groups design. The number of airborne bacteria colonies obtained from ICU room of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang treated with lemon peel aromatherapy at the concentration of 100 % and the control group (-.The data were analyzed for normality using Shapiro Wilk followed by independent T-test Result: independent inT-test Independent showed a significant differences in the number of bacterial colonies between the treated groups receiving 100% concentration of lemon peel aromatherapy and control group (- (p < 0.045. Conclusion: Aromatherapy extracts of lemon peel has effect on reducing the number of airborne bacteria in the ICU of Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang (Sains Medika, 4(1:71-77.

  19. Exogenous applications of plant growth regulators influence the reproductive growth of citrus sinensis osbeck cv. blood red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Malik, A.U.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of exogenous applications of plant growth regulators on the reproductive behaviour of low bearing sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) trees, three separate experiments were conducted on twelve years old 'Blood Red' Sweet orange trees budded on Rough Lemon (Citrus jambheri L.) root stock. In the first experiment, trees were sprayed with 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination at mid bloom (MB) stage, whilst in the second and third experiments 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination were sprayed at MB + 6 weeks after MB, and at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB stages, respectively. A single tree was selected as an experimental unit and each treatment was replicated four times. Data regarding the flowering intensity, flower drop, fruit set, fruit drop and fruit harvest percentages (%) were collected and analyzed statistically. In all experiments exogenous application of 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination to Blood Red sweet orange trees reduced the flower drop % and increased the fruit set % as compared to untreated trees. Application 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination at MB did not affect the fruit drop % and fruit harvest % in contrast to untreated trees. The trees sprayed with 20 mg L-1 GA3 alone or in combination with 2, 4-D at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB exhibited highest reduction in the fruit drop % compared to control trees. In conclusions application GA3 (20 mg L-1) alone or in combination of 2, 4-D (20 mg L-1) at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB can be used effectively to increase the fruit set and reduce the fruit drop in Blood Red sweet oranges. (author)

  20. Estimation of Fluoride Concentration of Various Citrus and Non-Citrus Fruits Commonly Consumed and Commercially Available in Mathura City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Anand Ingle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since fluoride is available from various sources, the total ingestion of fluoride by a person should be estimated taking into consideration the fluoride consumed from all the sources including fruits. There are very few epidemiological studies carried out associated with fluoride estimation in fruit samplesand especially in the Indian scenario Objective: To estimate and compare the fluoride concentration of different commercially available citrus and non-citrus fruits in Mathura city. Materials & Method: Fifteen different types of fruits commercially available and consumed by people ofMathura City were collected. Out of the 15 fruit samples 5 were citrus fruits and 10 were non-citrus fruits. The fluoride estimation of fruit samples was done at Central Laboratory,Lucknow. Juices of all 15 fruit samples were prepared, from each sample 10 ml of juice was measured and fluoride testing of each sample was carried out by using Orion 4 star -ion electrode analyzer. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS, version 17. Results: The fluoride concentration in citrus fruits ranged from 0.04ppm (Orange to 0.08 ppm (Tomato while in non-citrus fruits it ranged from 0.04ppm (chikoo to 0.18 ppm (Guava. No significant difference was observed between the mean fluoride concentration of citrus and non citrus fruits. Conclusions: Both citrus and non citrus fruits have fluorides. Guava was found to have the maximumamount of fluoridecontent (0.18 ppm among both the citrus and non citrus fruits.

  1. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  2. Velocity Deficits in the Wake of Model Lemon Shark Dorsal Fins Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, K. N.; Turner, V.; Hackett, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic animals' morphology provides inspiration for human technological developments, as their bodies have evolved and become adapted for efficient swimming. Lemon sharks exhibit a uniquely large second dorsal fin that is nearly the same size as the first fin, the hydrodynamic role of which is unknown. This experimental study looks at the drag forces on a scale model of the Lemon shark's unique two-fin configuration in comparison to drag forces on a more typical one-fin configuration. The experiments were performed in a recirculating water flume, where the wakes behind the scale models are measured using particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed at three different flow speeds for both fin configurations. The measured instantaneous 2D distributions of the streamwise and wall-normal velocity components are ensemble averaged to generate streamwise velocity vertical profiles. In addition, velocity deficit profiles are computed from the difference between these mean streamwise velocity profiles and the free stream velocity, which is computed based on measured flow rates during the experiments. Results show that the mean velocities behind the fin and near the fin tip are smallest and increase as the streamwise distance from the fin tip increases. The magnitude of velocity deficits increases with increasing flow speed for both fin configurations, but at all flow speeds, the two-fin configurations generate larger velocity deficits than the one-fin configurations. Because the velocity deficit is directly proportional to the drag force, these results suggest that the two-fin configuration produces more drag.

  3. An Ecoinformatics Approach to Field-Scale Evaluation of Insecticide Effects in California Citrus: Are Citrus Thrips and Citrus Red Mite Induced Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, George; Hack, Lindsey; Steinmann, Kimberly P; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2018-05-28

    Experimental approaches to studying the consequences of pesticide use, including impacts on beneficial insects, are vital; however, they can be limited in scale and realism. We show that an ecoinformatics approach that leverages existing data on pesticides, pests, and beneficials across multiple fields can provide complementary insights. We do this using a multi-year dataset (2002-2013) on pesticide applications and density estimates of two pests, citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri (Moulton [Thysanoptera: Thripidae])) and citrus red mites (Panonychus citri McGregor [Acari: Tetranychidae]), and a natural enemy (Euseius spp. predatory mites) collected from citrus groves in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Using correlative analyses, we investigated the long-term consequences of pesticide use on S. citri and P. citri population densities to evaluate the hypothesis that the pest status of these species is largely due to the disruption of natural biological control-i.e., these are induced pests. We also evaluated short-term pesticide efficacy (suppression of citrus thrips and citrus red mite populations immediately post-application) and asked if it was correlated with the suppression of Euseius predator populations. Although the short-term efficacy of different pesticides varied significantly, our dataset does not suggest that the use of citrus pesticides suppressed Euseius densities or worsened pest problems. We also find that there is no general trade-off between pesticide efficacy and pesticide risk to Eusieus, such that highly effective and minimally disruptive compounds were available to citrus growers during the studied time period.

  4. Experiências de cavalos para citrus I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Moreira

    1941-09-01

    Citrus, in progress at the Experiment Station of Limeira, of the Instituto Agronômico of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, since 1933. 2 - All the scions used belong to three commercial varieties : Baianinha (orange, derived from "Washington Navel", Pera (orange, similar to Valencia and Pomelo (grape-fruit "Marsh-seedless" were collected in each case from one individual of each type. 3 - The following 12 stock were studied : Laranja azeda (sour orange Laranja agro-doce (bitter sweet orange Laranja caipira (sweet orange Laranja lima (sweet orange Tangerina cravo (tangerine Limão cravo (Rangpur lime Limão rugoso (rough lemon Limão ponderosa (ponderosa lemon Lima da Pérsia (sweet lime Pomelo (grape-fruit Triumph Cidra (citron Trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata. All plants obtained came from seeds of one tree of each type, from unprotected flowers however. 4 - Data referring to the number of seeds per fruit, germination, polyembriony and classification according to size are given (quadro I. The mean height of the plants obtained after 6 months and 2 years nursery are to be found in quadro II. 5 - Twelve hundred individuals of each root stock were selected according to their uniform development, in accordance with Webber (25 and on 40 of each buds of the three scions were grafted. As measure of the development the circumference of the stock at a height of 20 cm and that of the scion at a height of 40 cm were used (quadros IV to IX. 6 - An analysis of variance "between" and "within" root stocks (quadro VI showed in all cases a significant high variation "between" stock. In all cases, the scions were thinner than the stocks (quadro IX, the indices scion-stock varying from ca. 0,5 to 0,8. The respective means are to be found in quadro IV and V. 7 - There is also a consistent and significant difference between scions as shown by the values in quadro VII. 8 - A comparison between quadro VIII (not budded root stock and quadro IV (budded shows that generally the former grow better

  5. Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin relatives and other citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Citrus tristeza virus: An increasing trend in the virus occurrence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABC

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus ... diseases of citrus trees reported in Pakistan are tristeza, .... bark. Vein clearing and stem pitting were also observed on sweet orange trees sour ..... disposal of source of inoculum by removing old citrus trees ...

  7. Evaluating citrus germplasm for huanglongbing (HLB) resistance: USDA-ARS Inoculation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it vectors bacteria responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program for screening citrus germplasm for resistance to the di...

  8. Citrus Tristeza Virus on the Island of Crete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shegani, M.; Tsikou, D.; Velimirovic, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of two years, more than 5,000 citrus trees were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) on the island of Crete, resulting in thirty eight positives. Comparisons of the relative transcript levels of CTV p23, coat protein (CP), polymerase (POL) and an intergenic (POL/p3...

  9. (Liberibacter spp.) associated with citrus greening disease in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Citrus is one of the largest fruit crops grown in Uganda ... of several citrus industries in Asia and. Africa (da Graca ... role in transmission of HLB, psyllid feeding ... The Indian Ocean islands of Reunion and ..... Pacific Grove, California: Duxbury ...

  10. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in citrus interspecific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Department of Plant Breeding and Improvement, Iran Citrus Research Institute, Mottahari Street, Ramsar, .... (C. aurantium) rootstock plants for further agronomic evaluation .... literatures may be attributed to pollination efficiency and ... zygotic seedlings in Swingle citromelo Citrus paradisi × Poncirus tifoliata.

  11. Development of sparse-seeded mutant kinnow (Citrus reticulata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... crops like citrus, induced mutation for seedlessness in Kinnow with gamma irradiation of dormant bud which was attempted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Dormant bud irradiation-cum-grafting technique was employed, using the Citrus jambhiri rootstock for propagation of the scion.

  12. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  13. Citrus fruit quality assessment; producer and consumer perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of citrus fruit and juices is popular with consumers worldwide and makes an important contribution to a healthy diet. Nevertheless, consumer preferences for citrus have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years and it is important to understand what consumers are looking ...

  14. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  15. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  16. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...

  17. (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2, 2010 69 CITRUS FARMERS PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    models of citrus, production of bottled citrus juice, jams and marmalades. Although a lot of work has been done in development of improved technologies for ..... Acta. Horticulturae 123:23-27. Owoeye, T (2010) Nigeria: Training farmers will boost agricultural production. www.freshplaza.com/news_detail. Umeh, V.C, Garcia ...

  18. Citrus Production, Constraints and Management Practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus is economically important fruit crop in Ethiopia. However, its production is seriously constrained by various diseases including Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot. Surveys were conducted between June 2012 and May 2013 in the main citrus production areas of the country to assess the spread of the disease, and to ...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued in...

  20. A phagostimulant blend for the Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical cues that condition orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. Previous work in our lab identified a blend of formic and acetic acids as s...

  1. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  2. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  3. The experimental vibrational infrared spectrum of lemon peel and simulation of spectral properties of the plant cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, K. V.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Novoselova, A. V.; Dvoretskii, K. N.; Likhter, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The experimental vibrational IR spectra of the outer part of lemon peel are recorded in the range of 3800-650 cm-1. The effect of artificial and natural dehydration of the peel on its vibrational spectrum is studied. It is shown that the colored outer layer of lemon peel does not have a noticeable effect on the vibrational spectrum. Upon 28-day storage of a lemon under natural laboratory conditions, only sequential dehydration processes are reflected in the vibrational spectrum of the peel. Within the framework of the theoretical DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) method, a model of a plant cell wall is developed consisting of a number of polymeric molecules of dietary fibers like cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, some polyphenolic compounds (hesperetin glycoside-flavonoid), and a free water cluster. Using a supermolecular approach, the spectral properties of the wall of a lemon peel cell was simulated, and a detailed theoretical interpretation of the recorded vibrational spectrum is given.

  4. Fractionation of lemon essential oil by solvent extraction: Phase equilibrium for model systems at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshima, Cristina C.; Capellini, Maria C.; Geremias, Ivana M.; Aracava, Keila K.; Gonçalves, Cintia B.; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deterpenation of lemon oil by solvent extraction using hydrous ethanol. ► Limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral were used to simulate the oil. ► Citral shows a higher distribution coefficient than the hydrocarbons. ► Terpenic hydrocarbons exhibit very similar phase separation behaviour. ► NRTL and UNIQUAC models provided a good description of the phase equilibrium. - Abstract: The fractioning of lemon essential oil can be performed by liquid–liquid extraction using hydrous ethanol as a solvent. A quaternary mixture composed of limonene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and citral was used to simulate lemon essential oil. In this paper, we present (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data that were experimentally determined for systems containing essential oil compounds, ethanol, and water at T = 298.2 K. The experimental data were correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models, and the mean deviations between calculated and experimental data were less than 0.0053 in all systems, indicating the accuracy of these molecular models in describing our systems. The results show that as the water content in the solvent phase increased, the values of the distribution coefficients decreased, regardless of the type of compound studied. However, the oxygenated compound always showed the highest distribution coefficient among the components of the essential oil, thus making deterpenation of the lemon essential oil a feasible process.

