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Sample records for lei lani leon

  1. Zhang Lei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Zhang Lei. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 34 Issue 1 February 2011 pp 161-167. Characterization on strength and toughness of welded joint for Q550 steel · Jiang Qinglei Li Yajiang Wang Juan Zhang Lei · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Q550 high ...

  2. Lei natural e lei civil em Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo aborda a relação entre lei natural e lei civil na filosofia de John Locke. Embora leituras consagradas tenham afirmado que a relação entre ambas é dedutiva, este artigo tentará apresentar uma interpretação diferente, qual seja, a de que a relação entre lei civil e lei natural é de determinação. Longe de ser mera dedução de uma lei natural imutável, a lei civil possui papel determinante com relação à lei natural. Como mostraremos, esta interpretação realça algo que Locke tinha em alta estima: o caráter deliberativo da lei natural. A deliberação dos cidadãos na legislatura cria, em certa medida, a lei natural. Os cidadãos são livres para determinar a lei, e a participação em tal determinação é crucial para a manutenção de sua liberdade política. Nesse sentido, como veremos, a liberdade política lockiana é tributária do republicanismo.

  3. A História e sua compreensão: lutas e leis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto de Souza Robaina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata da compreensão da História a partir do estudo de um de suas leis específicas: a Lei do Desenvolvimento Desigual e Combinado. Elaborado por Leon Trotsky no início do século XX, foi um aporte fundamental para o desenvolvimento marxista. Com esta Lei fica evidente que o marxismo não representa uma posição economicista que perde de vista o desdobramento de múltiplos processos e relações embora mantenha sua base materialista na compreensão da História. O texto começa com uma rápida visita a concepção de Hegel, cuja obra constituiu uma das fontes principais de Marx e logo se desdobra na exposição acerca da Lei formulada pelo revolucionário russo.

  4. Tritium aging effect of LaNi5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Li Rong; Luo Deli

    2002-01-01

    The influence of tritium aging effect on hydrogen storage feature of LaNi 5 were investigated by dedeuterizing thermodynamics and the equilibrium desorption. The result show that the tritium aging effect changed significantly the features of the equilibrium desorption isotherms for the aged LaNi 5 . The effects include a decrease of 50 percent of the equilibrium desorption pressure at 373 K, an increase of plateau slopes from 0.033 to 0.130, and a reduction of the reversible hydrogen storage capacity 1.3 mmol g -1 , and an increase of formation heats (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) from 34.5 kJ·mol -1 and 105 J·mol -1 ·K -1 to 42.5 kJ·mol -1 and 128 J·mol -1 ·K -1 respectively

  5. The kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption in LaNi@#5@#-@#x@#Al@#x@# slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption in LaNi4.8Al0.2,LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 in ethanol have been investigated. The absorption process can be described in terms of mass transfer and reaction resistances in series. The rate-limiting steps for this

  6. Hydrogenation of cyclohexene with LaNi5−xAlxHn metal hydrides suspended in cyclohexane or ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogenation of cyclohexene on the metal hydride forming alloys LaNi4.8Al0.2, LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, all suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 suspended in ethanol, has been investigated. Two sources for hydrogen are recognized: hydrogen supplied by the gas phase and hydrogen which is available

  7. Hydrogenation of cyclohexene with LaNi@#5@#-@#x@#Al@#x@#Hn metal hydrides, suspended in cyclohexane or ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogenation of cyclohexene on the metal hydride forming alloys LaNi4.8Al0.2, LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, all suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 suspended in ethanol, has been investigated. Two sources for hydrogen are recognized: hydrogen supplied by the gas phase and hydrogen which is available

  8. EXAFS study of the aging of LaNi5 and LaNi4.5Mn0.5 compounds during tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul-Boncour, V.; Percheron-Guegan, A.; Achard, J.C.; Gasnier, P.; Carriat, J.Y.; Limacher, B.; Leroy, D.

    1994-01-01

    The modification of the thermodynamic and structural properties of LaNi 5 and LaNi 4.5 Mn 0.5 tritides, due to the presence of helium coming from the radioactive decay of tritium is studied by pressure-composition-temperature (P-C-T) isotherms determination, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments. For high He content a loss of long range order is observed and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) study show a small increase of the static disorder around Ni and Mn atoms and a larger one around La atoms. The assumption that a great part of the helium is located in the largest interstitial sites of the LaNi 5 or LaNi 5-x M x cell, leading to a cell distortion for high He content, allows to explain both thermodynamic and structural results. (orig.)

  9. Brillouin, Prof. Leon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1939 Honorary. Brillouin, Prof. Leon. Date of birth: 7 August 1889. Date of death: 4 October 1969 ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach. Math and Finance ...

  10. The structure and properties of LaNi5H3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.; Hayakawa, H.; Ishido, Y.; Nomura, K.; Shin, S.

    1989-01-01

    The structure of an intermediate phase(LaNi 5 H(D) 3 ) in the LaNi 5 -H 2 system has been refined using high resolution time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. The structure is described in the space group P6/mmm and the unit cell dimensions are a = 5.302(5) A and c = 4.066(3) A. The interstitial deuterium sites were discussed and the content of deuterium was confirmed by both neutron diffraction and a volumetric measurement. The behaviors of LaNi 5 H 3 at room temperature were investigated using a in-situ X-ray diffraction method. It was found that the LaNi 5 H 3 phase was not stable at room temperature. (orig.)

  11. Investigations on the nitrogen storage property of LaNi5 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, F.N.; Yamasue, E.; Okumura, H.; Ishihara, K.N.

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen absorption and desorption property of LaNi 5 was investigated using NH 3 and N 2 as nitrogen sources. It was found that both as purchased and milling processed LaNi 5 powder can absorb and desorb nitrogen using NH 3 as the nitrogen source, while milled LaNi 5 powder can absorb and desorb more. XRD, cross sectional SEM and EPMA were performed to elucidate the nitrogen stored phases. When N 2 gas was used as the nitrogen source, it was found that the amount of absorbed nitrogen significantly decreased. By using high pressure for the absorption treatment or performing an activation treatment using hydrogen absorption/desorption before the nitrogen absorption treatment, milled LaNi 5 was found to absorb nitrogen of 0.1 mol/mol Finally, the mechanism of the nitrogen absorption was discussed from the EPMA and kinetic data of the nitrogen absorption, and it was suggested that the mechanism of the nitrogen absorption might be explained by a combined model of a diffusion controlled process and an interface controlled process.

  12. Theoretical analysis of hydriding reactions of ZrCo and LaNi 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZrCo) and lanthanum penta-nickel (LaNi5) intermetallic alloys were studied using kinetic data, and modified shrinking core model to account for concentration and temperature gradients in the gas film and ash layer under pseudo steady state ...

  13. In situ x-ray and neutron powder diffraction study of LaNi5-xSnx-H systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Robert C., Jr.; Nakamara, Yumiko; Akiba, Etsuo

    2004-01-01

    This paper will present results of in situ XRD measurements of LaNi4.75Sn0.25 .during the initial absorption-desorption cycle, These measurements were performed under a similar condition to that for LaNi4.75Al0.25 previously reported [1]. The data were analyzed by the Rietveld method. Lattice parameter change and strain formation accompanying hydride phase formation and decomposition will be discussed. In addition, results of in situ neutron diffraction of LaNi4.78Sn0.22, focusing on hydrogen occupation in the hydride phase, will be presented.

  14. Female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone; 3Plan Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone ... Abstract. The objectives of this study were to identify decision makers for FGM and determine whether medicalization takes place in ...... cutting: research findings, gaps and directions. Culture ...

  15. Influence of tritium aging on kinetics feature of LaNi4.9Al0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Luo Deli; Li Rong

    2001-01-01

    Kinetics parameters were measured at different aging time on LaNi 4.9 Al 0.1 alloy. The influence of tritium aging on kinetics feature of LaNi 4.9 Al 0.1 alloy was assessed. The results show that tritium aging does not change deuterating-dedeuterating reaction order. Reaction rate decrease with aging time. Activation energy (E) increases with aging time

  16. African Journals Online: Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to Medicine, ...

  17. Synthesis of LaNi0,6Fe0.4O3-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, K.; Wendler, L.P.; Chinelatto, A.S.; Chinelatto, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell are an alternative of production clean and efficient energy, because converts chemical energy in electrical energy. An fuel cell is formed basically by an electrolyte, a cathode and an anode.The main electrolyte used for SOFC manufacturing is the ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 . The materials for electrode manufacturing must possess thermal expansion characteristics close to electrolyte and have high electrical conductivity in operating temperature.Recently, the perovskite LaNi 0,6 Fe 0,4 O 3-δ , has attracted interest for application as cathode in SOFC's. This work aimed to LaNi 0,6 Fe 0,4 O 3-δ obtained by Pechini method. The powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction, ray-x fluorescence, heliumpicnometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed powders obtained with perovskite formation when calcined 600°C during 2 hours. (author)

  18. Influence of aluminium content on thermodynamic function of LaNi5-xAlx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Cheng Huchi; Luo Deli

    2000-01-01

    Hydriding thermodynamic parameters were measured on alloys of the general composition of LaNi 5-x Al x (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) under isothermal and isochoric conditions. The results show that the equilibrium pressure, hydrogen capacity and thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH, ΔS decrease with aluminium content, plateau slopes of the P-C-T curve increase with aluminium content

  19. A LEI E AS LEIS: CENÁRIOS E CENAS NA APLICAÇÃO DA LEI MARIA DA PENHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair José Schuh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma versão revista e ampliada de um trabalho originalmente veiculado por nós quando da realização do 3o Encontro Nacional do Corpo Freudiano Escola de Psicanálise, que teve por tema “A psicanálise e Lei”. Nele, pretendemos nos debruçar sobre a interface entre Psicanálise e Direito, mais especificamente nos ocuparemos de cenários e cenas que dizem respeito a aplicação da Lei 11. 340/06, que leva o nome de Lei Maria da Penha. Isso nos levará a uma discussão mais ampla acerca da própria feitura das Leis. O referencial teórico e metodológico do qual nos utilizamos para esse fim tem por base as contribuições de Freud, Lacan, bem como de psicanalistas contemporâneos que tratam mais de perto das relações entre o Direito e a Psicanálise e entre a Lei e as leis.

  20. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  1. Acoustic emission monitoring of activation behavior of LaNi5 hydrogen storage alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maria De Rosa, Alessandro Dell'Era, Mauro Pasquali, Carlo Santulli and Fabrizio Sarasini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic emission technique is proposed for assessing the irreversible phenomena occurring during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling in LaNi5. In particular, we have studied, through a parametric analysis of in situ detected signals, the correlation between acoustic emission (AE parameters and the processes occurring during the activation of an intermetallic compound. Decreases in the number and amplitude of AE signals suggest that pulverization due to hydrogen loading involves progressively smaller volumes of material as the number of cycles increases. This conclusion is confirmed by electron microscopy observations and particle size distribution measurements.

  2. CO impurities effect on LaNi4∙ 7Al0∙ 3 hydrogen storage alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 4. CO impurities effect on LaNi4.7Al0.3 hydrogen storage alloy hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties. Qi Wan Ping Li Yunlong Li Fuqiang Zhai Weina Zhang Liqun Cui Alex A Volinsky Xuanhui Qu. Volume 37 Issue 4 June 2014 pp 837-842 ...

  3. Investigation of structural and hydrogen absorption properties in the LaNi5-xPtx-H2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.-M.; Charton, J.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2003-01-01

    The substitution of nickel by platinum in the binary LaNi 5 compound (CaCu 5 structure type, a=5.019(1) A, c=3.981(1) A, space group P6/mmm) and its effect on the hydrogenation properties was studied. The phase LaNi 5-x Pt x has a homogeneity domain ranging from x=0 to 5. For x 3. Contrary to what is observed in other systems, the hydrogen absorption plateau pressure was found to increase as a function of the cell volume. Powder neutron diffraction experiments were conducted for two deuterated compounds with x=0.25 and 0.75. Deuterium partial ordering occurs in the case of x=0.25 leading to a symmetry decrease to the space group P6mm (LaNi 4.75 Pt 0.25 D 5.23 , a=4.225(1) A, c=5.357(1) A, Z=1, R Bragg =3.3%). For x=0.75, an orthorhombic superstructure based on the CaCu 5 -type lattice was found (LaNi 4.25 Pt 0.75 D 2.61 , a orth =√3a hex =9.089(1) A, b orth =b hex =5.272(1) A, c orth =2c hex =8.145(1) A, Z=4, SG Ibam, R Bragg =6.1%)

  4. Regime da lei de terras: aspectos atuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rodrigues Wambier

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available The occupation of the Brazilian soil is a matter which still lies at issue and which has brought about extensive and through studies of agrarian doctrine. There have been social and political endeavors aimed at achieving equitable solutions to the problems concerning the implementation of an adequate soil occupation processor And these efforts have naturally had effects upon the activities and decisions of the legislative power in Brazil. In this dissertation it will be seen that land law number 601 which was passed in 1850 represented an attempt to regulate the soil occupation process in Brazil. On the other hand, the comparative study of land laws and the modem agrarian legislation reveals that the legislative solutions have been repeated throughout proportionally to the effects of social pressures upon public power.A questão relativa à ocupação do solo brasileiro, com todos os esforços políticos e sociais, que refletem na elaboração de leis, visando a busca de soluções justas e capazes de viabilizar, de modo o processos de ocupação do país, tem merecido estudos aprofundados da doutrina agrarista. No presente trabalho dissertativo, verificar se que a lei de terras Lei 601, de 1850 -representou um esforço de regularização do processo de ocupação do solo no Brasil Por outro lado, o estudo da lei de terras, comparativamente à legislação agrária moderna, demonstra que as soluções legislativas repetem-se ao longo da história na exata medida em que as pressões sociais repercutem nos poderes públicos.

  5. Natureza e Lei Natural nos Ensaios de Montaigne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Martins Azar Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de urn exame do conceito de lei natural na obra de Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592 através, principalmente, de considerações acerca da história das noções de lei, natureza e lei natural que, auxiliando a compreender sua ambientaçáo no pensamento renascentista, apoiam a análise simultânea de seu sentido nos Ensaios.

  6. Oxidation states of Fe in LaNi1-xFexO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeta, A.E.; Falcon, H.; Carbonio, R.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of oxidation states in perovskites of the type LaA 1-x B x O 3 (A and B transition metal ions) can be ''tailored'' by x variation. In particular, in LaNiO 3 it has been shown that Fe substitution for Ni foces some Ni 3+ into Ni 2+ , while some Fe 3+ changes into the unusual Fe 4+ state. In addition, the existence of mixed oxidation states of Fe and/or Ni in LaNi 1-x Fe x O 3 has been related to its catalytic activity in hydrogen peroxide decomposition. The Fe 4+ population, obtained using Moessbauer spectroscopy, was found to be constant for all the analyzed annealing temperatures for x = 0.25 concentration, where the isomer shift difference for both states is the highest and the catalytic activity is maximum. (orig.)

  7. The calculation of ion fractions in LEIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbist, G.; Brongersma, H. H.; Devreese, J. T.

    1992-02-01

    We discuss different ways of calculating ion fractions for LEIS-type experiments: (i) parametrizations, and (ii) quasi-ab-initio models. Among the different parametrizations of the neutralization rates the Hagstrum, Godfrey-Woodruff and the unified model are compared. For surfaces containing different types of atoms, e.g. NaCl, it is not possible to determine the neutralization constants uniquely. This is related to the use of relative ion fractions. For the absolute ion fractions there is a convincing agreement between DISC-experiments for He + → Si scattering and a theoretical calculation on the basis of the quasi-ab-initio Muda-Newns model.

  8. Tritium aging effect of LaNi4.9Al0.1Dx on de-deuterating kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Luo Deli; Li Rong

    2002-01-01

    Kinetics parameters are measured at different aging times of LaNi 4.9 Al 0.1 alloy. The influence of tritium aging on kinetic feature of LaNi 4.9 Al 0.1 alloy is assessed. The results show that reaction rate decreases with aging time, but tritium aging does not change de-deuterating reaction order. De-deuterating reaction orders a (with respect to deuterium pressure) and b (with respect to deuterium content) are 0.5 and 1, respectively. Activation energy (E) increases with aging time. After 1120 d, the reaction rate constant is decreased by two orders of magnitude, activation energy is increased by a factor of 0.3

  9. A study of isotopic exchange of hydrogen and deuterium in a LaNi3Al2 hydride bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Matsuo, H.; Okunaga, T.; Mitsuishi, N.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on the isotopic exhange of hydrogen and deuterium in a LaNi 3 Al 2 hydride bed. The exchange capacity of the LaNi 3 Al 2 hydride for deuterium, the overall mass-transfer coefficient and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) were obtained from the analysis of effluent curves for a pulse or step change of an influent deuterium concentration. The exchange capacity for deuterium was found to be almost constant between 200 and 300deg C and was around 1.7 in a D/metal ratio. The rate of the isotopic exchange was independent of the total hydrogen pressure, and a value of 31.8 kJ/mol was obtained for its activation energy. The minimum HETP value obtained was 0.5 cm at 300deg C and is smaller than that of a cryogenic distillation column for hydrogen isotopic separation. (orig.)

  10. Tritium aging effect on thermodynamic functions of LaNi4.9Al0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Li Rong; Luo Deli

    2001-01-01

    The influence of tritium aging on thermodynamic function of LaNi 4.9 Al 0.1 is measured. The results show that plateau pressures and reversible hydrogen capacity decrease with aging time, thermodynamics parameters such as ΔH, ΔS and plateau slopes of the P-T curve increase with aging time, tritium heel formed after 1120 d tritium exposure

  11. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  12. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    's Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004......The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court...

  13. The preparation of LaNi4.8A10.2 enwrapped by SiO2 sol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Xiaojing; Huang Guoqiang; Zhang Zhi

    2010-01-01

    SiO 2 sol was used to enwrap LaNi4.8Al0.2 to improve its hydrating performance. The sol viscosity was reduced gradually with the increase of water and time. In the SEM image of the dried solid it was found that many metal particles were embedded into the silica. The hydrating performance was studied at different parameters including the ratios of water, silica and LaNi4.8Al0.2, the granularity of the alloy, and the drying techniques. When the ratio of water and silica was 8:1, the hydrating speed of the solid was the fastest. The hydrogen absorption capacity per unit weight solid was increased with the decrease of LaNi4.8Al0.2. It was easier for the paste enwrapping metal when the granularity of metal particle was smaller, while the hydride capability of the solid was better. Furthermore, the hydrogen absorption capacity and absorption speed of the solid heated and dried in Ar was worse than that heated and dried in air. Thus the solid hydrating performance was not much relevant with the drying techniques. (authors)

  14. A plea for unity, by Leon Lederman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Last November saw the 30th anniversary of the discovery of the antiproton using the Bevatron at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (then called the Radiation Laboratory). Fermilab Director Leon Lederman was in sparkling form at the banquet, where in his inimitable way he made an impassioned plea for scientific unity in these difficult times

  15. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  16. GRAIN QUALITY IN SIERRA LEONE I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and traders, as well as the marketing practices and aspirations for the improvement of rice grain quality in the ... smallholders who use manual traditional processing and handling practices like head portage for ... The study was a national market perception survey on the nature of rice grain quality in Sierra Leone with ...

  17. Sexual violence; post-conflict; Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    and economic domains as a result of the conflict have evidently disempowered women and girls with a profound .... providers to explore views about sexual violence, focusing on community perceptions of the nature of ... Sierra Leone with conflicting views from victims, community leaders and service providers. Most health ...

  18. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, ... Survey of Current Practice of Labour Analgesia Among Obstetricians in Nigeria: Implications For Pain-free Labour Initiative.

  19. Corrosion effect on the electrochemical properties of LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Co0.75 and LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Fe0.75 negative electrodes used in Ni-MH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaldi, Chokri; Boussami, Sami; Rejeb, Borhene Ben; Mathlouthi, Hamadi; Lamloumi, Jilani

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters, electrochemical capacity, equilibrium potential and the equilibrium pressure, of LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Co 0.75 and LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Fe 0.75 alloys have been evaluated from the electrochemical isotherms (C/30 and OCV methods) and CV technique. A comparative study has been done between the parameter values deduced from the electrochemical methods and the solid-gas method. The parameter values deduced from the electrochemical methods are influenced by the electrochemical corrosion of the alloys in aqueous KOH electrolyte. The corrosion behaviour of the LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Co 0.75 and LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Fe 0.75 electrodes after activation was investigated using the method of the potentiodynamic polarization. The variation of current and potential corrosion values with the state of charge (SOC) show that the substitution of cobalt by iron accentuates the corrosion process. The high-rate dischargeability (HRD) of the LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Co 0.75 and LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Fe 0.75 alloys was examined. By increasing the discharge current the (HRD) decrease linearly for both the alloys and for the LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Fe 0.75 compound is greater then for the LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 Co 0.75 one.

  20. Establishing an enteric bacteria reference laboratory in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Kamara, Abdul; Rhodes, Fay; Kaffeta, Konneh; Jambai, Amara; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Islam, Mohammed Sirajul; Freeman, Molly M; Welfare, William; Harding, Doris; Samba, Ahmed F; Abu, Musu; Kamanda, Sylvester; Grant, Kathie; Jenkins, Claire; Nair, Satheesh; Connell, Steve; Siorvanes, Lisa; Desai, Sarika; Allen, Collette; Frost, Margaret; Hughes, Daniel; Jeffrey, Zonya; Gill, Noel; Salter, Mark

    2014-06-09

    In 2012, Sierra Leone experienced its worst cholera outbreak in over 15 years affecting 12 of the country's 13 districts. With limited diagnostic capability, particularly in bacterial culture, the cholera outbreak was initially confirmed by microbiological testing of clinical specimens outside of Sierra Leone. During 2012 - 2013, in direct response to the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities, and to assist in investigating and monitoring the cholera outbreak, diagnostic and reference services were established in Sierra Leone at the Central Public Health Reference Laboratory focusing specifically on isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae and other enteric bacterial pathogens. Sierra Leone is now capable of confirming cholera cases by reference laboratory testing.

  1. The electrochemical behaviour study of La3+ ion in fused chlorides bath. The LaNi5 formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Cristiane

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of La 3+ ion was studied in fused chlorides bath, with purpose to obtain LaNi 5 formation parameters. The lanthanum reduction/reoxidation mechanism and intermetallic compound formation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiommetry and galvanostatic electrodeposition. The electrolyte employed was eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl (1:1) with anhydrous LaCl 3 as solute, since 0,25 mol. L -1 up to 2 mol. L -1 , between 700 deg C and 800 deg C. The anhydrous LaCl 3 was prepared by lanthanum chloride slow dehydration with HCl flow and heating until 300 deg C. Over molybdenum, results depicted that lanthanum electrochemical behaviour was quasi-reversible and electrodeposition occurred in a charge transfer step with three electrons. In nickel, intermetallic compound formation was observed by interdiffusion. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X ray diffraction analysis indicated that layers composition depend on temperature and solute concentration in fused bath. Mainly LaNi 5 intermetallic compound was formed with LaCl 3 anhydrous concentration of 2 mol. L -1 at 750 deg C, with cathodic current density until 100 mA.cm -2 . (author)

  2. The Introduction of Western Education in Sierra Leone and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of western education in the Sierra Leone colony led to the formation of a new class of people known in the Sierra Leone society as “the educated elite” or “the westernised elite.” The Sierra Leonean educated elite were well aware of the European culture and civilisation. They adopted a European dressing ...

  3. Impact of Cr-poisoning on the conductivity of LaNi0.6Fe0.4O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stodolny, M.K.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Blank, David H.A.; van Berkel, F.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the significant impact of Cr on the electronic conductivity of a LaNi0.6Fe0.4O3 (LNF) porous cathode layer at 800 °C. Vapor transport of Cr-species, originating from a porous metallic foam, and subsequent reaction with LNF, results in a decrease of the electronic conductivity

  4. Some Properties of LaNi5-xAlx Metal Alloys and the Diffusion Coefficient and Solubility of Hydrogen in Cyclohexane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Erwin D.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1994-01-01

    Pressure-composition isotherms for hydrogen absorption and desorption have been measured for several alloys of the LaNi5-xAlx family at 298, 308, 323, 333, and 348 K, and the ΔHº and ΔSº of the hydride formation reaction were obtained. The equilibrium pressure is strongly related to the aluminum

  5. Still Having Her Say: More than a Decade after Becoming a Household Name, Harvard Law Professor Lani Guinier Holds True to Her Beliefs, Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the accomplishments of Lani Guinier, Bennett Boskey Professor of Law at Harvard University law school. The first and only African American woman to hold a tenured faculty position at the Harvard University law school, Guinier has put her visibility to use by speaking out on issues of race, gender and democratic…

  6. The Mathematical Works of Leon Battista Alberti

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Kim; Wassell, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Leon Battista Alberti was an outstanding polymath of the fifteenth century, alongside Piero della Francesca and before Leonardo da Vinci. While his contributions to architecture and the visual arts are well known and available in good English editions, and much of his literary and social writings are also available in English, his mathematical works are not well represented in readily available, accessible English editions have remained accessible only to specialists. The four treatises included here - Ludi matematici, De Componendis Cifris, Elementi di pittura and De lunularum quadratura - ar

  7. Les mondes imaginaires de Mélanie de Coster, une écrivaine en proie à la fantaisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bautista Naranjo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This interview explores the imaginary worlds created by Mélanie de Coster, a Belgian writer of contemporary fantastic literature. Ever since she published her first book in 2003, De Coster has combined elements from the aesthetics of the fantastic with other genres, thus making this her personal trademark. The fantastic becomes then an approach which is not at the core of the story told, but it rather complements it by adding some features like surprise, anxie-ty or mystery. In her most recent novel, De l’autre côté des mondes, the main plot even includes some social worries. Eventually, the fantastic becomes the leading thread of such a heterogeneous production.

  8. Desarmamento no Brasil: Lei 9.437/97 x Lei 10.826/03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Santos Aleixo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A segregação da sociedade brasileira, somada a histórica e farta disponibilidade de armas de fogo e munição, acarreta em elevados índices de criminalidade. Contudo, observa-se grande evolução na legislação brasileira relativa às armas de fogo visando restringir seu acesso, datando do início do século XVII aos dias atuais. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo discutir acerca do controle normativo das armas de fogo por parte do Estado, dando base para uma futura convalidação da eficiência de sua estratégia. Assim, por meio da revisão da literatura, levantou-se um breve histórico referente às normas que visam controlar o comércio e uso de armas de fogo no Brasil e teceu-se uma comparação entre as Leis 9.437/97 e 10.826/03. Por fim, fica claro que aumenta gradativamente a restrição à compra e ao porte de armas de fogo no Brasil, assim como a coerência ao tipificar e cominar penas diferentes frente a diferentes condutas por parte do agente.

  9. Kuldar Leis : Eesti jäätiseturul vennatapusõda ei ole / Kuldar Leis ; interv. Gaili Eding

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leis, Kuldar, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Jäätisetootja Premia Tallinna Külmhoone ASi juhatuse esimehe Kuldar Leisi sõnul on Eesti jäätiseturg hästi välja kujunenud. Balbiinot peab ta väga mõistlikuks konkurendiks, kes ajab samamoodi õiget Eesti asja ja toodab häid jäätiseid. Lisa: Kuldar Leis

  10. Engineering of software the continuing contributions of Leon J. Osterweil

    CERN Document Server

    Tarr, Peri L

    2011-01-01

    Software engineering research can trace its roots to a small number of highly influential individuals including Prof. Leon J. Osterweil. This book assembles Prof. Osterweil's key publications as well as several new articles analyzing the impact of his work.

  11. International Marketing Strategy of Transformations LTD in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Mohammed Touqeer

    2011-01-01

    The central idea of the report is to formulate an international marketing strategy for Transformations Ltd, a learning and development company based in UK for its entry in Sierra Leone market. The company wants to provide accredited British Leadership and Management qualification in Sierra Leone.\\ud \\ud The report uses theoretical framework for marketing analyses including internationalization models, entry mode, market segmentation, targeting, positioning and generic strategy. The report ado...

  12. LaNi1-xCoxO3-δ (x=0.4 to 0.7) cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells by infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzan, Aleksander; Ovtar, Simona; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Performance of LaNi1-xCoxO3-δ (LNC) (x=0.4 to 0.7) as a cathode in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is evaluated. Symmetrical cathode/electrolyte/cathode cells for electrochemical testing are prepared by infiltration of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) backbone with LNC solutions. It is showed that the cathode infiltrated with LaNi0.5Co0.5O3-δ (LNC155) has the lowest polarization resistance and activation energy, 197 mΩ cm2 at 600 °C and 0.91 eV, respectively. Therefore it is the most promising material of the LNC group for electrochemical applications. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that none of the materials is single-phased after heat treatment at 800 °C as they contain residues of La2O3 and La2NiO4-δ

  13. As leis da natureza e os casos de Tooley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Reis Lastra Cid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste artigo são: (1 apresentar quatro teorias com relação à natureza das leis naturais, (2 mostrar que apenas uma delas é capaz de responder satisfatoriamente aos Casos de Tooley e (3 indicar por que tais casos são relevantes para a nossa ontologia. Estes objetivos são importantes, pois o conceito de "lei natural" é utilizado em muitos, se não todos, os domínios das ciências e em muitos domínios da filosofia; e, se tais casos forem possíveis, eles serão situações que precisariam ser adequadamente descritas. Se uma e apenas uma teoria puder descrever tais casos adequadamente, haverá fortes razões para preferir tal teoria frente às outras.

  14. Fatores motivacionais de jovens atletas de vôlei

    OpenAIRE

    Campos,Lívia Tavares da Silva; Vigário,Patrícia dos Santos; Lürdof,Sílvia Maria Agatti

    2011-01-01

    O estudo objetivou identificar o quanto os fatores motivacionais determinam a permanência de jovens atletas no voleibol de alto nível e compará-los quanto ao gênero e categoria. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio da aplicação do questionário de Escala de Motivos para a Prática Esportiva (EMPE) a 96 jovens atletas de vôlei de quadra (46 meninas e 50 meninos). Os fatores que mais motivaram os atletas para a prática do vôlei foram: aperfeiçoamento técnico, saúde e afiliação. Na comparação ...

  15. Contração de Lorentz, lei de Gauss e lei de Ampère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mostramos como obter a expressão para a contração de Lorentz dos comprimentos, a partir das leis de Gauss e Ampère, sem qualquer conhecimento da teoria da relatividade especial de Einstein. Mostramos em seguida que tal resultado é consistente com a transformação relativística dos campos elétrico e magnético.

  16. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 41 refs

  17. A LEI DOS RECURSOS REPETITIVOS E OS PRINCÍPIOS DO DIREITO PROCESSUAL CIVIL BRASILEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Cristiana Hamdar; UFRJ

    2013-01-01

    Analisando as fases das reformas perpetradas no Direito Processual Civil Brasileiro, desde a edição do Código de Processo Civil de 1973, até a Lei dos Recursos Repetitivos, e ao contrastá-la com os Princípios basilares do Direito Processual, para alcançar a compreensão da inspiração da Lei 11.672/08, estudou-se institutos similares predecessores, provenientes do direito alienígena Alemão e Espanhol. Ademais, salientou-se diversos pontos de convergência entre a Lei objeto deste estudo e a Lei ...