  5. Comparison of Glaciological and Gravimetric Glacier Mass Balance Measurements of Taku and Lemon Creek Glaciers, Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, K.; McNeil, C.; Bond, M.; Getraer, B.; Huxley-Reicher, B.; McNamara, G.; Reinhardt-Ertman, T.; Silverwood, J.; Kienholz, C.; Beedle, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier-wide annual mass balances (Ba) have been calculated for Taku (726 km2) and Lemon Creek glaciers (10.2 km2) since 1946 and 1953 respectively. These are the longest mass balance records in North America, and the only Ba time-series available for Southeast Alaska, making them particularly valuable for the global glacier mass balance monitoring network. We compared Ba time-series from Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers to Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mascon solutions (1352 and 1353) during the 2004-2015 period to assess how well these gravimetric solutions reflect individual glaciological records. Lemon Creek Glacier is a challenging candidate for this comparison because it is small compared to the 12,100 km2 GRACE mascon solutions. Taku Glacier is equally challenging because its mass balance is stable compared to the negative balances dominating its neighboring glaciers. Challenges notwithstanding, a high correlation between the glaciological and gravimetrically-derived Ba for Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers encourage future use of GRACE to measure glacier mass balance. Additionally, we employed high frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to measure the variability of accumulation around glaciological sites to assess uncertainty in our glaciological measurements, and the resulting impact to Ba. Finally, we synthesize this comparison of glaciological and gravimetric mass balance solutions with a discussion of potential sources of error in both methods and their combined utility for measuring regional glacier change during the 21st century.

  6. Effect of lemon verbena supplementation on muscular damage markers, proinflammatory cytokines release and neutrophils' oxidative stress in chronic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Lorena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel D; Drobnic, Franchek; Pons, Antoni; Roche, Enrique; Micol, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    Intense exercise is directly related to muscular damage and oxidative stress due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both, plasma and white blood cells. Nevertheless, exercise-derived ROS are essential to regulate cellular adaptation to exercise. Studies on antioxidant supplements have provided controversial results. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate antioxidant supplementation (lemon verbena extract) in healthy male volunteers that followed a 90-min running eccentric exercise protocol for 21 days. Antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress markers were measured in neutrophils. Besides, inflammatory cytokines and muscular damage were determined in whole blood and serum samples, respectively. Intense running exercise for 21 days induced antioxidant response in neutrophils of trained male through the increase of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Supplementation with moderate levels of an antioxidant lemon verbena extract did not block this cellular adaptive response and also reduced exercise-induced oxidative damage of proteins and lipids in neutrophils and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, lemon verbena supplementation maintained or decreased the level of serum transaminases activity indicating a protection of muscular tissue. Exercise induced a decrease of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β levels after 21 days measured in basal conditions, which was not inhibited by antioxidant supplementation. Therefore, moderate antioxidant supplementation with lemon verbena extract protects neutrophils against oxidative damage, decreases the signs of muscular damage in chronic running exercise without blocking the cellular adaptation to exercise.

  7. The impact of lemon pectin characteristics on TLR activation and T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Leonie M.; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M.; Ramasamy, Uttara; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke M.; Venema, Koen; Schols, Henk A.; de Vos, Paul

    Sufficient dietary fibre intake reduces the risk of several diseases, but the mechanisms linking fibre structure and health effects remain unclear. To analyse the influence of the amount of methyl groups esterified to the backbone, lemon pectins of different degrees of methyl esterification (30, 56,

  8. The impact of lemon pectin characteristics on TLR activation and T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Leonie M.; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M.; Ramasamy, Uttara; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke M.; Venema, Koen; Schols, Henk A.; Vos, de Paul

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient dietary fibre intake reduces the risk of several diseases, but the mechanisms linking fibre structure and health effects remain unclear. To analyse the influence of the amount of methyl groups esterified to the backbone, lemon pectins of different degrees of methyl esterification (30,

  9. Low-methoxyl lemon pectin attenuates inflammatory responses and improves intestinal barrier integrity in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Yajun; He, Yue; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hao; de Vos, Paul; Sun, Jia

    Scope: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical acute abdominal disease. The intestinal injury associated with AP will aggravate the condition retroactively. This study investigates whether the low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) isolated from lemon could attenuate AP and associated intestinal injury.

  10. Viburnum opulus: Could it be a new alternative, such as lemon juice, to pharmacological therapy in hypocitraturic stone patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Tuglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Citrate, potassium, and calcium levels in Viburnum opulus (V. opulus and lemon juice were compared to evaluate the usability of V. opulus in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic stone disease. Materials and Methods: V. opulus and lemon fruits were squeezed in a blender and 10 samples of each of 100 ml were prepared. Citrate, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and pH levels in these samples were examined. Results: Potassium was found to be statistically significantly higher in V. opulus than that in lemon juice (p = 0.006 whereas sodium (p = 0.004 and calcium (p = 0.008 were found to be lower. There was no difference between them in terms of the amount of magnesium and citrate. Concusions: Because V. opulus contains citrate as high as lemon juice does and it is a potassium-rich and calciumand sodium-poor fluid, it can be an alternative to pharmaceutical treatment in mild-to-moderate degree hypocitraturic stone patients. These findings should be supported with clinical studies.

  11. Metabolic interplay between the Asian citrus psyllid and its Profftella symbiont: An Achilles’ heel of the citrus greening insect vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact tra...

  12. Resistance evaluation of Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to citrus canker in greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri results in serious yield losses and phytoregulation penalties. The use of resistant genotypes is recognized as an important tool to facilitate control of the pathogen. Studies have show that artificial inoculation results in typic...

  13. Homologues of CsLOB1 in citrus function as disease susceptibility genes in citrus canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junli; Huguet-Tapia, Jose Carlos; Hu, Yang; Jones, Jeffrey; Wang, Nian; Liu, Sanzhen; White, Frank F

    2017-08-01

    The lateral organ boundary domain (LBD) genes encode a group of plant-specific proteins that function as transcription factors in the regulation of plant growth and development. Citrus sinensis lateral organ boundary 1 (CsLOB1) is a member of the LBD family and functions as a disease susceptibility gene in citrus bacterial canker (CBC). Thirty-four LBD members have been identified from the Citrus sinensis genome. We assessed the potential for additional members of LBD genes in citrus to function as surrogates for CsLOB1 in CBC, and compared host gene expression on induction of different LBD genes. Using custom-designed transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, two members of the same clade as CsLOB1, named CsLOB2 and CsLOB3, were found to be capable of functioning similarly to CsLOB1 in CBC. RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a set of cell wall metabolic genes that are associated with CsLOB1, CsLOB2 and CsLOB3 expression and may represent downstream genes involved in CBC. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Citrus pseudolimon and Citrus grandis Peel Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, A.; Hanif, M.A.; Shahid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils and their volatile constituents are used extensively to prevent and treat human diseases. In the past decades, worldwide demand for citrus essential oils has greatly increased. Citrus essential oils containing 85-99 percent volatile and 1-15 percent non-volatile components. Essential oils from Citrus pseudolimon and Citrus grandis peels were extracted through steam distillation and characterized by GC-MS. C. pseudolimon has thirty six and C. grandis has thirty three total components; limonene 47.07 percent and 71.48 percent was the major component in both oils respectively. Antioxidant activity was checked by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test. Both oils have modest activity. The antimicrobial potential was assessed against different bacterial and fungus strains. C. pseudolimon oil possessed strong activity against all tested strains while C. grandis has moderate activity. The antitumor activity was evaluated by potato disc assay, C. pseudolimon showed 81.25 inhibition. Hence the essential oils could have a great potential in pharmaceutical industry. (author)

  15. Expression and functional analysis of citrus carotene hydroxylases: unravelling the xanthophyll biosynthesis in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yungyuen, Witchulada; Tsukamoto, Issei; Iijima, Natsumi; Oikawa, Michiru; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Kato, Masaya

    2016-06-29

    Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids and fulfill critical roles in plant growth and development. In plants, two different types of carotene hydroxylases, non-heme di-iron and heme-containing cytochrome P450, were reported to be involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophyll. Citrus fruits accumulate a high amount of xanthophylls, especially β,β-xanthophylls. To date, however, the roles of carotene hydroxylases in regulating xanthophyll content and composition have not been elucidated. In the present study, the roles of four carotene hydroxylase genes (CitHYb, CitCYP97A, CitCYP97B, and CitCYP97C) in the biosynthesis of xanthophyll in citrus fruits were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four citrus carotene hydroxylases presented in four distinct clusters which have been identified in higher plants. CitHYb was a non-heme di-iron carotene hydroxylase, while CitCYP97A, CitCYP97B, and CitCYP97C were heme-containing cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylases. Gene expression results showed that the expression of CitHYb increased in the flavedo and juice sacs during the ripening process, which was well consistent with the accumulation of β,β-xanthophyll in citrus fruits. The expression of CitCYP97A and CitCYP97C increased with a peak in November, which might lead to an increase of lutein in the juice sacs during the ripening process. The expression level of CitCYP97B was much lower than that of CitHYb, CitCYP97A, and CitCYP97C in the juice sacs during the ripening process. Functional analysis showed that the CitHYb was able to catalyze the hydroxylation of the β-rings of β-carotene and α-carotene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Meanwhile, when CitHYb was co-expressed with CitCYP97C, α-carotene was hydroxylated on the β-ring and ε-ring sequentially to produce lutein. CitHYb was a key gene for β,β-xanthophyll biosynthesis in citrus fruits. CitCYP97C functioned as an ε-ring hydroxylase to produce lutein using zeinoxanthin as a substrate

  16. Green tea, red wine and lemon extracts reduce experimental tumor growth and cancer drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletok, S P; Gulua, L; Wicker, L; Shlyakhovenko, V A; Gogol, S; Orlovsky, O; Karnaushenko, O V; Verbinenko, A; Milinevska, V; Samoylenko, O; Todor, I; Turmanidze, T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combination with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin-resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6-1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per mouse per day and 4.0-6.3 mg per rat per day). Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cisplatin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25-28% TGI vs. 55-68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81-88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or NanoGTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE

  17. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  18. Voluntary Disclosure of Private Information and Unraveling in the Market for Lemons: An Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Benndorf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally analyze a lemons market with a labor-market framing. Sellers are referred to as “workers” and have the possibility to provide “employers” with costly but credible information about their “productivity”. Economic theory suggests that in this setup, unraveling takes place and a number of different types are correctly identified in equilibrium. While we do observe a substantial degree of information disclosure, we also find that unraveling is typically not as complete as predicted by economic theory. The behavior of both workers and employers impedes unraveling in that there is too little disclosure. Workers are generally reluctant to disclose their private information, and employers enforce this behavior by bidding less competitively if workers reveal compared to the case where they conceal information.

  19. Composition of essential oil of lemon thyme (Thymus × citriodorus) at different hydrodistillation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurevičiūtė, Rūta; Ložienė, Kristina; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio

    2018-02-02

    Distillation time can both to optimise the production and to engineer the composition of essential oil in essential oil bearing plants. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of duration of hydrodistillation on composition of essential oil of Thymus × citriodorus, the natural source of commercially important geraniol and citral, a component with valuable biological properties. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation at different distillation times and analysed by GC/MS analytical methods. Increase in percentage of essential oil during all hydrodistillation time gradient was uneven. Elongation of hydrodistillation time decreased percentages of monoterpenes but increased percentages of sesquiterpenes in essential oil. Results showed that the hydrodistillation of essential oil from lemon thyme longer than 60 min is useless.

  20. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral a, Citral b, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2′-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects.

  1. Analyses of mitogenome sequences revealed that Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) from California was related to those from Florida but different from those in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama; Hemiptera: Liviidae) transmits “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas), an unculturable alpha-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease, also called citrus greening disease). HLB is threatening citrus prod...

  2. Eficacia de tres estrobilurinas para el control de mancha rojiza (Guignardia mangiferae y mancha negra (Guignardia citricarpa en frutos de limón, en Tucumán, República Argentina Efficiency of three strobilurins to control reddish spot (Guignardia mangiferae and black spot (Guignardia citricarpa in lemon fruits in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela M. Fogliata

    2011-06-01

    , processing 65% of this production in factories and commercializing 35% as fresh fruit, mainly for exports, which requires high quality, disease-free fruits. Two fungal species of Guignardia are present in Tucumán: one is G. citricarpa (Phyllosticta citricarpa and the other is G. mangiferae (P. capitalensis. The former is the causal agent of citrus black spot, a quarantine pathogen for major consumer markets, and the latter is a cosmopolitan fungus which causes red spot in lemon in Tucumán. Both diseases are controlled with copper, strobilurins, mancozeb, and benzimidazols. Five field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three strobilurins, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin, to control red spot (during the 2004/2005, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons and citrus black spot (in the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons in lemon fruits in Tucumán. One or two applications of strobilurins were made with copper oxychloride, in a program of four or five copper applications, every thirty days from petal fall. Treatments with copper oxychloride, alone or mixed with mancozeb, were used as chemical controls. The most effective treatments were those that included one or two strobilurin applications, without differences between them. They outdid copper treatments, equaling or surpassing copper-mancozeb mixture. These results demonstrated the efficacy of strobilurins to control both black spot and red spot in lemon.

  3. Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, the causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation media used were 1.5 per cent water agar, 1.5 per cent water agar + nystatin, and 1.5 per cent water agar + benomyl. ... When the isolates were tested for pathogenicity, only D. natalensis induced the disease symptoms in the inoculated 18-month-old rough lemon seedlings which were incubated after ...

  4. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona

    2018-03-01

    The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiosensitivity of protoplasts of orange (Citrus sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.H.S.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The Radiation Genetics Section of the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, is utilising both ''in vivo'' and ''in vitro'' methods for mutation induction in Citrus, cv. ''Pera'', aiming at resistance to citrus canker. The experiments carried out so far determined the methodology to isolate protoplasts and their sensitivity to gamma-rays. Regarding the culture of protoplasts from embryogenic callus, the best experimental conditions were: enzymatic digestion for 5 h on a medium containing cellulase (307.6 mg/10 ml), macerozyme (30.3 mg/10 ml), mannitol (328.0 mM) and sucrose (336.2 mM) as osmotic stabilisers. The isolation efficiency of 1.2x10 6 viable protoplasts/g will make it possible to use protoplasts in mutation breeding. To determine radiosensitivity of protoplasts, gamma-irradiation from 60 Co source was conducted 42 h after their isolation. This time interval is recommended because during this period protoplasts will reach the stage prior to or at the first mitotic division. Survivals were determined by metylen-blue dyeing, and the LD 50 was found to be around 37.5 Gy. Any difference compared with other authors might be due to different genotypes used or different methods of calculation of survival. (author)

  6. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  8. Field validation of a system for autodissemination of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, to control the Asian citrus psyllid on residential citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The citrus industries of California and Texas share a pressing problem with the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and huanglongbing (HLB) spreading in residential citrus near commercial groves. Insecticidal treatment of residential trees for the psyllid is problem...

  9. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Leaf Yield, Essential Oil Content and Composition of Lemon Verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ebadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic fertilizers with beneficial effects on soil structure and nutrient availability help maintain yield and quality, and they are less costly than synthetic fertilizers. Vermicompost and vermiwash are two organic fertilizers that they contain a biologically active mixture of bacteria, enzymes and phytohormones, also these organic fertilizers can supply the nutritional needs of plants. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth, Verbenaceae is an evergreen perennial aromatic plant. The lemon-scented essential oil from the lemon verbena has been widely used for its digestive, relaxing, antimalarial and lemony flavor properties. In order to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers for reduction of environmental pollution, this research was undertaken to determine effects of vermicompost and vermiwash in comparison with chemical fertilizer on leaf yield, essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment based on a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications on Lemon verbena was carried out in the experimental greenhouse of the Department of Horticulture Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 2012. Treatments consisted of 10, 20 and 30 % by volume of vermicompost and vermiwash (with an addition to irrigation in three steps, including: two weeks after the establishment of plants in pots, the appearing of branches and three weeks before harvest, complete fertilizer and control without any fertilizer. Each replication contained six pots and each pot contained one plant of Lemon verbena provided from Institute of Medicinal Plants, Karaj, therefore 108 pots were used in this experiment. The pots were filled up by a mixture contained 3/5 soil and 2/5 sand (v/v. After three months, plant aerial parts were harvested concomitantly at starting of the flowering stage. Aerial parts were dried at room temperature for 72 hours and dry weights of dried branches and leaves were

  10. Mechanical Damage Detection of Indonesia Local Citrus Based on Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, T. H.; Ahmad, U.; Sutrisno; Maddu, A.

    2018-05-01

    Citrus experienced physical damage in peel will produce essential oils that contain polymethoxylated flavone. Polymethoxylated flavone is fluorescence substance; thus can be detected by fluorescence imaging. This study aims to study the fluorescence spectra characteristic and to determine the damage region in citrus peel based on fluorescence image. Pulung citrus from Batu district, East Java, as a famous citrus production area in Indonesia, was used in the experiment. It was observed that the image processing could detect the mechanical damage region. Fluorescence imaging can be used to classify the citrus into two categories, sound and defect citruses.

  11. efficacy of rehabilitation methods on citrus canker disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Unfortunately it is increasingly devastated by canker disease. Several measures ... Le citronnier (Citrus sinensis) est une culture importante en Ouganda, où il est produit pour la consommation ... South- East Asian countries, from where it has.

  12. (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2, 2010 69 CITRUS FARMERS PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    TRAINING ON IMPROVED TECHNIQUES OF CITRUS PRODUCTION. OYEDELE,. 1. O. O. AND ..... 56pp. Adetola, A (2008) Ekiti Kete: The value, the virtue and the vision. ... water resources, and biodiversity in the United States. Centre for ...

  13. Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci for wild Citrus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South ... Recently, due to human .... efforts, but also for efficient management and conservation ... Assessing genetic diversity and population structure in a Citrus.

  14. Effect of yogurt and pH equivalent lemon juice on salivary flow rate in healthy volunteers - An experimental crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesh, Jeevitha; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Alshehri, Mohammad; Kujan, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Xerostomia is a common clinical problem, and different medications have been tried in its management. In the present study, routine dietary products are used to assess their effect on salivary flow. To assess the efficacy of yogurt and lemon juice on increase in salivation and its comparison with that of unstimulated saliva. A total of 40 volunteers (aged 19-48) were selected. The pH of yogurt was calculated, and equivalent pH lemon juice was prepared. First, normal resting saliva was collected as baseline followed by every 1 min for 5 min. Patients were given lemon juice or yogurt and then crossed over to the other group to assess the impact of the stimulants on salivary flow from 1 to 5 min. The results were analyzed statistically. Comparisons between baseline saliva secretion and that by yogurt and lemon juice (using the ANOVA test) showed that there was a significant increase after treatment at the end of the experiment for both yogurt and lemon juice. However, yogurt showed a significant increase in saliva secretion compared to baseline than lemon juice. Our findings suggest that yogurt is a potential candidate for the treatment of dry mouth.

  15. Quantitative study of flavonoids in leaves of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M; Koizumi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2000-09-01

    Leaf flavonoids were quantitatively determined in 68 representative or economically important Citrus species, cultivars, and near-Citrus relatives. Contents of 23 flavonoids including 6 polymethoxylated flavones were analyzed by means of reversed phase HPLC analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the 7 associations according to Tanaka's classification were observed, but some do overlap each other. Group VII species could be divided into two different subgroups, namely, the first-10-species class and the last-19-species class according to Tanaka's classification numbers.

  16. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  17. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Morte súbita dos citros: suscetibilidade de seleções de limão-cravo e uso de interenxertos Citrus sudden death: susceptibility of rangpur lime selections and the use of interstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte súbita dos citros é uma doença que afeta cultivares de laranjas e tangerinas enxertadas nos limões-Cravo e Volkameriano. Ela foi observada em plantas com dois a seis anos de idade que, após mostrarem sintomas gerais de declínio, entraram em colapso e morreram. A retirada da casca dos porta-enxertos suscetíveis revela o amarelecimento na região cambial, sendo esse o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença e que precede os sintomas da copa. As plantas enxertadas nas tangerinas Cleópatra e Sunki, no trifoliata e no citrumelo Swingle, não mostram sintomas da doença. A transmissão por borbulha e a evolução espacial sugerem que a morte súbita dos citros seja causada por patógeno transmitido por vetor alado. Com o objetivo de selecionar porta-enxertos tolerantes à doença, laranjeiras Valência enxertadas em 254 porta-enxertos foram plantadas em maio de 2003 e 2004 em solos onde foram erradicados pomares afetados pela morte súbita dos citros e próximos a pomares afetados pela doença. Em novembro de 2006, o sintoma-diagnóstico da doença estava presente em dez seleções de limão-Cravo: Santa Barbara red lime, Borneo red lime, Limão-Cravo Taquaritinga, Rangpur India C-26-1, Rangpur rose lemon, Rangpur Kusaie lime, Rangpur red lime D-33-40, Rangpur Egyptian lime, Rangpur lemon India e Japanshe citroen. A presença de interenxerto de trifoliata ou de tangerina Cleópatra, entre o limão-Cravo e a laranja Valência, não impediu a manifestação da doença.Citrus sudden death (CSD or morte súbita dos citros affects sweet orange cultivars and some mandarin trees grafted on Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon rootstocks. The disease was observed in trees with ages ranging from two to six years; after showing general decline symptoms, the affected trees suddenly collapse and die. Trees on Cleopatra and Sunki mandarins, 'Swingle' citrumelo and trifoliate orange showed no symptoms of CSD. Cambial yellowing in the rootstock can be observed

  19. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari Kia, Parisa; Safajou, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy are amongst the most common complaints that effects on both the physical and mental conditions of the pregnant women. Due to the increasing tendency of women to use herbal medications during pregnancy, the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was investigated in this study. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. This was a randomized clinical trial in which 100 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting who had eligibility criteria were randomly divided into intervention and control groups based on four- and six-random block sampling method. Lemon essential oil and placebo were given to the intervention and control groups, respectively, to inhale it as soon as they felt nausea. The nausea, vomiting, and retch intensity were investigated 24 hours before and during the four days of treatment by means of PUQE-24 (24-hour Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the mean scores of nausea and vomiting on the second and fourth days (P = 0.017 and P = 0.039, respectively). The means of nausea and vomiting intensity in the second and fourth days in the intervention group were significantly lower than the control group. In addition, in intragroup comparison with ANOVA with repeated measures, the nausea and vomiting mean in the five intervals, showed a statistically significant difference in each group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Lemon scent can be effective in reducing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  20. Effect of Fruit Lemon Juice Addition to The Content of Protein, Fat, Lactose and Probiotic on Soy Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, F. M. T.; Zackiyah; Azizah, N.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to determine the effect of lemon juice to the content of protein, fat, lactose and probiotics, in beverages soy yogurt. Soy yogurt which produced was a multifunction yogurt drink high levels of antioxidants, contains probiotics and can be used by people with lactose intolerance. The research method includes the production of fortified soy yogurt with lemon juice, were made with the ratio between the lemon juice and soy yogurt were 0:10 (L0); 1:9 (L1); 2:8 (L2); and 3:7 (L3). Analysis of the results include the content of protein by Kjeldahl method, the content of fat by Soxhletasi method, lactose test by Luff Schoorls method and content of probiotics with total plate count enumeration techniques. The results showed fortified yogurt had a protein content greater than before fortification (L3 > L2 > L1 > L0); The fat content L0 > L1 > L2 > L3. Fortified yogurt lactose content is smaller than before fortification (L0 > L1 > L2 > L3). The content of probiotic yogurt fortified L1 > L3 > L2. From this research can be concluded that the yoghurt fortified (L3) is the best, with the highest protein content, low fat, low lactose than L1 and L2, and had probiotics content. It is advised to conduct further research on the expired time of fortified soy yogurt products

  1. Application of fourier-transform infrared (ft-ir) spectroscopy for determination of total phenolics of freeze dried lemon juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherazi, S.T.H.; Bhutto, A.A.; Mehesar, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    A cost effective and environmentally safe analytical method for rapid assessment of total phenolic content (TPC) in freeze dried lemon juice samples was developed using transmission Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in conjunction with chemometric techniques. Two types of calibrations i.e. simple Beer's law and partial least square (PLS) were applied to investigate most accurate calibration model based on region from1420 to 1330 cm-1. The better analytical performance was obtained by PLS technique coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) with the value of 0.999 and 0.00864, respectively. The results of TPC in freeze dried lemon juice samples obtained by transmission FT-IR were compared with TPC observed by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay and found to be comparable. Outcomes of the present study indicate that transmission FT-IR spectroscopic approach could be used as an alternative approach in place of Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay which is expensive and time-consuming conventional chemical methods for determination of the total phenolic content of lemon fruits. (author)

  2. Effects of ascorbic acid, salt, lemon juice, and honey on drying kinetics and sensory characteristic of dried mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Abano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ascorbic acid, salt solution, lemon juice, and honey pretreatment on the drying kinetics and sensory characteristics were studied. Pretreatments used affected the effective moisture diffusivity and rehydration properties of the dried mangoes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were 2.22 × 10-10 m2/s for ascorbic acid, 1.80 × 10-10 m2/s for salt solution, 2.01 × 10-10 m2/s for lemon juice, 1.93 × 10-10 m2/s for honey pretreated mangoes, and 2.31 × 10-10 m2/s for the control slices. Pretreatments enhanced the drying rate potential of mangoes. Among the thin-layer drying models fitted to the experimental data, the Middil model gave the best fit. The ascorbic acid pretreated samples were the best while the salt solution ones were the poorest with respect to reconstitution capacity. Consumer studies for overall preference for taste, colour, texture, flavour and chewiness of the dried products revealed that there was a higher preference for honey pretreated dried samples followed by the ascorbic acid, control, lemon juice, and salt solution pretreated samples. The results demonstrate that these pretreatments can be applied to enhance the moisture transport during drying and the quality of the dried products.