  18. O contrato-lei no direito do trabalho mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Boschi Aguiar de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da temáticado Contrato-Lei no Direito do trabalhoMexicano, que na doutrina respectiva éconhecido como Contrato Coletivo Obrigatório.Apesar da diferença de nomenclaturaa legislação trabalhista brasileira tambéminseriu este instituto com a denominaçãode convenção coletiva de trabalho. Uma dasdiferenças específicas entre o institutoadotado pelas leis mexicanas e brasileirasdiz respeito a competência do PoderExecutivo Federal no México para promulgaro decreto respectivo. Porém, a distinçãomais importante refere-se à competência doPresidente da República ou os Governadoresdos Estados, no México, para transformaruma convenção coletiva em Contrato-Lei.The present article is about thetheme of the Contract-Law as part of theMexican Labor Law, which is known as aMandatory Collective Contractin therespective doctrine. In spite of the differencein nomenclature, the Brazilian LaborLegislation also refers to this institute as thecollective labor convention. One of the majordifferences between the institute adopted bythe Mexican and the Brazilian Laws consistsof the competence of the Federal ExecutivePower in Mexico to promulgate therespective decree. However, the mostimportant distinction refers to thecompetence of the President of the Republicor the State Governors, in Mexico, to turn acollective convention into a Contract-Law.

  19. Comportamentos de bullying e conflito com a lei

    OpenAIRE

    Zaine, Isabela; Reis, Maria de Jesus Dutra dos; Padovani, Ricardo da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Bullying define-se como uma forma de agressão física, psicológica ou sexual de caráter persecutório e repetitivo, geralmente envolvendo pares. Este estudo investigou comportamentos de bullying em 16 adolescentes do sexo masculino em conflito com a lei, que cumpriam medidas socioeducativas em regime de semiliberdade e liberdade assistida. Os dados foram coletados individualmente por meio de um questionário adaptado de conflitos na escola. Todos os participantes relataram terem sido vítimas ou ...

  20. Aspectos polêmicos da lei 11.232/2005

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Thiago Merege

    2013-01-01

    A prolação da sentença nem sempre é suficiente para satisfazer àquele que busca a tutela do direito material violado. Nos casos nos quais a sentença prolatada não é satisfativa, caso este das tutelas declaratória e constitutiva, é necessário o concurso de vontade do demandado ou mesmo atos praticados pelo juízo ou por terceiros. Com as alterações advindas da Lei 11.232/2005, o sincretismo processual passou a ser regra no sistema processual brasileiro, caracterizado pela fusão dos processos de...

  1. Fatores motivacionais de jovens atletas de vôlei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Tavares da Silva Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou identificar o quanto os fatores motivacionais determinam a permanência de jovens atletas no voleibol de alto nível e compará-los quanto ao gênero e categoria. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio da aplicação do questionário de Escala de Motivos para a Prática Esportiva (EMPE a 96 jovens atletas de vôlei de quadra (46 meninas e 50 meninos. Os fatores que mais motivaram os atletas para a prática do vôlei foram: aperfeiçoamento técnico, saúde e afiliação. Na comparação quanto ao gênero, com exceção dos fatores saúde e status, as atletas apresentaram maiores índices de motivação do que os atletas. Comparando os fatores motivacionais segundo a categoria, todos os itens analisados, exceto afiliação, motivam da mesma forma os atletas.

  2. FACE DA MORTE: A LEI EM CONFLITO COM O ADOLESCENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Jimenez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traça um breve panorama histórico de como a lei tem abordado a temática da infância e adolescência no Brasil desde o Código de Menores ao Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente, priorizando o adolescente em conflito com a lei. A partir do Mapeamento Nacional de Medidas Socioeducativas em Meio Aberto e do Índice de Homicídios na Adolescência, relaciona o perfil dos adolescentes brasileiros integrantes do sistema socioeducativo em meio aberto com aquele dos adolescentes vítimas de homicídio: são do sexo masculino, pobres, de baixa escolaridade, vivendo nas regiões metropolitanas dos grandes centros urbanos, embora nos últimos anos tenha se observado um processo de interiorização das mortes violentas. Partindo das compreensões de disciplina e biopoder, conforme postuladas por Michel Foucault, busca promover reflexões acerca da incidência das medidas socioeducativas sobre um determinado grupo, justamente aquele que diariamente engrossa as estatísticas de mortalidade decorrente de causas violentas.

  3. Infrared reflectivity of the solid solutions LaNi1-xFexO3 (0.00<=x<=1.00)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Néstor E.; Falcón, Horacio; Salva, Horacio; Carbonio, Raúl E.

    1997-10-01

    We report temperature-dependent far- and midinfrared reflectivity spectra of LaNi(1-x)FexO3 (0.00Reik and Heese [H. G. Reik and D. Heese, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 581 (1967)]. We find our spectral analysis relevant toward understanding the infrared reflectivity of conducting oxides in general. Since LaNiO3 is a three-dimensional compound we avoid the argument of misinterpreting spectral features as due to band leakages of unscreened phonons active in insulating crystal directions.

  4. Addressing gender-based violence in the Sierra Leone conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 11-year conflict had shattered the country, leaving more than a million people displaced and thousands of women coping with the aftermath of sexual violence. Then, in 1999, the Lomé Peace Accord in 1999 traded amnesty for peace and made provision for the establishment of the Sierra Leone Truth Commission.

  5. Measuring the impact of Ebola control measures in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Camacho, Anton; Flasche, Stefan; Glover, Rebecca E; Edmunds, W John; Funk, Sebastian

    2015-11-17

    Between September 2014 and February 2015, the number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases reported in Sierra Leone declined in many districts. During this period, a major international response was put in place, with thousands of treatment beds introduced alongside other infection control measures. However, assessing the impact of the response is challenging, as several factors could have influenced the decline in infections, including behavior changes and other community interventions. We developed a mathematical model of EVD transmission, and measured how transmission changed over time in the 12 districts of Sierra Leone with sustained transmission between June 2014 and February 2015. We used the model to estimate how many cases were averted as a result of the introduction of additional treatment beds in each area. Examining epidemic dynamics at the district level, we estimated that 56,600 (95% credible interval: 48,300-84,500) Ebola cases (both reported and unreported) were averted in Sierra Leone up to February 2, 2015 as a direct result of additional treatment beds being introduced. We also found that if beds had been introduced 1 month earlier, a further 12,500 cases could have been averted. Our results suggest the unprecedented local and international response led to a substantial decline in EVD transmission during 2014-2015. In particular, the introduction of beds had a direct impact on reducing EVD cases in Sierra Leone, although the effect varied considerably between districts.

  6. Integration of learning technology in Sierra Leone's higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examined the scope and relevance of integrating technology in Sierra Leone's higher education systems. It discussed the general scope of technology provision in HEIs across the country, and the effectiveness of the National ICT Policy in enabling effective delivery of targets like the Vision 2025 Plan to be ...

  7. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  8. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. M. Lamin

    During the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, there has been a strong suspicion that people avoided the premises for drug administration such as hospitals, clinics and Community Health Centres. Health care service providers were terrified and reluctant to deliver services at the initial stage of the epidemic because of fear of ...

  9. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  10. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...

  11. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... political parties, civil society and kin-based social organizations can be influenced to advance women's choices and entitlements as citizens, including through increased representation. The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements.

  12. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. The projects ...

  13. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  14. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical patients' families often must provide funds for fuel for the hospital's electricity generator during their relative's surgery.19,21. This analysis provides guidance as to rational and ef- ficient training of personnel, and equipment purchase and distribution. Fifty-three per cent of unmet surgi- cal need in Sierra Leone would ...

  15. Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons from a Failed State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Larry J; Reese, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    This study by Larry J. Woods and Colonel Timothy R. Reese analyzes the massive turmoil afflicting the nation of Sierra Leone, 1993-2002, and the efforts by a variety of outside forces to bring lasting stability to that small country...

  16. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  17. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  18. Lassa Fever in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Jessica N.; Levy, Danielle C.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Moses, Lina M.; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.; Kargbo, Kandeh; Ottomassathien, Darin; Muncy, Ivana J.; Jones, Abigail B.; Illick, Megan M.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Haislip, Allyson M.; Bishop, Christopher M.; Elliot, Deborah H.; Brown, Bethany L.; Zhu, Hu; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Gire, Stephen K.; Tabrizi, Shervin; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Matschiner, Alex; Sampey, Darryl B.; Spence, Jennifer S.; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Folarin, Onikepe A.; Happi, Christian T.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geske, F. Jon; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Robinson, James E.; Wilson, Russell B.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Henderson, Lee A.; Khan, S. Humarr; Bausch, Daniel G.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs) in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects. Conclusions/Significance Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to

  19. A aplicabilidade da Lei de Improbidade Administrativa aos agentes políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Acioli Pimenta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade da Lei nº. 8.429/92 (Lei de Improbidade Administrativa em face dos agentes políticos não é tema pacífico na doutrina e jurisprudência. Há quem sustente que os agentes políticos se submetem à Lei nº 1.079/50, que define os crimes de responsabilidade, e, desta forma, não se pode aplicar a Lei de Improbidade Administrativa concomitantemente. Outra corrente defende a sujeição de tais agentes às normas da Lei de Improbidade Administrativa, em razão desta ter natureza jurídica distinta dos crimes de responsabilidade, permitindo, assim, sua aplicação. O presente trabalho tem como finalidade defender a sujeição dos agentes políticos à Lei 8.429/92, baseando-se na ampla análise de entendimentos doutrinários e jurisprudenciais formados em torno do tema sustentando, porém, que a aplicação das sanções previstas na lei deve ser limitada a determinados agentes políticos.

  20. Distorções da Lei de Alimentos Gravídicos

    OpenAIRE

    Zainaghi, Maria Cristina; Reis, Clarice Moraes

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho nasceu depois de se tomar ciência da denominada lei de alimentos gravídicos. Isso porque referida lei foi exaltada dentre os civilistas por sua preocupação com o nascituro. Todavia tal posicionamento pareceu-nos equivocado já que, antes da lei, o direito, ao nosso ver, pertencia ao próprio nascituro, posto que um direito inerente a necessidade para sua própria vida. Assim, busca–se demonstrar que tal direito, ainda que não previsto legislativamente, já existia, vez que ine...

  1. Identity with Jesus Christ: the case of Leon Gabor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2010-12-01

    From July 1, 1959 to August 15, 1961, Milton Rokeach studied three male patients at Ypsilanti State Hospital who believed that they were Jesus Christ. They met regularly together with Rokeach and his research staff, a procedure designed to challenge their delusional systems. He believed that Leon Gabor, the youngest of the three, would be the most likely to abandon his delusional beliefs. Instead, Leon met the challenges that the procedure posed by creative elaborations of his delusional system, especially through the adoption of a new name that gave the initial appearance of the abandonment of his Christ identity but in fact drew on aspects of the real Jesus Christ's identity that were missing from his earlier self-representation.

  2. Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Weiler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary are reported, a West-African river in the tropics. Because of the typical change between rainy season in the sommer months and dry season in winter time the research work has been adapted to these semi-annual changes. The collected data and results are given and discussed under this aspect of the seasonal fluctuations. (orig.) [de

  3. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjälkander, Owolabi; Bangura, Laurel; Leigh, Bailah; Berggren, Vanja; Bergström, Staffan; Almroth, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice. Purpose To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors. Patients and methods A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258) attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open- ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel. Results All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%), the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8%) sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser), and 16 a health professional. Conclusion The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who undergo FGM before 10 years of age seem to be more vulnerable to serious complications than those who are older at the time of FGM. It is important that health care personnel are aware of, and look for possible complications from FGM, and encourage girls and women to seek medical care for their problems. PMID:22870046

  4. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  5. Judicial contributions of the Sierra Leone tribunal to the development of international criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Jalloh, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether the Special Court for Sierra Leone (“SCSL”), which was established jointly through an unprecedented bilateral treaty between the United Nations (“UN”) and Sierra Leone in 2002, has made jurisprudential contributions to the development of international criminal law. The work opens with an examination of the outbreak of a notoriously brutal civil war in Sierra Leone which lasted between March 1991 and January 2002 and led to the deaths of approximately 75,000...

  6. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  7. A LEI DE ACESSO À INFORMAÇÃO COMO MEIO DE ESCLARECER AS LEIS ORÇAMENTÁRIAS E A EXECUÇÃO DESTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Carlos Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As leis orçamentárias e a sua execução requerem um entendimento técnico fazendo com que haja um hiato entre a gestão da Administração Pública e o Cidadão, o qual deixa de fazer o controle desde a elaboração das leis orçamentárias à execução destas. A Lei de Acesso à Informação trouxe novo alento ao cidadão, contribuindo para que se possa ter uma compreensão do orçamento público, entendendo o crédito e a despesa.

  8. LEI DA FICHA LIMPA: consequências para a Administração Pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Alves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lei da Ficha Limpa; esse foi o nome dado pela sociedade brasileira à Lei Complementar 135/2010 que trouxe alterações a Lei Complementar no 64, de 18 de maio de 1990. Este artigo é focado principalmente nas polêmicas que esta Lei trouxe para baila das discussões da sociedade e, suas consequências para a Administração Pública, bem como, suas características mais relevantes e críticas a sua criação.   Clean Record Law; this was the name given by Brazilian society to Complementary Law 135/2010 which brought changes to Complementary Law No 64 of May 18, 1990. This article is primarily focused on the controversies that this law brought to the fore of society's discussions and its consequences for the Government, as well as its outstanding features and reviews its inception.

  9. Lei da Mata Atlântica: Retrocesso ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Varjabedian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Lei Federal n.11.428/06 e o Decreto Federal n.6.660/08, quando comparados ao Decreto Federal n.750/93, contêm várias alterações ambientalmente nocivas, configurando um retrocesso para a proteção da Mata Atlântica. Quanto à Lei n.11.428, verifica-se, por exemplo, que o estágio médio de regeneração recebeu um tratamento distinto em relação à vegetação primária e em estágio avançado, tendo sua proteção desguarnecida; e que os artigos 30 e 31, associados aos artigos 11, 12 e 17, abrem novas possibilidades para supressão de vegetação nativa de florestas tanto em estágio avançado como em estágio médio de regeneração. O Decreto n.6.660 permite, por exemplo, a exploração de madeira e lenha em propriedades rurais sem controle dos órgãos competentes.The Federal Law n.11.428/06 and the Federal Decree n.6.660/08 compared to the Federal Decree n.750/93 contain some environmentally harmful flexibilities and changes, configuring a setback for the Atlantic Rainforest protection. In the Law n.11.428, it's verified, for example, a different treatment for Rainforest in intermediate stage of regeneration in relation to advanced stage or climax, and the Articles 30 and 31, associated with Articles 11, 12 and 17, open new possibilities for deforestation, both forest in an advanced stage, as in the intermediate stage of regeneration. The Decree n.6.660 allows, for example, the eventual exploration of timber and firewood in rural properties without control of the competent agencies.

  10. Aplicação do Princípio da Irrepetibilidade na Lei de Alimentos Gravídicos - Lei n° 11.804/2008

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Enedino Nack

    2014-01-01

    A Lei n. 11.804, de 5 de novembro de 2008, intitulada Lei de Alimentos Gravídicos, foi criada com o intuito de ampliar a proteção ao nascituro, que apesar do amparo dispensado pela legislação brasileira, não lhe garantiam direito aos alimentos. A grande finalidade dessa norma é assegurar à genitora uma gestação livre de riscos, com o intuito de garantir um desenvolvimento saudável do feto. Surge, por sua vez, a dúvida sobre a aplicação do princípio da irrepetibilidade, inerente aos alimentos,...

  11. Balanço Sobre a Lei Maria Da Penha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Maria Bacellar Sardenberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2004, há pouco mais de uma década, chegava ao Congresso Nacional, por intermédio da Secretaria Especial de Políticas para Mulheres (SPM, um projeto de lei de enfrentamento à violência conjugal, doméstica e familiar contra mulheres bastante ambicioso. Fruto de mais de três décadas de lutas dos movimentos feministas no país e, mais especificamente, dos esforços de um consórcio de organizações feministas em articulação com a SPM, o projeto respondia às recomendações tanto da Plataforma Política Feminista de 2002, quanto das Convenções CEDAW (Convenção sobre a Eliminação de Todas as Formas de Discriminação contra a Mulher e Belém do Pará, assinadas e ratificadas pelo Estado Brasileiro.

  12. DIREITO AUTORAL: Como a lei inibe o acesso ao conhecimento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerine Rodrigues Dias

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca estabelecer os pontos conflitantes existentes entre a excessivaproteção aos direitos autorais e a necessidade de a propriedade intelectual exercer de fato a sua verdadeira função social e isso, levando-se em consideração um ambiente, como a internet, que além de permitir a livre manifestação do pensamento também pode funcionar como importante ferramenta de acesso à cultura e ao conhecimento.Desta forma, defende-se no presente texto que antes de se utilizar da lei específica para o tratamento dos direitos autorais, deve-se primar pela visão constitucional que preza pelo interesse público coletivo e para o desenvolvimento do contingente humano como pessoa protegida pelos preceitos fundamentais expressos na Carta Constitucional de 1988e não simplesmente como ferramenta de trabalho.

  13. Impossibilidade de alteração de lei complementar por lei ordinária em matéria tributária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Lima Castro Diniz

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Usually the legislator controls a specific subject through a complementary law, although it can be done through a ordinary law, which is different concerning the legislative process, mainly on the quorum matter. A law with these characteristics must be considered complementary law, so that its modification is only possible by a norm on the same level. According to the principles of “more value legitimatory” and liberty of conformation of the legislator in his legislative activity.É comum que o legislador regule um determinado assunto por meio de lei complementar, embora pudesse fazê-lo através de lei ordinária, cujo processo legislativo é diferente, sobretudo pela questão do quorum. Uma lei com essas características deve ser considerada lei complementar, decorrendo daí que sua modificação apenas é possível por norma do mesmo escalão, em face dos princípios da mais valia legitimatória e da liberdade de conformação do legislador na atividade legislativa.

  14. Alcohol and drugs in post-war Sierra Leone | Bøås | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kind of social stress that a civil war expose the population to makes it easy to assume that an increased level of alcohol and drug abuse should be observable in post-war Sierra Leone. This is, however, not the case. As this study reveals, the pattern of alcohol and drug consumption in Sierra Leone. This is, however, not ...

  15. To fight or to farm? Agrarian dimensions of the Mano River conflicts (Liberia and Sierra Leone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2005-01-01

    The wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone have been linked to the condition of urbanized youth. Recent research in southeastern Sierra Leone and northwestern Liberia suggests the rural context is of greater significance. The fighting was mainly in rural areas, involved mainly rural youth, and adapted

  16. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  17. Judicial contributions of the Sierra Leone tribunal to the development of international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalloh, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether the Special Court for Sierra Leone (“SCSL”), which was established jointly through an unprecedented bilateral treaty between the United Nations (“UN”) and Sierra Leone in 2002, has made jurisprudential contributions to the development of international criminal

  18. Causas e leis nas ciências do homem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Albieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta humeana acerca do método e da investigação na ciência do homem tornou-o um precursor do conhecido modelo covering-law de explicação científica, tal como defendido por Hempel, Nagel e outros filósofos contemporâneos da ciência. A interpretação da teoria da ciência de Hume como precursora desse modelo costuma ser majoritária entre os comentadores de sua filosofia. Apenas Donald Livingston travou uma discussão singular contra essa quase unanimidade, propondo-se a defender a existência de dois modelos de explicação na epistemologia de Hume, um adequado às ciências naturais, outro às morais. O autor apóia-se em certas passagens em que Hume parece reconhecer que, em ciências morais, predominariam as explicações recorrendo a causas morais, as quais consistiriam nas razões do agente ou conjunto de agentes envolvidos no evento a ser explicado. Defendemos que a diversidade das explicações causais naturais e morais em Hume pode ser discutida, não a partir de uma distinção radical de natureza, como aquela que Livingston quer estabelecer, mas a partir de uma distinção de grau: os graus de certeza que distinguem entre provas e probabilidades, entre explicações pela via dedutiva a partir de leis ou por generalizações estatísticas. Isto é, mais de acordo com a assimetria que Nagel reconhece entre ciências do particular e generalizadoras, quanto ao objetivo de estabelecer leis, no segundo caso, ou de apenas aplicá-las, no primeiro. Uma distinção compatível com aquela que Hume já adotara, atribuindo graus diferentes de generalidade de modo análogo a ciências naturais ou morais.Hume's proposal of a science of man is often taken as a precursor of the now well-known covering-law model of scientific explanation, sustained by Hempel, Nagel and other contemporary philosophers of science. Among Hume's commentators D. Livingston is an exception, defending the existence of two models of explanation in Hume

  19. Os Paradigmas da Lei no Pensamento de Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Jaccottet Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A legitimidade jurídica dos atos políticos é vinculada ao problema da Lei. Os elementos filosóficos do que diz respeito à legitimidade jurídica dos atos políticos são constantemente tratados nas obras de Hannah Arendt (1906-1975, como Origens do Totalitarismo, Sobre a Revolução e Eichmann em Jerusalém, além de estarem presentes no pensamento de outros autores, como Austin e Hart. A fim de contextualizar o pensamento da Autora, é necessário ter por conta que o Regime Nazista foi responsável pela prática de crimes contra a humanidade cujos precedentes não podem ser encontrados em nenhum documento histórico. Os delitos cometidos pelos Nazistas, todavia, não eram novidade. O genocídio, a tortura e a privação imotivada da liberdade já eram praticadas antes mesmo da antiguidade, porém não da maneira como o Regime Totalitário fez uso dessas ações ilícitas. Um único regime político foi capaz de conjugar uma série de práticas contrárias à dignidade da pessoa humana, de forma a negar a própria personalidade jurídica do ser humano. A engenharia usada para criar fábricas de morte, os sistemas de logística para o transporte de pessoas para essas fábricas e a maneira de como elas eram exterminadas e depois esquecidas tinha uma função institucional no corpo político guiado por Adolf Hitler.

  20. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  1. Novel Retinal Lesion in Ebola Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Paul J; Scott, Janet T; Baxter, Julia M; Parkes, Craig K; Dwivedi, Rahul; Czanner, Gabriela; Vandy, Matthew J; Momorie, Fayiah; Fornah, Alimamy D; Komba, Patrick; Richards, Jade; Sahr, Foday; Beare, Nicholas A V; Semple, Malcolm G

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study in Freetown, Sierra Leone, to investigate ocular signs in Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. A total of 82 EVD survivors with ocular symptoms and 105 controls from asymptomatic civilian and military personnel and symptomatic eye clinic attendees underwent ophthalmic examination, including widefield retinal imaging. Snellen visual acuity was Ebola virus, permitting cataract surgery. A novel retinal lesion following the anatomic distribution of the optic nerve axons occurred in 14.6% (97.5% CI 7.1%-25.6%) of EVD survivors and no controls, suggesting neuronal transmission as a route of ocular entry.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of LaNiO3, LaNi(1-xFexO3 andLaNi(1-xCoxO3 Perovskite Oxides for Catalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Sania Maria de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed metal oxides with perovskite-type structure show a great potential to be used in catalysis, electrocatalysis and electronic ceramics. Perovskites oxides catalysts with the composition LaNiO3, LaNi(1-xFe xO3 and LaNi(1-xCo xO3 (x = 0.4 and 0.7 have been synthesized by the precipitation method to be used in the methane reforming to produce hydrogen and synthesis gas. The compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, surface area measurements, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry coupled to scanning electron microscopy and temperature programmed reduction. The results showed that a suitable combination of the preparation method with calcination variables (time and temperature could result in oxides with the desired structure and with important properties at the application point of view in heterogeneous catalysis.

  3. Comparing simulated carbon budget of a Lei bamboo forest with flux tower data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  4. LEI 11.340/2006: SEU CONTEXTO, CONTEÚDO E APLICAÇÃO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vicente Bisognin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrou em vigor, em setembro de 2006, a lei 11.340/2006, também conhecida como Lei Maria da Penha, em homenagem à senhora que através de suas tragédias pessoais propiciou a elaboração da lei. Tal conjunto normativo é considerado uma forma de discriminação positiva, ao lado de outros marcos regulatórios, como o Estatuto da criança e do Adolescente e Estatuto do Idoso. A nova lei regulamenta os casos de violência doméstica, trazendo diversas mudanças, dentre as quais vale destacar as do processo judicial, do resgate do inquérito policial, do papel participativo da autoridade policial, além das alterações no Código Penal, Código de Processo Penal e Lei de Execução Penal.

  5. Laryngologist Leon Zamenhof--brother of Dr. Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, Andrzej; Sulkowska, Mariola; Musiatowicz, Marcin; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2009-06-01

    To reconstruct the biography of the Polish otorhinolaryngologist Leon Zamenhof (1875-1934), a brother of Ludwik Zamenhof, who is famous for invention of the international language Esperanto. Biographical information was collected from pre-World War II resources. Zamenhof developed several important new forms of treatment to help the hearing impaired. Zamenhof was especially interested in the education of deaf children and the therapy necessary to facilitate their integration into society. His significant achievements were a phonetic method of therapy for the hearing impaired and an automatic device for ear insufflation that was considered indispensable in the management of pyorrhea. In addition, Zamenhof initiated various forms of social support among physicians within the medical community of Warsaw, Poland; made health care available to children with hearing impairments; and organized a Jewish school for deaf children. Zamenhof tried to change public attitudes toward deafness, working to promote the integration of the deaf into wider society. He also translated Polish literature into Esperanto. With similar aims to his brother Ludwik, Leon Zamenhof strived to enhance and broaden communication among people who could not hear and to persuade people to change their attitudes about deafness.

  6. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca; Base de datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. volumen X. Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora y Salamanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  7. Highly Sensitive Detection of Surface and Intercalated Impurities in Graphene by LEIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Stanislav; Procházka, Pavel; Bábor, Petr; Šikola, Tomáš; ter Veen, Rik; Fartmann, Michael; Grehl, Thomas; Brüner, Philipp; Roth, Dietmar; Bauer, Peter; Brongersma, Hidde H

    2015-09-08

    Low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) is known for its extreme surface sensitivity, as it yields a quantitative analysis of the outermost surface as well as highly resolved in-depth information for ultrathin surface layers. Hence, it could have been generally considered to be a suitable technique for the analysis of graphene samples. However, due to the low scattering cross section for light elements such as carbon, LEIS has not become a common technique for the characterization of graphene. In the present study we use a high-sensitivity LEIS instrument with parallel energy analysis for the characterization of CVD graphene transferred to thermal silica/silicon substrates. Thanks to its high sensitivity and the exceptional depth resolution typical of LEIS, the graphene layer closure was verified, and different kinds of contaminants were detected, quantified, and localized within the graphene structure. Utilizing the extraordinarily strong neutralization of helium by carbon atoms in graphene, LEIS experiments performed at several primary ion energies permit us to distinguish carbon in graphene from that in nongraphitic forms (e.g., the remains of a resist). Furthermore, metal impurities such as Fe, Sn, and Na located at the graphene-silica interface (intercalated) are detected, and the coverages of Fe and Sn are determined. Hence, high-resolution LEIS is capable of both checking the purity of graphene surfaces and detecting impurities incorporated into graphene layers or their interfaces. Thus, it is a suitable method for monitoring the quality of the whole fabrication process of graphene, including its transfer on various substrates.

  8. Significant improvement of the osseointegration of zirconia dental implants by HS-LEIS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekmans, H.; Breitenstein, D.; Brongersma, H.H.; Ridder, M. de; Tromp, Th.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of sintered yttria stabilized zirconia dental implants is a recent development. After initial successes with these new implants a pattern of erratic results emerged. Reliable osseointegration would not always occur. High-sensitivity low energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS) is used to investigate both virgin and rejected implants. The surfaces of the implant are found to be covered with both an organic and inorganic contamination layer. Sterilization does not remove this contamination. Using LEIS as analytic tool a new cleaning process has been developed. Since this cleaning process is in use, the failure rate has dropped to a very low value.

  9. O processo de enfermagem e a lei do exercício profissional

    OpenAIRE

    Kletemberg,Denise Faucz; Siqueira,Márcia T. D.; Mantovani,Maria de Fátima; Padilha,Maria Itayra; Amante,Lúcia Nazareth; Anders,Jane Cristina

    2010-01-01

    A necessidade da cientificidade no processo de trabalho da enfermagem, impulsionada pelo avanço da ciência e contextualizada no mercado de trabalho, configurou-se na implantação do processo de enfermagem. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar nos documentos legais de enfermagem, as atribuições do enfermeiro frente à sociedade brasileira, na perspectiva da implantação de metodologia científica no processo de trabalho. Numa abordagem histórica, foram analisados Leis e Decretos-Leis que normatiza...

  10. Implementação da lei 10.639/03 na escola quilombola do mesquita

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Ellen Regina Damasceno

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo objetiva analisar a implementação da Lei 10.639/03 na escola de ensino fundamental Aleixo Pereira Braga I – localizada na Comunidade Quilombola do Mesquita, Cidade Ocidental-GO. Como referencial teórico, o estudo traz uma reflexão sobre o racismo no Brasil e nas escolas. Ademais apresenta as políticas afirmativas da identidade negra surgidas nos últimos anos. Utilizou-se a pesquisa qualitativa como forma de identificar as ações de implementação da Lei 10.639/03. Para tanto, os ins...

  11. Significant improvement of the osseointegration of zirconia dental implants by HS-LEIS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmans, H.; Breitenstein, D.; Brongersma, H. H.; de Ridder, M.; Tromp, Th. J.

    2010-06-01

    The use of sintered yttria stabilized zirconia dental implants is a recent development. After initial successes with these new implants a pattern of erratic results emerged. Reliable osseointegration would not always occur. High-sensitivity low energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS) is used to investigate both virgin and rejected implants. The surfaces of the implant are found to be covered with both an organic and inorganic contamination layer. Sterilization does not remove this contamination. Using LEIS as analytic tool a new cleaning process has been developed. Since this cleaning process is in use, the failure rate has dropped to a very low value.

  12. Significant improvement of the osseointegration of zirconia dental implants by HS-LEIS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beekmans, H. [Schoutenbosje 11, 1251 LE Laren (Netherlands); Breitenstein, D. [Tascon GmbH, Heisenbergstr. 15, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Brongersma, H.H., E-mail: H.H.Brongersma@tue.n [Tascon GmbH, Heisenbergstr. 15, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Calipso B.V., P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); ION-TOF GmbH, Heisenbergstr. 15, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Ridder, M. de [Calipso B.V., P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Tromp, Th.J. [Juralaan 13, 5691 JC Son en Breugel (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    The use of sintered yttria stabilized zirconia dental implants is a recent development. After initial successes with these new implants a pattern of erratic results emerged. Reliable osseointegration would not always occur. High-sensitivity low energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS) is used to investigate both virgin and rejected implants. The surfaces of the implant are found to be covered with both an organic and inorganic contamination layer. Sterilization does not remove this contamination. Using LEIS as analytic tool a new cleaning process has been developed. Since this cleaning process is in use, the failure rate has dropped to a very low value.

  13. Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Kevin; Naveed, Asad; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohamed Boie; Baion, David E.; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia; Williamson, Elizabeth; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2018-01-01

    We compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone during August 2014–March 2015 and performed multivariable logistic regression. Among 1,054 children, 309 (29%) were EVD positive and 697 (66%) EVD negative, with 48 (5%) missing. Contact history, conjunctivitis, and age were the strongest positive predictors for EVD. The PEP score had an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.80. A PEP score of 7/10 was 92% specific and 44% sensitive; 3/10 was 30% specific, 94% sensitive. The PEP score could correctly classify 79%–90% of children and could be used to facilitate triage into risk categories, depending on the sensitivity or specificity required. PMID:29350145

  14. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  15. Ravenscar Computational Model compliant AADL Simulation on LEON2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Varona-Gómez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AADL has been proposed for designing and analyzing SW and HW architectures for real-time mission-critical embedded systems. Although the Behavioral Annex improves its simulation semantics, AADL is a language for analyzing architectures and not for simulating them. AADS-T is an AADL simulation tool that supports the performance analysis of the AADL specification throughout the refinement process from the initial system architecture until the complete, detailed application and execution platform are developed. In this way, AADS-T enables the verification of the initial timing constraints during the complete design process. In this paper we focus on the compatibility of AADS-T with the Ravenscar Computational Model (RCM as part of the TASTE toolset. Its flexibility enables AADS-T to support different processors. In this work we have focused on performing the simulation on a LEON2 processor.