  3. Immunogenesity of spesific protein molecular weight 16 KDa (PS16 leaf of siam citrus infected by citrus vein phloem degeneration (CVPD disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Sritamin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Vein Phloem degeneration (CVPD is an important citrus disese, which damaged citrus plantation and causing decrease of citrus production. In Indonesia, the CVPD disease caused by Liberobacter asiaticum bactery and the disease spread out by vectir insect Diaphorina citri and using infected bud in wood grafting. In infected citrus plant, two specific protein molecules with molecular weigt 16 kDa and 66 kDa are found. These protein molecules are not found in healthy citrus plant. The immunogenicity of PS16 accumulated on leaf of citrus plant infected by CVPD is known yet. The research material were leaves of citrus plant infected CVPD, leaves of healthy citrus plant and reagent used these research are for isolation of the total protein leaf of citrus plant, SDS-PAGE electroforesis, electroelution of PS16, ELISA Methods, Dot-Blot Method, anti-PS16 as aprimery antibody and secondary antibody is anti-Rabbit IgG Conjugated AP. The result of the research showed that of PS16 accumulated on leaf of citrus plant infected CVPD has immunogenic character. It is indicated by increase of the titer anti-PS16 after first immunization ang 2nd booster by indirect ELISA method and can be used to induce antibody (anti-PS16 and so showed that positive reaction between PS16 with anti-PS16. It is indicated by purples dark blue on cellulose membrane by Dot Blot method.

  4. Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWolfe, V.G.; Santi, P.M.; Ey, J.; Gartner, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire, erosion control measures such as construction of check dams, installation of log erosion barriers (LEBs), and spreading of straw mulch and seed are common practice. After the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire in southwest Colorado, these measures were implemented at Knight Canyon above Lemon Dam to protect the intake structures of the dam from being filled with sediment. Hillslope erosion protection measures included LEBs at concentrations of 220-620/ha (200-600% of typical densities), straw mulch was hand spread at concentrations up to 5.6??metric tons/hectare (125% of typical densities), and seeds were hand spread at 67-84??kg/ha (150% of typical values). The mulch was carefully crimped into the soil to keep it in place. In addition, 13 check dams and 3 debris racks were installed in the main drainage channel of the basin. The technical literature shows that each mitigation method working alone, or improperly constructed or applied, was inconsistent in its ability to reduce erosion and sedimentation. At Lemon Dam, however, these methods were effective in virtually eliminating sedimentation into the reservoir, which can be attributed to a number of factors: the density of application of each mitigation method, the enhancement of methods working in concert, the quality of installation, and rehabilitation of mitigation features to extend their useful life. The check dams effectively trapped the sediment mobilized during rainstorms, and only a few cubic meters of debris traveled downchannel, where it was intercepted by debris racks. Using a debris volume-prediction model developed for use in burned basins in the Western U.S., recorded rainfall events following the Missionary Ridge Fire should have produced a debris flow of approximately 10,000??m3 at Knight Canyon. The mitigation measures, therefore, reduced the debris volume by several orders of magnitude. For comparison, rainstorm

  5. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods: The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%, and neral (31.5%. The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results: LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs (35–90 mm. IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg, which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for

  6. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audray Dugrand-Judek

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the "grapefruit juice effect". Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus

  7. Physical-hydraulic properties of a sandy loam typic paleudalf soil under organic cultivation of 'montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Valverde dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are the most important fruit species in the world, with emphasis to oranges, mandarins and lemons. In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, most fruit production is found on small properties under organic cultivation. Soil compaction is one of the factors limiting production and due to the fixed row placement of this crop, compaction can arise in various manners in the interrows of the orchard. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and water infiltration capacity in response to interrow management in an orchard of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore 'Montenegrina' under organic cultivation. Interrow management was performed through harrowing, logs in em "V", mowing, and cutting/knocking down plants with a knife roller. Soil physical properties were evaluated in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, between the wheel tracks (BWT, and in the area under the line projection of the canopy (CLP, with undisturbed soil samples collected in the 0.00-0.15, 0.15-0.30, 0.30-0.45, and 0.45-0.60 m layers, with four replicates. The soil water infiltration test was performed using the concentric cylinder method, with a maximum time of 90 min for each test. In general, soil analysis showed a variation in the physical-hydraulic properties of the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico (sandy loam Typic Paleudalf in the three sampling sites in all layers, regardless of the management procedure in the interrows. Machinery traffic leads to heterogeneity in the soil physical-hydraulic properties in the interrows of the orchard. Soil porosity and bulk density are affected especially in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, which causes a reduction in the constant rate of infiltration and in the accumulated infiltration of water in this sampling site. The use of the disk harrow and mower leads to greater harmful effects on the soil, which can interfere with mandarin production.

  8. Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria. ... tends towards pure competition. Keywords: Benue, citrus, gini coefficient, Kano, marketing, pure competition, traders. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  10. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  11. The energetic, physiological, and behavioral response of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to simulated longline capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyoucos, Ian A; Suski, Cory D; Mandelman, John W; Brooks, Edward J

    2017-05-01

    Commercial fisheries bycatch is a considerable threat to elasmobranch population recovery, and techniques to mitigate sub-lethal consequences can be improved with data on the energetic, physiological, and behavioral response of individuals to capture. This study sought to estimate the effects of simulated longline capture on the behavior, energy use, and physiological stress of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris). Captive sharks equipped with acceleration biologgers were subjected to 1h of simulated longline capture. Swimming behaviors were identified from acceleration data using a machine-learning algorithm, energetic costs were estimated using accelerometer-calibrated relationships and respirometry, and physiological stress was quantified with point-of-care blood analyzers. During capture, sharks exhibited nine-fold increases in the frequency of burst swimming, 98% reductions in resting, and swam as often as unrestrained sharks. Aerobic metabolic rates during capture were 8% higher than for unrestrained sharks, and accounted for a 57.7% increase in activity costs when excess post-exercise oxygen consumption was included. Lastly, sharks exhibited significant increases in blood lactate and glucose, but no change in blood pH after 1h of capture. Therefore, these results provide preliminary insight into the behavioral and energetic responses of sharks to capture, and have implications for mitigating sub-lethal consequences of capture for sharks as commercial longline bycatch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Furlan, Marcos R.

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  13. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  14. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  15. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  16. A combined process to treat lemon industry wastewater and produce biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, A.R.; Rubio, M.C.; Maldonado, M.C. [Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Bioquimica, Ayacucho, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    We studied a process employed for treating lemon industry effluents, using the macrophyte Eishhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) in a phytoremediation tank with a 6000-L workload. The diluted effluents BOD and COD were reduced to 70 and 61%, respectively, working with a 1.5-h hydraulic residence time (HRT). We investigated the effect of adding every 12 h an inoculum consisting of a consortium of microorganisms isolated from the macrophyte roots and recirculating 30% of the outflow. In this way, we achieved a volumetric removal rate (VRR) of BOD = 354 g/m{sup 3} day. Plants were daily harvested from the tank to maintain growth rate and the density originally planted. We studied their use for biogas production in an anaerobic digester working with 12 and 16 days of hydraulic residence time. The yield obtained was 0.87 L/g and productivity 0.87 L/L day with a loading rate of 5 g/L day. Integrating both processes on an industrial scale would solve the effluent pollution problem and generate an energy source that could be used by the industry itself to lower its production costs. (orig.)

  17. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Causal Agent of Citrus Blast of Mandarin in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovi?, ?arko; Perovi?, Tatjana; Popovi?, Tatjana; Blagojevi?, Jovana; Trkulja, Nenad; Hrn?i?, Snje?ana

    2017-01-01

    Citrus blast caused by bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a very important disease of citrus occuring in many areas of the world, but with few data about genetic structure of the pathogen involved. Considering the above fact, this study reports genetic characterization of 43 P. syringae isolates obtained from plant tissue displaying citrus blast symptoms on mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in Montenegro, using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences. Gene sequences from...

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF CITRUS ESSENTIAL OILS ON Dysmicoccus brevipes (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, GISELE DOS SANTOS OLIVEIRA; ZAGO, HUGO BOLSONI; COSTA, ADILSON VIDAL; ARAUJO JUNIOR, LUIS MOREIRA DE; CARVALHO, JOSÉ ROMÁRIO DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The insect Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been reported as an important pest for several crops, especially coffee. The citrus essential oils can be obtained as by-products of the citrus-processing industry and have been tested as an alternative to control different insect groups. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the toxicity of commercial sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) ...

  19. Effect of limonene on anaerobic digestion of citrus waste and pretreatments for its improvement

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ FUERTES, BEGOÑA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable and technically sound way to valorise citrus waste if the inhibitory effect of the citrus essential oil (CEO) is controlled. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome these difficulties: keeping the organic loading rate (OLR) in low values to avoid excess dosage of inhibitor, supplementing the citrus waste with nutrient and buffering solutions or pre-treating the citrus waste in order to reduce the CEO concentration, either by recovery or by d...

  20. Fluctuación poblacional del minador de la hoja de los cítricos y su parasitoide exótico Ageniaspis citricola en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina Population fluctuation of the citrus leafminer and its imported parasitoid, Ageniaspis citricola, in the province of Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Goane

    2007-12-01

    control this pest, citrus leafminer population fluctuation and A. citricola parasitism were evaluated in different areas of the province. Samples were taken from lemon orchards placed in northern and southern Tucumán every two weeks, from November to April in four consecutive citrus cropping seasons. Citrus leafminer infestation was calculated from observations of lemon flushes with susceptible young leaves and parasitism rates were evaluated analyzing citrus leafminer pupal chambers on mature leaves. Citrus leafminer infestation reached higher values in the north, compared with that observed in the south. Higher A. citricola parasitism rates registered in the south resulted in earlier decrease in pest infestation, which took place in mid summer. Mean temperature was the meteorological factor that correlated best with citrus leafminer population fluctuation, and relative humidity, with A. citricola parasitism.

  1. Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach r...

  2. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an ec...

  3. Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

  4. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished by...

  5. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, W P; da Silva, R A; Araújo, S C A; Oliveira, E L A; da Silva, W R

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  6. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, WP; Silva, RA da; Araújo, SCA; Oliveira, ELA; Silva, WR da

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  7. Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

  8. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees... trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be eligible to receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of this...

  9. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery... nursery stock. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, a commercial citrus nursery may be eligible to receive funds to replace certified citrus nursery stock in accordance with the provisions of...

  10. Saving Citrus: Does the Next Generation See GM Science as a Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Joy N.; Ruth, Taylor K.; Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Taylor, Melissa R.; Ellis, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of Florida's most prominent commodities, providing 66% of the total United States' value for oranges. Florida's citrus production decreased 21% in 2014 from the previous season, partly due to the disease citrus greening. The science of genetic modification (GM) is one of the most promising solutions to the problem. However, a…

  11. Repellency of Selected Psidium guajava cultivars to the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB)(also known as citrus greening disease) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. It is caused by a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. Considerable research has been conducted toward...

  12. Factors affecting transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as Asiatic huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program...

  13. Incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence of a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of Asiatic huanglongbing, a serious citrus disease also known as citrus greening or yel...

  14. Bacterial brown leaf spot of citrus, a new disease caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new bacterial disease of citrus was recently identified in Florida and named as bacterial brown leaf spot (BBLS) of citrus. BBLS-infected citrus displayed flat, circular and brownish lesions with water-soaked margins surrounded by a chlorotic halo on leaves. Based on Biolog carbon source metabolic...

  15. Machine learning applied to the prediction of citrus production

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Rodríguez, Susana Irene; Mazza, Silvia M.; Fernández-Combarro Álvarez, Elías; Giménez, Laura I.; Gaiad, José E.

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge about variables affecting production is required in order to predict global production and take decisions in agriculture. Machine learning is a technique used in agricultural planning and precision agriculture. This work (i) studies the effectiveness of machine learning techniques for predicting orchards production; and (ii) variables affecting this production were also identified. Data from 964 orchards of lemon, mandarin, and orange in Corrientes, Argentina are analyse...

  16. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Seong; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Khanal, Sarmir Kumar; Park, Bok Jae; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  17. Expression patterns of flowering genes in leaves of 'Pineapple' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajon, Melanie; Febres, Vicente J; Moore, Gloria A

    2017-08-30

    In citrus the transition from juvenility to mature phase is marked by the capability of a tree to flower and fruit consistently. The long period of juvenility in citrus severely impedes the use of genetic based strategies to improve fruit quality, disease resistance, and responses to abiotic environmental factors. One of the genes whose expression signals flower development in many plant species is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In this study, gene expression levels of flowering genes CiFT1, CiFT2 and CiFT3 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in citrus trees over a 1 year period in Florida. Distinct genotypes of citrus trees of different ages were used. In mature trees of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and 'Pineapple' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) the expression of all three CiFT genes was coordinated and significantly higher in April, after flowering was over, regardless of whether they were in the greenhouse or in the field. Interestingly, immature 'Pineapple' seedlings showed significantly high levels of CiFT3 expression in April and June, while CiFT1 and CiFT2 were highest in June, and hence their expression induction was not simultaneous as in mature plants. In mature citrus trees the induction of CiFTs expression in leaves occurs at the end of spring and after flowering has taken place suggesting it is not associated with dormancy interruption and further flower bud development but is probably involved with shoot apex differentiation and flower bud determination. CiFTs were also seasonally induced in immature seedlings, indicating that additional factors must be suppressing flowering induction and their expression has other functions.