  16. Leon Trotsky: historiador da Revolução Russa

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Benedito Dias

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo tem o objetivo de analisar a interpretação que Leon Trotsky produziu sobre a Revolução Russa. Abarcando desde o período pré-revolucionário até a fase de liderança de Stalin, as fontes são as obras de Trotsky relacionadas ao tema. Investiga-se a hipótese de que existe uma unidade fundamental na interpretação de Trotsky, assegurada por duas coordenadas. Primeira, o fio condutor da interpretação é a teoria da revolução permanente. Segunda, Outubro de 1917 é o centro de gravidade, na ...

  17. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  18. “Ah lef ma case fo God”: Faith and agency in Sierra Leone's postwar reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative ethnographic analysis of local experiences of truth-telling performances within Sierra Leone's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Whereas proponents of truth commissions claim that such processes promote postwar reconciliation, this study found that local

  19. The activity of Leon Idzikovsky firm (book sales, book and music publishing, private public library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hul O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leon Idzikovsky firm’s activity has been analyzed and reviewed in this article. The firm was founded by Leon Idzikovsky in 1858 in Kyiv. The author draws attention to the different types of the firm’s activity: bookselling, publishing, private public library etc. The repertoire of the publishing company has been studied in compliance with the firm’s activity periodization. Recreated is the history of Leon Idzikovsky library foundation.The library consisted of nearly 173,000 books, periodicals and sheet music. The author of the article analyzes the thematic structure of the library fonds. Defined is the role of Leon Idzikovsky firm as an important cultural center of prerevolutionary Kyiv

  20. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima,  Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa. Abstract

  1. Análise econômica da primeira Lei de Patentes brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Felippe Cabello

    Full Text Available Resumo O Brasil foi um dos primeiros países a ter uma lei de patentes e um dos únicos a conceder prazos de duração da patente de acordo com a qualidade da invenção. Este trabalho analisa um banco de dados inédito com todos os 783 privilégios industriais concedidos sob a vigência da primeira lei de patentes brasileira entre 1830 e 1882. Os resultados mostram que a atividade inventiva esteve conectada à estrutura econômica e social da época e que a escassez de mão de obra incentivou a invenção de máquinas e equipamentos para o setor cafeicultor. O número de patentes apenas começou a se elevar a partir de 1870, quando a economia brasileira passou por grandes mudanças que levaram ao seu desenvolvimento, evidenciando que pouco resultado surge quando se institui uma lei de patentes em um ambiente de estagnação econômica. Mesmo assim, a lei revelou-se o mecanismo menos dispendioso para estimular a atividade inventiva no Brasil do século XIX.

  2. Calculation of Auger-neutralization probabilities for He{sup +}-ions in LEIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebl, D., E-mail: dominik.goebl@jku.at [Institut Fuer Experimentalphysik, Abt. Atom- und Oberflaechenphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Monreal, R.C.; Valdes, D.; Primetzhofer, D. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Bauer, P. [Institut Fuer Experimentalphysik, Abt. Atom- und Oberflaechenphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2011-06-01

    In Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS), Auger-neutralization is an omnipresent charge exchange mechanism, especially when noble gas ions are used as projectiles, with a primary energy below the threshold energy, E{sub th}, for collision induced charge exchange processes (neutralization and reionization). Recent experiments revealed a significant dependence of the ion survival probability, P{sup +}, on the crystal plane, when He{sup +} ions are scattered from a metal surface. This is in contrast to the fact, that the neutralization probability in LEIS is usually assumed to be independent of the chemical environment of the collision partner (absence of matrix effects). In order to investigate this crystal effect, an existent theory on Auger-neutralization (based on a Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals) is adapted to the LEIS geometry. With this model, Auger-neutralization rates are calculated for a Ag(1 1 0) surface. Trajectories for He particles scattered from this surface into different azimuth directions are obtained by means of Molecular Dynamics simulations. Subsequently, the ion survival probability is calculated and compared to measurements. Good agreement is obtained which gives confidence in the applicability of this model in the LEIS regime. Moreover, it was possible to obtain detailed information on the properties of the neutralization process.

  3. Dez Anos da Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal: Avanços e Percalços

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Carlos Pontes Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal trouxe grandes expectativas. Muitos a apontavam como uma mudança profunda na forma de gerir as finanças públicas no Brasil. Os diversos mecanismos de controle inseridos pela lei impediriam que uma série de práticas corriqueiras, mas extremamente nocivas para a administração pública brasileira, continuassem a existir. Suas regras – que incluíam limites de gastos de pessoal por Poder, limites de endividamento público, de operações de crédito, mecanismos para evitar que uma gestão transferisse ônus para as gestões seguintes, entre outros instrumentos de austeridade - teriam aplicações em todos os Poderes e em todas as esferas de governo. Desde o início, reconhecia-se que os desafios para a implementação seriam enormes, porque a lei contrariava uma cultura política há muito consolidada. O primeiro grande teste pelo qual a lei passou foi o da sua constitucionalidade. Foi ajuizada por 3 partidos políticos – e apoiada por diversas associações de magistrados e de membros do Ministério Público - uma ADI que impugnava a constitucionalidade de toda a lei, por suposto vício formal, além de diversos dispositivos essenciais. O segundo grande teste foi o da modificação. Muitos analisavam que assim que o grupo de forças que a patrocinou deixasse o Poder, ela seria alterada em seus objetivos mais importantes. Nesses quase 10 anos de vigência da Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal, esta só foi alterada uma vez, alteração que reforçou os seus objetivos, uma vez que ampliou a obrigatoriedade de transparência. Por fim, no teste da implementação, houve alguns problemas, notadamente na interpretação dos gastos com pessoal, em algumas unidades da federação, mas, de uma forma geral, a lei tem sido bem-sucedida.

  4. Hydrogen isotopes separation using twin combined columns packed with Pd and LaNi4.7Al0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinliang; Zhu Hongzhi; Li Jie; Zhao Ping

    2007-01-01

    A series of hydrogen isotope separation experiment by the twin-bed periodically counter-current flow were carried out using twin combined columns separately packed with Pd and LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 , which shows inverse isotope effect. Two kinds of feed gases, the deuterium atomic molar fraction 0.5 and 0.1, were supplied during the effluent curve test and hydrogen isotope separation experiment. The results show that this hydrogen isotope separation by periodically counter-current flow has a quite high separate efficiency. Deuterium atom mole fraction in the product is normally greater than 0.995. For the separation of feed gas that deuterium atomic mole fraction was 0.1 by our improved operation manner, the maximum deuterium atomic mole fraction in product, the maximum enrichment, the deuterium recovery ratio are 0.998, 9.98 and 92.5% respectively, hydrogen atomic mole fraction in exhaust is greater than 0.996, and the full separation coefficient is over 120000. (authors)

  5. Effect of partial substitution of nickel by tin, aluminum, manganese and palladium on the properties of LaNi5-type metal hydride alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Elki C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports studies on the electrochemical behavior of AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys, formed by LaNi(5-xZx, where Z is a metallic element partially replacing Ni, which included Sn, Al, Mn, and Pd. In the case of Mn, some AB6-type structures were also considered. Substitution of a small fraction of Ni by Al, Sn, and Mn (x @ 0.3 leads to an increase of the hydrogen storage capability (HSC, while for Pd there is a decrease of this property. Generally all alloys presenting larger initial HSC exhibit lower stability. A decrease of the hydrogen equilibrium pressure as a function of Mn content is observed for the AB5 alloys and this is related to an increase of the crystalline unit cell volume. Electrochemical impedance measurements show a significant increase of the hydration/dehydration reaction kinetics due to a raise on the active area as a function of the charge/discharge cycle number. It is also seen that the alloys presenting larger HSC are those showing smaller activation energies for the hydrogen oxidation reaction.

  6. Comparing Simulated Carbon Budget of a Lei Bamboo Forest with Flux Tower Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehe Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo forest ecosystem is the part of the forest ecosystem. The distribution area of bamboo forest is limited, but in somewhere, like south China, it has been cultivate for a long time with human management. As the climate change has been take great effect on forest carbon budget, many researchers pay attention to the carbon budget in bamboo forest. Moreover cultivative management had a significant impact on the bamboo forest carbon budget. In this study, we modified a terrestrial ecosystem model named Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS according the management of Lei bamboo forest. Some management, like fertilization, shoots harvesting and organic mulching in winter, had been incorporated into model. Then we had compared model results with the observation data from a Lei bamboo flux tower. The simulated and observed results had achieved good consistency. Our simulated Lei bamboo forest yearly net ecosystem productivity (NEP was 0.41 kgC a-1 of carbon, which is very close to the observation data 0.45 kgC a-1 of carbon. And the monthly simulated results can take the change of carbon budget in each month, similar to the data we got from flux tower. It reflects that the modified IBIS model can characterize the growth of bamboo forest and perform the simulation well. And then two groups of simulations were set to evaluate effects of cultivative managements on Lei bamboo forests carbon budget. And results showed that both fertilization and organic mulching had taken positive effects on Lei bamboo forests carbon sequestration.

  7. AnÃlise da Lei do SINAES e seus resultados como instrumento de controle do Estado

    OpenAIRE

    NatÃlia de Oliveira Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Esta pesquisa avalia os resultados da aplicabilidade da Lei do Sistema Nacional de AvaliaÃÃo da EducaÃÃo Superior, como instrumento de controle do Estado. Tem como objetivo identificar as mudanÃas ocorridas nas instituiÃÃes de ensino superior, apÃs o advento da lei do SINAES; analisar os resultados da eficÃcia da lei, considerando os indicadores do MEC/INEP; e, ainda, apresentar argumentos para alicerÃar o entendimento de que a AvaliaÃÃo à um meio de controle do Estado. A fundamentaÃÃo teÃric...

  8. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoo-Gottfried, K.; Hall, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  9. Lei civilizadora e inspirada nos princípios da nossa Santa Religião”: Reflexões sobre o uso de símbolos religiosos na Lei de 28 de Setembro de 1871 (Lei do Ventre Livre) – Pará, século XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas Neves, Fernando Arthur; Chaves, Kelly Tavares

    2014-01-01

    O estudo a seguir tem o objetivo de demonstrar os usos dos símbolos religiosos do Catolicismo na lei de emancipação da escravidão nº. 2.040 de 28 de Setembro de 1871, conhecida na historiografia como a Lei do Ventre Livre. Apresentamos as características enfatizadas ou iluminadas sobre esses símbolos religiosos utilizados pelos membros da oligarquia política do Pará, durante o Império, para se propagar ideais de civilização e progresso material para o Estado advindos com a nova Lei; ao mesmo ...

  10. Leon Marchlewski: one of the precursors of clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Muszytowski, Marek; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic progress in the basic sciences such as clinical chemistry exerted a great influence on the development of clinical science in medicine in the 19th century. We should rate Prof. Leon Marchlewski among the group of prominent foreign and Polish scientists working in that period. Marchlewski was born in 1869 in Wloclawek, Poland. He began his chemical studies in Warsaw and then continued at the Zurich Technical University. After having graduated, he began working in the famous Edward Schunk's laboratory in Kersal near Manchester in England. At that time he achieved recognition for his research on the chemical affinity of dyes of the animal and plant world. Later he cooperated in this field with another great scholar Marceli Nencki. In 1900 he returned to Poland, and in 1906 he took charge of the Department of Medical Chemistry at Jagiellonian University. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize twice in 1913 and 1914 for his numerous achievements in the field of clinical chemistry. He took many positions at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, including dean and rector. In 1930-1935 he was a senator of the Republic of Poland. He died in 1946 in Krakow.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections and swamp development in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbakima, Aiah A.

    1994-11-01

    The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and other intestinal and urogenital parasites were assessed in five Inland Valley Swamp (IVS) development faming communities in the Moyamba District, South-central Sierra Leone. Stool and urine samples were submitted by 1106 individuals and examined by the iron-haematoxylin staining and the formalin-ether concentration techniques for faecal sample and centrifugation method for the urine samples. The overall parasitic infection rate was 61.7% while 5.9% of the population had multiple infections. E. histolytica infection rate was 12.3 % and most of the infected individuals were passing cysts. Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis infection rates were 10.0% and 0.4% respectively. Among the helminth infections, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly observed (13.7%), followed by hookworms (12.1 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.7%) and tapeworms (2.6%). The high parasitic infection rate (61.7%) and the frequency of multiple infections indicate an interrelationship of environmental factors which support transmission rather than a single factor.

  12. A lei 10.639/2003 e a literatura luso-africana e afro-brasileira na escola

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho se propõe analisar como tem repercutido no ensino fundamental II a lei nº 10.639/2003, alterada pela Lei nº 11.645/2008, que incluiu na Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação (LDB) a obrigatoriedade do ensino da História e Cultura Afro-brasileira no currículo escolar. Determinou também o ensino da cultura africana no Brasil como discussão sobre a prática do racismo, da discriminação e da desigualdade. No entanto, a promulgação da lei, embora represente um avanço no sentido da pro...

  13. LEI DE ACESSO À INFORMAÇÃO: NOTAS E UM BREVE EXEMPLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gruman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os principais pontos da Lei n. 12.527, conhecida como Lei de Acesso à Informação, relacionando-os a conceitos como democracia, transparência, controle social e gestão compartilhada. Argumenta-se que a consolidação da democracia no Brasil está associada a uma administração pública regida pelo princípio da eficiência nos gastos públicos a partir de políticas públicas elaboradas segundo as demandas da sociedade, e que a cultura do acesso permite cada vez mais a participação da sociedade na avaliação das ações do Estado e mesmo na proposição de mudanças de rumo.

  14. Prestação de contas eleitorais depois da lei 9.504/1997

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ronaldo Taborda

    2013-01-01

    A ideia deste trabalho é aproveitar o momento oportuno do país, com uma interminável série de escândalos divulgados pela mídia envolvendo políticos e partidos nas eleições, para um estudo apurado e imparcial da prestação de contas no processo eleitoral brasileiro. Para isso iniciar se á por um histórico para em fim, chegar se até a edição da lei das eleições lei n° 9.504/1997 - para então acompanhar e entender a chamada prestação de contas eleitorais desde o momento da apresentação até o exam...

  15. Natural law x ancient convention Lei natural x convenção dos antigos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvino Antônio Malfatti

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the debate occurred among the ancient Greeks about the nature of the law. Basically two trends were confronted: the defenders of a "natural law" and conventionalists. Among the first we may mention Socrates, Plato, Aristotle’s and the Stoics. In the latter there were the sophists and epicureans. The ones that are favorable to the natural law argued that man was born with the law and when he complies with it, justice is done. Around this idea it may be obtained a society consensus about what to do and what not to do. The consensus would be in fundamental matters and with this the law could be stable, general, above group interests and mainly fair. The convencionalists, on the contrary, thought that the mentioned consensus was only a disguise of the hegemonic group. And if the law were a mere fancy of the dominant group, it would be transitory, particular, casuistic and mainly an impositive force. This debate was so significative that it was not lost in History, ít was maintained in the Middle Age and it was lighted again in the Modern Age with the contractualism divided between naturalists in favor of a natural law and conventionalists in favor of an absolute relative of the laws. Even in the Contemporaneous Age the two trends were confronted and still do, evidently coated with other clothes. The great majority of the liberals, for example, are submissive to the naturalism and the great majority of the marxists follow the convenciolist trend. For sure, nowadays the defenders of the " alternative right" have their roots in the conventionalism, and the followers of the idea of an impersonal right own their inspiration to the natural right. O presente artigo traz o debate entre os gregos antigos sobre a natureza da lei. Basicamente duas correntes defrontaram-se: os defensores da lei natural e os convencionalistas. Entre os primeiros podem ser citados Sócrates, Platão, Aristóteles e os estóicos. Nos segundos encontram

  16. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  17. Correlation in chicken between the marker LEI0258 alleles and Major Histocompatibility Complex sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chazara, Olympe; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Chang, Chi-Seng

    Background The LEI0258 marker is located within the B region of the chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and is surprisingly well associated with serology. Therefore, the correlation between the LEI0258 alleles and the MHC class I and the class II alleles at the level of sequences...... is worth investigating in chickens. Here we describe to which extent the LEI0258 alleles are associated with alleles of classical class I genes and non-classical class II genes, in reference animals as well as local breeds with unknown MHC haplotypes. Methods For the class I region, in an exploratory...... project, we studied 10 animals from 3 breeds: Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn and Fayoumi chickens, by cloning and sequencing B-F1 and B-F2 cDNA from exon 1 to 3’UTR. For the class II region, we reconstructed haplotypes of the 8.8 kb genomic region encompassing three non-classical class II genes: B-DMA, B...

  18. Marco Civil da Internet: uma lei sem conteúdo normativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomasevicius Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Lei n.12.965, de 23 de abril de 2014, promulgou o denominado Marco Civil da Internet, com o intuito de estabelecer princípios, garantias, direitos e deveres para os usuários de internet no Brasil. Embora se tenha comemorado sua aprovação, por supostamente as demais normas jurídicas vigentes no Brasil - como a Constituição Federal, o Código Civil e o Código Penal - não terem aplicação nas relações sociais entabuladas pela internet, essa lei apresenta poucas inovações e muitas insuficiências e deficiências de cunho jurídico. Somando-se a esse fato a impossibilidade jurídica de regulação de uma rede mundial de computadores por meio de lei de um único país, os problemas gerados pela internet continuarão a afetar a privacidade, honra e imagem das pessoas, ao mesmo tempo em que conquistas, como a da neutralidade da rede, terão pouco impacto na vida das pessoas.

  19. Analysis of Security Sector Reform in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone: A Comparison of Current versus Historical Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    article_200513605.shtml (accessed February 14, 2010),;Augustine Samba , "In Sierra Leone, Curfew Order Declared," Awareness Times, October 28, 2009...February 14, 2010). Riley, Jonathon P. The U.K. in Sierra Leone: A Post-Conflict Operation Success? Heritage Foundation, 2006. Samba , Augustine

  20. Aderência dos municípios cearenses à lei da transparência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Muniz Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A transparência pública decorre diretamente do princípio da publicidade e é uma ferramenta de controle dos ingressos e dispêndios públicos. Para controlar sua eficácia, surge a Lei Complementar nº 131/2009, que alterou a redação da LRF no que se refere à transparência da gestão fiscal. A fim de facilitar o acesso às informações relativas à gestão pública, o instrumento utilizado são os portais de transparência. Esta pesquisa objetivou analisar a aderência dos municípios cearenses às exigências contidas na Lei da Transparência, quanto à divulgação, em tempo real, das informações pormenorizadas sobre a execução orçamentária e financeira; divulgar a adesão desses municípios à utilização dos Portais da Transparência; e apresentar as principais irregularidades relacionadas ao descumprimento da referida lei. Foi realizada pesquisa do tipo exploratória e explicativa, fundamentada em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental quali-quantitativa no período de março a junho/2014. Para a apuração dos resultados foram coletados dados oficiais decorrentes da fiscalização do TCM-CE referente aos meses de junho a dezembro de 2013. A pesquisa realizada verificou que dos 184 municípios cearenses, todas as Prefeituras Municipais possuem Portais da Transparência. Em relação à aderência dos entes municipais à Lei da Transparência, os níveis de regularidade em dezembro/2013 foram satisfatórios e ficou evidenciado que a maior incidência de irregularidades está relacionada ao critério do “tempo real”. Portanto, conclui-se que as Prefeituras e Câmaras Municipais Cearenses, em sua maioria, possuem Portais da Transparência; que buscam seguir às exigências da Lei; e que os níveis de regularidade evoluíram em relação ao período inicial.

  1. Overcoming Operational Challenges to Ebola Case Investigation in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Boland, Samuel; Polich, Erin; Connolly, Allison; Hoar, Adam; Sesay, Tom; Tran, Anh-Minh A

    2017-09-27

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that hit West Africa in 2013 was the worst outbreak of EVD in recorded history. While much has been published regarding the international and national-level EVD responses, there is a dearth of literature on district-level coordination and operational structures, successes, and failures. This article seeks to understand how the EVD response unfolded at the district level, namely the challenges to operationalizing EVD surveillance over the course of the outbreak in Port Loko and Kambia districts of Sierra Leone. We present here GOAL Global's understanding of the fundamental challenges to case investigation operations during the EVD response, including environmental and infrastructural, sociocultural, and political and organizational challenges, with insight complemented by a survey of 42 case investigators. Major challenges included deficiencies in transportation and communication resources, low morale and fatigue among case investigators, mismanagement of data, mistrust among communities, and leadership challenges. Without addressing these operational challenges, technical surveillance solutions are difficult to implement and hold limited relevance, due to the poor quality and quantity of data being collected. The low prioritization of operational needs came at a high cost. To mediate this, GOAL addressed these operational challenges by acquiring critical transportation and communication resources to facilitate case investigation, including vehicles, boats, fuel, drivers, phones, and closed user groups; addressing fatigue and low morale by hiring more case investigators, making timely payments, arranging for time off, and providing meals and personal protective equipment; improving data tracking efforts through standard operating procedures, training, and mentorship to build higher-quality case histories and make it easier to access information; strengthening trust in communities by ensuring familiarity and consistency of case

  2. Evaluation of the Leon3 soft-core processor within a Xilinx radiation-hardened field-programmable gate array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the work done to evaluate the performance of the Leon3 soft-core processor in a radiation environment while instantiated in a radiation-hardened static random-access memory based field-programmable gate array. This evaluation will look at the differences between two soft-core processors: the open-source Leon3 core and the fault-tolerant Leon3 core. Radiation testing of these two cores was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron facility and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results of these tests are included within the report along with designs intended to improve the mitigation of the open-source Leon3. The test setup used for evaluating both versions of the Leon3 is also included within this document.

  3. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  4. A APLICABILIDADE DA LEI SARBANES-OXLEY NA LEGISLAÇÃO BRASILEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cidade Nuvens Silveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva analisar a aplicabilidade jurídica da Lei Sarbanes-Oxley em empresas brasileiras com ações listadas no mercado de capitais dos Estados Unidos, que possuam American Depositary Receipts (Certificado de Depósito de Valores Mobiliários no Exterior, em especial o caso Petrobrás, investigada atualmente pelo desvio de valores e apresentação de demonstrações financeiras não fidedignas. Enfatiza-se à seção 304 que trata das penalidades aos conselheiros de administração e diretoria por violação do dever de conduta, além da seção 404, intitulada Management Assessmentof Internal Controls, que trata da avaliação anual dos controles e procedimentos internos das organizações para emissão de relatórios financeiros e fiscalização da SEC (Securitiesand Exchange Comission. Ao relacionar a Lei Sox e a aplicabilidade do direito civil e internacional, bem como aplicação do direito penal e processual penal, a partir desse confronto de competências, encontra-se o seguinte resultado: o estudo comprovou que há uma evolução no pensamento da extraterritorialidade das leis estrangeiras no solo brasileiro, fato esse foi um avanço jurisprudencional e principiológico na obtenção de culpabilidade dos réus investigados e comprovados pelas práticas ilegais no âmbito penal e civil.

  5. The Violence of Peace and the Role of Education: Insights from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario; Higgins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Research on peacebuilding has mushroomed over the last decade and there is a growing interest in the role of education in supporting peacebuilding processes. This paper engages with these debates, UN peacebuilding activities and the location of education initiatives therein, through a case study of Sierra Leone. In the first part, we explore the…

  6. The Role of Religion During and After the Civil War in Sierra Leone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil wars in Africa are renowned for their strong religious elements, with religion being used for different purposes and in different capacities. Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002), known also as the “rebel war,” had significant religious dimensions. The warring factions used religion for their gain. Beyond that, Muslim and ...

  7. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  8. Sierra Leone and the Curse of the One-Party State: Contested Ideas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, with the coming of independence that friendship turned quickly into fierce enmity where personal animosities and ambitions turned the political arena into a tense atmosphere characterised by doubts and political crisis. Surprisingly, their enmity was responsible for creating the Sierra Leone version of the one party ...

  9. Looming Over the Nation, Uneasy with the Folks: Locating Mike de Leon in Philippine Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F. Campos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article draws on filmic, popular, and scholarly references in order to trace how Mike de Leon and his films have been regarded, since his landmark entrance into Philippine cinema as director, up to the present. Specifically, it locates De Leon within the subtly shifting discourse of nationalist film scholarship and historicizing, and discusses how he and his films are written about, identified, associated or networked with other filmmakers and films, or utilized in discourses about the Philippines, Philippine cinema, or Philippine culture.The article locates De Leon as (1 an insider of Philippine cinema history, (2 an outsider of the commercial film industry, and (3 a hero of the mythic Golden Age of the National Cinema. It also maps out his filmography within the nationalist agenda; appraises what filmmakers, commentators, and scholars have articulated about his films; and analyzes the thematic and stylistic trajectories of his later works. Finally, it discusses how De Leon is being written into today’s discourse of Philippine cinema.

  10. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  11. Child mental health in Sierra Leone : A survey and exploratory qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoder, H.N.C.; Tol, W.A.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study complements the growing amount of research on the psychosocial impact of war on children in Sierra Leone by examining local perceptions of child mental health, formal and informal care systems, help-seeking behaviour and stigma. Methods The study combined: (1) a nationwide

  12. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  13. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  14. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  15. Learning Curve Characteristics for Caesarean Section Among Associate Clinicians : A Prospective Study from Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalewijn, B.P.; van Duinen, A.; Koroma, A. P.; Rijken, M. J.; Elhassein, M.; Bolkan, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In response to the high maternal mortality ratio, Sierra Leone has adopted an associate clinician postgraduate surgical task-sharing training programme. Little is known about learning curve characteristics for caesarean sections among associate clinicians. The aim of this study is to

  16. Criminologia, Antropologia e Medicina Legal. Um personagem central: Leonídio Ribeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Gutman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresentação da trajetória de Leonídio Ribeiro, em especial a sua abordagem do homossexualismo como representativa das concepções fundantes do campo da criminologia nas primeiras décadas do século XX no Brasil.

  17. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  18. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 5, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based Combinations in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria among Children Under ... The Use of Mobile Electronic Devices for Public Health Data Collection and Syndromic Surveillance at the Republic Of Sierra Leone Armed Forces · EMAIL FREE ...

  19. Converts to human rights? Popular debate about war and justice in rural central Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, S.; Richards, P.

    2002-01-01

    Internationally, war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) is regarded as an instance of violent conflict driven by economic factors (attempts to control the mining of alluvial diamonds). Fieldwork (2000-01) in rural areas recovering from war suggests a very different picture. War victims and combatants from

  20. Comportamentos de risco para a saúde entre adolescentes em conflito com a lei

    OpenAIRE

    Sena,Cláudia Alves de; Colares,Viviane

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as condutas de saúde entre adolescentes em conflito com a lei, internos em instituição de atendimento sócio-educativo em município da região metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. A amostra foi composta por 241 jovens do sexo masculino, de 12 a 18 anos de idade. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se uma versão reduzida do questionário de autopreenchimento utilizado pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention dos Estados Unidos, traduzido e adapta...

  1. Lei do Abate, guerra às drogas e defesa nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Raposo Pereira Feitosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa o processo de criação e regulamentação da Lei do Abate no Brasil, que autoriza a derrubada em pleno voo de aeronaves civis suspeitas de envolvimento no tráfico de drogas. Investigam-se as relações entre a elaboração da Lei do Abate, a política de guerra às drogas propagada pelos EUA e as preocupações estratégicas dos militares brasileiros acerca da segurança da Região Amazônica. Como parte da contextualização da criação dos programas de interdição aérea baseados no abate de aeronaves, estudam-se as origens e as transformações das políticas antidrogas dos EUA desde a década de 1960 e o modelo de guerra às drogas (War on Drugs. Analisa-se também o processo de discussão parlamentar no Brasil sobre a Lei do Abate e os debates para a sua regulamentação. A pesquisa ocorreu por meio da análise de documentos produzidos pelos governos dos EUA (abertos e sigilosos reclassificados e do Brasil, da investigação dos anais do Congresso Nacional e do estudo de livros e artigos científicos nacionais e estrangeiros. Verifica-se que os programas que autorizam o abate nascem sob a justificativa do combate ao tráfico, mas se ligam às necessidades militares específicas de Peru e Colômbia. A lei brasileira surge para combater o transporte aéreo ilícito vinculado ao tráfico; contudo, sua origem e os debates posteriores para sua regulamentação submetem-se ao condicionamento dos temores e projetos militares em torno da defesa da soberania sobre a Amazônia brasileira.

  2. Aplicabilidade da lei de Benford na análise de um conjunto de dados eleitorais

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Loureiro Madureira

    2012-01-01

    Essa pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a aplicabilidade de uma metodologia de investigação das disfunções existentes no conjunto de dados eleitorais de uma eleição para cargo majoritário no Brasil. O desenvolvimento e a rápida expansão da teoria descoberta por Newcomb-Benford, conhecida como Lei de Benford, bastante difundida por Mark J. Nigrini, Ph.D. no meio contábil, com a utilização de testes estatísticos, despertou o interesse por esta pesquisa. Vislumbrou-se a possibilidade de reduzi...

  3. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-12-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  4. Lei de acesso à informação pública: algumas considerações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Merlo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A Lei de Acesso à Informação visa garantir ao cidadão o acesso às informações na esfera pública brasileira, assim este trabalho objetiva investigar e ter uma compreensão maior em torno da Lei, tendo em vista que a regulamentação é recente e ainda está sendo implementada por órgãos e instituições públicos. A Lei de Acesso à Informação merece um estudo profundo, não só por parte dos Arquivistas, mas também por servidores que trabalham diretamente com a informação pública, para que seja aplicada de forma eficiente e eficaz possibilitando com que o cidadão exerça seus direitos e o Estado cumpra com seus deveres.

  5. O supremo tribunal federal e a lei maria da penha – uma lamentável decisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo de Andrade Moreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa duas decisões tomadas pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal na sessão do último dia 09 de fevereiro. A primeira, por maioria, julgou procedente a ADIn nº. 4424 quanto aos artigos 12, I, 16 e 41 da Lei nº. 11.340/06. Na mesma sessão, por unanimidade, os Ministros acompanharam o voto do relator da ADC nº. 19, Ministro Marco Aurélio, e declararam constitucionais os arts. 1º., 33 e 41 da lei. Discordando do entendimento da Suprema Corte, procuramos confrontar alguns dispositivos da Lei Maria da Penha com a Constituição Federal, concluindo que os seus arts. 17 e 41, além do art. 313, IV do Código de Processo Penal, não devem ser aplicados, pois incompatíveis com a Constituição Federal.

  6. A fruição dos direitos humanos da mulher e a Lei Maria da Penha

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes, Thereza Christina Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Os temas relacionados à violência doméstica e à desigualdade de gênero demandam interesse por diversas razões. A promulgação da Lei 11.340, de 07 de agosto de 2006, nomeada pelo Presidente da República de Lei Maria da Penha Maia incitou diversos debates, tanto no mundo jurídico quanto na sociedade civil. Com de três anos de vigência, os ânimos não se aquietaram. Persistem discussões por vezes acaloradas. Isso justifica reflexões e estudos sobre a lei que ampliou os conceitos de violência in...

  7. DIFICULDADES PARA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DA LEI 10.639: A INFLUÊNCIA DOS VALORES RELIGIOSOS SOBRE OS TEMAS APRESENTADOS NO TEXTO DA LEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique Corrêa Rocha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Este artigo consiste numa apresentação dos principais resultados obtidos através de entrevistas concedidas por professores de Geografia, no que tange à influência de valores religiosos sobre a aplicação dos conteúdos apresentados pela lei 10.639. A análise que será apresentada busca demonstrar as dificuldades destacadas pelos docentes dessa disciplina no que se refere ao debater sobre o Continente Africano no ambiente escolar. Destacamos este último como sendo o palco onde o currículo praticado é construído e também onde pode ser observada a ação dos valores religiosos – expressos através da prática de professores, alunos e funcionários – que, em alguns casos, apresentam-se como fatores que dificultam o desenvolvimento dos temas apresentados pela lei.    Palavras-Chave: Lei 10.639; ambiente escolar; currículo praticado; valores religiosos.   Abstract   This article is a presentation of the main results obtained through interviews granted by teachers of Geography, regarding the application of content provided by law 10,639. The analysis that will be presented seeks to demonstrate the difficulties highlighted by the teachers of this discipline with regard to the debate on the African continent in the

  8. A Lei Geral de Telecomunicações sob uma perspectiva convergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tonicelli de M. Quelho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é o de promover a análise da adaptabilidade da Lei Geral de Telecomunicações brasileira, Lei nº 9.472/97 (LGT, a um contexto de convergência. Inicialmente, é trazida uma característica das infraestruturas de tecnologia da informação e comunicação que revela o potencial convergente e a possibilidade de mudança nas estratégias de mercado e nas políticas públicas: a modularidade. Em seguida, são identificados dois cenários limitadores da convergência: a existência de ilhas na política de comunicação e a de silos no regime regulatório. A regulação em camadas é utilizada para análise da convergência. Em face desses elementos, o marco legal de telecomunicações é testado para se demonstrar a relativa adaptabilidade da LGT.

  9. A Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal e suas implicações nas esferas municipais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal em 2014 completa 13 (treze anos, neste trabalho busca-se demonstrar sua origem, com breve relato da situação na época em que foi publicada, a relevância da busca pelo equilíbrio fiscal tratando o endividamento das prefeituras, sobre este tema, traz-se a discussão sobre as renúncias de receitas, as  transferências voluntárias e os restos a pagar. No capítulo 4 trata-se dos limites constitucionais, gastos com saúde, educação e pessoal (ativos e inativos. Mais à frente, o papel dos Tribunais de Contas e a relevância do Controle Social, com abordagem sobre a realização das audiências públicas e destaque especial para a Lei de Acesso a Informação, recentemente publicada.

  10. A PRISÃO PREVENTIVA E O DESCASO À LEI 12.403/2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra de Freitas Miacci Dias Miacci Miacci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A prisão preventiva é uma das medidas cautelares previstas no Código Penal Brasileiro (1941 em seus artigos 311 a 316, que tem como fundamento para sua decretação a garantia da ordem pública, garantia da ordem econômica, conveniência da instrução criminal, assegurar a aplicação da lei penal, e o cumprimento de medida protetiva de urgência. O presente artigo demonstra um excesso exorbitante da prisão preventiva, com justificativas incoerentes ao caso concreto, em desacordo com princípios e tratados constitucionais, desencadeando problemas irreversíveis e de proporção ampla, envolvendo o Estado, em seu Poder legislativo, executivo e Judiciário, bem como a administração Penitenciária. Nesse sentido, a lei 12.403/2011 trouxe inovações para o Código de Processo Penal, porém o que se tem visto é o descaso à tal inovação, sendo necessária uma intervenção do Estado, adotando medidas para corrigir a excessiva aplicação, intensificando a efetiva aplicabilidade das outras medidas cautelares diversas da prisão e devolvendo a identidade da prisão preventiva como excepcionalidade ao processo penal.

  11. Lei 11.645/08: a questão étnico-cultural nas escolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Gomes Moreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz informações sobre o conhecimento que professores e alunos têm da Lei 11.645/2008, que torna obrigatório o ensino das culturas negra e indígena nas Instituições de ensino de todo país. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida com alunos e professores de escolas públicas e privadas do município de Sinop-MT e constatou que o preconceito ainda se faz presente em nossa sociedade, principalmente quando se refere aos negros e aos índios. Verificou-se que a escola é um caminho para a superação dos preconceitos. Dessa forma concluiu-se que o trabalho que está sendo desenvolvido em algumas escolas começa a mostrar resultados positivos na busca da eliminação do preconceito e do racismo, fazendo com que os alunos passem a ver o outro com respeito. Palavras-chave: educação; lei 11.645/2008; professores e alunos.

  12. Teorias da lei natural: Pufendorf e Rousseau Natural law theories: Pufendorf and Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Netto de Andrade e Silva Sahd

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo reconstruir argumentos centrais desenvolvidos por Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Contra Samuel Pufendorf, Rousseau defende que a justiça não é natural. Ele recusa todo compromisso com a lei natural tradicional para voltar à posição de Thomas Hobbes. Ora, no estado originário de natureza, os princípios racionais da lei natural que expõe Pufendorf não podem ser conhecidos, e, por conseguinte, quando puderem ser conhecidos, não serão aplicados por natureza.The present article aims at reconstructing Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s central arguments. Against Samuel Pufendorf, Rousseau maintains that justice is not natural, thereby rejecting the compromise with traditional natural law and wholly returning to the position of Thomas Hobbes. Now, in the original state of nature, Pufendorf’s rational principles of natural law cannot be known; later, when they may be known, they are not by nature enforced.

  13. LEI DA PALMADA: REFLEXÕES E IMPLICAÇÕES PSICOJURÍDICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohana Pinheiro Feltrin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a interferência do Estado no poder familiar, bem como no que consiste a “Lei da Palmada” e suas consequências na esfera psicológica da criança e do adolescente. Pretende verificar a legislação existente contra os maus-tratos e as mudanças que podem ocorrer com a sanção do referido Projeto de Lei. Como método, utilizou-se o dedutivo e de pesquisa jurisprudencial, no âmbito do Poder Judiciário Gaúcho, a fim de averiguar seu posicionamento nos casos de castigos físicos em menores de idade. Fez-se uma análise interdisciplinar, através de pesquisa bibliográfica, cotejando os aspectos jurídicos com os psicológicos. Concluiu-se que a proposta pouco modificará a condenação por maus-tratos infantis. Não obstante, a palmada com o fito educacional é diferente dos castigos imoderados e, em tese, os pais sabem diferenciá-los. Ressalta-se que os maus-tratos devem ser punidos, mas o Estado não pode interferir na forma como os pais educam os seus filhos.

  14. Adolescente em conflito com a lei e medidas socioeducativas: limites e (impossibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francischini, Rosângela

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinserção social, readaptação, ajustamento social, integração à família e sociedade. Várias são as expressões empregadas para referir-se ao efeito desejado do trabalho com o jovem em conflito com a lei, em cumprimento de medidas socioeducativas, particularmente em privação de liberdade. Parte do aparato legal do Estado, a partir da promulgação do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente, significaram, essas medidas, uma chamada à responsabilização do jovens, em face da transgressão cometida. No entanto, avalia-se, o que dá a essas medidas o caráter socioeducativo, fazendo com que o trabalho desenvolvido nas instituições diferencie-se do cumprimento de pena? Estrutura física, formação de recursos humanos, ações educativas e trabalho transdiciplinar são alguns dos aspectos implicados nesta questão. Neste contexto de discussão insere-se o presente artigo, que tem por objetivo discutir o caráter socioeducativo das medidas de privação de liberdade e as possibilidades de reinserção social do jovem em conflito com a lei

  15. A FREQUENTE LUTA DAS MULHERES POR PUNIÇÕES AOS SEUS AGRESSORES: FEMINICÍDIO X LEI MARIA DA PENHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizza Oliveira Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Ainda que existam leis no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro que visam proteger os direitos humanos das mulheres, como a lei nº 11.340 de 07 de Agosto de 2006 – Lei Maria da Penha, e a mais recente, lei nº 13.104 de 09 de março de 2015 – Lei do Feminicídio, que inseriu no §2º do artigo 121, do Código Penal a figura do feminicídio como qualificadora do crime de homicídio, perdura ainda, a persistência da violência contra a mulher. Este artigo busca responder a seguinte questão: Se a Lei Maria da Penha fosse mais bem estruturada na sua aplicabilidade, o Feminicídio diminuiria? Com base nas informações coletadas em artigos científicos, pesquisas, leis e em doutrinas do Direito das quais demonstram que a figura do Feminicídio, pode em certas hipóteses imiscuir-se no conhecimento da Lei Maria da Penha, a qual ao ponto de vista deste estudo poderia prevenir diversos feminicídios, preservando a vida de cada uma das mulheres violentadas e muitas vezes mortas.

  16. The electrochemical properties of LaNi5 electrodes doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and treated at different temperatures in a nitrogen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Shuangping; Zhang Haiyan; Zhang Guoqin; Hu Shoule; Pei Lei; Yin Jianfen

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of LaNi 5 electrodes doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) treated at different temperatures in a nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The MWNTs were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The purified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were annealed during 1.5 h in a nitrogen atmosphere at different temperatures. A three-electrode system was applied. The CNTs-LaNi 5 electrodes were prepared by mixing CNTs and LaNi 5 in a weight ratio of 1:10, and used as the working electrode; Ni(OH) 2 /NiOOH worked as the counter electrode and Hg/HgO as the reference electrode. A 6 mol/L KOH solution acted as the electrolyte. MWNTs annealed at different temperatures in a nitrogen atmosphere showed large differences in the electrochemical hydrogen storage capability under the same testing condition. The CNTs-LaNi 5 electrodes with 20-40 nm diameter CNTs heated at 800 deg. C in nitrogen proved to have the best electrochemical hydrogen storage capacity, with a discharging capacity of 519.1 mAh/g and a corresponding discharging plateau voltage of 1.18 V, at a 200 mA/g charge current density and a 60 Ma/g discharge current density with a 0.2 V discharge voltage limit. From 500 to 800 deg. C, the higher the annealing temperature,the better the electrochemical hydrogen storage property. However, CNTs-LaNi 5 electrodes with 20-40 nm diameter CNTs heated at 900 deg. C in nitrogen have a lower capacity of 476.2 mAh/g under the same testing condition. This shows that the annealing temperature of CNTs is an important factor that influences their electrochemical hydrogen storage performance

  17. Quality improvement in emergency service delivery: Assessment of knowledge and skills amongst emergency nurses at Connaught Hospital, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedda Bøe Nyhus

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified key aspects of emergency nursing speciality training to be developed through theoretical and skill-based education provided by the nursing schools and hospital clinical facilities in Sierra Leone.

  18. Nobel Prize winning physicist to speak at Rensselaer Nov. 20 Leon Lederman to discuss pre college science education

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Leon Lederman, Nobel Prize-winner, will offer some radical ideas for improving pre-college science education when he delivers the annual Robert Resnick Lecture at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Russell Sage Laboratory (1/2 page).

  19. Annual report of the Basque-Leon colliery company. Sociedad Anonima Hullera Vasco-Leonesa. Memoria 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Annual report on the activities of the Basque-Leon Colliery Company for 1987 including: production trends and economic parameters, employment and safety, new mines, reserves, investments, financial status, economic assessment. 24 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Estudio de enriquecimiento nutricional de dos especies de Leones marinos (Otaria flavescens y Zalophus californianus) en Aquanatura (Benidorm)

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens García, Inés

    2016-01-01

    El enriquecimiento ambiental es un método de reducir el estrés y los comportamientos inadecuados de animales en cautiverio, ayudando a su vez a aumentar el bienestar de estos. En este trabajo se pretende realizar un estudio de enriquecimiento nutricional de dos leones marinos de California (Zalophus Californianus) y dos leones marinos de la Patagonia (Otaria flavescens). Así, se ha estudiado el comportamiento de los cuatro individuos sobre un dispensador de alimento nuevo para ellos, midiendo...

  1. Síntese e caracterização de perovskitas LaNi(1-xCo xO3 como precursores de catalisadores para a conversão do metano a gás de síntese pela reforma com CO2 Preparation and characterization of LaNi(1-xCo xO3 perovskites as catalyst precursors for synthesis gas generation by CO2 reforming of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sania Maria de Lima

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available LaNiO3 perovskite was modified by partial substitution of nickel by cobalt in order to increase the stability and resistance to carbon deposition during the methane CO2 reforming. The results showed that a suitable combination of precipitation and calcination steps resulted in oxides with the desired structure and with important properties for application in heterogeneous catalysis. The partial substitution of Ni by Co resulted in lower rates of conversion of both the reactants, but the catalyst stability was highly increased. The LaNi0.3Co0.7O3 catalyst, calcined at 800 ºC, was the most active under the reaction conditions.

  2. Landsat-Derived Estimates of Mangrove Extents in the Sierra Leone Coastal Landscape Complex during 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Trzaska, Sylwia; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2017-12-21

    This study provides the first assessment of decadal changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone. While significant advances have been made in mangrove mapping using remote sensing, no study has documented long-term changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone-one of the most vulnerable countries in West Africa. Such understanding is critical for devising regional management strategies that can support local livelihoods. We utilize multi-date Landsat data and cloud computational techniques to quantify spatiotemporal changes in land cover, with focus on mangrove ecosystems, for 1990-2016 along the coast of Sierra Leone. We specifically focus on four estuaries-Scarcies, Sierra Leone, Yawri Bay, and Sherbro. We relied on the k-means approach for an unsupervised classification, and validated the classified map from 2016 using ground truth data collected from Sentinel-2 and high-resolution images and during field research (accuracy: 95%). Our findings indicate that the Scarcies river estuary witnessed the greatest mangrove loss since 1990 (45%), while the Sierra Leone river estuary experienced mangrove gain over the last 26 years (22%). Overall, the Sierra Leone coast lost 25% of its mangroves between 1990 and 2016, with the lowest coverage in 2000, during the period of civil war (1991-2002). However, natural mangrove dynamics, as supported by field observations, indicate the potential for regeneration and sustainability under carefully constructed management strategies.

  3. MIGRATION OF CU ADATOMS ON A CU(100) SURFACE, STUDIED WITH LOW-ENERGY ION-SCATTERING (LEIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREEMAN, M; BOERMA, DO

    1992-01-01

    We report the observation of adatoms appearing on the surface due to ion beam irradiation. These adatoms are interpreted to be self-interstitials, created in the damage cascades, which have diffused to the surface where they are trapped. From our LEIS experiments on a stepped Cu(100) surface we

  4. Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pussemier, L.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco. Pepper protection trials against collar and root rot have been undertaken under laboratory and culture conditions using Aliette (80 % of phosethylaluminium and Ridomil M 58 (10 % of metalaxyl associated to 48 % of maneb. It has been proved that, contrary to Ridomil M 58, Aliette does not protect the hostplant when the Phytophthora capsici (Leon zoospores are used as inoculum. But both fongicides are active when inoculating with a mycelian suspension. Trials undertaken under plastic glasshouses confirmed the laboratory results both with an artificial inoculation and with a natural one on contaminated soil. Only Ridomil M 58 provides satisfactory protection during the first weeks after the treatment. When disease propagation conditions are particularly favorable (permanent presence of an active inoculum source, the protection given by repeated Ridomil M 58 applications gradually disappears after a few weeks.

  5. The gospel in context: Hiebert’s critical contextualisation and charismatic movements in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. Bangura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the process of contextualisation adopted by charismatic movements (CMs in Sierra Leone. In it I use Hiebert’s model of critical contextualisation to evaluate the biblical depth and cultural sensitivity of the CMs’ contextualisation. Three ongoing cultural issues are especially highlighted as crucial and are used as the point of departure in the discussions: initiation ceremonies, polygamous marriage practices and ancestral rituals. The article concludes that, whilst the danger of syncretism is likely to occur where uncritical forms of contextualisation are employed, the CMs in Sierra Leone are attempting to address themes that are concurrent with the African sensibilities of its followers. This is an effort to build authentic forms of Christianity that are faithful to Holy Scripture and relevant to the setting in which they are developed.

  6. Access to health care, reproductive health and disability: a large scale survey in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Browne, Joyce; Kett, Maria; Bah, Osman; Morlai, Teddy; Bailey, Nicki; Groce, Nora

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study to compare health status and access to health care services between disabled and non-disabled men and women in urban and peri-urban areas of Sierra Leone. It pays particular attention to access to reproductive health care services and maternal health care for disabled women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 in 5 districts of Sierra Leone, randomly selecting 17 clusters for a total sample of 425 households. All adults who were identified as being disabled, as well as a control group of randomly selected non-disabled adults, were interviewed about health and reproductive health. As expected, we showed that people with severe disabilities had less access to public health care services than non-disabled people after adjustment for other socioeconomic characteristics (bivariate modelling). However, there were no significant differences in reporting use of contraception between disabled and non-disabled people; contrary to expectations, women with disabilities were as likely to report access to maternal health care services as did non-disabled women. Rather than disability, it is socioeconomic inequality that governs access to such services. We also found that disabled women were as likely as non-disabled women to report having children and to desiring another child: they are not only sexually active, but also need access to reproductive health services. We conclude that disparity in access to government-supported health care facilities constitutes a major and persisting health inequity between persons with and without disabilities in Sierra Leone. Ensuring equal access will require further strengthening of the country's health care system. Furthermore, because the morbidity and mortality rates of pregnant women are persistently high in Sierra Leone, assessing the quality of services received is an important priority for future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comercio y marketing elextronico de los productos agroalimentarios de calidad certificada en Castilla y Leon

    OpenAIRE

    Kallas, Zein; Gomez-Limon Rodriguez, Jose A.; Martin Fernandez, Roberto San

    2005-01-01

    El Comercio Electronico de los productos agroalimentaros aun posee un volumen minimo comparado con otros sectores. No obstante, es previsible un importante desarrollo en un futuro proximo, especialmente en relacion a los productos de mayor calidad. Este trabajo pretende analizar la situacion actual del Comercio y Marketing Electronico de productors agroalimentarios de calidad certificada en Castilla y Leon, asi como estudiar las posibilidades de desarrollo en un futuro proximo. Para lograrlo ...

  8. MODE OF PRODUCTION ANS EDUCATION: QUESTIONS ON THE MODE OF LIFE: A CONTRIBUTION OF LEON TROTSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celi Zulke Taffarel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The text addresses the importance of consideration of the contribution of Leon Trotsky - when you look at the issue of mode of life resulting from the general production of existence - to think clearly articulate an educational proposal for the construction of socialist history project. The need to think the human based on the question of cultural activists, on the fight for a policy of cultural formation.

  9. Distance, accessibility and costs. Decision-making during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Treacy

    Full Text Available Sierra Leone has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality have included initiatives to encourage more women to deliver at health facilities. Despite the introduction of the free health care initiative for pregnant women, many women still continue to deliver at home, with few having access to a skilled birth attendant. In addition, inequalities between rural and urban areas in accessing and utilising health facilities persist. Further insight into how and why women make decisions around childbirth will help guide future plans and initiatives in improving maternal health in Sierra Leone. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and decision-making processes of women and their communities during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone.Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 22 in-depth interviews with recently pregnant women and their community members in two rural villages. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Findings revealed that decision-making processes during childbirth are dynamic, intricate and need to be understood within the broader social context that they take place. Factors such as distance and lack of transport, perceived negative behaviour of hospital staff, direct and indirect financial obstacles, as well as the position of women in society all interact and influence how and what decisions are made.Pregnant women face multiple interacting vulnerabilities that influence their healthcare-seeking decisions during pregnancy and childbirth. Future initiatives to improve access and utilisation of safe healthcare services for pregnant women need to be based on adequate knowledge of structural constraints and health inequities that affect women in rural Sierra Leone.

  10. The University of Guanajuato Institute of Physics (IFUG). Leon Lederman, the big boss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, J.; Moreno, G.

    2000-08-01

    This paper is to honor Leon Lederman trajectory in experimental high energy physics and, in particular and most, his invaluable help to start experimental high energy physics in Mexico and in Latin America in general. That began around 1982. Now, in 1999, there are many active groups in Latin America that devote their best efforts to experimental high energy physics. In Mexico there are six groups. .

  11. Natural law Judaism? The genesis of bioethics in Hans Jonas, Leo Strauss, and Leon Kass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Leon Kass is much misunderstood. He is not simply a Republican ideologue who tailored his ideas to break out of the ivory tower and into the halls of power. Nor does he look simply to use human nature as a moral guide. When the full range of his writings is considered and set in the tradition of his teachers, Hans Jonas and Leo Strauss, what emerges is a natural law position colored by religious revelation.

  12. Complementary description of Neoseiulus tunus (De Leon) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) and observation on its reproductive strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Ana C.C.; Demite, Peterson R; Amaral, Felipe S.R.; Lofego, Antonio C.; de Moraes, Gilberto J.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Neoseiulus tunus (De Leon) is one of the most frequent species of this genus in the Neotropical Region, reported on several plants and localities. In this study, the morphological characterization of various Brazilian populations of this species is presented. Females and males are illustrated. Neoseiulus neotunus (Denmark & Muma) is here considered a junior synonymn of N. tunus. Thelytokous parthenogenesis is reported for the first time for this species, based on two p...

  13. Lei de Cotas e a mídia brasileira: o que diria Lima Barreto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA SALETE MAGNONI

    Full Text Available resumo O artigo que se origina de uma afirmação do presidente do Movimento dos Sem Universidade (MSU, historia a sua luta em conjunto com outros movimentos sociais pela aprovação da Lei de Cotas nas universidades públicas brasileiras. Analisa a postura da mídia (incluindo as redes sociais e também de outros setores da sociedade brasileira sobre o tema apontando para a necessidade da democratização dos meios de comunicação no Brasil, e traz também a discussão feita pelo escritor Lima Barreto sobre a educação superior e a imprensa de sua época.

  14. Santos, Ana Cristina, A Lei do Desejo. Direitos Humanos e Minorias Sexuais em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Duarte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Lei do Desejo, de autoria de Ana Cristina Santos, é um texto sobre os impactos da utilização do regime europeu de direitos humanos por parte do movimento lésbico, gay, bissexual e transgénero (LGBT português. Surge com base na tese apresentada pela autora no âmbito do Mestrado em Sociologia pela Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra, em 2003. O título, além de ser uma sugestiva alusão à obra de Almodôvar, é já bem indiciador da proposta desta obra. Basta que, para tal, entendamo...

  15. LEI, MORAL E OPRESSÃO DOS GRUPOS CIGANOS NOS OITOCENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Similhana Oliveira Sousa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:Estudo dos relatórios da Chefia de Polícia disponíveis no Arquivo Público Mineiro no que se refere à repressão dos grupos ciganos entre 1890 e 1908, nos primeiros anos da república brasileira, contexto esse em que as elites republicanas buscavam a modernização econômica e urbana, sem dedicar-se à inserção das camadas menos favorecidas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ciganos – Lei – Repressão ABSTRACT: Study reports of the Chief of Police on the Public Archives Miner regarding the repression of Roma groups between 1890 and 1908, in this context that the republican elites sought economic modernization and urban, without devoting themselves to the insertion of the less affluent. KEYWORDS: Gypsies. Law Repression.Recebido: 14/08/2013    Aceito: 20/08/2013

  16. Aderência dos municípios cearenses à lei da transparência

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio César Muniz Filho; Renata Bessa Pontes

    2014-01-01

    A transparência pública decorre diretamente do princípio da publicidade e é uma ferramenta de controle dos ingressos e dispêndios públicos. Para controlar sua eficácia, surge a Lei Complementar nº 131/2009, que alterou a redação da LRF no que se refere à transparência da gestão fiscal. A fim de facilitar o acesso às informações relativas à gestão pública, o instrumento utilizado são os portais de transparência. Esta pesquisa objetivou analisar a aderência dos municípios cearenses às exigência...

  17. Complexo eletrônico: lei de Informática e competitividade

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Regina Maria Vinhais

    2010-01-01

    É inegável o papel estratégico da eletrônica na sociedade moderna, reconhecido pelo governo em suas iniciativas de inclusão social e democratização do acesso à informação. A disseminação da tecnologia no país renova a oportunidade de se conhecerem as ações em prol da competitividade do complexo eletrônico brasileiro e seus resultados. Todavia, o grande défi cit na balança comercial associado a esse complexo tem motivado uma atenção especial às indústrias do setor, desde a aprovação da Lei de...

  18. O dano a Unidades de Conservação nos termos do artigo 40 da Lei de Crimes Ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo 40 da Lei no 9.605/1998 imputa a mais longa pena prevista na Lei de Crimes Ambientais a quem causar dano direto ou indireto a Unidades de Conservação - UCs (até cinco anos de reclusão. A dosagem das penas e alegadas imprecisões conceituais do artigo 40 da Lei no 9.605/1998 são aspectos fortemente criticados por doutrinadores brasileiros. Patrimônio natural e atividades humanas são protegidos e tolerados em UCs de Uso Sustentável e, portanto, a materialização do dano a elementos naturais e artificiais em UCs pavimenta o caminho para a criminalização do delito, mas não substitui os elementos imateriais ou subjetivos necessários à caracterização da conduta típica. O dano jurídico a uma Unidade de Conservação - UC concretiza-se somente com conduta material que infrinja as regras de ocupação e uso da área, que são estabelecidas por planos de manejo e zoneamentos. Unidades de Conservação - UCs desprovidas de planos de manejo e zoneamentos e, portanto, de suas regras de ocupação e utilização, criam um vácuo conceitual que frequentemente impossibilita a aplicação adequada do artigo 40 da Lei de Crimes Ambientais – Lei no 9.605/1998.

  19. Atendimento à Lei Arouca no Ensino de Farmacologia no Curso de Medicina, UFC, Sobral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Vasconcelos Saraiva

    Full Text Available RESUMO De acordo com a Lei Arouca (Lei n° 11.794 – 2008, que estabelece critérios para “a criação e a utilização de animais em atividades de ensino e pesquisa científica, em todo o território nacional”, tem-se que, “sempre que possível, as práticas de ensino deverão ser fotografadas, filmadas ou gravadas, de forma a permitir sua reprodução para ilustração de práticas futuras, evitando-se a repetição desnecessária de procedimentos didáticos com animais”. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar o desenvolvimento de um software (Pharmasoftware® como método alternativo de ensino em Farmacologia no curso de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC, Campus Sobral. Para a certificação, foram utilizados dois grupos de alunos, um em aula prática convencional e outro com o Pharmasoftware®. A análise dos resultados revelou que ambas as atividades foram igualmente eficazes em auxiliar na consolidação do tema Vias de Administração dos Fármacos, evidenciando, assim, o Pharmasoftware® como uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar no ensino da Farmacologia e, ainda, de fomentar a implantação de outros métodos alternativos de ensino de Farmacologia nas Instituições de Ensino Superior.

  20. Sistema Salicweb: democratização no acesso à lei Rouanet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabatta Pamela Toscan dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo contribui com pesquisas na interface da comunicação, da democracia e dos serviços públicos, na medida em que analisa o real benefício da implantação da plataforma digital SALICWEB no Ministério da Cultura, especificamente em relação aos pedidos de incentivo fiscal da Lei Rouanet. Para tanto, o texto se utiliza dos seguintes teóricos: Max Weber, que analisa os processos de dominação e autoridade; Edson de Oliveira Nunes, que aborda o clientelismo na burocracia; e Moreira e Maia, que questiona se as tecnologias geram independência ou dependência nos usuários. Como conclusão, este artigo defende que a implantação do sistema SALICWEB pelo Ministério da Cultura foi benéfica e importante, principalmente por minimizar a demora burocrática da Lei Rouanet. Por outro lado, defende-se que o formato de envio de propostas por correspondência não deveria ser extinto, pois atualmente há uma dependência do proponente em relação à tecnologia, que já apresentou e ainda apresenta falhas e problemas técnicos.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21882/ruc.v4i7.645 Recebido: 15/07/2016 Publicado: 07/12/2016 

  1. Experiences of providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone--the local staff's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Lina; Ahlström, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, West Africa, there are many people with disabilities in need of rehabilitation services after a long civil war. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of prosthetic and orthotic service delivery in Sierra Leone from the local staff's perspective. Fifteen prosthetic and orthotic technicians working at all the rehabilitation centres providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to latent content analysis. One main theme emerged: sense of inability to deliver high-quality prosthetic and orthotic services. This main theme was generated from eight sub-themes: Desire for professional development; appraisals of work satisfaction and norms; patients neglected by family; limited access to the prosthetic and orthotic services available; problems with materials and machines; low public awareness concerning disabilities; marginalisation in society and low priority on the part of government. The findings illustrated traditional beliefs about the causes of disability and that the public's attitude needs to change to include and value people with disabilities. Support from international organisations was considered necessary as well as educating more prosthetic and orthotic staff to a higher level.

  2. Mental health care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Stania; Walder, Anna; Duncan, Jennifer; Kabbedijk, Antoinet; Hughes, Peter; Muana, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Reported levels of mental health and psychosocial problems rose during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. As part of the emergency response, existing plans to create mental health units within the existing hospital framework were brought forward. A nurse-led mental health and psychosocial support service, with an inpatient liaison service and an outpatient clinic, was set up at the largest government hospital in the country. One mental health nurse trained general nurses in psychological first aid, case identification and referral pathways. Health-care staff attended mental well-being workshops on coping with stigma and stress. Mental health service provision in Sierra Leone is poor, with one specialist psychiatric hospital to serve the population of 7 million. From March 2015 to February 2016, 143 patients were seen at the clinic; 20 had survived or had relatives affected by Ebola virus disease. Half the patients (71) had mild distress or depression, anxiety disorders and grief or social problems, while 30 patients presented with psychosis requiring medication. Fourteen non-specialist nurses received mental health awareness training. Over 100 physicians, nurses and auxiliary staff participated in well-being workshops. A nurse-led approach within a non-specialist setting was a successful model for delivering mental health and psychosocial support services during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. Strong leadership and partnerships were essential for establishing a successful service. Lack of affordable psychotropic medications, limited human resources and weak social welfare structures remain challenges.

  3. Landsat-Derived Estimates of Mangrove Extents in the Sierra Leone Coastal Landscape Complex during 1990–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzaska, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of decadal changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone. While significant advances have been made in mangrove mapping using remote sensing, no study has documented long-term changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone—one of the most vulnerable countries in West Africa. Such understanding is critical for devising regional management strategies that can support local livelihoods. We utilize multi-date Landsat data and cloud computational techniques to quantify spatiotemporal changes in land cover, with focus on mangrove ecosystems, for 1990–2016 along the coast of Sierra Leone. We specifically focus on four estuaries—Scarcies, Sierra Leone, Yawri Bay, and Sherbro. We relied on the k-means approach for an unsupervised classification, and validated the classified map from 2016 using ground truth data collected from Sentinel-2 and high-resolution images and during field research (accuracy: 95%). Our findings indicate that the Scarcies river estuary witnessed the greatest mangrove loss since 1990 (45%), while the Sierra Leone river estuary experienced mangrove gain over the last 26 years (22%). Overall, the Sierra Leone coast lost 25% of its mangroves between 1990 and 2016, with the lowest coverage in 2000, during the period of civil war (1991–2002). However, natural mangrove dynamics, as supported by field observations, indicate the potential for regeneration and sustainability under carefully constructed management strategies. PMID:29267247

  4. LaNi5-Assisted Hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the Hybrid Structures of La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Denys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the high pressure PCT and in situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the LaMg2Ni9-H2 (D2 system at pressures up to 1,000 bar. LaMg2Ni9 alloy was prepared by a powder metallurgy route from the LaNi9 alloy precursor and Mg powder. Two La3−xMgxNi9 samples with slightly different La/Mg ratios were studied, La1.1Mg1.9Ni9 (sample 1 and La0.9Mg2.1Ni9 (sample 2. In situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 deuterides were performed at 25 bar D2 (1 and 918 bar D2 (2. The hydrogenation properties of the (1 and (2 are dramatically different from those for LaNi3. The Mg-containing intermetallics reversibly form hydrides with DHdes = 24.0 kJ/molH2 and an equilibrium pressure of H2 desorption of 18 bar at 20 °C (La1.09Mg1.91Ni9. A pronounced hysteresis of H2 absorption and desorption, ~100 bar, is observed. The studies showed that LaNi5-assisted hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the LaMg2Ni9 hybrid structure takes place. In the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 (a = 5.263/5.212; c = 25.803/25.71 Å D atoms are accommodated in both Laves and CaCu5-type slabs. In the LaNi5 CaCu5-type layer, D atoms fill three types of interstices; a deformed octahedron [La2Ni4], and [La(Mg2Ni2] and [Ni4] tetrahedra. The overall chemical compositions can be presented as LaNi5H5.6/5.0 + 2*MgNi2H1.95/2.2 showing that the hydrogenation of the MgNi2 slab proceeds at mild H2/D2 pressure of just 20 bar. A partial filling by D of the four types of the tetrahedral interstices in the MgNi2 slab takes place, including [MgNi3] and [Mg2Ni2] tetrahedra.