  18. Efficacy of an autodisseminator of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, to suppress Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), transmits the causative agents of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus trees in the world today. ACP dwelling in noncommercial citrus (neighborhoods, commercial landscapes, etc.) can stymie area-wide management program...

  19. Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H J; Chawla, S P; Jo, C; Kwon, J H; Byun, M W

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of citrus peels, generated as a by-product of the juice industry, as a source of antioxidants was investigated. Citrus peel powder was prepared by lyophilizing 70% ethanol extract from citrus peels. Extraction was carried out at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 72 h. The extract was subjected to gamma-irradiation treatment (20 kGy). The aqueous solutions of citrus peel powder were examined for color characteristics and antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities. There were significant changes in Hunter color values due to irradiation. The a*- and b*-values decreased due to radiation treatment. DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation treatment. Nitrite scavenging activity was the highest in the extract at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0. These functional properties of the aqueous solution were found to be stable in heat treatment. It could significantly improve oxidative stability of lipids in fish meat system. Based on these results there may be opportunities to use citrus peel powder as a functional component in the food processing industry with gamma irradiation treatment improving its color characteristics without adversely influencing the functional properties.

  20. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Uncovers Photosynthetic Fingerprint of Citrus Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Cen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus, which has posed a serious threat to the global citrus production. This research was aimed to explore the use of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging combined with feature selection to characterize and detect the HLB disease. Chlorophyll fluorescence images of citrus leaf samples were measured by an in-house chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. The commonly used chlorophyll fluorescence parameters provided the first screening of HLB disease. To further explore the photosynthetic fingerprint of HLB infected leaves, three feature selection methods combined with the supervised classifiers were employed to identify the unique fluorescence signature of HLB and perform the three-class classification (i.e., healthy, HLB infected, and nutrient deficient leaves. Unlike the commonly used fluorescence parameters, this novel data-driven approach by using the combination of the mean fluorescence parameters and image features gave the best classification performance with the accuracy of 97%, and presented a better interpretation for the spatial heterogeneity of photochemical and non-photochemical components in HLB infected citrus leaves. These results imply the potential of the proposed approach for the citrus HLB disease diagnosis, and also provide a valuable insight for the photosynthetic response to the HLB disease.

  1. Technological Advances in Huanglongbing (HLB or Citrus Greening Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Paudyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB, previously citrus greening disease, is the most destructive of citrus species causing major threat to the world citrus industry. The disease was reported from China in 1919 and now known to occur in more than 40 different countries of Asia, Africa, South and North America. Three species of gram negative bacterium namely Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus are the casual organisms of HLB, respectively prevailing in the continent of Asia, Africa and South America. It is one of the most extensively researched subjects in citriculture world. HLB was detected in 2004 and 2005, respectively in San Paulo of Brazil and Florida of USA: the two leading citrus production hub of the world causing huge economic loss within 5 years of first detection. Since then research on HLB detection and management was further accelerated in American continents. This paper presents the scientific advancement made on detection, spread, economic losses caused by HLB in different parts of the world and controlling management strategies. Remarkable achievements have been made on HLB detection techniques including iodine test, qPCR and more recently in spectroscopy. While efforts are being made to develop resistance varieties using conventional and biotechnological tools management strategy which includes reduction of inoculums source, vector control and replant with disease-free planting materials still remains major option for HLB control. Citrus intercropping with guava have shown promising results for vector reduction.

  2. Growth of citrus rootstocks under aluminium stress in hydroponics Crescimento de porta-enxertos de citros submetidos a estresse por alumínio, em cultivo hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants present different degrees of adaptation to aluminium (Al concentrations in the soil, and the understanding of this characteristic can lead to a viable option for the utilization of acid soils. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of five Al concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mumol L-1 on the growth of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Hort. ex Tan., and tangerine rootstocks 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan and 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., in hydroponic culture. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications. For all rootstocks, the relative growth rate in terms of plant total fresh matter increased under low and, decreased under large Al concentrations. Growth of the shoot, leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio decreased for all rootstocks in the presence of Al. The 'Rangpur' lime had a decrease of the root system growth, starting from 23 mumol L-1 of Al. For the remaining rootstocks, this growth reached maximum values at 91 to 117 mumol L-1 of Al, respectively. Considering all the evaluated characteristics of plant growth, the 'Rangpur' lime was the most susceptible to Al.As plantas apresentam diferentes graus de tolerância aos efeitos tóxicos do alumínio (Al, e a exploração dessa característica pode ser uma opção viável para a utilização dos solos ácidos. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de cinco concentrações de alumínio (0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mimol L-1 de Al sobre o crescimento dos porta-enxertos limoeiros 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e 'Volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Hort. ex Tan., e tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan e 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. em cultivo hidropônico. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e duas plantas por parcela. Em todos os porta-enxertos, a taxa relativa

  3. 77 FR 75998 - Lemon Juice from Mexico: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... interested party and the respondent interested parties, The Coca-Cola Company and its subsidiary, The Coca-Cola Export Corporation, Mexico Branch (collectively, ``TCCC'') and Procimart Citrus (``Procimart.../Exporter CHED H= 1 >Weighted-Average Margin (percent) The Coca-Cola Export Corporation, Mexico Branch 146...

  4. Inhibitory effect of Epstein-Barr virus activation by Citrus fruits, a cancer chemopreventor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Y; Takemura, Y; Ju-ichi, M; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Okuda, Y; Mukainaka, T; Tsuruta, A; Okuda, M; Takayasu, J; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    1999-05-24

    To search useful compounds in Citrus fruit for cancer chemoprevention, we carried out a primary screening of extracts of fruit peels and seeds from 78 species of the genus Citrus and those from two Fortunella and one Poncirus species, which were closely related to the genus Citrus. These Citrus extracts inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) as a useful screening method for anti-tumor promoters. Our results indicated that Citrus containing substances may be inhibit susceptibility factors involved in the events leading to the development of cancer.

  5. Spatio-temporal evolution of efficient subglacial water discharge at Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Labedz, C. R.; Amundson, J. M.; Gimbert, F.; Tsai, V. C.; Vore, M. E.; Karplus, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of subglacial hydrology on glacier motion, glacier erosion and sediment transport, and submarine melt is well established. However, despite its importance, critical gaps in our understanding of subglacial hydrology and its seasonal evolution remain, in large part due to the challenge of making observations of glacier beds. Thus far, no spatially extensive, temporally continuous observations of subglacial water discharge exist. Seismic signals produced by subglacial water flow, and which correlate with subglacial water discharge, can meet this need. Here, we present the first observations from a 2017 summer seismic, geodetic, and hydrologic experiment. Our experiment seeks to better understand the evolution of efficient subglacial drainage and water storage through data collection and analysis at Lemon Creek Glacier, a 5.7 km-long glacier with a gauged outlet in Southeast Alaska. Data with nested spatial resolutions create an unparalleled perspective of subglacial discharge and its seasonal evolution. Six broadband seismometers and two GPS receivers installed for 80 days provide a long-term view of subglacial discharge and its impact on glacier dynamics. More than 100 nodes, installed approximately every 250 m over the glacier surface ( 13 nodes per 1 km^2) and deployed for up to 25 days, reveal the detailed spatial pattern of glaciohydraulic tremor amplitudes. These nodes enable us to more precisely infer the locations of subglacial discharge and its change, as well as better interpret long-term patterns of glaciohydraulic tremor observed by the broadband seismometers. We infer the subglacial response to hydraulic transients over the duration of the deployment through examination of intermittent melt and rain events, and the abrupt drainage of a glacier-dammed lake. These observations demonstrate the promise of seismology to significantly advance our understanding of glacier hydrology and associated glaciological processes.

  6. Productive performance of hair lambs, fed with fresh lemon pulp as an energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigna Faustino-Lázaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of fresh lemon pulp (FLP was determined as a substitute of sorghum grain in the feeding of hair sheep in parameters of daily weight gain (DWG, daily food consumption (DFC, and feed conversion (FC, the nutritional composition of the ration was also determined. Materials and methods. The study was carried out using 20 hair ewes individually fed on a period of 75 days. The treatments were as follows: T1=0% FLP; T2=10% FLP; T3=20% FLP; and T4=30% FLP based on DM. A totally randomized design was used with five replicates per treatment. Concentrate and FLP were offered ad libitum as a mixture, registering the amounts of feed offered and rejected daily. Body weight was registered every 21 days for the DWG and analysis of nutritional composition of rations was performed. And for an analysis of daily food consumption. The data were evaluated through ANOVA in an entirely randomized design. Results. There was no meaningful difference (p>0.05 for the DWG that scored 97, 108, 103 and 103 g or for the FC that scored 9.62, 8.68, 9.31 and 10.23, respectively. For each treatment and for each DFC based on DM, a meaningful difference was observed (p<0.05 for T4 by replacing sorghum to 30%. Conclusions. FLP is an alternative to replace partially or completely the grains for hair ewes without lessening the evaluated parameters.

  7. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  8. Relationships between mycorrhizas and antioxidant enzymes in citrus (citrus tangerina) seedlings inoculated with glomus mosseae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.Y.; Wu, Q.S.

    2014-01-01

    A potted experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, on growth performance and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of citrus (Citrus tangerina) seedlings. After five months of AMF inoculation, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles, but not arbuscules and entry points, increased with the increase of inoculated mycorrhizal dosages among 5-40 g (32 spores/g dosage). Mycorrhizal inoculation with 10-40 g dosages significantly increased plant growth traits, including plant height, stem diameter, and shoot, root and total fresh weights. Higher leaf chlorophyll content was found in all the mycorrhizal plants, compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with G. mosseae markedly decreased SOD and CAT activities of leaf and root, except an increase of either root CAT with the 20 g mycorrhizal treatment or root SOD with the 20 and 40 g mycorrhizal treatments. In addition, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles significantly positively correlated with root SOD and without root CAT. We also discussed the relationships between mycorrhizal effects on antioxidant enzymes and growth environment of host plants. (author)

  9. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  10. Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by β-aminobutyric acid in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-10-01

    β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (β-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri.

  11. Metalized polyethylene mulch to repel Asian citrus psyllid, slow spread of huanglongbing and improve growth of new citrus plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxton, Scott D; Stansly, Philip A

    2014-02-01

    Greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a debilitating disease of citrus caused by Candidatus Liberibactor asiaticus and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. HLB now occurs worldwide in all major citrus growing regions except the Mediterranean and Australia. Management relies principally on insecticidal control of the ACP vector, but is insufficient, even for young trees which are most susceptible to the disease. We tested the ability of metalized polyethylene mulch to repel adult ACP as well as effects on incidence of HLB and early tree growth. Metalized mulch significantly reduced ACP populations and HLB incidence compared to whiteface mulch or bare ground. In addition, metalized mulch, together with the associated drip irrigation and fertigation system, increased soil moisture, reduced weed pressure, and increased tree growth rate. Metalized mulch slows spread of ACP and therefore HLB pressure on young citrus trees. Metalized mulch can thereby augment current control measures for young trees based primarily on systemic insecticides. Additional costs could be compensated for by increased tree growth rate which would shorten time to crop profitability. These advantages make a compelling case for large-scale trials using metalized mulch in young citrus plantings threatened by HLB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Detection of Citrus psorosis virus in the northwestern citrus production area of Argentina by using an improved TAS-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanek, Maria Cecilia; Peña, Eduardo; Reyes, Carina Andrea; Figueroa, Julia; Stein, Beatriz; Grau, Oscar; Garcia, Maria Laura

    2006-11-01

    Citrus Psorosis in Argentina is a serious disease. Citrus is produced in two regions located in the northeast (NE) and northwest (NW) area of the country. These two areas have different climates and soil types, and therefore different citrus species and varieties are cultivated. In the NE region, Psorosis is epidemic, and in the NW region, the disease was described on several occasions since 1938, but it is not observed commonly in the orchards. Recently, trees with symptoms of Psorosis were observed in the Tucumán and Salta Provinces located in the NW region. Epidemiological studies in Argentina and Texas suggested that the disease is spread naturally by an unknown vector. The causal agent of the disease is the Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which can be detected by TAS-ELISA, RT-PCR and indicator plants. A new more rapid TAS-ELISA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) is described which is more reliable, faster and more sensitive than the currently used for this virus, the TAS-ELISA-AP (alkaline phosphatase). Psorosis was detected by this improved method in few trees in the orchards of the Tucumán Province, in the NW citrus region, although natural spread does not seem to occur.

  13. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora.

  14. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid El Idrissi, M.; R'Kiek, C.; Farahat Laaroussi, S.; Zantar; Mouhib, M.; El Guerrouj, D.; Toukour, L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  15. Radiation preservation of Citrus Unshiu, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1977-01-01

    Effects of energy and current of electron-beams and synergistic effect of heat and radiation on a growth of fungi and a browning of peel were investigated to extend shelf-life of Citrus Unshiu (''Satsuma'' orange). The fruits were irradiated with a surface dose of 200krad by various energies of electrons (0.2-1.5MeV), and then stored at 3 0 C for 3 months. Percent of browned fruit in the fruits irradiated by 0.2MeV electrons was almost the same as that in the unirradiated ones. However, if the fruits were irradiated by energies of more than 0.5MeV, the browning of peel increased with increasing energy of electrons. The browning seems to depend on a dose absorbed only in peel, but not to depend on a total dose absorbed in fruit. When the fruits were stored at 3 0 C for 3 months followed by storage at room temperature (16-25 0 C) for one week, the effective growth inhibition of fungi was observed on the fruits irradiated by 0.5MeV electrons. On the fruits irradiated with 0.1-1.0mA of beam current by 0.5MeV electrons, increasing current tended to inhibit the growth of fungi. But the browning of peel was unaffected by beam current. Heat and radiation combination increased the browning of peel and the growth of fungi during storage. (auth.)

  16. Insecticidal activity of some citrus oils against culex quinquefasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, H. M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the larvicidal potency of peel oils of grapefruit (Citrus paradise), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) on 4''th instar larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Orange oil was the most effective followed by grapefruit oil and then lime oil. The toxicity of the oils applied to the 4''th instar larval stage was extended to pupal and adult stages. All oils produced deleterious effects on fecundity of survivors of sublethal doses. By the aid of chemical analysis of oils, the active compound was found to be limonene, a monoterpene compound. The percentages limonene were 97.15%, 92.46% and 32.29% for orange, grapefruit and lime respectively.(Author)

  17. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  18. Lemon Odor Reduces Stress-induced Neuronal Activation in the Emotion Expression System: An Animal Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Kazue; Sugimoto, Koji; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Hisano, Setsuji

    Perception of particular sensory stimuli from the surroundings can influence emotion in individuals. In an uncomfortable situation, humans protect themselves from some aversive stimulus by acutely evoking a stress response. Animal model studies have contributed to an understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying the stress response in humans. To study a possible anti-stressful effect of lemon odor, an excitation of neurons secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) as a primary factor of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) was analyzed in animal model experiments, in which rats are restrained in the presence or absence of the odor. The effect was evaluated by measuring expression of c-Fos (an excited neuron marker) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a key structure of the HPA in the brain. We prepared 3 animal groups: Groups S, L and I. Groups S and L were restrained for 30 minutes while being blown by air and being exposed to the lemon odor, respectively. Group I was intact without any treatment. Two hours later of the onset of experiments, brains of all groups were sampled and processed for microscopic examination. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunostaining and/or in situ hybridization for CRH. In Group S but not in Group I, c-Fos expression was found in the PVN. A combined in situ hybridization-immunohistochemical dual labeling revealed that CRH mRNA-expressing neurons express c-Fos. In computer-assisted automatic counting, the incidence of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the entire PVN was statistically lower in Group L than in Group S. Detailed analysis of PVN subregions demonstrated that c-Fos-expressing neurons are fewer in Group L than in Group S in the dorsal part of the medial parvocellular subregion. These results may suggest that lemon odor attenuates the restraint stress-induced neuronal activation including CRH neurons, presumably mimicking an aspect of stress responses in humans.

  19. Regional-scale migrations and habitat use of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in the US South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyier, Eric A; Franks, Bryan R; Chapman, Demian D; Scheidt, Douglas M; Stolen, Eric D; Gruber, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    Resolving the geographic extent and timing of coastal shark migrations, as well as their environmental cues, is essential for refining shark management strategies in anticipation of increasing anthropogenic stressors to coastal ecosystems. We employed a regional-scale passive acoustic telemetry array encompassing 300 km of the east Florida coast to assess what factors influence site fidelity of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to an exposed coastal nursery at Cape Canaveral, and to document the timing and rate of their seasonal migrations. Movements of 54 juvenile lemon sharks were monitored for three years with individuals tracked for up to 751 days. While most sharks demonstrated site fidelity to the Cape Canaveral region December through February under typical winter water temperatures, historically extreme declines in ocean temperature were accompanied by rapid and often temporary, southward displacements of up to 190 km along the Florida east coast. From late February through April each year, most sharks initiated a northward migration at speeds of up to 64 km day(-1) with several individuals then detected in compatible estuarine telemetry arrays in Georgia and South Carolina up to 472 km from release locations. Nineteen sharks returned for a second or even third consecutive winter, thus demonstrating strong seasonal philopatry to the Cape Canaveral region. The long distance movements and habitat associations of immature lemon sharks along the US southeast coast contrast sharply with the natal site fidelity observed in this species at other sites in the western Atlantic Ocean. These findings validate the existing multi-state management strategies now in place. Results also affirm the value of collaborative passive arrays for resolving seasonal movements and habitat preferences of migratory coastal shark species not easily studied with other tagging techniques.

  20. Enhanced Acquisition Rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in the Presence of Vegetative Flush Growth in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Alabi, Olufemi J; Kunta, Madhurababu; Jifon, John L; da Graça, John V

    2016-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid preferentially feeds and exclusively reproduces on young, newly emerged flush shoots of citrus. Asian citrus psyllid nymphs feed and complete their life stages on these flush shoots. Recent studies conducted under greenhouse conditions have shown that the transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus, are enhanced when flush shoots are present. However, it is unclear if CLas acquisition by migrant adult Asian citrus psyllids is similarly enhanced. To address this knowledge gap, cohorts of Asian citrus psyllid adults were allowed 1-wk acquisition access period (AAP) on flushing and nonflushing shoots of qPCR-tested symptomatic (CLas+) and asymptomatic (CLas-) 10-yr-old sweet orange trees under field conditions. After the AAP, they were tested for CLas by qPCR. Progeny Asian citrus psyllid adults that emerged 4 wk post-AAP were similarly retrieved and tested. Eighty percent of flushing and 30% of nonflushing CLas+ trees produced infective Asian citrus psyllid adults, indicating that flush shoots have greater potential to be inoculum sources for CLas acquisition. Concomitantly, 21.1% and 6.0% infective adults were retrieved, respectively, from flushing and nonflushing CLas+ trees, indicating that Asian citrus psyllid adults acquire CLas more efficiently from flush shoots relative to mature shoots. In addition, 12.1% of infective Asian citrus psyllid adult progeny were obtained from 70% of flushing CLas+ trees. Significantly lower mean Ct values were also obtained from infective adults retrieved from flushing relative to nonflushing trees. The results underscore the role of flush shoots in CLas acquisition and the need to protect citrus trees from Asian citrus psyllid infestations during flush cycles. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  1. Assessment of Thermal and Textural Characteristics and Consumer Preferences of Lemon and Strawberry Flavored Fish Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Arifoglu, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, strawberry and lemon flavored fish oil organogels (FOO) were prepared with beeswax as the organogelator. The physical, thermal and textural characteristics as well as the consumer preferences of the flavored organogels were determined in comparison with fish oil and FOO containing no flavor. Furthermore, the stability of the organogels was evaluated during 90 day storage at 4°C. The results revealed that, structurally stable fish oil organogels as spreadable products might be formed and that flavoring of the gels enhances consumer preference. Thus, flavoring of fish oil organogels could be a challenge in increasing the consumption of fish oil.

  2. Elemental composition changes in citrus affected by the CVC disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai Fernandes de, A.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Turra, C.; Franca de, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease results in serious economical losses for the Brazilian citriculture. The influence of CVC disease on the elemental composition of citrus plants was investigated. Leaves of sweet orange varieties Hamlin, Pera Rio and Valencia were collected from healthy and CVC-affected trees for chemical characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Significant differences between healthy and CVC-affected leaves were identified for Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc and Sm. Rare earth elements presented consistently higher mass fractions in the healthy leaves. (author)

  3. Weed Biomass and Weed Species Diversity of Juvenile Citrus Trees Intercrop with some Arable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Mojibade OLORUNMAIYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the performances of eight crops in the intercrop of citrus with arable crops at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight arable crops: maize, cucumber, sweet potato, Corchorus olitorius, large green, grain amaranth, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, and groundnut were intercropped with young citrus trees in the early planting season of 2010 with sole citrus as control. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Data were collected on weed flora, weed density and weed dry weight. Results showed that the relative frequencies of weeds in all the plots were less than 4% at both 6 and 9WAP. Gomphrena celosoides, Oldenlandia corymbosa and Tridax procumbens were most preponderant in appearing in all the plots. Tridax procumbens had a consistent relative frequency (2.34% in all the plots except in citrus/maize plot (0.78% at 9 WAP. Significantly lower broadleaf weed densities were obtained in citrus/sweet potato, citrus/large green, control plot and citrus/cucumber (28.67, 45.00, 50.00 and 76.33 m-2 respectively than in citrus/groundnut plot (143.00 m-2. Similarly, significantly lower grass weed densities were produced in citrus/Mucuna and citrus/sweet potato (0.33 m-2 each plots than the control plot (11.33 m-2. Whereas citrus/corchorus plot produced significantly lower broadleaf weed dry weight (37.59 g m-2 than citrus/Mucuna plot (126.47 g m-2 at 3WAP, citrus/large green plot (16.15 g m-2 and citrus/groundnut plot (123.25 g m-2 followed the same trend at 6 WAP. Sedges dry weights were less than 7 g m-2 in all the plots compared with control plot.

  4. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. Tea with Symbiotic Consortium of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L. with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY. In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of fi nished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L, the value which is confi rmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. offi cinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  5. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Šaponjac, Vesna T Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J

    2014-12-01

    Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea ( Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl ( ˙ OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4-4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC 50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  6. Temporal evolution of {sup 137}Cs{sup +}, K{sup +} and Na{sup +} in fruits of South American tropical species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, A.S. [LARA — Laboratório de Radioecologia, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br [LARA — Laboratório de Radioecologia, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN), Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitária, 05508-000, Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velasco, H. [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Macario, K. [LARA — Laboratório de Radioecologia, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rizzotto, M. [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); and others

    2013-02-01

    Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, K and Na in fruits of lemon (Citrus limon B.) and of K and Na in fruits of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) trees were measured by both gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, with the aim to understand the behaviour of monovalent inorganic cations in tropical plants as well as the plant ability to store these elements. Similar amounts of K{sup +} were incorporated by lemon and coconut trees during the growth and ripening processes of its fruits. The K concentration decreased exponentially during the growth of lemons and coconuts, ranging from 13 to 25 g kg{sup −1} dry weight. The incorporation of Na{sup +} differed considerably between the plant species studied. The Na concentration increased linearly during the lemon growth period (0.04 to 0.70 g kg{sup −1} d.w.) and decreased exponentially during the coconut growth period (1.4 to 0.5 g kg{sup −1} d.w.). Even though radiocaesium is not an essential element to plants, our results have shown that {sup 137}Cs incorporation to vegetable tissues is positively correlated to K distribution within the studied tropical plant species, suggesting that the two elements might be assimilated in a similar way, going through the biological cycle together. A mathematical model was developed from the experimental data allowing simulating the incorporation process of monovalent inorganic cations by the fruits of such tropical species. The agreement between the theoretical approach and the experimental values is satisfactory along fruit development. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, K and Na in fruits of lemon (Citrus limon B.) are presented. ► Concentrations of K and Na in fruits of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) are also showed. ► We investigated the use of {sup 137}Cs as a tracer for the plant absorption of macronutrients. ► A model was developed to simulate the temporal evolution of {sup 137}Cs, K and Na by fruits. ► This model exhibited close agreement with our

  7. Temporal evolution of 137Cs+, K+ and Na+ in fruits of South American tropical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, A.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Zamboni, C.B.; Velasco, H.; Macario, K.; Rizzotto, M.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of 137 Cs, K and Na in fruits of lemon (Citrus limon B.) and of K and Na in fruits of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) trees were measured by both gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, with the aim to understand the behaviour of monovalent inorganic cations in tropical plants as well as the plant ability to store these elements. Similar amounts of K + were incorporated by lemon and coconut trees during the growth and ripening processes of its fruits. The K concentration decreased exponentially during the growth of lemons and coconuts, ranging from 13 to 25 g kg −1 dry weight. The incorporation of Na + differed considerably between the plant species studied. The Na concentration increased linearly during the lemon growth period (0.04 to 0.70 g kg −1 d.w.) and decreased exponentially during the coconut growth period (1.4 to 0.5 g kg −1 d.w.). Even though radiocaesium is not an essential element to plants, our results have shown that 137 Cs incorporation to vegetable tissues is positively correlated to K distribution within the studied tropical plant species, suggesting that the two elements might be assimilated in a similar way, going through the biological cycle together. A mathematical model was developed from the experimental data allowing simulating the incorporation process of monovalent inorganic cations by the fruits of such tropical species. The agreement between the theoretical approach and the experimental values is satisfactory along fruit development. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of 137 Cs, K and Na in fruits of lemon (Citrus limon B.) are presented. ► Concentrations of K and Na in fruits of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) are also showed. ► We investigated the use of 137 Cs as a tracer for the plant absorption of macronutrients. ► A model was developed to simulate the temporal evolution of 137 Cs, K and Na by fruits. ► This model exhibited close agreement with our results along the fruit development

  8. Simultaneous reduction and nitrogen functionalization of graphene oxide using lemon for metal-free oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Halima; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Cho, Sung; Jeon, Seungwon

    2017-12-01

    Inspire by the vision of finding a simple and green method for simultaneous reduction and nitrogen (N)-functionalization of graphene oxide (GO), a N-rich reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been synthesized through a facile and ecofriendly hydrothermal strategy while most of the existing methods are involving with multiple steps and highly toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and environment. In this paper, the simultaneous reduction and N-functionalization of GO using as available lemon juice (denoted as Lem-rGO) for metal-free electrocatalysis towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is described. The proposed method is based on the reduction of GO using of the reducing and the N-precursor capability of ascorbic acid and citric acid as well as the nitrogenous compounds, respectively, that containing in lemon juice. The resultant Lem-rGO has higher reduction degree, higher specific surface area and better crystalline nature with N-incorporation than that of well investigated ascorbic acid and citric acid treated rGO. As a result, it shows better ORR electrocatalytic activity in respect to the improved onset potential, electron transfer rate and kinetics than those typical rGO catalysts. Moreover, it shows a significant tolerance to the anodic fuels and durability than the Pt/C during ORR.