  5. O jornalismo e a “lei anti-homofobia”: uma análise das categorizações de pertencimento sobre o projeto de lei 122 nos jornais O Globo e Folha de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Depiné Alves Guimarães

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais reivindicações dos movimentos brasileiros de minorias sexuais nas últimas duas décadas tem sido a aprovação de uma lei que criminalize a homofobia em âmbito federal. O Projeto de Lei da Câmara n. 122/06, proposto originalmente em 2001, tinha como objetivo punir a discriminação ou preconceito de origem, condição de pessoa idosa ou com deficiência, gênero, sexo, orientação sexual ou identidade de gênero. Nosso objetivo é investigar a cobertura jornalística a respeito do projeto, à luz de princípios metodológicos oriundos da Análise de Categorização de Pertencimento (Membership Categorization Analysis, no original. Argumentamos que o espaço jornalístico é privilegiado no que tange à investigação das estratégias discursivas acionadas por diversos campos em seus posicionamentos sobre o projeto de lei.

  6. Territorial identity and landscape. Evolution morphology of nuclei in Castilla y Leon; Identidad territorial y paisaje. Evolucion morfologica de los nucleos en Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Pedrosa, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to study the physical and socioeconomic transformations of rural settlements belonging to the Spanish region of Castile and Leon, throughout the second half of the 20th century. The evolution of urban form is analyzed, using a geographical information system (GIS) and calculating several shape metrics, and is then related to historical demographical data. The results are meant to show the effects of functional specialization, caused by the integration of rural regions in global economic hierarchies, on settlement structures and patterns. Gradual loss of the traditional features of Castilian villages, such as urban compactness and integration in the landscape, due to the disappearance or neglect of vernacular architecture and the construction of new industrial infrastructures, poses a risk for future place-based development policies. It is deemed necessary to preserve local identity and avoid destruction or degradation of the traditional heritage for revitalizing these territories. (Author)

  7. A PELE (LEI DA ESCRITURA: DURAS E O QUE PERDURA DE PERDA PURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Silva de Serpa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre lei e escritura é o tema central desse trabalho. Destacamos, como textos básicos, A Doença da Morte, de Duras e Televisão, de Lacan. A expressão lacaniana: "do que perdura de perda pura ao que só aposta do pai ao pior" serviu-nos como fundamento para pensar a "dura lex" da dissolução, que também poderia ser chamada de "perda pura" ou ainda o "toque do real". Duras escreve sobre a ausência, a vivência trágica do abandono; o lugar do erótico como fenda, intermitência; a festa da língua e o "jogo da mão quente", ou seja, sobre "babel feliz". Esta teia das confusões da língua, do entrelaçamento de línguas foi denominada por Barthes como texto do prazer e prazer do texto, isto é, a escritura como pura fruição. Esta é analisada aqui através do que Brandão denominou de narrativa-espelho, apreendida como metáfora do reflexo, refluxo e do corte, relacionada ao simbólico, imaginário e ao conceito de real. O literário, desta forma, é visto como território da miragem, da "língua secreta" do sexo e da castração; da "inversão nos lábios" e "ouvidos" ou "lituraterra", letra e lixo. Terra. Nesta outra versão do que está dentro, mas fora; do que está fora, mas dentro – Lacan aponta o nó da escritura de Duras como um belo envoltório. Nele, o centro está no perigo do olhar, da angústia. Nosso estudo, portanto, é uma leitura de Duras, atravessada por outra de Lacan sobre Duras, como uma técnica en Abyme. A prática da letra em Duras é reveladora, segundo Lacan, de uma escrita do inconsciente pois expõe a convergência entre a demanda da letra, do desejo e a angústia da lei da "perda pura". Do almar.

  8. Lei de Acesso à Informação: notas para reflexão e um breve exemplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gruman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os principais pontos da Lei nº. 12.527, conhecida como Lei de Acesso à Informação, relacionando-os a conceitos como democracia, transparência, controle social e gestão compartilhada. Argumenta que a consolidação da democracia no Brasil está associada a uma administração pública regida pelo princípio da eficiência nos gastos públicos a partir de políticas públicas elaboradas segundo as demandas da sociedade, e que a cultura do acesso permite cada vez mais a participação da sociedade na avaliação das ações do Estado e mesmo na proposição de mudanças de rumo.

  9. Adolescência em Conflito com a Lei: A Intensidade da História de Vida em Ato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Oliveira Tomasi

    Full Text Available A pesquisa aborda o ato infracional a partir da história de vida de adolescentes em conflito com a lei e dos significados atribuídos por eles aos atos cometidos. Realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas com quatro adolescentes com processo judicial em andamento devido a atos transgressivos. Os dados foram analisados por meio da Análise de Conteúdo e interpretados com aportes da Psicanálise. Quatro categorias finais constataram, na história de vida dos jovens, vivências extremas e recorrentes de descuido e violência no encontro com as figuras parentais. A fragilidade de recursos psíquicos dos jovens para atribuir sentido à experiência de serem confrontados com limites e a impossibilidade de experenciar e reconhecer a Lei como condição de proteção contribuem para a produção do ato transgressivo.

  10. The Impact of the West Africa Ebola Outbreak on Obstetric Health Care in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim J Brolin Ribacke

    Full Text Available As Sierra Leone celebrates the end of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreak, we can begin to fully grasp its impact on already weak health systems. The EVD outbreak in West Africa forced many hospitals to close down or reduce their activity, either to prevent nosocomial transmission or because of staff shortages. The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of EVD on nationwide access to obstetric care in Sierra Leone.Community health officers collected weekly data between January 2014-May 2015 on in-hospital deliveries and caesarean sections (C-sections from all open facilities (public, private for-profit and private non-profit sectors offering emergency obstetrics in Sierra Leone. This was compared to official data of EVD cases per district. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses were used to compute risk and rate estimates. Nationwide, the number of in-hospital deliveries and C-sections decreased by over 20% during the EVD outbreak. The decline occurred early on in the EVD outbreak and was mainly attributable to the closing of private not-for-profit hospitals rather than government facilities. Due to difficulties in collecting data in the midst of an epidemic, limitations of this study include some missing data points.Both the number of in-hospital deliveries and C-sections substantially declined shortly after the onset of the EVD outbreak. Since access to emergency obstetric care, like C-sections, is associated with decreased maternal mortality, many women are likely to have died due to the reduced access to appropriate care during childbirth. Future research on indirect health effects of health system breakdown should ideally be nationwide and continue also into the recovery phase. It is also important to understand the mechanisms behind the deterioration so that important health services can be reestablished.

  11. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232 Th-series, 238 U-series, 40 K and 137 Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg −1 ) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238 U and 234 U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210 Pb activities. Results were verified by 137 Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238 U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234 U/ 238 U and 238 U/ 226 Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232 Th/ 238 U, 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs

  12. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  13. Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Goba, Augustine; Gbakie, Michael; Gire, Stephen K; Colubri, Andres; Sealfon, Rachel S G; Kanneh, Lansana; Moigboi, Alex; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Moses, Lina M; Brown, Bethany L; Andersen, Kristian G; Winnicki, Sarah; Schaffner, Stephen F; Park, Daniel J; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Kargbo, David; Jalloh, Simbirie; Fonnie, Mbalu; Sinnah, Vandi; French, Issa; Kovoma, Alice; Kamara, Fatima K; Tucker, Veronica; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Kanneh, Franklyn; Saffa, Sidiki; Massally, James L B; Boisen, Matt L; Branco, Luis M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Grant, Donald S; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Fowler, Robert A; Bausch, Daniel G; Sabeti, Pardis C; Khan, S Humarr; Garry, Robert F

    2014-11-27

    Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P=0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P=0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and

  14. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Renteria-Villalobos, M. [Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31410, Chihuahua (Mexico); García-Tenorio, R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  15. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurie, Haja R; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. This article is based on participatory life histories, conducted in 2013 with 23 health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and Community Health Officers) in four regions of Sierra Leone who had worked in the sector since 2000. Although the interviews covered a wide range of themes, here we present findings on motivating and demotivating factors for staff, especially those in rural areas, based on thematic analysis of transcripts. Rural health workers face particular challenges, some of which stem from the difficult terrain, which add to common disadvantages of rural living (poor social amenities, etc.). Poor working conditions, emotional and financial costs of separation from families, limited access to training, longer working hours (due to staff shortages) and the inability to earn from other sources make working in rural areas less attractive. Moreover, rules on rotation which should protect staff from being left too long in rural areas are not reported to be respected. By contrast, poor management had more resonance in urban areas, with reports of poor delegation, favouritism and a lack of autonomy for staff. Tensions within the team over unclear roles and absenteeism are also significant demotivating factors in general. This study provides important policy-focused insights into motivation of health workers and can contribute towards building a resilient and responsive health system, incorporating the priorities and needs of health workers. Their voices and experiences should be taken into account as the post-Ebola landscape is shaped.

  16. Experiences of attitudes in Sierra Leone from the perspective of people with poliomyelitis and amputations using orthotics and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andregård, Emmelie; Magnusson, Lina

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe experiences of attitudes in the society of Sierra Leone from the perspective of individuals with poliomyelitis and people with amputations using orthotic or prosthetic devices. Individual interviews were conducted using open-ended questions. Twelve participants with amputations or polio were included. Content analysis was applied to the data. The following six themes emerged during data analysis: Experience of negative attitudes; Neglected and respected by family; Traditional beliefs; The importance of assistive devices; People with disability struggle with poverty; and The need for governmental and international support. In Sierra Leone, people with disabilities face severe discrimination. They need to be included, recognized, and supported to a greater extent by the society, the community, and the family, as well as by the government and international organizations. Traditional beliefs have a negative impact on people with physical disabilities and are an important cause of discrimination in Sierra Leone. Prosthetic and orthotic devices are vital for people with physical disability and offer increased dignity. Prosthetic and orthotic services need to be accessible and affordable. Poverty affects access to education, employment, and health care for Sierra Leoneans with physical disabilities, forcing them to resort to begging to cover basic living needs. Implications for Rehabilitation In Sierra Leone, traditional beliefs related to disability and public attitudes need to change in order to protect the human rights of people with disabilities. Increased public awareness of disability and implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) at different levels in society is needed. To increase access to prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone, these services need to be affordable and related costs, such as transport, need to be covered by support. Increased access to

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE JURIST AND ECONOMIST GHEORGHE N. LEON IN THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL SCIENCE

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    Popa Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The economical-financial problems have always constituted a challenge far all the decisional factors at the state level and not only, thus the financial sciences which also aim to regulate the relationships to create, assign and use the financial funds of the state and of the public institutions, destined to satisfy the social-economical needs of the society recorded a great doctrinal interest. Thus, a series of jurists and economists had understand the necessity and opportunity of knowledge in the domain of financial science, of the financial law, taking into consideration the fact that the difficulties which they have met at those times obliged them to take the responsibility to make every simple citizen and every person with political or administrative responsibility by the state understand the problems of public administration. In approaching the given subject I have chosen to use some of the methods of scientific research, respectively: the historical method (financial science being presented succinct through the process of its evolution along the years, interpretation methods and a combination of quality and quantity approach, namely the method of analyzing archive documents and the studies of professor Gheorghe N. Leon. In these contexts have asserted and developed himself in the university and political environment, Gheorghe N. Leon, having a rich activity of intellectual creation, approaching in his works the complex aspects of the science of financial law. Thus, starting with the rules and principles of this domain, Gheorghe N. Leon had realized a veritable incursion in the history of finances and in the theory of taxation, public and budgetary credit. Analyzing a part of his scientific works, we can affirm that a personality with such a complex structure, like Gheorghe N. Leon is hard to define, but surely, through the prism of his works and through his long-lasting and rich scientific activity, his name can be mentioned among the

  18. The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The mineral sector plays a key role in the economies of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The onset of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in early 2014, together with changes in mineral market conditions, raised questions regarding the status of mining operations and of mineral development and exploration projects in all three countries. Mineral projects were the underpinnings of World Bank short-term forecasts of increases in gross domestic product (GDP) for all three countries and were expected to be the basis of future economic growth. The significant delay or cancellation of these projects could result in a major economic setback for all three countries.

  19. The Pious Schools in Castille and Leon (1875-1931:Social and educative view

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    Bienvenido MARTÍN FRAILE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present historiographie research on the Pious Schools in Castille and Leon during the Bourbon Restoration has studied the public, institutional and social dimensions of these centres. The liberal revolutions of the nineteenth century defended the escolapios and even let them expand to such an extent that the end of the century they increased considerably. If it happened so it was because its educative work brought great benefits to the State as well as the citizens. Therefore, there was a symbiosis between the unimaginable in other teaching institutions.

  20. Vision to Reality: From Robert R. Wilson's Frontier to Leon M. Lederman's Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddeson, Lilian; Kolb, Adrienne

    We examine the roles of vision and leadership in creating and directing Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory from the late 1960s through the 1980s. The story divides into two administrations having different problems and accomplishments, that of Robert R. Wilson from 1967-1978, which saw the transformation from cornfield to frontier physics facility, and that of Leon M. Lederman from 1979-1989, in which the laboratory evolved into one of the world's major high-energy facilities. Lederman's pragmatic vision of a user-based experimental community helped him to convert the pioneering facility that Wilson had built frugally into a laboratory with a stable scientific, cultural, and funding environment.

  1. Post acquisition business synergies of a foreign affiliate. Case study of companies in Nuevo Leon

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    Luis Cabeza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will explain the importance of creating synergies after having acquired foreign affiliates. Interviews were conducted to executives of four of the most important manufacturing companies in Nuevo Leon, which have been involved in the international acquisition process of foreign affiliates. Also presented are 10 areas where synergies may be obtained after having acquired a foreign affiliate, in accordance with (Marin and Ketelhohn, 2008 economies of size at corporate headquarters, greater opportunities for professional development, corporate image, interdivisional transactions, vertical integration, economies of scale and/or scope, coordination of skills, learning center, leverage of intangible assets and unleashing of skills.

  2. Reasons to pursue a career in medicine: a qualitative study in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Aniek; Thomas, Suzanne; Jalloh, Mohamed Bella; Rees, John; Leather, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Many low-income and crises-affected countries like Sierra Leone struggle with the recruitment and retention of their health professionals, particularly nurses and doctors. There are multiple factors that influence the 'recruitment to retention' pipeline. The first stage of an exploration into the issues influencing the availability of qualified health care workers may focus on the aspects which influence their entry into relevant educational programmes. This paper explores the reasons given by junior doctors in Sierra Leone for wanting to become a doctor. It also describes entry procedures into undergraduate medical education. In-depth interviews were conducted with purposively sampled junior doctors ( n  = 15) from the only medical school in Sierra Leone in October 2013. Digital diaries and two follow-up interviews were used to explore their evolving career experiences and aspirations until November 2016. In addition, semi-structured interviews with key informants ( n  = 20), including senior teaching staff at the medical school ( n  = 7), were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to explore linkages and themes across cases. Six themes were identified. The most commonly mentioned reasons for wanting to become a doctor were a desire to help (theme 4) and the influence of family and friends, via role modelling (theme 2) and verbal encouragement (theme 3). Other motives were an interest from a young age (theme 1), being attracted by the job prospects (theme 5), and having an intellectual and science capacity (theme 6). Junior doctors gave at least two and up to six reasons for applying to enter the medical profession. Doctors were allowed entry to the medical school largely based on their previous academic performance. This study showed that multiple reasons underlie the decision to apply for entrance to medical school and the decision to enter medicine is complex. These findings may inform the review of future admission procedures by the medical school

  3. Décadas de Michels: marcos contextuais e prazo de validade para a "lei de ferro"

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    André Marenco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O argumento central deste artigo é que existe um prazo de validade temporal para o efeito da lei de ferro das oligarquias, proposição cunhada por Robert Michels em sua obra Sociologia dos partidos políticos, de 1911. O artigo esboça, na primeira seção, as bases sociais e institucionais que serviram como marcos contextuais propícios à conversão dos partidos socialistas europeus em princípios do século XX em oligarquias partidárias: a expansão do sufrágio e a integração na competição eleitoral de candidatos desprovidos de propriedades e renda, combinado a reformas eleitorais, com a substituição do voto majoritário pela representação proporcional, especialmente acompanhada pela transferência aos dirigentes da prerrogativa de confecção e classificação de listas de candidatos partidários. Na segunda seção, o artigo procura matizar os prognósticos sombrios de Robert Michels acerca da organização partidária, considerando os fatores que contribuem para maior ou menor delegação do poder interno dos partidos aos seus dirigentes.

  4. Várias Marias: efeitos da Lei Maria da Penha nas delegacias

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    Roberta Carvalho Romagnoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute os dados qualitativos da pesquisa “Violência Doméstica perpetrada contra a mulher no município de Montes Claros: um recorte possível”, financiada pelo CNPq e pela FAPEMIG. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar quantitativamente e qualitativamente os atos violentos contra as mulheres na cidade de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. A vertente qualitativa pretendia conhecer o sentido da violência para as mulheres envolvidas e seus reflexos na família, através de entrevistas semiestruturadas que não se efetivaram. A partir da Análise Institucional de René Lourau analisamos essa inviabilidade como dado qualitativo, examinando o cotidiano da delegacia após a lei Maria da Penha. Concluímos que a intervenção judicial não é suficiente para a inibição da violência contra a mulher, pois em certos casos afasta da delegacia mulheres com outras demandas acerca da violência, que sofrem e que não podem contar com a ajuda policial para a resolução dos seus conflitos.

  5. Conflito entre práticas e leis: a adolescência no processo judicial

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    Cynthia Rejanne Correa Araujo Ciarallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (1990 apontou novas formas de enfrentamento na apuração de ato infracional de adolescentes. Porém, suspeita-se que uma complexa negociação de sentidos constantemente atravessada por estereótipos e por lógicas sociais historicamente construídas tenha gerado conflitos de práticas e ideias entre aqueles que operam a lei. Assim, propõe-se conhecer como o adolescente era retratado nos processos judiciais na apuração de atos infracionais. A partir de leitura e análise minuciosa de 12 (doze processos infracionais de adolescentes foram identificados elementos típicos da doutrina da situação irregular que passaram a receber nova roupagem conceitual nas manifestações evocadas a partir do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que as representações compartilhadas no âmbito da Justiça acerca do adolescente são ainda ancoradas em um modelo tutelar que considera o adolescente um objeto de direito, cujo futuro, na condição de infrator, deve ser traçado pelo Estado.

  6. Fenomenologia das motivações do adolescente em conflito com a lei

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    Maria Clara Jost

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa a avaliar as motivações mobilizadoras do comportamento do adolescente em conflito com a lei, adotando o conceito interativo do ato infracional. Entrevistas, individuais e semi-estruturadas, foram realizadas com adolescentes do sexo masculino, privados de liberdade. Os conteúdos obtidos foram organizados em núcleos temáticos, analisados fenomenologicamente e articulados às motivações subjacentes. Os resultados revelaram uma ambivalência vivencial que corrompe as subjetividades e fragmenta os relacionamentos intersubjetivos, forjando angústia existencial. Essa angústia se expressa em ações contra si mesmo e a sociedade. Pontua-se a necessidade de intervenções psicossociais que considerem o problema não somente a partir dos determinismos simbólicos e culturais que o engendram, mas que também incluam a busca de respostas desses adolescentes ao seu sofrimento humanístico-existencial.

  7. LEAN OFFICE E AS CINCO LEIS DA BIBLIOTECONOMIA: possibilidades para gestão de bibliotecas

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    Moisés da Silva Cabete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o alinhamento entre o lean office e as cinco leis da biblioteconomia na perspectiva de gerar novas formas de gestão para sistemas de bibliotecas. Optou-se pela escolha do método tipo survey, que avalia uma amostra significativa de um problema a ser investigado a fim de extrair conclusões acerca dessa amostra. A coleta de dados contou com a participação de vinte bibliotecários gestores da cidade de Manaus, que responderam um questionário com dez perguntas do tipo likert. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a média ponderada e uma escala com base na média de pontuação de aceitação dos respondentes.  Como resultado, percebe-se um alto nível de concordância do objeto pesquisado, proporcionando a abertura de discussão sobre novos caminhos estratégicos de gestão que levem ao aprimoramento de serviços e sistemas de unidades de informação como as bibliotecas.

  8. Recomendaciones de Liderazgo para los Dueños de Pymes Familiares Exportadoras y no Exportadoras en Nuevo Leon

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    Maria Eloisa Treviño Ayala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this document is to state the importance that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs exporting and non-exporting have, as well as family businesses in Mexico´s economy and specifically in the state of Nuevo Leon. It establishes certain family SMEs, exporting and non-exporting, characteristics to take into consideration by Nuevo Leon leaders that seek success under the determinant of profits. It also locates qualities, from our stand point, classic and contemporaries, recommended for managers and administrators of this type of companies.

  9. SOBRE A INTERFERÊNCIA NECESSÁRIA DA VOZ NA LEI : O EXEMPLO DA TRAGÉDIA ANTIGA

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    Jean-Michel Vivès

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nessa conferência, proferida especialmente pelo autor a convite da Comissão Científica do Colóquio Internacional « A Psicanálise e a Lei »  é abordada a estrutura da tragédia antiga retomada a partir do entendimento que dela faz Claudel, na medida em que destaca a sua dimensão essencialmente vocal. Partindo da definição dada, pelo citado poeta, da tragédia como um  « long cri devant une tombe mal fermée », o autor procura dela tirar todas as consequências para pensar as questões referentes à voz e a lei naquilo que diz respeito à clinica psicanalítica. Leva ainda em consideração as contribuições de Nietzsche, acerca do nascimento da tragédia, e de Loraux que também chama a atenção para a dimensão vocal da tragédia, pondo em Nessa conferência, proferida especialmente pelo autor a convite da Comissão Científica do Colóquio Internacional « A Psicanálise e a Lei »  é abordada a estrutura da tragédia antiga retomada a partir do entendimento que dela faz Claudel, na medida em que destaca a sua dimensão essencialmente vocal. Partindo da definição dada, pelo citado poeta, da tragédia como um  « long cri devant une tombe mal fermée », o autor procura dela tirar todas as consequências para pensar as questões referentes à voz e a lei naquilo que diz respeito à clinica psicanalítica. Leva ainda em consideração as contribuições de Nietzsche, acerca do nascimento da tragédia, e de Loraux que também chama a atenção para a dimensão vocal da tragédia, pondo em evidencia sua dimensão política. O tratamento dessas questões levam o autor a formular a hipótese: a instauração e a relação à lei, que é uma das questões essenciais apresentadas pela tragédia, não poderia ser pensada ao redor de sua relação à voz ?

  10. Real exchange rate behaviour and economic growth: evidence from Sierra Leone

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    Abu Tarawalie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is to examine the impact of the real effective exchange rate on economic growth in Sierra Leone. First an analytical framework is developed to identify the determinants of the real effective exchange rate. Using quarterly data and employing recent econometric techniques, the relationship between the real effective exchange rate and economic growth is then investigated. A bivariate Granger causality test was also employed as part of the methodology to examine the causal relationship between the real exchange rate and economic growth. The empirical results suggest that the real effective exchange rate correlates positively with economic growth, with a statistically significant coefficient. The results also indicate that monetary policy is relatively more effective than fiscal policy in the long run, and evidence of the real effective exchange rate causing economic growth was profound. In addition, the results showed that terms of trade, exchange rate devaluation, investment to GDP ratio and an excessive supply of domestic credit were the main determinants of the real exchange rate in Sierra Leone.

  11. Ebola Virus Epidemiology, Transmission, and Evolution during Seven Months in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel J; Dudas, Gytis; Wohl, Shirlee; Goba, Augustine; Whitmer, Shannon L M; Andersen, Kristian G; Sealfon, Rachel S; Ladner, Jason T; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Matranga, Christian B; Winnicki, Sarah M; Qu, James; Gire, Stephen K; Gladden-Young, Adrianne; Jalloh, Simbirie; Nosamiefan, Dolo; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Moses, Lina M; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Lin, Aaron E; Schaffner, Stephen F; Bird, Brian; Towner, Jonathan; Mamoh, Mambu; Gbakie, Michael; Kanneh, Lansana; Kargbo, David; Massally, James L B; Kamara, Fatima K; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Jalloh, Abdul A; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Erickson, Bobbie R; Sealy, Tara; Blau, Dianna; Paddock, Christopher; Brault, Aaron; Amman, Brian; Basile, Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica; Bergeron, Eric; Campbell, Shelley; Chakrabarti, Ayan; Dodd, Kimberly; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; Klena, John; McMullan, Laura; Morgan, Laura; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna; Sanchez, Angela; Wang, David; Jungreis, Irwin; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher; Kislyuk, Andrey; Lin, Michael F; Chapman, Sinead; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Matthews, Ashley; Bochicchio, James; Hensley, Lisa E; Kuhn, Jens H; Nusbaum, Chad; Schieffelin, John S; Birren, Bruce W; Forget, Marc; Nichol, Stuart T; Palacios, Gustavo F; Ndiaye, Daouda; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Kargbo, Brima; Holmes, Edward C; Bedford, Trevor; Gnirke, Andreas; Ströher, Ute; Rambaut, Andrew; Garry, Robert F; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2015-06-18

    The 2013-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic is caused by the Makona variant of Ebola virus (EBOV). Early in the epidemic, genome sequencing provided insights into virus evolution and transmission and offered important information for outbreak response. Here, we analyze sequences from 232 patients sampled over 7 months in Sierra Leone, along with 86 previously released genomes from earlier in the epidemic. We confirm sustained human-to-human transmission within Sierra Leone and find no evidence for import or export of EBOV across national borders after its initial introduction. Using high-depth replicate sequencing, we observe both host-to-host transmission and recurrent emergence of intrahost genetic variants. We trace the increasing impact of purifying selection in suppressing the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations over time. Finally, we note changes in the mucin-like domain of EBOV glycoprotein that merit further investigation. These findings clarify the movement of EBOV within the region and describe viral evolution during prolonged human-to-human transmission. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ebola virus disease: caring for patients in Sierra Leone - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andertun, Sara; Hörnsten, Åsa; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Norwegian healthcare staffs' experiences of participating in care of patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. Ebola is one of the most feared viruses known. Ebola virus disease is highly contagious with high mortality. The few qualitative studies made on experiences among healthcare professionals have highlighted problems as lack of protective resources, insufficient personnel and risk of societal stigmatization. Descriptive study with qualitative approach. Individual narrative and focus group interviews were obtained during 2015 with eight nurses and one physician who had worked in Ebola care in Sierra Leone. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the two themes: 'Experiencing security by learning to manage risks'; and 'Developing courage and growth by facing personal fears'. Subthemes were: 'Relying on safeguard actions', 'Managing risk of contagion', 'Developing strategies for care despite risks', 'Constantly reminded of death', 'Successively defeating fears' and last, 'Increasing motivation through meaningfulness'. The participants described the reliance on training, organized effort, strict guidelines and equipment. They were respectful of the risk of transmission, made risk assessments, took responsibility, handled risky situations and were reminded of suffering and death. Despite challenges, the hazardous work with Ebola virus disease patients was experienced as meaningful which was an important motivator. Safe care was central in working with Ebola patients, but the care relation was challenged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with suspected Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Meghan; Johnson Mpofu, Jonetta; Soud, Fatma; Oduyebo, Titilope; Ellington, Sascha; Schlough, Gabriel W; Koroma, Alimamy P; McFadden, Jevon; Morof, Diane

    2018-03-23

    To describe maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone. Observational investigation of maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with suspected EVD from five districts in Sierra Leone from June-December 2014. Suspected cases were ill pregnant women with symptoms suggestive of EVD or relevant exposures who were tested for EVD. Case frequencies and odds ratios were calculated to compare patient characteristics and outcomes by EVD status. There were 192 suspected cases: 67 (34.9%) EVD-positive, 118 (61.5%) EVD-negative, and 7 (3.6%) EVD status unknown. Women with EVD had increased odds of death (OR 10.22; 95% CI, 4.87-21.46) and spontaneous abortion (OR 4.93; 95% CI, 1.79-13.55) compared with those without EVD. Women without EVD had a high frequency of death (30.2%) and stillbirths (65.9%). One of 14 neonates born following EVD-negative and five of six neonates born following EVD-positive pregnancies died. EVD-positive and EVD-negative women with suspected EVD had poor outcomes, highlighting the need for increased attention and resources focused on maternal and perinatal health during an urgent public health response. Capturing pregnancy status in nationwide surveillance of EVD can help improve understanding of disease burden and design effective interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. The cost of tuberculosis to patients in Sierra Leone's war zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, N; Boillot, F; Jalloh, H

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate how the extreme poverty of the patients and the poor salaries of the staff combined to increase the cost of treatment to patients within the subsidised national tuberculosis programme in Sierra Leone. From September to December of 1994, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 72 patients and 17 staff of the National Leprosy and Tuberculosis Control Programme of Sierra Leone, a screening and treatment programme funded by international donors. Although some extra costs were indeed incurred within the subsidized national tuberculosis treatment programme, they were much lower than those incurred during the pre-programme period when the patients sought intermittent help from a wide range of traditional and biomedical sources within the plural healing continuum. The national politico-economic crisis, and the consequent poverty of most patients, impeded compliance with and sustainability of treatment, even within the formal subsidised treatment programme. More money was spent by patients on treatment in the months/years preceding entry into the national tuberculosis programme. Many factors retarded entry, including poor communications, misinformation, malpractice by health professionals, and displacement resulting from chronic internal warfare. The war intensified all factors that predispose to tuberculosis and retarded access to treatment. Supra-programme cost, or 'corruption,' was minimal due to the poverty of health professionals, with a few salient exceptions.