  9. Aerial Survey as a Tool to Estimate Abundance and Describe Distribution of a Carcharhinid Species, the Lemon Shark, Negaprion brevirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Kessel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerial survey provides an important tool to assess the abundance of both terrestrial and marine vertebrates. To date, limited work has tested the effectiveness of this technique to estimate the abundance of smaller shark species. In Bimini, Bahamas, the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris shows high site fidelity to a shallow sandy lagoon, providing an ideal test species to determine the effectiveness of localised aerial survey techniques for a Carcharhinid species in shallow subtropical waters. Between September 2007 and September 2008, visual surveys were conducted from light aircraft following defined transects ranging in length between 8.8 and 4.4 km. Count results were corrected for “availability”, “perception”, and “survey intensity” to provide unbiased abundance estimates. The abundance of lemon sharks was greatest in the central area of the lagoon during high tide, with a change in abundance distribution to the east and western regions of the lagoon with low tide. Mean abundance of sharks was estimated at 49 (±8.6 individuals, and monthly abundance was significantly positively correlated with mean water temperature. The successful implementation of the aerial survey technique highlighted the potential of further employment for shark abundance assessments in shallow coastal marine environments.

  10. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF. Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, free FM (FFM, and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

  11. Effect of Elevated CO2 in Different Fertilizer Conditions on Physiological Traits in Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis at Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrients supply are generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of crops as a result considerably increase yields. The present study aims to investigate effects of elevated CO2 and different fertilizer conditions on physiological traits in Lemon balm. A factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications and nine treatments at the greenhouse in 2010. The experiment factors were included three CO2 concentrations (380, 700 and 1050 ppm and three kinds of conditions fertilizer (no fertilizer, manure fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that increasing of CO2 from 380 to 1050 ppm led to improve in leaf area, plant height, relative growth ratio, total dry matter and final yield of individual plant. The highest and the lowest amount of measured traits related to with and without nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Impact of elevated CO2 in conjunction with nitrogen and manure fertilizers increased. These effects were more on total dry matter and final yield than other growth indices. Therefore, it can be concluded that, whereas increase of temperature caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not any limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will be improved lemon balm production.

  12. Oxygen introduction during extraction and the improvement of antioxidant activity of essential oils of basil, lemon and lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Freitas Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oil extraction is commonly carried out by using the hydrodistillation method, which is described in official compendia of food quality control and medicinal plants. Despite the widespread use of this method, few studies have evaluated the effect of the atmosphere change during extraction on the composition and antioxidant activity of essentials oils. Therefore, a study of oxygen introduction influence during the extraction of essential oils from basil, lemongrass and lemon by hydrodistillation was performed. Total amount of oxygenated compounds (e.g., linalool, camphor, α-terpineol, neral, geranial, eugenol and α-muurolol increased for all essential oils extracted under oxygen flow. Antioxidant activity evaluated by using the ORAC method significantly increased (P<0.0001 with oxygen from 618 to 906, 355 to 613 and 72 to 262µmol Trolox g-1 oil for basil, lemongrass and lemon, respectively. Therefore, the simple modification proposed could be considered a suitable alternative to obtain essential oils with higher antioxidant activity.

  13. Sistema radicular dos citros em Neossolo Quartzarênico dos Tabuleiros Costeiros sob irrigação e sequeiro Citrus root system in Coastal Tablelands on Typic Quartzipsamment under irrigation and rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio Duarte Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema radicular da laranjeira 'Pêra' Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., enxertada em limoeiro 'Rugoso' Citrus jambhiri Lush., plantada no espaçamento 6x4 m, sob sistema irrigado com microaspersores e sob sequeiro. O solo da área experimental, localizada em Itapicuru, BA, é um Neossolo Quartzarênico, com horizonte subsuperficial coeso. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, e foram avaliadas cinco plantas em cada sistema. Amostras de raiz foram coletadas a cada 0,5 m de distância do caule, em seis profundidades, em quatro locais, na linha de plantas e seis nas entrelinhas. A distribuição das raízes foi avaliada em três classes de diâmetro (1 mm. A comparação entre os locais, em relação à planta, nos sistemas irrigado e sequeiro, tanto na linha de plantas quanto na entrelinha, apresentou diferenças na distribuição de raízes apenas à profundidade de 0-0,20 m. As 36 combinações dos três diâmetros de raiz e das seis profundidades, entre os sistemas irrigado e sequeiro, mostraram diferenças na distribuição de raízes apenas no diâmetro 0,5 e The aim of this work was to evaluate the root system of 'Pera' orange tree Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. grafted on 'Rugoso' lemon tree Citrus jambhiri Lush., cultivated with spacing within and between rows of 4 and 6 m, respectively, under rainfed conditions and under irrigation. The experimental area was established in Itapicuru, BA, Brazil, in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil with a subsuperficial cohesive layer. The experimental was a completely randomized design with five plants evaluated at each system. Root samples were collected in six positions between rows and four positions within rows, spaced of 0.5 m from tree's stem. At each position, the roots were sampled in six depths. Root distribution was evaluated using three ranges of root diameters (1 mm. Comparing the positions from the plants, within and between rows in both systems

  14. In vitro mutant obtainment by irradiation of nucellar tissue of citrus (Citrus Sinensis Osb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqual, M.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Menten, J.O.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nucellus of cultivar Valencia (Citrus Sinensis, Osb.) extracted from fruits 12 weeks after fertilization, were gamma irradiated (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 kR) before inoculation in culture media (pH 5.7) which comprised of macro and micronutrients of medium MS to which were added (in mg/l): mesoinusitol, 100; pyroxidin HCl, 1; nicotinic acid, 1; thiamine HCl, 0.2; malt extract, 500; sacarose, 50,000; agar-agar, 8,000. They were then Kept under 16 h light and 8h dark at a temperature of 27 0 C. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Detection of a new variant of Citrus tristeza virus in Greek citrus crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, the most destructive virus of citrus, is a quarantine pathogen in Greece. Since 2000, several accidental imports of infected propagation material have been detected in the country, and while eradication measures were applied, a few disease foci still remain. CTV isolates were collected from Chania (Crete and the “lemonwood” of Poros (Peloponnese, and their genetic variability was studied using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. One previously characterized isolate from Argolida grafted on a Mexican lime (GR3 and two Italian isolates from Calamondin were also included in the study. ELISA and RT-PCR tests confirmed CTV presence, and SSCP analysis of the virus amplified coat protein (CP gene was used to separate either distinct virus isolates for cloning the CP gene or variants (haplotypes for sequencing. Analyses showed that selected variants of four representative isolates clustered into three of the seven defined phylogenetic groups: groups 3b and 5 (severe isolates and group M (mild isolates. The prevalent haplotypes detected in the CTV from lemonwood of Poros (GR9 were in group 3b, confirming previous results. However, one sequence variant was identified as a recombinant between haplotypes from groups 3b and 5. Variants of these two groups were also detected in the Italian Calamondin isolate. In the grafted Mexican lime isolate (GR3 from Argolida, only one haplotype was found which belonged to group M, while in the field isolate from Chania (GR6 the only haplotype detected was in group 5. This is the first report of variants of group 5 in Greece, suggesting an unknown virus introduction. The prevalence of severe isolates in the area is of particular concern, and implications for the future of the CTV epidemics are discussed.

  16. Study of entomophatogenic fungus to control vector insect of citrus tristeza virus on citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiastuti M.E.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV disease is a silent killer, which threatens to decrease productivity, quality and even death of citrus plants and the erosion of genetic resources. Spreading in the field very quickly by the intermediate insect vector pest, aphid (Toxoptera citricida, T. Aurantii and A. Gosypii. The microbes studied for potential biopesticide candidates are: Beauveria bassiana and Hirsutella citriformis, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch Sorokin previously reported to control Diaphorina citri pests resulting effectiveness of > 25% and was able to suppress yield loss up to 10%. The objectives of the study examined the effectiveness of entomopathogen in controlling the pest of CTV vector, Toxoptera citricida, in the laboratory and screen house, to findout the physiological, biochemical and molecular physiology of entomopathogen. The results showed that the best entomopathogen suspension concentration was B.bassiana 106 followed by H. citriformis 106 and M. anisopliae 106. Entomopatogen B. bassiana and H. citriformis effectively controled the CTV vector pest in the laboratory. In the semi-field experiments at the screen house, the most effective result was H.citriformis 106 and the combination of H.citriformis 106 + B.bassiana 106, killing up to 50% and 100% on day 7th H.citriformis had the most physiological character, was able to develop optimally at a temperature of 20-400C and humidity between 60-80%. The biochemical character of the entomopathogenic fungus B.bassiana contained cellulase enzyme and phosphate solvent and IAA hormone, at most compared to the others. H.citriformis had not been found to contain enzymes and hormones. The molecular biochemical characterization of entomopathogenic fungi using FS1 and NS2 primers more clearly distinguished isolates and entomopathogenic species.

  17. Extraction of low molecular weight RNA from Citrus trifolita tissues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We employed a simple and quick method involving trizol for total RNA extraction from citrus tissues, then generation of LMW RNA using 4M LiCl, which have been successfully utilized in studies in our laboratory. Compared with traditional methods, this method is less expensive and produced high RNA yields while avoiding ...

  18. Assessing genetic variability in male sterile and low fertile citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... male sterile types, with old scattered resources; Iran has obvious diversity of citrus materials. ... From each accession, four young leaves were taken and total genomic DNA was ..... sexual reproduction and recombination are disabled in detecting such mutations in asexually propagated species. Therefore ...

  19. Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu (Citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fbn

    (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) in liquid culture. Dita Agisimanto1*, Normah Mohd Noor1,2, Rusli Ibrahim3 and Azhar Mohamad3. 1School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600. Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Institute of Systems Biology ...

  20. Toxin production by Fusarium solani from declining citrus plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest Fusarium sp. followed by Aspergillus, Phytophthora, Pythium, Penicillium and Alternaria species were remote from the collected samples of roots and soil from the four tehsils of Sargodha district of Pakistan. The maximum Fusarium sp. was isolated from the roots of declining citrus trees from tehsil Bhalwal ...

  1. Genetic transformation in citrus: Thinking outside the box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional breeding methods to incorporate resistance in citrus are very slow, due to extended juvenility from seedling trees and multiple generations needed to incorporate resistance from distant relatives. Use of transgenic methods may provide disease resistance in less time. Published protocols...

  2. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O.

    2007-01-01

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees

  3. Comparative efficacy of sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (l) rind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet orange, Citrus sinensis((L.) rind powder and oil were evaluated for the control of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais(Mot.) under ambient laboratory conditions (28 ± 2o C and 75 ± 20% R.H.). Experiments consisted of exposing adult S. zeamais to both the powder and oil for 42 days. Mortality counts were taken from the ...

  4. Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu ( Citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentration, initial cell density and carbon sources and concentrations for producing cell suspension and somatic embryos of Limau madu (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using cell suspension culture. Cells were first inoculated into Murashige and Skoog (MS) ...

  5. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  6. Citrus Production, Constraints and Management Practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... Citrus is economically important fruit crop in Ethiopia. However, its .... water. Sterilized leaves or fruit peels were cut, and four to six leaf discs or peel pieces were placed on each Petri dish containing potato dextrose agar (PDA) in five replicates ... banana, avocado and papaya), vegetable crops (primarily.

  7. Apoptotic properties of Citrus sudachi Hort, ex Shirai (Rutaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and annexin V/propidium iodidle assay were used to test the antiproliferative activity and apoptosis of methanol extract of Citrus sudachi, respectively. Griess reaction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were carried ...

  8. Expression and Purification of Coat Protein of Citrus Tristeza Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, P.O. Box 436 Nazareth, Ethiopia ... Citrus is one of the major fruit crop in Thailand and in present day production value of ..... The QIAexpressionist™ A handbook for high-level expression and ... application of a multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for.