  15. Control of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: vaccine development and our Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Since December 2013, West Africa has experienced the worst Ebola virus outbreak in recorded history. Of the 28,639 cases reported to the World Health Organization as of March 2016, nearly half (14,124) occurred in Sierra Leone. With a case fatality rate of approximately 40%, this outbreak has claimed the lives of 11,316 individuals. No FDA-approved vaccines or drugs are available to prevent or treat Ebola virus infection. Experimental vaccines and therapies are being developed; however, their safety and efficacy are still being evaluated. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop control measures to prevent or limit future Ebola virus outbreaks.Previously, we developed a replication-defective Ebola virus that lacks the coding region for the essential viral transcription activator VP30 (Ebola ΔVP30 virus). Here, we evaluated the vaccine efficacy of Ebola ΔVP30 virus in a non-human primate model and describe our collaborative Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

  16. [Effects of reforestation on tree pollen sensitization in inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has implications for health, ecology and society. Urban green areas are a key element in the planning of cities, promoting citizen interaction with the environment, as well as health. Lack of planning and design of these areas as well as the selection of ornamental trees can be a trigger of pollen allergy in the surrounding population. Reforestation is among the programs implemented by the government that have an impact on allergy. Environmental reforestation programs do not take into account the allergenic potential of some species. In the last 4 years, the government of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has planted nearly 18,000 Quercus species trees, in addition to an unknown number of Fraxinus species trees that are listed as tree species with high pollen production. To identify changes in tree pollen sensitization, based on environmental reforestation programs. A retrospective and descriptive study was done in which positive skin prick tests to pollen from trees in the interval of 2010-2014 were analyzed, correlating between tree species used for reforestation and increased sensitivity to the former. A statistically significant increase in pollen sensitization to species with which Nuevo Leon was reforested was found, along with a decrease in sensitization to the species that were not reforested. Reforestation contributes to some extent to the change in the pattern of positive skin tests and may result in more frequent exacerbations of respiratory diseases. It is an activity that should always be regulated and assisted by experts in the according field.

  17. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

  18. Factors Underlying Ebola Virus Infection Among Health Workers, Kenema, Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Mikiko; Pringle, Kimberly; Ramsay, Andrew; Brett-Major, David M; Fowler, Robert A; French, Issa; Vandi, Mohamed; Sellu, Josephine; Pratt, Christian; Saidu, Josephine; Shindo, Nahoko; Bausch, Daniel G

    2016-08-15

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) in health workers (HWs) has been a major challenge during the 2014-2015 outbreak. We examined factors associated with Ebola virus exposure and mortality in HWs in Kenema District, Sierra Leone. We analyzed data from the Sierra Leone National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Database, contact tracing records, Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) staff and Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) rosters, and burial logs. From May 2014 through January 2015, 600 cases of EVD originated in Kenema District, including 92 (15%) HWs, 66 (72%) of whom worked at KGH. Among KGH medical staff and international volunteers, 18 of 62 (29%) who worked in the ETU developed EVD, compared with 48 of 83 (58%) who worked elsewhere in the hospital. Thirteen percent of HWs with EVD reported contact with EVD patients, while 27% reported contact with other infected HWs. The number of HW EVD cases at KGH declined roughly 1 month after implementation of a new triage system at KGH and the opening of a second ETU within the district. The case fatality ratio for HWs and non-HWs with EVD was 69% and 74%, respectively. The cluster of HW EVD cases in Kenema District is one of the largest ever reported. Most HWs with EVD had potential virus exposure both inside and outside of hospitals. Prevention measures for HWs must address a spectrum of infection risks in both formal and informal care settings as well as in the community. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  19. Transmission network of the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Zhang, Wenyi; Kargbo, David; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Yong; Chen, Zeliang; Kamara, Abdul; Kargbo, Brima; Kandula, Sasikiran; Karspeck, Alicia; Liu, Chao; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2015-11-06

    Understanding the growth and spatial expansion of (re)emerging infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola and avian influenza, is critical for the effective planning of control measures; however, such efforts are often compromised by data insufficiencies and observational errors. Here, we develop a spatial-temporal inference methodology using a modified network model in conjunction with the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, a Bayesian inference method equipped to handle observational errors. The combined method is capable of revealing the spatial-temporal progression of infectious disease, while requiring only limited, readily compiled data. We use this method to reconstruct the transmission network of the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone and identify source and sink regions. Our inference suggests that, in Sierra Leone, transmission within the network introduced Ebola to neighbouring districts and initiated self-sustaining local epidemics; two of the more populous and connected districts, Kenema and Port Loko, facilitated two independent transmission pathways. Epidemic intensity differed by district, was highly correlated with population size (r = 0.76, p = 0.0015) and a critical window of opportunity for containing local Ebola epidemics at the source (ca one month) existed. This novel methodology can be used to help identify and contain the spatial expansion of future (re)emerging infectious disease outbreaks. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Study of the Wall Paintings of the Cenador Del Leon in the Real Alcazar of Seville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robador, Maria Dolores; Mancera, Inmaculada; Perez-Maqueda, Rafael; Albardonedo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The paintings on the walls of the Cenador del Leon located in the gardens of the Real Alcazar in Seville next to the Pabellon de Carlos V in the Jardin Ingles area have been studied. The components of the wall paintings cross-sections, which were prepared using small samples taken from the walls of Cenador del Leon, were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The cross-sections of the collected samples indicated that the paint layer is well adhered to the preparation layer without any discontinuity, and only one carbonation layer exists at the top of the sequence of layers. These data suggest that the paint was applied on a fresco surface, and therefore, the adopted technique was fresco. Based on the different elements detected by EDX analysis of the cross-sections, the detected pigments included iron oxides accompanied by clay minerals (or earths) in the red pink, golden yellow and yellow colours, blue smelt for the blue colour and basic copper chloride (atacamite) for the green colour. In one sample, the particles were composed of Ba and S from barium sulphate and Ti and O from rutile titanium oxide due to a modern pigment.

  1. Handling postpartum haemorrhage- obstetrics between tradition and modernity in post-war Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Miriam Dorothea; Antón, Jorge; George, Peter Matthew; Kuntner, Liselotte; Wacker, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    How traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in post-war Sierra Leone explain, handle and prevent postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and their potential role in a better management of PPH to reduce maternal mortality in this low resource setting. Semi-quantitative interviews about knowledge and measures in PPH and participant observation with 140 Sierra Leonean birth attendants, divided in three groups: (A) TBAs who never attended any official training course (n = 82); (B) TBAs who attended at least one official training course (n = 48); and (C) officially trained birth attendants (n = 10). There are several observable gaps in the knowledge of TBAs about PPH compared to modern obstetrics, however similar procedures exist. Herbal medicine is applied; metaphysical convictions about PPH remain present. Training courses show an impact. Officially trained birth attendants demonstrate knowledge deficiencies and lack resources and infrastructure to manage PPH adequately. Morbidity and mortality of PPH in Sierra Leone is related to several factors and not solely to the ignorance of TBAs. TBAs still play an important role for many women there. Hence improvement of the formal health sector should be combined with life-saving programmes integrating TBAs in the care for the pregnant, delivering and breastfeeding mothers. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Marginalization of girl mothers during reintegration from armed groups in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, M E; McKay, S

    2007-12-01

    Although the widespread presence of girls who participate in fighting forces is increasingly recognized, they remain a highly marginalized group globally, receiving little attention either during or after armed conflict. This is especially true for "girl mothers," girls who return to communities with children born while members of fighting forces. The concept of marginalization (Hall et al. 1994) is used to examine what happens to girl soldiers, especially girl mothers, in the aftermath of armed conflict when they seek to reintegrate back into their communities. This analysis, as part of a larger study of reintegration of girl mothers, is based on field work with girls who were in fighting forces in northwest Sierra Leone, especially those who returned with children. The type and level of marginalization these girls experience is consistent with the conceptualization of marginalization; however, they lack voice and experience shame and vulnerability. Moreover, economics were fundamentally related to their marginalization. The girls' access to resources was significantly constrained because the area was heavily impacted by the war and because of widespread poverty throughout Sierra Leone. The findings raise important questions about marginalization of girls affected by war. Girls and girl mothers experience an extremely high level of marginalization; however, some aspects are not consistent with the original conceptualization of marginalization. Theory development in nursing needs to incorporate multiple voices, especially those of the very marginalized and be done in such a manner that benefits and empowers.

  3. Containing Ebola: A Test for Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Haenlein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola has provided the greatest test of the Sierra Leonean security sector – and, in turn, of the UK-led reforms of the past ten-to-fifteen years. The performance of the country's security forces at the height of the crisis suggests that there are sound structures in place; however, Ebola has shown that the Government of Sierra Leone's national security architecture still lacks maturity in responding to such a scenario. Drawing on first-hand interviews with advisers on the ground, this article explores the Sierra Leone government’s response to the Ebola crisis and the performance of the security sector so far, within the wider context of UK-led security-sector reform (SSR since the end of the civil war. In doing so, it highlights a number of lessons to have emerged from the crisis, exploring what these reveal about the nature of the reforms implemented since the end of the country's civil war. In turn, it explores what these suggest for future SSR, which continues to be a core component of the UK’s approach to development and overseas capacity-building.

  4. Reviews of the geological and mining research conducted by the IGME in Leon, Zamora and Salamanca. Sintesis de las investigaciones geologicas-mineras realizadas por el IGME en Leon, Zamora y Salamanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This paper comprises a review of the geological and mining research carried out by the Spanish Geological and Mining Institute in the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca. The review includes tables of the various coalfields showing production and productivity figures in the coal mines. (In Spanish)

  5. A tempestade global da lei e ordem: sobre punição e neoliberalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reflete sobre a recepção internacional ao livro Prisões da miséria como reveladora da expansão penal nas sociedades avançadas na década de 2000. Ele revela que a tempestade global da "lei e ordem" inspirada pelos Estados Unidos, que o livro detectou em 1999, continuou a espalhar-se por toda a parte. Na verdade, ela estendeu-se dos países do Primeiro Mundo para os do Segundo Mundo e alterou a política e as práticas de punição em todo o globo de uma forma que ninguém previa e que ninguém teria pensado como possível há cerca de 15 anos. O artigo estende a análise para o papel dos institutos de consultoria (em especial o Manhattan Institute na difusão das noções de combate ao crime e das panacéias no estilo estadunidense na América Latina como um elemento da circulação internacional dos pacotes de política pró-mercado que alimentam a gerência punitiva da pobreza. O artigo elabora e revê o modelo original do nexo entre neoliberalismo e penalidade punitiva, levando a análise da montagem do Estado na era da insegurança social, desenvolvida no livro Punindo os pobres.

  6. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  7. Examining Internet Usage Demographic Differences and the Relationship between Internet Usage and Business Outcomes in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to determine Internet users' perceptions and behavioral intentions to accept Wi-Fi technology deployment in Sierra Leone. The study sought to investigate (a) the Internet usage rates before and after Wi-Fi adaption in Freetown; (b) differences in Internet usage…

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    2017 Bentham Science Publishers Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel...immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) and syphilis, potentially im- pact the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) by reducing their effectiveness and...Mosala T. Divergent spatial patterns in the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) and syphilis in South African pregnant women. Geospat

  9. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  10. Learning Styles and Attitudes toward Online Education in Four Universities in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Monarrez, Patricia; Korniejczuk, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find the relation-ship between the predominant learning styles among university online students and their attitude toward online education. Data were collected from 385 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs from four universities in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Significant effects of…

  11. A Libras no ensino das leis de Newton em uma turma inclusiva de ensino médio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Gomes Cozendey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o processo denominado inclusão, as escolas regulares aos poucos recebem alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais, entre estes alunos estão aqueles que apresentam uma limitação auditiva, alunos estes que podem ser identificados como: alunos com deficiência auditiva ou surdos. Oprocesso educacional dos alunos com surdez se caracteriza pela singularidade. Como consequência desta singularidade, os mesmos necessitam de uma proposta diferenciada de trabalho por meio da oferta de uma educação bílíngue, que pressupõe o uso conjunto da Língua Portuguesa escrita e da Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma discussão acerca da construção de um recurso bilíngue que possa ser utilizado em turmas inclusivas que tenham alunos com deficiência auditiva. Buscou-se analisar o uso de um vídeo bilíngue em um contexto inclusivo de ensino de Física. O objeto de estudo da pesquisa, o vídeo bilíngue, foi também desenvolvido durante a pesquisa. Foram construídos seis vídeos que enfatizaram alguns dos conceitos da Física relacionados às leis de Newton: velocidade, aceleração, força resultante, primeira lei de Newton, segunda lei de Newton: velocidade, aceleração, força resultante, primeira lei de Newton, segunda lei de Newton e terceira lei de Newton. Para o desenvolvimento do recurso fo- Espaço, Rio de Janeiro, n.39, jan./jun. 2013 ram utilizadas a língua de sinais, a Língua Portuguesa escrita e falada, e imagens dinâmicas que representam situações cotidianas em que os conceitos discutidos podem ser observados. A análise do recurso desenvolvido em um contexto inclusivo de ensino de Física ocorreu com o objetivo de avaliá-lo, verificando, se este era de fato uma ferramenta potencial em promover a inclusão, e se o recurso favorecia a aprendizagem dos conceitos de Física discutidos. Participaram desta pesquisa dezoito alunos de uma escola estadual de nível médio localizada no interior de

  12. Síndrome de alienação parental: da teoria Norte-Americana à nova lei brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analícia Martins de Sousa

    Full Text Available A síndrome de alienação parental (SAP foi definida, na década de 1980, pelo psiquiatra norteamericano Richard Gardner, como um distúrbio infantil que acometeria crianças e adolescentes envolvidos em situações de disputa de guarda entre os pais. Na visão do autor, a síndrome se desenvolve a partir de programação ou lavagem cerebral realizada por um genitor - nomeado como alienador - para que a criança rejeite o outro responsável. No Brasil, após rápida tramitação no Legislativo, foi sancionada, em agosto de 2010, lei sobre a alienação parental, que prevê sanções ao genitor que causar impedimentos à convivência do(s filho(s com o outro responsável. A nova lei traz determinações quanto à atuação de psicólogos no exame de supostos casos de alienação parental, destacando também os aspectos emocionais observados em tais situações. No presente artigo, tem-se como proposta examinar - à luz dos conhecimentos da Psicologia - os argumentos, ligados a essa área, que fundamentaram a exposição de motivos do projeto de lei sobre a alienação parental, explanando-se também as decisões judiciais proferidas em diferentes países que tomaram por base esse conceito.

  13. ASPECTOS LEGAIS TRAZIDOS PELA LEI COMPLEMENTAR N°. 139/2011PARA A FORMALIZAÇÃO DO MICROEMPREENDEDOR INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Valdovir Holanda de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objeto analisar alguns aspectos do Estatuto do Microempresário, Empresário de Pequeno Porte e as mudanças trazidas pela Lei Complementar n°. 139/2011. Para tanto, fez-se uso de pesquisa do tipo bibliográfica e documental interdisciplinar. No primeiro tópico, verificou-se o conceito de Informalidade a luz do critério técnico jurídico, o que diferencia dos termos empregados comumente. Em seguida, no segundo tópico, foi pontuado sobre a importância do Governo como instrumento estimulador da formalização do Microempresário Individual. Já no terceiro tópico, buscou-se discorrer sobre a Lei Complementar n°. 128/2008 ao qual instituiu a figura jurídica do Microempreendedor individual – M.E.I. e no quarto e último tópico, por seu turno, foi analisado a inovação e consequências jurídicas e sociais trazidas Lei Complementar n°. 139/2011, ao qual deu nova redação ao § 1° do art. 4° do Estatuto do Microempresário e Empresário de Pequeno Porte. Ao final, concluiu-se que, o Governo vem otimizando a política de combate a informalidade, buscando efetivar ainda mais os preceitos constitucionais que disciplinam a forma de tratamento do empreendedor hipossuficiente.

  14. Sobre a imagem rousseauniana da lei acima dos homens On the Rousseaunian image of law above men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Kawauche

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre o verbete sobre economia política, de 1755, e o Contrato social, de 1762, a noção rousseauniana de lei passa de "voz celeste" para "declaração da vontade geral". Pretende-se defender aqui a proposição de que tal mudança na definição de lei de um escrito para o outro não implica contradição. Para tanto, será analisada a presença da imagem da "lei acima dos homens" em diversos textos do Cidadão de Genebra, sobretudo no capítulo "Do legislador" no livro II do Contrato, a fim de mostrar-se que ela corresponde a um mesmo princípio de oposição entre a liberdade, associada ao dever de obediência, e a escravidão, associada ao impulso das paixões, expressando-se de modos particulares nos diversos momentos da obra de Rousseau.Between the article on political economy, of 1755, and the Social Contract, of 1762, Rousseau's notion of law changes from "celestial voice" to "declaration of general will". The purpose here is to defend that this change in law's definition from one text to another does not implicate contradiction. In order to achieve it, the presence of "law above men" image will be analyzed in several texts of Geneva's Citizen, especially in the chapter "The Legislator" (book II of the Social Contract. This aims at showing that such image, being expressed in particular ways along Rousseau's work, corresponds to a same principle of opposition between liberty, related to obedience duty, and slavery, related to passions impulse.

  15. Comparison between La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-d and LaNi0.6Co0.4O3-d infiltrated oxygen electrodes for long-term durable solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovtar, Simona; Hauch, Anne; Veltzé, Sune

    2018-01-01

    The degradation of infiltrated oxygen electrodes during long-term operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was studied. The infiltrated oxygen electrodes were prepared by infiltration of the electro-catalysts La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-d (LSC) and LaNi0.6Co0.4O3-d (LCN) into a porous yttria stabilized...... conducted and the change of resistance was followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under current load. The cell performance degradation profiles of the LSC and LCN infiltrated cells showed significant differences. The performance of the LSC infiltrated cell stabilized after 700 h of operation...

  16. Single motherhood and neonatal and infant mortality in Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso and Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, C

    2016-06-01

    Childhood mortality is a stubborn problem and remains highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Existing research on childhood mortality in SSA indicate that most of the childhood deaths are from preventable causes such as diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, HIV and underlying malnutrition, acute respiratory infections, whooping cough, tuberculosis, bronchopneumonia, dirty feeding bottles and utensils, inadequate disposal of household refuse and poor storage of drinking water. However, insufficient attention has been given to maternal marital status and childhood mortality relationships. Understanding the implications of maternal marital status for childhood mortality can add to our knowledge of the correlates of neonatal and infant mortality and furnish insights to support the design and delivery of interventions to address the problem. To document and examine the extent to which the association between neonatal and infant mortality varies between single and ever-married mothers in Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, and Burundi. A single mother is defined in this study as a woman who has either lived with a partner, married before, widowed, separated during the survey periods and has given at least one life birth. Ever-married woman is woman who has been married at least once in their lives although their current marital status may not be married. Data for this study were drawn from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone and Burundi. The selected datasets came from 2010 Burkina Faso DHS (BFDHS), 2008 Sierra Leone DHS (SLDHS) and 2010 Burundi DHS (EDSB II). The relevant data for this study (women age 15-49 years who had at least one live birth within the five years preceding the survey) were extracted from the whole dataset of each country (Burkinabe (n = 17,087), Sierra Leonean (n = 7374) and Burundian (n = 9389). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to assess the association between neonatal and infant

  17. Potential Exposure to Ebola Virus from Body Fluids due to Ambulance Compartment Permeability in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan L; Nguyen, Duong T; Idriss, Barrie; Bennett, Sarah; Dunn, Angela; Martin, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Prehospital care, including patient transport, is integral in the patient care process during the Ebola response. Transporting ill persons from the community to Ebola care facilities can stop community spread. Vehicles used for patient transport in infectious disease outbreaks should be evaluated for adequate infection prevention and control. An ambulance driver in Sierra Leone attributed his Ebola infection to exposure to body fluids that leaked from the patient compartment to the driver cabin of the ambulance. A convenience sample of 14 vehicles used to transport patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola in Sierra Leone were assessed. The walls separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in these vehicles were evaluated for structural integrity and potential pathways for body fluid leakage. Ambulance drivers and other staff were asked to describe their cleaning and decontamination practices. Ambulance construction and design standards from the National Fire Protection Association, US General Services Administration, and European Committee on Standardization (CEN) were reviewed. Many vehicles used by ambulance staff in Sierra Leone were not traditional ambulances, but were pick-up trucks or sport-utility vehicles that had been assembled or modified for patient transport. The wall separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in many vehicles did not have a waterproof seal around the edges. Staff responsible for cleaning and disinfection did not thoroughly clean bulk body fluids with disposable towels before disinfection of the patient compartment. Pressure from chlorine sprayers used in the decontamination process may have pushed body fluids from the patient compartment into the driver cabin through gaps around the wall. Ambulance design standards do not require a waterproof seal between the patient compartment and driver cabin. Sealing the wall by tightening or replacing existing bolts is recommended, followed by caulking of all seams with a

  18. A "dura" e o "desenrolo": efeitos práticos da nova lei de drogas no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Christoph Grillo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise dos efeitos da nova lei de drogas sobre a repressão legal ao consumo de substâncias ilícitas e o processamento formal dos casos encaminhados ao sistema de justiça criminal. Buscou-se compreender as práticas dos atores envolvidos com o controle social ou legal do uso de drogas e elucidar as dinâmicas das negociações envolvidas no processo de incriminação dos usuários, à luz do debate em torno das mudanças trazidas pelo novo diploma legal. Observou-se uma redução dos números de casos que entram no sistema como uso de drogas, o que não se explicaria somente pela mudança na lei, mas pela interpretação de que esse crime teria se descaracterizado. Argumentamos que o descaso com o processamento legal desse tipo de crime teria deixado sua administração a cargo dos policiais militares que fazem o policiamento ostensivo nas ruas, que ganharam um aval implícito para negociar o encaminhamento ou não do usuário para a delegacia e até mesmo influenciar o tipo penal em que ele será classificado. A imprecisão dos critérios legais para distinguir entre usuários e traficantes, somada à imensa disparidade entre as penas previstas para esses crimes - acentuada pela nova lei -, contribuiria para a negociação informal da maior ou menor punição dos indivíduos e reificaria os estereótipos policiais, favorecendo a arbitrariedade. Tal indefinição não resultaria de uma imprecisão da lei, mas da impossibilidade empírica de realizar-se um recorte preciso entre essas classificações.

  19. Aptitud relativa agrícola del municipio de Tuxpan, Nayarit, utilizando el modelo Almagra del Sistema MicroLEIS

    OpenAIRE

    José López García; Diego de la Rosa Acosta; José Irán Bojórquez Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó la evaluación de tierras para uso agrícola en la llanura fluviomarina dentro del municipio de Tuxpan, Nayarit, con base en un levantamiento de suelos semidetallado. Se evaluó la aptitud relativa agrícola, mediante la modificación del modelo Almagra del sistema MicroLEIS 4.1, el cual permite definir la aptitud relativa agrícola, de lo cual resulta el Almagra-Tuxpan, al crearse una base de datos con las condiciones específicas de esta región. Con base en el modelo Almagra...

  20. Relative agricultural aptitude of the Tuxpan municipality, Nayarit, using Almagra Model of the MicroLEIS System

    OpenAIRE

    José López García; Diego de la Rosa Acosta; José Irán Bojórquez Serrano

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural land evaluation in the fluvial-marine plain within the municipality of Tuxpan, Nayarit, was carried out based onto a semi-detailed soil survey. Relative agricultural aptitude was evaluated, through out a modified Almagra’s model of MicroLeis 4.1 system, defining a new model: the Almagra-Tuxpan, based on the specific conditions of the zone. Using the Almagra-Tuxpan model, a software routine was written to evaluate the agricultural aptitude of twelve traditional crops (bean, sorghu...

  1. Demonstração Geométrica á da Perspectiva Exata pelas Leis da Ótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Roberto Katinsky

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Em prévios estudos sobre perspectiva, apresentamos um aparelho mais simples que aqueles descritos pelos discípulos de Brunelleschi e a ele atribuídos, com o qual foi possível deduzir empiricamente as leis fundamentais da perspectiva exata, como derivadas da reflexão de espelhos planos. Neste estudo, seguimos um caminho inverso: deduzimos geometricamente a partir da ótica de Descartes e Huygens, a imagem de objetos no plano dos espelhos. Fica assim estabelecida a perspectiva exata como etapa necessária entre a ótica medieval e a ótica moderna

  2. Os efeitos da Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal no endividamento dos municípios do Piauí

    OpenAIRE

    Linhares, Fabricio; Penna, Christiano; Borges, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    A Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF) procura, em seu bojo, imprimir a austeridade na efetivação dos gastos públicos. Sua finalidade é equilibrar os gastos públicos imprimindo em seu contexto uma nova perspectiva fiscal. Este artigo aplica uma modificação da metodologia proposta por De Jesus Macedo e Corbari (2009) para avaliar os efeitos da LRF no endividamento municipal, tendo como base de dados os municípios do estado do Piauí. Posto que a LRF foi implantada em 2000, o objetivo do artigo ...

  3. Pela reinterpretação da Lei de Anistia: a sociedade brasileira aguarda justiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Mamoru Ide

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A análise visa argumentar que a interpretação

    predominante da Lei de Anistia brasileira é

    incompatível com o regime internacional de direitos

    humanos.

  4. Lei natural e direito. A crítica de Finnis ao positivismo jurídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rohling

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11n1p159   A obra de Finnis é uma das principais responsáveis pela reabilitação e revigoramento da tradicional teoria do direito natural, nos termos lingüísticos do positivismo jurídico. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar as principais teses condensadas em Natural Law and Natural Rights, de Finnis, destacando a importância da lei natural e do direito, tendo presente que o modo como procede o autor conjuga originalmente elementos do jusnaturalismo com os do positivismo.

  5. LaNi0.6Co0 4O3-δ dip-coated on Fe-Cr mesh as a composite cathode contact material on intermediate solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Ruiz, Aroa; Vidal, Karmele; Larrañaga, Aitor; Laguna-Bercero, Miguel Angel; Porras-Vázquez, Jose Manuel; Slater, Peter Raymond; Arriortua, María Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of using Crofer22APU mesh dip coated with LaNi0.6Co0.4O3-δ (LNC) ceramic paste as a uniform contact layer on a Crofer22APU channeled interconnect was studied. The control of LNC dip coating thickness on Fe-Cr mesh was carried out by rheological measurements of the suspension. SEM cross-section of formed composite contact material showed good adherence between ceramic and metallic components. The measured area specific resistance (ASR) value at 800 °C was 0.46 ± 0.01 mΩ cm2, indicating low contact resistance itself. The long term stability of metallic/ceramic composite was also studied. The contact resistance, when composite contact material was adhered to channeled Crofer22APU interconnect, was 5.40 ± 0.01 mΩ cm2, which is a suitable value for the performance of IT-SOFC stack. The stability of the system after treating at 800 °C for 1000 h was characterized using X-ray Micro-Diffraction (XRMD), Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The oxidation rate of the alloy and Fe3O4 phase formation were enhanced on the channels of the interconnect. Thus, the formation of CrO3 (g) and CrO2(OH)2 (g) species was accelerated on the composite surface under the channel. Through XRMD and XPS analysis the coexistence of two perovskite phases (initial LNC and Cr-perovskite) was observed.

  6. O racismo escondido sob o manto da Lei / The Racism hidden under cover of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Távora Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A ineficiência do combate à conduta racial no Brasil resulta da impropriedade da legislação ordinária posta, mesmo em face de expresso Mandado de Criminalização da Constituição Federal. Por consequência disso, a omissão estatal acoberta a ocorrência de criminosa conduta racial velada. Prova disso são os índices de desenvolvimento humano, que sem exceção mostram-se sempre desfavoráveis à população negra. A interpretação sistemática da Lei nº 7.716/89, diante das normas gerais do processo penal brasileiro, esvaziam a pretensão formulada pelo constituinte originário em apenar com rigor a ofensa ao bem jurídico especialmente relevante do direito a igualdade, por tratar-se de direito fundamental. No entanto, a sociedade brasileira, mesmo diante dessa inexplicável evidência no tratamento diferenciado aos seus cidadãos em razão da raça, demonstra apatia e não se importar com esta questão. Palavras-chave: Racismo, Mandado, Criminalização, Proteção, Insuficiência.     ABSTRACT The inefficiency of combat against the racist behavior in Brazil it is the result of inadequacy of ordinary legislation put even in the face of express Warrant Criminalization of the Federal Constitution. Consequently, the omission of the state encourages the occurrence of racism. Proof of this are the indices of human development, without exception show always unfavorable to the black population. The systematic interpretation of Law No. 7.716/89, according to brazilian processual criminal code, the claim made by original constituent to accurately  the offense and the legal especially relevant for the right to equality, because it is fundamental right. However, Brazilian society, even in the face of this evidence of this unexplained differential treatment to its citizens with different race, shows apathy and not caring about this question.   Keywords: Racism, Warrant, Criminalization, Protection, Inefficiency.  

  7. Education Programs in Post-Conflict Environments: a Review from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa

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    Hernando Barrios-Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education should be considered as one of the mechanisms for governments and nations to succeed in a post-conflict process. The purpose of this Review Article is twofold: to explain the importance of education in a post-conflict setting, and to describe a few strategies that post-conflict societies have implemented. In terms of research design, a multiple case study approach has been implemented. The paper reviews a unique topic with specific reference to education plans implemented in post-conflict societies such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. Each of them has experienced violent conflicts and has used education as a tool to succeed in their post-conflict process. In sum, there are several educational programs that involve children, young people, survivors, parents, teachers, and local communities as well as curriculums focused on teaching of cultural values and technical skills to improve the quality of life in a post-conflict setting.

  8. Collective Sexual Violence in Bosnia and Sierra Leone: A Comparative Case Study Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Bensel, Tusty; Sample, Lisa L

    2017-08-01

    Social scientists have long studied the patterns, motivations, and recidivism rates of sexual offenders; however, the majority of prior research has examined rape, where victims are assaulted by a single offender in isolated events. Often overlooked are sexually violent assaults committed during armed conflicts, which often exhibit group-level sexual offending. This oversight could be a result of perceived notions that sexual violence during conflict is a rare or regrettable event; however, it has been documented consistently throughout history. The purpose of this study was to improve our understanding of sexual violence during war by comparing and contrasting preconflict characteristics, conflict framing, and justifications for sexual violence in the Bosnian and Sierra Leone armed conflicts. This greater understanding can then be used to identify factors that may contribute to the collectivization of sexual violence during war.

  9. EL UTILITARISMO DE JEREMY BENTHAM ¿FUNDAMENTO DE LA TEORÍA DE LEON WALRAS?

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    Aída-Sofía Rivera-Sotelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto cuestiona el utilitarismo de Jeremy Bentham como fundamento de la teoría marginalista walrasiana. La problemática se aborda a través de un análisis comparativo del pensamiento de Jeremy Bentham y de Leon Walras en tres áreas centrales: sus visiones de la sociedad y el objetivo social, sus aproximaciones teóricas y metodológicas en relación directa con sus respectivas teorías de la sociedad, y el lugar del principio de utilidad en el marco de las teorías generales de sociedad. El escrito contribuye a un debate vigente sobre los fundamentos filosóficos de la teoría de la elección racional y a deshomogenizar el pensamiento de los padres del marginalismo.

  10. Global health business: the production and performativity of statistics in Sierra Leone and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    The global push for health statistics and electronic digital health information systems is about more than tracking health incidence and prevalence. It is also experienced on the ground as means to develop and maintain particular norms of health business, knowledge, and decision- and profit-making that are not innocent. Statistics make possible audit and accountability logics that undergird the management of health at a distance and that are increasingly necessary to the business of health. Health statistics are inextricable from their social milieus, yet as business artifacts they operate as if they are freely formed, objectively originated, and accurate. This article explicates health statistics as cultural forms and shows how they have been produced and performed in two very different countries: Sierra Leone and Germany. In both familiar and surprising ways, this article shows how statistics and their pursuit organize and discipline human behavior, constitute subject positions, and reify existing relations of power.

  11. Strategic environmental assessment of hydrological and irrigation plans in Castilla y Leon, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedo, D.; Bina, O. (Sociedad Espanola de Ornitologia/BirdLife International, Madrid (Spain))

    1999-05-01

    The study illustrates how strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can promote sustainable development plans. It defines and applies an SEA methodology to two draft plans: the hydrological plan for the Duero basin in Spain and the irrigation plan for the region of Castilla y Leon. Although prepared by national and regional authorities, respectively, both draft plans refer to the management and use of water as a resource for economic development and refer roughly to the same area. The SEA addresses the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the combined draft plans, using relevant indicators and objectives. The analysis shows that the proposals would lead to high financial costs and significant negative impacts on the environment for each job created; it develops and assesses a number of alternatives that would address these impacts. The results are used to define SEA procedures for the new Structural Funds period (2000--2006) and will provide a useful lesson for plans at all levels of government within Spain.

  12. The life and work of Leon Henkin essays on his contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Sain, Ildikó; Alonso, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book on the life and works of Leon Henkin (1921–2006), an extraordinary scientist and excellent teacher whose writings became influential right from the beginning of his career with his doctoral thesis on “The completeness of formal systems” under the direction of Alonzo Church. Upon the invitation of Alfred Tarski, Henkin joined the Group in Logic and the Methodology of Science in the Department of Mathematics at the University of California Berkeley in 1953. He stayed with the group until his retirement in 1991. This edited volume includes both foundational material and a logic perspective. Algebraic logic, model theory, type theory, completeness theorems, philosophical and foundational studies are among the topics covered, as well as mathematical education. The work discusses Henkin’s intellectual development, his relation to his predecessors and contemporaries, and his impact on the recent development of mathematical logic. It offers a valuable reference work for researcher...

  13. Territorial identity and landscape. Evolution morphology of nuclei in Castilla y Leon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Pedrosa, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to study the physical and socioeconomic transformations of rural settlements belonging to the Spanish region of Castile and Leon, throughout the second half of the 20th century. The evolution of urban form is analyzed, using a geographical information system (GIS) and calculating several shape metrics, and is then related to historical demographical data. The results are meant to show the effects of functional specialization, caused by the integration of rural regions in global economic hierarchies, on settlement structures and patterns. Gradual loss of the traditional features of Castilian villages, such as urban compactness and integration in the landscape, due to the disappearance or neglect of vernacular architecture and the construction of new industrial infrastructures, poses a risk for future place-based development policies. It is deemed necessary to preserve local identity and avoid destruction or degradation of the traditional heritage for revitalizing these territories. (Author)

  14. Deforestation in Gola Forest Region, Sierra Leone: Geospatial Evidence and a Rice Farmer's Expected Utility Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Kpawoh, John Christian

    Global land cover change constitutes the single major threat to ecological systems (Dale, 1997). These changes result from burning (Lavorel et al, 2007), agricultural expansion (Angelsen and Kaimowitz, 1999) and other activities triggered by socio-economic wants. Gola Rainforest National Park (GRNP) in Sierra Leone is under such threat from rice farmers. A 1926-gazetted demarcation established the park boundaries using stone landmarks, which was re-drawn in 1956 due to conflicting interests between the local communities and the British Colonial government. The increasing pressure from arable land-insecure population today has caused these gazetted landmarks to be overrun, compromising the efforts of the government and international organizations to protect the largest tract of forest in Sierra Leone. The incentive-driven interaction of competing land uses lead to inevitable land use change decisions in and around the park (Barbier, 1997), where the park is contextually a tract of forest cover surrounded by agricultural land. Evidence to date shows that land uses around the park have compromised the park's quality as a sustainable forest reserve in the last twenty-five years (1991 - 2016). A major conservation problem relates to forest-edge communities need for arable land to practice their dominant slash-and-burn agriculture. We conduct geospatial analysis from Landsat images and show that there is land cover conversion in the region for the period 1991 - 2016. We hypothesize that rice farmers have driven this conversion. These farmers are risking penalties stipulated in the 2012 NPAA Act to convert forests to agricultural land. Using Erdas Imagine and ArcGIS Pro, we classify two Landsat images (January 1991 and April 2016). We obtain overall accuracy of 88% and 95% for the 1991 and 2016 classifications respectively, which contains four land cover classes, including water, forest, other vegetation/secondary vegetation, and bare land. The quantitative result of this

  15. Dificuldades dos alunos na aprendizagem da Lei de Ampère, à luz da teoria dos modelos mentais de Johnson-Laird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Marco Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou detectar quais as dificuldades mais freqüentes que alunos de Física Geral têm na aprendizagem da Lei de Ampère, visando interpretar as mesmas com base na Teoria dos Modelos Mentais de Johnson-Laird. Foram pesquisados cerca de 230 estudantes, dos cursos de Engenharia e Matemática da UFRGS, ao longo de dois semestres letivos, por meio de suas respostas a questões e problemas envolvendo a Lei de Ampère. Ficou evidente que os alunos resolvem os problemas mecanicamente e respondem a questões descritivas da mesma forma, o que forneceu dados para levantar as dificuldades relacionadas a esse mecanicismo, que se traduzem em interpretações incompletas e/ou equivocadas da Lei de Ampère, objeto de nossa análise.

  16. Lei e legalidade na Cidade do México: Estado e Direito como pratica social. Um juzgado cívico no México, Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Rivera Hoyos

    2015-01-01

    Em diálogo com um debate que questiona a fortaleza do Estado de direito e o lugar da ordem legal na construção de um regime democrático, esta pesquisa analisa o fundamento e o funcionamento da Lei de Cultura Cívica da Cidade do México. A Lei de Cultura Cívica é uma lei que, desde 2004, regula o uso do espaço público (práticas, atividades, comportamentos) na capital mexicana, enquanto o juzgado cívico é a instituição na qual se processam e se determinam as conciliações, responsabilidades, infr...

  17. A pena de morte e a revolta dos escravos de Carrancas: a origem da“lei nefanda” (10 de junho de 1835

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    Marcos Ferreira de Andrade

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste artigo é situar a história do surgimento da lei de 10 de junho de 1835 e destacar o impacto causado pela revolta dos escravos de Carrancas em sua formulação, considerando o teor do projeto de lei enviado à Assembleia Geral no dia 10 de junho de 1833, que culminou em sua aprovação dois anos mais tarde. Pretende-se explorar, de forma mais aprofundada, alguns aspectos da insurreição, das memórias fragmentadas construídas por políticos e memorialistas ao longo do século XIX e do debate historiográfico, que reforçam as evidências de que a revolta de Carrancas esteve, de fato, associada à origem da referida lei.

  18. A AÇÃO PREVISTA NA LEI DE IMPROBIDADE ADMINISTRATIVA – COMPETÊNCIA, LEGITIMIDADE, INTERESSE DE AGIR E OUTROS ASPECTOS POLÊMICOS.

    OpenAIRE

    LOBO, Arthur Mendes; PUC/MG.

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem por escopo analisar alguns aspectos da ação prevista na lei de improbidade administrativa. Buscamos, inicialmente, enfocar a sua natureza de ação civil coletiva, demonstrando a dinâmica do procedimento previsto na Lei 8.429/92. Na seqüência, abordamos alguns pontos polêmicos da competência, primeiramente em virtude da Emenda Constitucional nº 45/2005, e mais adiante pela inconstitucionalidade da Lei nº 10.628/2002 que trata do foro por prerrogativa de função. Sobre a l...

  19. Uma estimativa do custo de subordinação da dívida financeira estabelecida pela atual lei de falência

    OpenAIRE

    Securato,José Roberto; Carrete,Liliam Sanchez; Savoia,José Roberto Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar o impacto no custo de endividamento das empresas devido à ordem de prioridade de pagamento das dívidas corporativas em caso de falência. A nova Lei de Falência em tramitação no Congresso Nacional, Projeto de Lei 4.376, define a ordem de classificação dos créditos na falência pelo artigo 83. A atual Lei de Falência estabelece que as dívidas trabalhistas, previdenciárias e tributárias possuem prioridade de pagamento às demais dívidas. Entende-se, portan...

  20. Context matters: community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Brennan, Robert T

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics - social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth - in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in postconflict Sierra Leone. A total of 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively covaried with youths' externalizing and internalizing scores - indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p mental health outcomes was nonsignificant (p > .05). This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the postconflict social context plays in shaping the mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a 4-year period of follow-up. These results underscore the importance of the postconflict social environment and the need to develop postconflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs

  1. Pattern of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone (West Africa

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    Bari Arfan ul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical differences among human populations may lead to variable prevalence of skin disorders in different ethnicities. Skin infections are one of the important curable and largely preventable categories of skin disorders in the communities. Aim: The purpose of the study was to see the patterns of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone and to compare with other ethnic populations. Materials and Methods: Local blacks of all age groups presenting in Dermatology out patient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone were included (from Nov 2004 to Oct 2005. Relevant clinical history and physical examination was done. Laboratory investigations were carried out when indicated. Skin diseases were broadly classified into two major categories i.e., infective and noninfective. Among infective, sexually transmitted infections were again separated. Nonblack settlers in the area and UN troops were not included in the study. Data was recorded and analyzed by Microsoft Excel program. Results: 3011 patients belonging to different local tribes having a variety of skin disorders were seen. Patients were of all ages and both sexes ranging from one month to 73 years of age. The Infective skin disorders were seen in 61.7% patients and most prevalent were superficial fungal infections (41.2% followed by, sexually transmitted infections (9.9% and parasitic infections (6.5%. Bacterial and viral infections were rare and so was the scabies. More than 90% parasitic infections were onchocerciasis with full spectrum of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion: Pattern of skin infections in blacks varies considerably from other ethnic races. Environmental factors, geographical location and free existence of vector for onchocerciasis in West African region, possibly have a significant influence in this variable prevalence.

  2. Ebola Virus Disease Complications as Experienced by Survivors in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Amanda; Vetter, Pauline; Mattia, John; Dayer, Julie-Anne; Bartsch, Maria; Kasztura, Miriam; Sterk, Esther; Tijerino, Ana Maria; Kaiser, Laurent; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Background. Thousands of people have survived Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the ongoing outbreak. However, data about the frequency and risk factors of long-term post-EVD complications remain scarce. We describe the clinical characteristics of EVD survivors followed in a survivor clinic in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Methods. A survivor clinic opened within an Ebola treatment center compound in Freetown, Sierra Leone. At each visit, clinical and psychological assessments were conducted and free treatment was offered. Survivors were referred to a partner's hospitals if their condition could not be managed in the clinic. We used routinely collected data from the clinic to describe long-term complications of EVD and their risk factors. Results. A total of 1001 medical consultations for 166 patients were performed between 3 February and 21 June 2015. The most frequent complaints and diagnoses were arthralgia (n = 129 [77.7%]), fatigue (n = 116 [69.8%]), abdominal pain (n = 90 [54.2%]), headache (n = 87 [52.4%]), anemia (n = 83 [50%]), skin disorders (n = 81 [48.8%]), back pain (n = 54 [32.5%]), and alopecia (n = 53 [31.9%]). Ocular complications were diagnosed in 94 survivors (56.7%); uveitis was the most common (n = 57 [34%]). Survivors were 10 times more likely to develop uveitis post-EVD if they presented with red/injected eyes during the acute phase of their illness. Conclusions. Post-EVD complications among our patients were similar to those described previously and were detected early following the acute phase of disease. Follow-up of survivors should begin immediately after discharge to address sequelae as they arise and reduce the potential for development of long-term disabilities such as blindness. PMID:27001797

  3. The status of maternal and newborn care services in Sierra Leone 8 years after ceasefire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyerinde, Koyejo; Harding, Yvonne; Amara, Philip; Kanu, Rugiatu; Shoo, Rumishael; Daoh, Kizito

    2011-08-01

    To conduct a needs assessment for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) to address the unacceptably high maternal and newborn mortality indices in Sierra Leone 8 years after the end of the civil war. From June to August 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted of health facilities in Sierra Leone offering delivery services. Assessment tools were local adaptations of tools developed by the Averting Maternal Death and Disability program at Columbia University, New York, USA. There were enough comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC) facilities in the country but they were poorly distributed. There were no basic EmOC (BEmOC) facilities. Few facilities (37% of hospitals and 2% of health centers) were able to perform assisted vaginal delivery (AVD), and 3 potentially BEmOC facilities did not meet the standard only because they did not perform AVD. Severe shortages in staff, equipment, and supplies, and unsatisfactory supply of utilities severely hampered the delivery of quality EmOC services. Demand for maternity and newborn services was low, which may have been related to the poor quality and the high/unpredictable out-of-pocket cost of such services. Significant increases in the uptake of institutional delivery services, the linkage of remote health workers to the health system, and the recruitment of midwives, in addition to rapid expansion in the training of health workers (including training in midwifery and obstetric surgery skills), are urgently needed to improve the survival of mothers and newborns. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter Bai; Kamara, Halimatu; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Steel, Amie; Wardle, Jon

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence, determinants and pattern of herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in Freetown. We conducted a cross-sectional study among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown, Sierra Leone between August and October 2016. We analyzed the data using SPSS version 24. We used Chi-square, Fisher exact two-tailed test and regression analysis for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of 260 study participants, over half (n = 148, 56.9%) reported using herbal medicine for the treatment of hypertension alone or together with comorbid condition(s). The most commonly used herbal medicine among users were honey (n = 89, 33.3%), moringa (n = 80, 30.0%) and garlic (n = 73, 27.3%). No significant difference existed between users and non-users of herbal medicine with regards to socio-demographic and health-related factors. The majority (n = 241, 92.7%) of respondents considered herbal medicine beneficial if it was recommended by a healthcare provider yet 85.1% (n = 126) did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their health care provider. There is a high use of herbal medicines among hypertensive patients in Freetown, Sierra Leone. It is essential for healthcare providers to take heed of the findings of this study and routinely ask their patients about their herbal medicine use status. Such practice will provide the opportunity to discuss the benefits and risks of herbal medicine use with the aim of maximizing patient desired therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a set of community-informed Ebola messages for Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijne, Kars; Jalloh, Alpha M.; Harris, Muriel; Abdullah, Hussainatu; Boye-Thompson, Titus; Sankoh, Osman; Jalloh, Abdul K.; Jalloh-Vos, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    The West African Ebola epidemic of 2013–2016 was by far the largest outbreak of the disease on record. Sierra Leone suffered nearly half of the 28,646 reported cases. This paper presents a set of culturally contextualized Ebola messages that are based on the findings of qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted in 'hotspot' areas of rural Bombali District and urban Freetown in Sierra Leone, between January and March 2015. An iterative approach was taken in the message development process, whereby (i) data from formative research was subjected to thematic analysis to identify areas of community concern about Ebola and the national response; (ii) draft messages to address these concerns were produced; (iii) the messages were field tested; (iv) the messages were refined; and (v) a final set of messages on 14 topics was disseminated to relevant national and international stakeholders. Each message included details of its rationale, audience, dissemination channels, messengers, and associated operational issues that need to be taken into account. While developing the 14 messages, a set of recommendations emerged that could be adopted in future public health emergencies. These included the importance of embedding systematic, iterative qualitative research fully into the message development process; communication of the subsequent messages through a two-way dialogue with communities, using trusted messengers, and not only through a one-way, top-down communication process; provision of good, parallel operational services; and engagement with senior policy makers and managers as well as people in key operational positions to ensure national ownership of the messages, and to maximize the chance of their being utilised. The methodological approach that we used to develop our messages along with our suggested recommendations constitute a set of tools that could be incorporated into international and national public health emergency preparedness and

  6. Glikman : maadeafääri süüdistust ei pruugi tulla / Leon Glikman ; interv. Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glikman, Leon, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu vandeadvokaat Leon Glikmaniga, kelle büroo kaitseb maadevahetusega seotud kriminaalasjas kahtlustatavaid Toomas Annust ja Andres Sarrit. Intervjuu sissejuhatus puudutab tööandjate keskliidu oktoobris 2007 koostatud pöördumist peaministri poole

  7. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals Lei Brasileira para o uso científico de animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Garcia Marques

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law n.º 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. PURPOSE: To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to analyze Law n.º 11.794. METHODS: The legislation about the use of animals in teaching and in scientific research in Brazil and in Rio de Janeiro State was identified and discussed. RESULTS: Until now, there was no updated general and systematizing rule regarding animal vivisection and experimentation for didactic or scientific purposes. The only specific law dates back to1979 and was not regimented. More recent laws equated the practice of scientific experiments to acts of abuse and mistreatment of animals, when alternative technology was available. Municipal laws that restricted the scientific practice of vivisection and experimentation with animals were created in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Florianopolis. CONCLUSION: With the claim and collaboration of the scientific community, the sanction of Law n.º 11.794 regarding to the scientific use of animals represented an invaluable advance in spite of the presence of some points that eventually may require another type of treatment. The new Law states that it will be regimented within 180 (one-hundred-and-eighty days, when some of these points could be better elucidated.A comunidade científica brasileira clamava por uma norma federal abrangente e realista, mais orientadora e reguladora, e menos sancionadora, na qual a questão do uso científico dos animais pudesse ser mais bem contemplada. Isto agora começa a se materializar, com a Lei n.º 11.794, sancionada pelo Presidente da República no dia 8 de

  8. A questão negra no Brasil: O preconceito racial, suas teorias e a Lei 10.639/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Silveira Vasconcelos Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Lei 10.639/2003 foi sancionada pelo governo brasileiro após longas discussões que trouxeram à sociedade a questão do preconceito racial. É necessário realizar um estudo sobre as origens das teorias da questão negra no Brasil, perpassando por autores clássicos como Nina Rodrigues principalmente. Nos Congressos realizados entre as décadas de 30 e 40 do século XX, o negro passou a ser estudado por diversos intelectuais, que em sua maioria negavam a existência do preconceito e até afirmavam uma solidariedade entre as raças na sociedade brasileira. Na década de 50 foi realizado um projeto com o objetivo de debater-se sobre a população negra a partir da afirmação de que o preconceito existia. Ao final do século XX e início do século seguinte, dois principais estudiosos se destacaram nos debates sobre o preconceito racial: Demétrio Magnoli e Lilia Moritz Schwarcz. O presente artigo procura defender principalmente a existência do conceito de “raça” a partir do ponto de vista social legitimando a Lei 10.639/2003 e a necessidade de práticas públicas na superação da discriminação racial.

  9. Crítica à Alteração da Lei Maria da Penha: Tutela e Responsabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dias Moreira Penna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A Lei Maria da Penha, ao transformar os crimes contra a mulher em crimes de ação penal pública incondicionada, torna o processo contra o agressor uma iniciativa do Estado, independentemente da vontade da mulher vítima da agressão. Analisada a partir do método hermenêutico crítico e da psicanálise, sustentamos que tal mudança produz uma desresponsabilização do sujeito frente ao seu masoquismo e sustenta uma dobra ideológica que trata a mulher como infantil e passiva, naturalizando uma situação histórico-libidinal. Por fim, a conclusão apresenta a hipótese de que tal mudança na lei é perniciosa ao objetivo de criar condições sociais e libidinais para que a mulher possa responsabilizar-se, reconhecendo os fatores inconscientes envolvidos na situação de agressão.

  10. Oito Anos de Lei Maria Da Penha. Entre Avanços, Obstáculos e Desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wânia Pasinato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Em 2014 a Lei Maria da Penha completou oito anos. A cada ano, os eventos comemorativos de sua aprovação trazem a oportunidade de realizar balanços e reflexões sobre os avanços, obstáculos e desafios colocados à sua implementação e seus impactos sobre a universalização do acesso aos direitos e à justiça para as mulheres em situação de violência doméstica e familiar. Este artigo tem o propósito de contribuir com algumas reflexões sobre a importância do atendimento em rede para alcançar resultados mais satisfatórios na aplicação da Lei Maria da Penha. As reflexões sistematizadas utilizam resultados de pesquisas das quais participei entre 2008 e estudos realizados no período.

  11. A LEI 10.639 E O ENSINO DE GEOGRAFIA: CONSTRUINDO UMA AGENDA DE PESQUISA-AÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Emerson dos Santos

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O artigo apresenta a estrutura de um programa de pesquisa sobre a Lei 10.639 e o ensino de Geografia. Considerando o Movimento Negro como ator central na construção da Lei, busca-se retomar a complexidade de sentidos da pauta construída nos processos de disputa pela Educação enquanto instrumento da luta anti-racismo. Tal complexidade se desdobra num conjunto de cinco vertentes de investigação: (i Inserção e Revisão de conteúdos programáticos do currículo Praticado de Geografia; (ii Revisão de Práticas, Materiais e Métodos Pedagógicos; (iii Gestão das Relações Raciais no Cotidiano Escolar; (iv Relações de Poder na Construção do Currículo Praticado na Escola; (v Movimento negro, lutas na Educação e escalas da política.

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality using physiochemical and geochemical analysis in the vicinity of Lei Nala, Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S.; Zafar, M.; Mahmood, T.; Mashiatullah, A.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of groundwater samples in vicinity of Lei Nala in Islamabad was assessed using physio-chemical and geochemical parameters. Lei Nala was sampled at four different locations, ten shallow groundwater samples (up to 200 feet) and twelve deep groundwater (>200 feet) were collected for analysis. Absence of carbonate ions (CO/sub 3/sup -2/) in all groundwater samples indicates presence of limestone dissolution giving rise to bicarbonate and ultimately Ca-Mg type waters. Piper diagram reveals dominance with 53.86 % of Ca-Mg-type of water in the studied area. For anion concentration, HCO/sub 3/-type of water predominated with 96.15 % samples. There is no significant change in the hydro-chemical facies in the study area, indicating that most of the major ions are natural in origin which is due to the fact that groundwater is passing through sedimentary rocks and dissolves Margalla Hill Limestone thus dominating HCO/sub 3/ and Ca-Mg facies. (author)

  13. Razão, história e justificação da lei civil segundo Thomas Hobbes

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    Wladimir Barreto Lisboa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor procura analisar a relação existenteentre lei natural e lei civil em Thomas Hobbes.Para isso analisa sua crítica à história e ao commonlaw enquanto incapazes de fundar a racionalidadedo poder civil. Mostra-se igualmente de que modoo poder soberano encontra seu fundamento nas leismorais. Por fim, indica-se como a igualdade de direitos,tal como pensada na modernidade, sobretudoem Hobbes, parece inviabilizar a idéia de direitoscujos titulares seriam grupos e não indivíduos.Abstract: The author analyzes the relationbetween natural law and civil law in ThomasHobbes, pointing out Hobbes’ argument thatneither history or common law are able to foundcivil’s power rationality. The article shows, aswell, how sovereign power is founded by themoral law and how the equality of rights inHobbes seems to undermine the idea that ispossible for groups to be subject of rights insteadindividuals.

  14. O planejamento tribut??rio com a utiliza????o do simples nacional ou do lucro presumido sob a ??tica da Lei Complementar N?? 147/14

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Rodrigo Calvet

    2015-01-01

    A Lei Complementar n?? 123, de 14 de dezembro de 2006, juntamente com suas altera????es, trouxe a promessa de um regime ??nico diferenciado e favorecido a ser dispensado ??s microempresas e empresas de pequeno porte no ??mbito da Uni??o, dos Estados, do Distrito Federal e dos Munic??pios, principalmente no que se refere ?? apura????o e arrecada????o de tributos. Com a promulga????o da Lei Complementar n?? 147, de 7 de agosto de 2014, que alterou a LC n?? 123/06, novas atividade...

  15. Considerações da lei falimentar no direito brasileiro em comparação ao direito francês

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    Adriana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo traz breve comparação do Direito Falimentar brasileiro entre o Direito Francês das sociedades em dificuldades. Dessa forma, uma análise dos dispositivos legais dos dois países, para ao final averiguar se ambos visam à preservação da empresa, respectivamente, Lei de Recuperação e Falência - Lei n.º 11.101/05, em Code de Commerce - Código Comercial Francês, capítulo Des difficultés des entreprises.

  16. A lei de política nacional de meio ambiente e o princípio da racionalização do uso do solo

    OpenAIRE

    Nicia Beatriz Cruz Barduchi Barbin

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A Lei nº 6.938/1981, que dispôs sobre a Política Nacional de Meio Ambiente, em vigor há mais de trinta anos, foi fundamental para a formação do Direito Ambiental Brasileiro. O presente trabalho teve por finalidade avaliar as influências dos dispositivos dessa lei na formação do Direito Ambiental e sua contribuição no tratamento que passou a ser dispensado às questões ambientais, tendo como foco principal o uso do solo, eis que nele é que ocorre a maioria dos impactos ambientais. Essa ...

  17. Atingidos pela hanseníase, reparados pelo Estado : as múltiplas histórias performadas da Lei 11.520/2007

    OpenAIRE

    Glaucia Cristina Maricato Moreto

    2015-01-01

    Esta dissertação gira em torno da lei nº 11.520, que em setembro de 2007 estabeleceu o direito a uma pensão especial a todas as pessoas atingidas pela hanseníase e compulsoriamente internadas em colônias hospitalares até 31 de dezembro de 1986. Por um lado, alinhado ao trabalho de diversas pesquisadoras, tais como Vianna (2013), Bevilaqua (2013), Schuch (2008), Das e Polle (2008), Vecchioli (2001) e Ferreira (2009), o enfoque não é direcionado à letra da lei 11.520/2007 (enquanto conjunto de ...

  18. Um estudo das competências do auditor interno atuante no mercado brasileiro de seguros : percepção após a lei Sarbanes & Oxley

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    A escolha desse tema foi motivada pelo interesse pessoal do autor e por sua atuação na área, adicionalmente, as alterações ocorridas devido á publicação da lei Sarbanes & Oxley produziram grande impacto na atividade de auditoria interna em companhias de seguros. O objetivo geral da pesquisa consiste em analisar as novas competências para atender às mudanças ocorridas no mercado segurador após a lei Sarbanes & Oxley, bem como tem como objetivos específicos identificar as competências requerida...

  19. Impacto das estratégias de coping na resiliência de atletas de vôlei de praia de alto rendimento

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Caroline Belem; Nayara Malheiros Caruzzo; José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior; José Luiz Lopes Vieira; Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2014-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n4p447 Estudos têm apontado que, para desenvolver um perfil resiliente, os atletas precisam enfrentar as adversidades do contexto esportivo, utilizando recursos pessoais como otimismo, competitividade, motivação, maturidade e persistência. Este estudo objetivou analisar o impacto das estratégias de coping na resiliência de atletas de vôlei de praia. Participaram 48 atletas adultos do Circuito Banco do Brasil de Vôlei de Praia. Os instrumentos...

  20. Patients' Satisfaction with Lower-limb Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices and Service delivery in Sierra Leone and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Lina; Ahlström, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    People with disabilities have the right to personal mobility and available and affordable assistive technology, according to the Convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The aims were to investigate similarities and differences between Sierra Leone and Malawi concerning participants' mobility and satisfaction with their lower-limb prosthetic or orthotic device and related service delivery, and to identify variables associated with patients' satisfaction with assistive devices and associated services in the entire study group from these two low-income countries. Questionnaires, including QUEST, were answered by 222 patients in Sierra Leone and Malawi. Eighty-six per cent of assistive devices were in use, but half needed repair. One third of participants reported pain when using their assistive device. A higher percentage (66%) of participants in Sierra Leone had difficulties or could not walk at all on uneven ground compared with 42% in Malawi. The majority in both countries had difficulties or could not walk at all up and down hills, or on stairs. Participants in both countries were quite satisfied (mean 3.7-3.9 of 5) with their assistive device. Participants were most dissatisfied with: comfort (46%), dimensions (39%), and safety (38%) of their assistive device. In Sierra Leone participants were less satisfied than in Malawi with service delivery (mean 3.7; 4.4, p < .001). Access to repairs and servicing of their assistive device was considered the most important item. In Sierra Leone patients were less satisfied with follow-up services (41%) than patients in Malawi were (22%). The strongest association with satisfaction with assistive device was pain, and for satisfaction with service, country. The general condition of devices and the ability to walk on uneven ground were associated with both satisfaction with assistive devices and service received. Participants reported high levels of use and mobility with their assistive device, in spite of pain

  1. Understanding the Causes of Civil Wars in Post-Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Case study: Sierra Leone and the Role of women in the Search for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Adama

    2013-01-01

    It is widely understood or assumed among scholars like Thomas Weiss, that civil wars in Africa are mainly wars for natural resources. This statement needs careful evaluation, and it is for this reason that this study will use Weiss`s theories on the causes of wars in sub-Sahara Africa as a background for understanding the Sierra Leone conflict. In addition, as the title implies, this paper further aims to investigate the war in Sierra Leone and most...

  2. Risk in the "Red Zone": Outcomes for Children Admitted to Ebola Holding Units in Sierra Leone Without Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, F; Wing, K; Naveed, A; Gbessay, M; Ross, J C G; Checchi, F; Youkee, D; Jalloh, M B; Baion, D; Mustapha, A; Jah, H; Lako, S; Oza, S; Boufkhed, S; Feury, R; Bielicki, J; Williamson, E; Gibb, D M; Klein, N; Sahr, F; Yeung, S

    2017-07-01

    We collected data on 1054 children admitted to Ebola Holding Units in Sierra Leone and describe outcomes of 697/1054 children testing negative for Ebola virus disease (EVD) and accompanying caregivers. Case-fatality was 9%; 3/630 (0.5%) children discharged testing negative were readmitted EVD-positive. Nosocomial EVD transmission risk may be lower than feared. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Localized Structures on Periodic Background Wave of (2+1)-Dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli System via an Object Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jian-Ping; Ma, Song-Hua; Fei, Jin-Xi; Hong, Bi-Hai; Zheng, Chun-Long

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present an object reduction for nonlinear partial differential equations. As a concrete example of its applications in physical problems, this method is applied to the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system, which has the extensive physics background, and an abundance of exact solutions is derived from some reduction equations. Based on the derived solutions, the localized structures under the periodic wave background are obtained.

  4. Case report and brief commentary: Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus co-infection in a refugee from Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Michael J; Wright, Stephanie; Aslanzadeh, Jaber

    2005-01-01

    Filarial infection is endemic in the tropics and is a public health problem in Africa, Asia, South and Central America, and the Pacific Islands. Co-infection with filarial nematodes, if unrecognized, can result in untoward therapeutic consequences. We report a case of co-infection of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus that was diagnosed by direct blood smear (W. bancrofti ) and serology (O. volvulus) in a native of Sierra Leone. We comment briefly on the therapeutic implications of the co-infection.

  5. Detection and Partial Characterization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsm Strains from Bush Meat Samples from Rural Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Apetrei, Cristian; Metzger, Michael J.; Richardson, David; Ling, Binhua; Telfer, Paul T.; Reed, Patricia; Robertson, David L.; Marx, Preston A.

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) originated from simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that naturally infect sooty mangabeys (SMs; Cercocebus atys). In order to further investigate the relationship between HIV-2 and SIVsm, the SIV specific to the SM, we characterized seven new SIVsm strains from SMs sold in Sierra Leone markets as bush meat. The gag, pol, and env sequences showed that, while the viruses of all seven SMs belonged to the SIVsm-HIV-2 lineage, they were highly diverge...

  6. Store Type and Demographic Influence on the Availability and Price of Healthful Foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Angela F.; Lee, Jung Sun; Rigby, Samantha; Kurtz, Hilda; Johnson, Mary Ann; Betterley, Connie; Park, Sohyun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The availability of healthful foods varies by neighborhood. We examined the availability and price of more healthful foods by store type, neighborhood income level, and racial composition in a community with high rates of diet-related illness and death. Methods We used the modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores to conduct this cross-sectional study in 2008. We surveyed 73 stores (29% supermarkets, 11% grocery stores, and 60% convenience stores) in Leon County, F...