  9. Uniformity of plants regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S

    1987-05-01

    Using 25 plants (protoclones) regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts, several characters, including leaf and flower morphology, leaf oil, isozyme patterns and chromosome number, were examined. No significant variations in each character were recorded among the protoclones. Uniformity observed among protoclones was identical to that of nucellar seedlings.

  10. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  11. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL.

  12. Insect pest situation and farmers' cultural practices in citrus orchards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major leaf feeders were the scale insects which infested a mean of 13 % of the trees, the leaf miners (8.7 %), aphids (10.6 %) and the swallowtail butterfly larvae (23.7 %). Termites damaged the exposed parts of roots and the woody structure of some citrus trees, and was suspected to have positively influenced the ...

  13. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van F.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The

  14. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  15. Apoptotic properties of Citrus sudachi Hort, ex Shirai (Rutaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Results: Citrus sudachi exerted cytotoxicity in a time-dependent manner in cancer cells which ... NO• produced by activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), while it suppressed the levels .... ethanol and kept on ice for 30 min. ... reagent and incubated at room temperature for.

  16. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening, considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90% of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition. However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.

  17. Male Gametophytic Screening of Citrus Genotypes for Salt Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barandan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are classified as a sensitive group of trees to salt stress, but the levels of their sensitivity or tolerance to salt are different among cultivars. In order to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on pollen germination of some citrus cultivars, an experiment was performed in factorial, based on completely randomized design in three replications with Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni and Poncirus trifoliata as tolerant and sensitive controls along with 13 genotypes. Pollen grains of these genotypes were cultured in media containing different levels of sodium chloride (0, 0.87, 1.6, 2.4, 3.1 dS/m along with 15% sucrose, 0.7% agar and 100 mg/L boric acid. In order to understand the biochemical responses of pollen grains to salt stress, they were cultured in liquid media with three levels of salinity (i.e. 0, 0.87 and 1.6 dS/m and then the amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX were evaluated. Significant differences of pollen germination (P ≤ 0.01 were observed in different salinity levels, but there were no significant differences in pollen tube growth. Pollen germination in Cleopatra was greater in comparison to Poncirus trifoliate, indicating that Cleopatra is a tolerant cultivar. The amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of SOD and APX were influenced by genotypes, salinity levels and their interactions (P ≤ 0.01. Considering the fastness and accuracy of this type of experiment, the evaluation of citrus pollen responses may, potentially, be hired as an initial screening criteria for detecting salt-sensitive varieties from the tolerant citrus ones.

  18. Correlation of electronic monitoring and stylet pathways elucidate the role of sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding on citrus leaves by Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina. citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-wal...

  19. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on citrus foliage: Effecs on foliar volatiles and aggregation behavior of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-known activators of chemical defenses in plants. The SA pathway is involved in citrus response to infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas); less is known about the role of jasmonates in citrus defense response. We examined the eff...

  20. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles' Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Ramsey

    Full Text Available 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas, the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including 'Candidatus Profftella armatura', are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+ and CLas(- populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+ insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+ insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+ and CLas(- D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide.

  1. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Citrus Groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Bartels, David W

    2015-01-01

    The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.

  2. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, in Citrus Groves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.

  3. Identification and quantification of a major anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic compound found in basil, lemon, thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, lemon thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme are in the mint family of plants that are used as culinary herbs world-wide. These herbs contain phenolic compounds that are believed to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the major phenolic compounds fr...

  4. Nursery area and size structure of the lemon shark population, Negaprion brevirostris (Poey, 1868, in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The protection of the habitats used by juvenile sharks is a management strategy that has recently caught the attention of fishery biologists. In the present study, we evaluated the population of the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris from Los Roques Archipelago in order to identify the nursery area, describe the size composition, and examine the variation in nocturnal activity of the juvenile individuals. The data analysed came from three different sources: commercial shark fishery, tag-recapture sampling, and visual records. A total of 375 lemon sharks with total lengths between 55 and 281 cm were recorded during the study period. Overall data showed that the area occupied by juvenile lemon sharks was clearly partitioned into primary and secondary nurseries. Additionally, nighttime activity seemed to change according to the size of sharks in the primary nursery, suggesting a reduction of time activity overlapping among juveniles of distinct size/age. Results suggest that the strategy of utilization of the primary nurseries by the lemon shark may lead to important ecological benefits by reducing the competition, predation and natural mortality.

  5. Effect of pH and salts on microstructure and viscoelastic properties of lemon peel acid insoluble fiber suspensions upon high pressure homogenization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Katleen L.D.D.; Panozzo, Agnese; Moelants, Katlijn; Cardinaels, Ruth; Wallecan, Joël; Moldenaers, Paula; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper the effect of pH and salts on microstructural and viscoelastic properties of lemon peel acid insoluble fiber residue (AR) suspensions upon mild and intense shearing was investigated. To this aim, AR suspensions were adjusted to a pH of 2.5 (as is), 4.5, 5.5, 7 or 10 prior to or

  6. Efeitos de fitorreguladores e nitrato de potássio na germinação de sementes do limão 'volkameriano' Effects of growth regulators and potassium nitrate on 'volkameriana' lemon seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ono

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de substâncias reguladoras de crescimento, bem como do nitrato de potássio (KNO3, na germinação de sementes do limão 'volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Pasq.. O experimento foi realizado em germinador, contendo papel de filtro umedecido com água destilada e gerbox, como meio para a germinação das sementes. Estas foram retiradas de frutas maduras, lavadas, secas à sombra e armazenadas durante 101 dias em câmara fria. Logo após, foram tratadas com os fitorreguladores e o KNO3 por 24 horas, conforme os tratamentos: H2O; 50 mg/l de GA3; 250 mg/l de GA3; 50 mg/l de GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilaminopurina; 100 mg/l de GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilaminopurina; 20 mg/lde fenilmetilaminopurina; 40 mg/lde fenilmetilaminopurina e 0,2% de KNO3. As avaliações foram realizadas depois de 15 dias da semeadura, sendo o intervalo de 2 dias. Através da análise estatística dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que no tratamento com 50 mg/lde GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilaminopurina houve a maior porcentagem de germinação (89,00% de sementes, num menor tempo médio (22,29 dias.The purpose of this research was to study the effects of growth regulators and potassium nitrate on 'volkameriana' lemon seed germination. The medium for seed germination was filter paper with distilled water. The seeds were removed from ripe fruits, washed, dried and stored at 4-5°C. After this the seeds were treated with growth regulators and potassium nitrate during 24 hours. The treatments were H2O; 50 mg/lof GA3; 250 mg/lof GA3; 50 mg/lof GA4 + GA7 + phenylmethylaminepurine; 100 mg/l of GA4 + GA7 + phenylmethyla-minepurine; 20 mg/lof phenylmethylaminepurine; 40 mg/lof phenylmethylaminepurine and 0,2% of KNO3. The evaluations were performed every two days, starting 15 days after seeding. The moisture with GA4 + GA7 plus phenylmethylaminepurine at 50 mg/lproved to be the most beneficial in enhancing seed germination.

  7. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration Monitoramento da viabilidade de sementes porta-enxertos de citros armazenados em câmara fria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  8. Alternative oxidase (AOX) constitutes a small family of proteins in Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis L. Osb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Castro, Jacqueline; Gomes Ferreira, Monique Drielle; Santana Silva, Raner José; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression. This study also aimed to do the homology modeling of one AOX isoform (CcAOXd). Moreover, the molecular docking of the CcAOXd protein with the ubiquinone (UQ) was performed. Four AOX genes were identified in each citrus species. These genes have an open reading frame (ORF) ranging from 852 bp to 1150 bp and a number of exons ranging from 4 to 9. The 1500 bp-upstream region of each AOX gene contained regulatory cis-elements related to internal and external response factors. CsAOX genes showed a differential expression in citrus tissues. All AOX proteins were predicted to be located in mitochondria. They contained the conserved motifs LET, NERMHL, LEEEA and RADE-H as well as several putative post-translational modification sites. The CcAOXd protein was modeled by homology to the AOX of Trypanosona brucei (45% of identity). The 3-D structure of CcAOXd showed the presence of two hydrophobic helices that could be involved in the anchoring of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The active site of the protein is located in a hydrophobic environment deep inside the AOX structure and contains a diiron center. The molecular docking of CcAOXd with UQ showed that the binding site is a recessed pocket formed by the helices and submerged in the membrane. These data are important for future functional studies of citrus AOX genes and/or proteins, as well as for biotechnological approaches leading to AOX inhibition using UQ homologs.

  9. Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

    2011-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies.

  10. β-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin Pigments Accumulation to Induce Orange Color on Citrus Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Degreening, a transformation process of green color on citrus peel to be orange color on tropical low-land citrus fruits often fails. Orange color of the citrus peel comes from the mixture carotenoid pigments, such as zeaxanthine and mainly β-cryptoxanthin and β-citraurin. The accumulation of β-citraurin occurs when the fruits are exposed to low temperature, and otherwise, it will fail to occur. Precooling treatment on lowland tropical citrus fruits is expected to stimulate the accumulation of β-citraurin. The results showed the most favorable color obtained from precooling and 24-hour ethylene exposure duration. This treatment could decrease total chlorophyll and β-carotene content as well as proven to increase 3 times the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in accelerating the appearance of bright orange color on citrus peel. Degreening gave no significant effect to internal quality of Citrus reticulata.

  11. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  12. The effect of pre spring spray to reduce of citrus important pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, B; Damavandian, M R; Shoushtaril, R Vafaei; Tafaghodynia, B

    2008-10-01

    The importance of pre spring spray against citrus aphids, Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell and Panonychus citri McGregor that are the most important pest of citrus during spring was tested. In this research, 150 trees ten years old sweet orange (Thomson navel on Citrus aurantium (root stocks)) in a citrus orchard approximately three hectares sampled. The experiment was laid out in a totally randomized (one-way) design replicated five times. According to the results, the pre spring spray do not effect on population density of citrus aphids and P. aurantii during March, April, May and June. However, the P. citri population decreased. Therefore, it seems the pre spring spray in citrus orchards is not necessary, but if P. citri is observed, the pre spring spray should be recommended.

  13. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by‐products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three‐step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP...... to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by‐products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by‐products....

  14. In vitro Propagation of Citrus limonia Osbeck Through Nucellar Embryo Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Jajoo

    2010-01-01

    Citrus limonia Osbeck is a promising rootsctock for commercial citrus species with sturdy anddisease and drought resistant characters. A n efficient and highly reproducible plant regeneration protocol hasbeen developed from nucellar embryo of Citrus limonia. Murashige and Skoogs medium was used for plantregeneration from nucellar embryos. It was noted that 6-benzylaminopurine at a concentration of 2.22 mMinduced highest number of multiple shoots as 18.26 shoots per explant. O n transfer of in...

  15. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  16. Nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na nutrição e no crescimento de mudas de laranjeiravalência, enxertadas sobre limoeiro cravo Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels on nutrition and production of seedlings of 'Valencia' sweet orange grafted on 'cravo' lemon rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação telada na FCAV/Unesp campus Jaboticabal-SP, durante o período de novembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007. Conduziu-se este estudo, com o objetivo de avaliar componentes do desenvolvimento e do estado nutricional de mudas de laranjeira Valência (Citrus sinensis Osbeck, enxertadas sobre limoeiro Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck, em função de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3³ + 1, sendo 3 fatores (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio - NPK, 3 doses e uma testemunha (sem adubação, com 3 repetições. A unidade experimental foi representada por uma muda de laranjeira por sacola com 5 dm³ com 2,5 kg de substrato casca de Pinus spp. e vermiculita. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela metade, uma vez e duas vezes a dose padrão recomendada, de 4.590; 920 e 4.380 mg sacola-1, de N, P e K, respectivamente. As adubações com N e K foram realizadas via fertirrigações três vezes por semana e o P foi adicionado ao substrato antes do replantio das mudas. Aos 424 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram subdivididas em raízes e parte aérea para determinação da massa da matéria seca, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e conteúdo de nutrientes. A adubação com N, P e K proporcionou maior desenvolvimento e maior acúmulo desses macronutrientes na parte aérea e nas raízes das mudas de laranjeira Valência, sobre limoeiro Cravo. Houve adequado desenvolvimento das plantas com a metade da dose recomendada de N, P e K pela literatura, aproximadamente de 918, 184 e 876 mg dm-3, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out in greenhouse at the FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP during the period of November 2005 to January 2007. The objective of this study was to evaluate development components and nutritional status of seedlings of 'Valencia' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck sweet orange grafted on 'Cravo' lemon rootstock

  17. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  18. First Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador Infesting Urban Citrus and Orange Jasmine Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  19. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  20. Citrus peel extract and powder attenuate hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia using rodent experimental modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Ashraf

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Conclusively, inclusion of citrus peel bioflavonoids in dietary therapies is a promising strategy to modulate lipidemic and glycemic attributes without imparting any deleterious effect on hematological parameters.