  7. Changes in catastrophic health expenditure in post-conflict Sierra Leone: an Oaxaca-blinder decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoka, Ijeoma; McPake, Barbara; Ensor, Tim; Amara, Rogers; Edem-Hotah, Joseph

    2017-09-04

    At the end of the eleven-year conflict in Sierra Leone, a wide range of policies were implemented to address both demand- and supply-side constraints within the healthcare system, which had collapsed during the conflict. This study examines the extent to which households' exposure to financial risks associated with seeking healthcare evolved in post-conflict Sierra Leone. This study uses the 2003 and 2011 cross-sections of the Sierra Leone Integrated Household Survey to examine changes in catastrophic health expenditure between 2003 and 2011. An Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition approach is used to quantify the extent to which changes in catastrophic health expenditure are attributable to changes in the distribution of determinants (distributional effect) and to changes in the impact of these determinants on the probability of incurring catastrophic health expenditure (coefficient effect). The incidence of catastrophic health expenditure decreased significantly by 18% from approximately 50% in 2003 t0 32% in 2011. The decomposition analysis shows that this decrease represents net effects attributable to the distributional and coefficient effects of three determinants of catastrophic health expenditure - ill-health, the region in which households reside and the type of health facility used. A decrease in the incidence of ill-health and changes in the regional location of households contributed to a decrease in catastrophic health expenditure. The distributional effect of health facility types observed as an increase in the use of public health facilities, and a decrease in the use of services in facilities owned by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also contributed to a decrease in the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure. However, the coefficient effect of public health facilities and NGO-owned facilities suggests that substantial exposure to financial risk remained for households utilizing both types of health facilities in 2011. The findings support the

  8. [Social and economic impact of chicken pox vaccine at 15 months of age. Castile and Leon, Spain, 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rubio, A; Castrodeza Sanz, J J; Gil Costa, M; Luquero Alcalde, F J; Eiros Bouza, J; Ortiz de Lejarazu, R

    2008-01-01

    Chicken pox is a mainly childhood contagious disease caused by the Varicella Zoster Virus which gives rise to major healthcare and social costs. In 2005, Castile and Leon added chicken pox vaccine injections to its childhood vaccination schedule for eleven year-olds subject to coming down with this disease. This strategy does not modify the major mobility generated thereby at younger ages. This study is aimed at evaluating the profitability of systematic vaccination for chicken pox in infants 15 months of age in Castile and Leon. An economic cost-benefit evaluation has been set out by jeans of a decision-making tree. A fictitious cohort of 100,000 children in Castile and Leon having reached 15 months of age in 2004 is studied, to whom the chicken pox vaccine would be administered in conjunction with the mumps, measles, rubella vaccines. This study is approached from the social standpoint. The time horizon selected was that of up until the study cohort was to reach 15 years of age, applying a 3% discount rate. A sensitivity analysis was made for evaluating the uncertainty of some variables... The cost-benefit ratio of adding this vaccine to the childhood vaccination schedule amounts to 1.23. From the social standpoint, administering chicken pox vaccine in conjunction with the mumps, measles, rubella vaccines show itself to be profitable. The profitability is modified both if a second dose of vaccine is added as well as if only the direct healthcare costs are analyzed.

  9. Da Dor no Corpo à Dor na Alma: O Conceito de Violências Psicológicas da Lei Maria Da Penha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Vier Machado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo expõe os resultados de pesquisa de campo, realizada entre dezembro de 2010 e julho de 2011 em uma cidade do Sul do Brasil, a respeito da instrumentalização do conceito de violências psicológicas, trazido pela Lei Maria da Penha (Lei 11.340/06, a fim de construir uma leitura da lei a partir deste conceito. Os dados são referentes às/aos agentes que compõem o corpus da polícia, na Delegacia da Mulher e do Ministério Público do município, prioritariamente. Nesses locais, buscou-se compreender como o conceito de violências psicológicas é trabalhado pelas/os agentes e qual o significado teórico-prático que o subjaz. Enfim, coloca-se este dispositivo da lei em posição de questionar a sua própria implementação, de pensar as mudanças que se operam na condição de mulheres em situação de violências e de problematizar as relações entre local e global no campo estudado. A metodologia utilizada foi composta por pesquisa de inspiração etnográfica e levantamento bibliográfico nos campos do Direito, da Psicologia e da Antropologia.

  10. Uma breve análise crítica sobre a Lei dos Crimes Ambientais face ao Princípio da Taxatividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rezende Eliezer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho realizou um estudo sobre a proteção do meio ambiente, através da Lei dos Crimes Ambientais (Lei 9.605/98, abordando a importância dos princípios fundamentais em Direito Penal, dando ênfase ao da taxatividade. Evidenciou-se, através da pesquisa realizada, que a Lei dos Crimes Ambientais possui vários tipos penais abertos e normas penais em branco, sendo que a utilização exagerada de termos imprecisos, vagos, ambíguos, bem como a excessiva dependência administrativa, tornam tal lei imperfeita. Não obstante, traz insegurança aos destinatários do direito, por não discriminar de maneira taxativa a conduta criminosa. Na definição dos tipos penais não pode haver incertezas, dúvidas ou o emprego de normas genéricas, pois, qualquer legislação deve ser facilmente acessível a todos, no que tange à clareza, determinação acertada das condutas delitivas e, até mesmo, fixação das margens penais. É fundamental que a descrição do tipo seja cerrada, sendo indispensável que a legislação penal de proteção ao meio ambiente seja definida de maneira uniforme, clara e ordenada.

  11. Formation of Rh-Au core-shell nanoparticles on TiO.sub.2./sub.(110) surface studied by STM and LEIS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Óvari, L.; Berkó, A.; Balázs, N.; Majzik, Zsolt; Kiss, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2010), s. 2167-2175 ISSN 0743-7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : surface diffusion of gold * STM * LEIS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.269, year: 2010

  12. Licitações Diferenciadas para Microempresas e Empresas de Pequeno Porte – O Advendo da Lei Nº 13.706/2011 - Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Rebello da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem o objetivo de auxiliar na análise e discussão acerca da Lei no 13.706, de 06 de abril de 2011. Trata-se de legislação que tem por escopo os preceitos constantes na Lei Complementar no 123/2006, o denominado Estatuto Geral da Micro e da Pequena Empresa, decorrentes da Constituição da República, artigos 170 e 179. A analise ira se deter aos ditames relativos ao tratamento diferenciado e simplificado para as microempresas e para as pequenas empresas nas licitações públicas, incluindo-se também as cooperativas, a elas equiparadas por lei, no âmbito da Administração Pública Estadual. Nesse desiderato, percorremos, paralelamente, o instrumento normativo federal, Decreto no 6.204/2007, que regulamentou, naquele ente, o tratamento exigido pelo Estatuto Geral. Não nos furtaremos em apontar eventuais incongruências na novel normativa, ate mesmo porque se avizinha a implementação da sua regulamentação no âmbito estadual, conforme prevê artigo da própria lei.

  13. Reflexos da Lei n.º 11.638/07 nos indicadores contábeis das empresas têxteis listadas na BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Em dezembro de 2007, foi promulgada no Brasil a Lei n.º 11.638 (2007, que alterou a Lei das Sociedades Anônimas. Alterações significativas foram impostas pela lei, entre elas a adoção das normas brasileiras de contabilidade em conformidade com as normas internacionais, que implica em diversas mudanças nas demonstrações contábeis. Nessa percepção de mudanças nas demonstrações contábeis, podem ocorrer também alterações nos indicadores contábeis utilizados na análise de balanços. Nesse contexto, o artigo objetiva verificar se houve reflexos estatisticamente significativos nos indicadores contábeis após a Lei n.º 11.638 (2007. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo com uma abordagem quantitativa. A coleta dos dados ocorreu por meio das Demonstrações Financeiras Padronizadas (DFPs de 2000 a 2008 disponibilizadas no sítio da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM. A amostra por acessibilidade compreendeu 16 empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa classificadas no setor de consumo cíclico, no subsetor tecidos, vestuário e calçados, segmento fios e tecidos que possuíam todas as DFPs do período de 2000 a 2008. Aplicaram-se as técnicas estatísticas de regressão linear com base no Modelo de Koyck e de correlações canônicas. Os resultados mostraram que há correlação canônica estatisticamente significativa entre os indicadores contábeis antes de vigorar a Lei n.º 11.638 (2007 com os indicadores contábeis após vigorar a Lei n.º 11.638/07. Conclui-se, de maneira geral, de acordo com as empresas pesquisadas, que os indicadores contábeis não sofreram alteração estatisticamente significativa pelo fato de as demonstrações contábeis serem elaboradas atendendo aos preceitos da Lei n.º 11.638 (2007.

  14. Diamonds, a resource curse? The case of Kono District in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sigismond Ayodele

    Using an actor-oriented approach to political ecology integrated with theory on the social production of scale, this dissertation examines the extent to which diamond exploitation constitutes a resource curse in Sierra Leone, with Kono District as a case-study. It uses social survey methods and remote sensing analysis of Landsat images to (1) evaluate the role of Sierra Leone's diamonds in economic development from a historical lens, (2) examine the extent to which a weak regulatory state apparatus makes a rich diamond endowment more of a curse than a blessing, (3) determine whether geographically diffuse and remotely-located diamonds are more a liability than an asset, and (4) assess whether environmental conditions are worse in diamond than in non-diamond chiefdoms. Results of the study showed that the contribution of diamonds to national economic growth declined precipitously following the politicization of diamonds and growing informalization of mining under the leadership of Siaka Stevens. Growing disenchantment combined with grievances over access to diamond resources and rights, culminating in a civil war fuelled by conflict diamonds. Findings indicated that actors capitalized on a weak regulatory state to fulfill their agendas. Illicit diamond exploitation was mainly driven by corruption, economic constraints and perverse economic incentives. Preferential land allocation to industrial mining following World Bank Group-directed national mining policy reforms and the weakness of the state in ensuring companies' adherence to mining clauses precipitated corporation-community conflicts. Study findings showed that the resource curse was acute on diggers who received less than 1 a day unlike their South American counterparts who made at least 7 daily. Results from the study demonstrate that the spatiality of diamonds also contributed to the resource curse. Illicit diamond mining was more acute in remotely located mining sites than in extractive sites closer to

  15. The quality of free antenatal and delivery services in Northern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroma, Manso M; Kamara, Samuel S; Bangura, Evelyn A; Kamara, Mohamed A; Lokossou, Virgil; Keita, Namoudou

    2017-07-12

    The number of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be overwhelmingly high. In West Africa, Sierra Leone leads the list, with the highest maternal mortality ratio. In 2010, financial barriers were removed as an incentive for more women to use available antenatal, delivery and postnatal services. Few published studies have examined the quality of free antenatal services and access to emergency obstetric care in Sierra Leone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in all 97 peripheral health facilities and three hospitals in Bombali District, Northern Region. One hundred antenatal care providers were interviewed, 276 observations were made and 486 pregnant women were interviewed. We assessed the adequacy of antenatal and delivery services provided using national standards. The distance was calculated between each facility providing delivery services and the nearest comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEOC) facility, and the proportion of facilities in a chiefdom within 15 km of each CEOC facility was also calculated. A thematic map was developed to show inequities. The quality of services was poor. Based on national standards, only 27% of women were examined, 2% were screened on their first antenatal visit and 47% received interventions as recommended. Although 94% of facilities provided delivery services, a minority had delivery rooms (40%), delivery kits (42%) or portable water (46%). Skilled attendants supervised 35% of deliveries, and in only 35% of these were processes adequately documented. None of the five basic emergency obstetric care facilities were fully compliant with national standards, and the central and northernmost parts of the district had the least access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care. The health sector needs to monitor the quality of antenatal interventions in addition to measuring coverage. The quality of delivery services is compromised by poor infrastructure, inadequate skilled staff, stock-outs of

  16. Observância da lei de acesso à informação pelas autarquias federais do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mariella Medeiros Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a conformidade dos sítios eletrônicos das autarquias federais, em relação à Lei de Acesso a Informação. A pesquisa é exploratória e descritiva com abordagem quantitativa, cujo instrumento é uma Listagem de Verificação com dezenove itens. Os resultados demonstraram que, em média, 66% da amostra cumpriram com os itens e, em pontos específicos, como classificação das informações sigilosas, cópias de contratos, disponibilização de relatórios em formatos de planilha/texto e estruturação da informação, houve descumprimento acima de 90%.

  17. REPERCUSSÕES DA LEI MARIA DA PENHA NA VIDA DE MULHERES EM SALVADOR: PERSEGUINDO HISTÓRIAS DE VIDA

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo, Juliana Reis; Passos, Elizete Silva

    2015-01-01

    O objeto de investigação da pesquisa é a repercussão da Lei Maria da Penha para a violência contra a mulher no município de Salvador /Ba. Se verificará em que medida as políticas públicas de defesa da mulher têm dado maior segurança a elas no enfrentamento da violência doméstica e familiar. Analisando questões referentes às políticas públicas e à sua imprescindibilidade para se garantir o exercício de direitos fundamentais inerentes à pessoa humana, o artigo buscou uma perspectiva crítica sob...

  18. Leituras de Kafka: Escólios sobre a burocracia e o exercício da lei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Barbosa dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem como objetivo apresentar algumas considerações acerca da burocracia e do direito na obra de Franz Kafka. As breves notas que dão corpo ao texto buscam salientar conceitos fundamentais da literatura kafkiana para fazer deles um novo uso. Deste modo, distanciando-se da exegese “judaico-realística” de Max Brod, o texto recorrerá à fortuna crítica de autores como Walter Benjamin, Günther Anders e Giorgio Agamben para realizar outra leitura das categorias teológicas presentes em Kafka. Com isso, as notas a seguir procuram avaliar as estratégias investidas pelo prosador tcheco contra os mecanismos da lei.

  19. Negotiating Culture, Economics and Community Politics: The Practice of Lei Yue Mun Tourism in Postcolonial Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Hing Chan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an on-going research project that examines how tourism is constructed in Hong Kong by using the specific tourist spot, Lei Yue Mun, as a case study. The article’s aim is to demonstrate how the local agents of a small, squatter-based community with a distinctive history and cultural traditions may, without making any claim to indigenousness or aboriginality, manage a local economy and engage in cultural negotiation at the metropolitan, national and global levels. Their economic practices lead the authors to enquire whether preservationism or invoking historical traditions from the margins is the most significant form or strategy of cultural tourism.

  20. Prontuário do paciente: a questão do sigilo e a lei de acesso à informação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izângela Maria Sansoni Tonello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O presente artigo aborda a questão da confidencialidade, do sigilo das informações no prontuário do paciente. Nessa perspectiva, buscou-se demonstrar a importância dessas informações para diferentes finalidades profissionais, sem, no entanto alhear-se de seu aspecto privado. Por outro lado, analisou-se a Lei de Acesso à Informação, relacionando-a ao prontuário do paciente, que dispõe a respeito dos procedimentos a serem observados, estabelece limites, garante o acesso ao direito à informação e restringe o acesso aos documentos sigilosos referentes à honra e a imagem das pessoas.Objetivo: Analisar o caráter sigiloso e confidencial das informações do prontuário do paciente, ao cotejá-lo com a Lei de Acesso à Informação – Lei Nº 12.127 – de 18 de novembro de 2011.Metodologia: Realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica em livros, artigos e sites relacionados.Resultados: Constatou-se que a Lei de Acesso à Informação e as resoluções do Conselho Federal de Medicina (CFM não se opõem e nem são excludentes, ou seja, ambas especificam a importância do sigilo em relação às informações pessoais.Conclusões: É possível afirmar que a referida Lei mantém as prescrições ditadas pelo CFM no quesito elaboração e disponibilização do prontuário do paciente, seguindo a mesma linha de raciocínio e de conduta.

  1. A santidade do contrato e das leis: considerações sobre a religião civil de Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Kawauche

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No capítulo sobre a religião civil no Contrato social, Rousseau utiliza expressões como "santidade do contrato social e das leis", "profissão de fé puramente civil", e mesmo "religião civil" para fazer alusão à relação necessária, porém conflituosa, entre religião e política. Neste artigo, trata-se de discutir esse expediente retórico (que é similar à figura de linguagem denominada oxímoro de um ponto de vista mais geral, com base na exposição do procedimento discursivo do legislador do Contrato e de suas semelhanças com o procedimento discursivo do próprio Rousseau para conciliar exigências contraditórias da religião e da política no problema da instituição das leis no Estado.In the chapter about civil religion in the Social Contract, Rousseau uses expressions such as "sanctity of social contract and laws", "purely civil profession of faith", and even "civil religion" for alluding to the necessary, although conflicting, relation between Religion and Politics. This article aims at discussing this rhetoric device (that is similar to the figure of speech named oxymoron from a more general point of view, based on the exposition of Contract's legislator speech procedure and of the similarities with Rousseau's speech procedure to conciliate the contradictory exigencies of Religion and Politics in the problem of laws' institution in State.

  2. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amara, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  3. Nise da Silveira, Fernando Diniz e Leon Hirszman: política, sociedade e arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Melo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o processo de construção do filme Imagens do Inconsciente, mais especificamente do episódio Em Busca do Espaço Cotidiano, sobre Fernando Diniz e sua produção pictórica. O encontro entre a psiquiatra Nise da Silveira e o cineasta Leon Hirszman está marcado pela não dissociação de política, sociedade e arte. O trabalho terapêutico e de reabilitação psicossocial desenvolvido por Nise da Silveira tem como característica o estabelecimento de importantes conexões com o campo das artes, possibilitando o diálogo com toda a sociedade. Esse trabalho de transformação cultural e de mentalidades fez com que fosse questionada a exclusão social dos chamados doentes mentais e transformada a política de assistência no campo da saúde mental no Brasil.

  4. Social pathways for Ebola virus disease in rural Sierra Leone, and some implications for containment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Richards

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic-the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between marriage, funerals and land tenure. Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection. It is suggested that more than a shift in awareness of risks will be needed to change local patterns of behavior, especially in regard to funerals, since these are central to the consolidation of community ties. A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease. Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

  5. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria and Segovia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Burgos, Soria and Segovia of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 36 refs

  6. Morphological characterization of lentil (lens culinaris medik.) landraces from castilla y leon, spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, K.; Arif, M.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of plant genetic resources has a significant impact on their possible future use in lentil breeding programs and also, in the activity of germplasm collections. In this work we have characterized 27 lentil landraces from the region of Castilla and Leon (plateau in Northern Spain), existing among them two different morphological groups according to the characteristics of the seeds (Macrosperma and Microsperma). Fifteen morpho-agronomical characters were measured for data collection. A principal components analysis allowed the definition of the 5 factors which explain 83.7% of the cumulative variance. The first factor explains 25.3% of total variation and it is related to seed production. We performed a cluster analysis obtaining 5 groups, each one defined by the average values of the employed characters. 37.0% of landraces were included in group 5, characterized by a high mean of the harvest index (38.4) and also a high mean value (74.4) for the number of pods. To study the seeds we used a correspondence analysis 6 dimensions which explained the 80.9% of the variance were chosen. Two cluster analysis were carried out using the coordinates of the aforementioned analysis. The aim of this work was to study the morphological variability of these populations and to discover the relationship among them. (author)

  7. Short Report: Serological Evidence of Under-Reported Dengue Circulation in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M de Araújo Lobo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is thought to have emerged from a sylvatic cycle in Africa but has since become adapted to an urban-centric transmission cycle. These urban areas include villages in West Africa where DENV is not often routinely considered for patients presenting with febrile illnesses, as other endemic diseases (malaria, Lassa fever, e.g. present with similar non-specific symptoms. Thus, dengue is likely under diagnosed in the region. These plaque reduction neutralization test-50 (PRNT50 screening results of patients presenting with fevers of unknown origin (FUO at a clinic in Kenema, Sierra Leone indicate that all four serotypes of DENV likely circulate in areas surrounding Kenema. Using a more conservative PRNT80 cut-off value, our results still indicate the presence of antibody to all four serotypes in the region. Identifying alternate etiologies of FUOs in this region will assist clinicians in plan-of-care decisions as well as follow-up priorities. This is particularly relevant given the Ebola outbreak in the region, where diagnosis has a range of downstream effects ranging from correct allocation of medical resources, appropriate isolation of patients, and ultimately, a better informed public health sector.

  8. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Vallières

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively. Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWES-9 were largely consistent with those of the UWES-17. Model fit for the UWES-9 were generally equivalent for the one-factor, three-factor, and bifactor solutions, however the three-factor model was once again rejected due to high factor correlations. Based on these results, the current sample provides evidence that work engagement is best represented as a unidimensional construct in this context. Findings are considered alongside previous research to offer support for the utilization of the shortened UWES-9 in this context, as it appears to provide a good representation of work engagement and possess a parsimonious unidimensional scoring scheme.

  9. Diamonds and development: A critical analysis of stereotypes about mineworkers in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D’Angelo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the Sierra Leone’s diamond mines have been the focus of an intense debate among analysts and experts of the development. Two main interrelated issues have been at stake in this debate: first, to understand the economic and political reasons that had supported the civil war from 1991 to 2002 and, second, to understand how to convert a potential “conflict commodity” in a resource for peace and prosperity. In this paper, I intend to highlight some recurring stereotypes of this debate. In particular, I will focus on a constellation of representations that depict the artisanal miners either as workers poorly organized and prone to irrational economic behavior, or as workers subjected to forms of exploitation akin to slavery. Based on fieldwork conducted in the diamond mining areas of Sierra Leone (2007-2011, this article intends to analyze the main forms of working organization and distribution of earnings among the miners. By challenging some stereotypes characterizing the development discourse, my aim is to show the cultural complexity and the historical density of the practices through which the miners face the risks and uncertainties of their job.

  10. Sequelae and Other Conditions in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Vandy, Alren O; Stretch, Rebecca; Otieno, David; Prajapati, Mukesh; Calderon, Mauricio; Vandi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    We rapidly assessed the health of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Kenema, Sierra Leone, by reviewing medical charts of all patients attending the Survivor Clinic of Kenema Government Hospital. Data were abstracted on signs and symptoms at every attendance. As of November 2015, a total of 621 attendances by 115 survivors with laboratory-confirmed EVD were made to the Survivor Clinic. Most (60.9%) survivors were women. Survivors' median age was 28 years (range 0.25-70 years). Survivors attended the clinic a median of 5 times (range 1-21 times) each, and the median time from EVD discharge to attendance was 261 days (range 4-504 days). The most commonly reported signs and symptoms among the 621 attendances were headache (63.1%), fever (61.7%), and myalgia (43.3%). Because health needs of EVD survivors are complex, rapid chart reviews at survivor clinics should be repeated regularly to assess the extent of illness and prioritize service delivery.

  11. The etiology of Ebola virus disease-like illnesses in Ebola virusnegative patients from Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Gang; Chen, Wei-Wei; Li, Lei; Ji, Dong; Ji, Ying-Jie; Li, Chen; Gao, Xu-Dong; Wang, Li-Fu; Zhao, Min; Duan, Xue-Zhang; Duan, Hui-Juan

    2016-05-10

    During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, less than half of EVD-suspected cases were laboratory tested as Ebola virus (EBOV)-negative, but disease identity remained unknown. In this study we investigated the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in EBOV-negative cases. From November 13, 2014 to March 16, 2015, EVD-suspected patients were admitted to Jui Government Hospital and assessed for EBOV infection by real-time PCR. Of 278 EBOV negative patients, 223 (80.21%), 142 (51.08%), 123 (44.24%), 114 (41.01%), 59 (21.22%), 35 (12.59%), and 12 (4.32%) reported fever, headache, joint pain, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage, respectively. Furthermore, 121 (43.52%), 44 (15.83%), 36 (12.95%), 33 (11.87%), 23 (8.27%), 10 (3.60%) patients were diagnosed as infection with malaria, HIV, Lassa fever, tuberculosis, yellow fever, and pneumonia, respectively. No significant differences in clinical features and symptoms were found between non-EVD and EVD patients. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to explore the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in uninfected patients in Sierra Leone, highlighting the importance of accurate diagnosis to EVD confirmation.

  12. Changing Patterns of Health in Communities Impacted by a Bioenergy Project in Northern Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Hodges, Mary H.; Bah, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Habib I.; Kargbo, Anita; Paye, Jusufu; Turay, Hamid; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D.; Divall, Mark J.; Zhang, Yaobi; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S.

    2014-01-01

    Large private sector investments in low- and middle-income countries are often critically evaluated with regards to their environmental, social, human rights, and health impacts. A health impact assessment, including a baseline health survey, was commissioned by the Addax Bioenergy Sierra Leone project in 2010. As part of the monitoring, a follow-up survey was conducted three years later. A set of health indicators was assessed at six impacted and two control sites. Most of these indices improved, particularly at the impacted sites. The prevalences of stunting, wasting, and Plasmodium falciparum in children under five years of age decreased significantly at impacted sites (all p < 0.05) and non-significantly at control sites. Anemia in children and in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) decreased significantly at impacted and control sites (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Health facility-based deliveries increased significantly at the impacted sites (p < 0.05). The prevalences of helminth infections in children aged 10–15 years remained approximately at the same levels, although focal increases at the impacted sites were noted. Access to improved sanitation decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at control and non-significantly at impacted sites. Water quality remained poor without significant changes. The epidemiologic monitoring of a bioenergy project provides a useful contribution for evidence-based decision-making. PMID:25514152

  13. Synoptic patterns associated with wildfires caused by lightning in Castile and Leon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García-Ortega

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula presents the highest number of wildfires in Europe. In the NW of Spain in particular, wildfires are the natural risk with the greatest economic impact in this region. Wildfires caused by lightning are closely related to the triggering of convective phenomena. The prediction of thunderstorms is a very complex task because these weather events have a local character and are highly dependent on mesoscale atmospheric conditions. The development of convective storms is directly linked to the existence of a synoptic environment favoring convection. The aim of this study is to classify the atmospheric patterns that provide favorable environments for the occurrence of wildfires caused by lightning in the region of Castile and Leon, Spain. The database used for the study contains 376 wildfire days from the period 1987–2006. NCEP data reanalysis has been used. The atmospheric fields used to characterise each day were: geopotential heights and temperatures at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, relative humidity and the horizontal wind at 850 hPa. A Principal Component Analysis in T-mode followed by a Cluster Analysis resulted in a classification of wildfire days into five clusters. The characteristics of these clusters were analysed and described, focusing particularly on the study of those wildfire days in which more than one wildfire was detected. In these cases the main feature observed was the intensification of the disturbance typical of the cluster to which the wildfire belongs.

  14. Updated comparison of groundwater flow model results and isotopic data in the Leon Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Northwest of Mexico City, the study area is located in the State of Guanajuato. Leon Valley has covered with groundwater its demand of water, estimated in 20.6 cubic meters per second. The constant increase of population and economic activities in the region, mainly in cities and automobile factories, has also a constant growth in water needs. Related extraction rate has produced an average decrease of approximately 1.0 m per year over the past two decades. This suggests that the present management of the groundwater should be checked. Management of groundwater in the study area involves the possibility of producing environmental impacts by extraction. This vital resource under stress becomes necessary studying its hydrogeological functioning to achieve scientific management of groundwater in the Valley. This research was based on the analysis and integration of existing information and the field generated by the authors. On the base of updated concepts like the geological structure of the area, the hydraulic parameters and the composition of deuterium-delta and delta-oxygen -18, this research has new results. This information has been fully analyzed by applying a groundwater flow model with particle tracking: the result has also a similar result in terms of travel time and paths derived from isotopic data.

  15. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XI.- Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid and Avila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Palencia. Valladolid and Avila of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 41 refs

  16. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 83-156-1622, Leon Plastics, Grand Rapids, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenholz, S.H.; Anderson, K.E.

    1985-09-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for azodicarbonamide, benzene, styrene, and toluene at Leon Plastics, Grand Rapid, Michigan in March and May 1983, and March 1984. The evaluation was requested to investigate occupational exposures to chemical agents, particularly in the injection molding department. Sixteen employees were interviewed. Azodicarbonamide concentrations ranged from undetectable to 280 micrograms per cubic meter (microg/m/sup 3/) in May 1983, and from undetectable to 752 microg/m/sup 3/ in March 1984. There is no federal standard for azodicarbonamide. The concentrations of the other substances were below their relevant standards. Ammonia, styrene, and triphenylphosphate were identified as pyrolysis products above the azodicarbonamide presses. Symptoms of eye, nose and throat irritation, coughing, and wheezing were reported. Pulmonary-function test results could not be linked to azodicarbonamide exposures. The authors conclude that exposure to azodicarbonamide is the probable cause of the reported symptoms. Recommendations include using engineering controls and appropriate work practices to minimize exposure to azodicarbonamide.

  17. ANÁLISE DOS RELATÓRIOS DA EXECUÇÃO ORÇAMENTÁRIA E DA GESTÃO FISCAL NO CONTEXTO DA LEI DE RESPONSABILIDADE FISCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina de Campos Zirbes; Jucelaine Bitarello; Tarcísio Staudt

    2009-01-01

    A Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal, Lei Complementar 101/2000, tem como pressuposto o gerenciamento dos gastos públicos visando à transparência, ao controle e à fiscalização da gestão pública. A problemática está em como a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal tem contribuído para o gerenciamento dos gastos públicos e a transparência da gestão governamental? Destaca-se que a LRF pode ser considerada nova, encontrando-se poucos estudos que exploram os efeitos sobre os orçamentos municipais. Nesse conte...

  18. Occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements and halogenated organic compounds in stream sediments and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2016-06-23

    The Texas Department of State Health Services issued fish consumption advisories in 2003 and 2010 for Leon Creek in San Antonio, Texas, based on elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissues. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured elevated PCB concentrations in stream-sediment samples collected during 2007–9 from Leon Creek at Lackland Air Force Base (now known as Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland; the sampling site at this base is hereinafter referred to as the “Joint Base site”) and sites on Leon Creek downstream from the base. This report describes the occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements and halogenated organic compounds (pesticides, flame retardants, and PCBs) and potential sources of PCBs in stream-sediment samples collected from four sites on Leon Creek during 2012–14. In downstream order, sediment samples were collected from Leon Creek at northwest Interstate Highway 410 (Loop 410), Rodriguez Park, Morey Road, and Joint Base. The USGS periodically collected streambed-sediment samples during low flow and suspended-sediment samples during high flow.

  19. Study of the structural, thermodynamic and electrochemical properties of LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3(Co1-xFe x)0.75 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds used as negative electrode in Ni-MH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayari, M.; Paul-Boncour, V.; Lamloumi, J.; Mathlouthi, H.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the influence of iron for cobalt substitution on the structural, thermodynamic and electrochemical properties of the hydrides of poly-substituted LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 (Co 1-x Fe x ) 0.75 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) alloys used as material for negative electrode in Ni-MH batteries. The Fe substitution leads to an increase of the cell parameter, this increase is linear according to the rate of substitution, and a decrease of the equilibrium pressure in agreement with the geometric law. Nevertheless, it is observed that the Fe substitution leads to a deviation from the linear variation between the logarithm of the pressure and the cell volume observed for Co, Mn and Al for Ni substitution. The Fe for Co substitution leads also to a decrease of the solid-gas and electrochemical capacity

  20. Relationships of daily mortality and hospital admissions to air pollution in Castilla-Leon, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pablo, F.; Lopez, A.; Rivas Soriano, L.; Tomas, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)]. E-mail: fpd123@usal.es; Diego, L.; Gonzalez, M. [Instituto Regional de Salud Publica, SACYL Castilla-Leon (Spain); Barrueco, M. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    We examined the possible relationships between pollutant concentrations and mortality at seven different locations of Castilla-Leon, Spain, and the relationships between such concentration levels and emergency admissions (morbidity) at four hospitals in the region, taking into account the possible masking effect of other atmospheric variables. The study was based on daily mortality and morbidity data from 1995 to 1997 (ICD-9 codes: 390-459 cardiovascular; 460-519 respiratory; 520-579 digestive causes); moreover, data for meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, atmospheric pressure and wind velocity) and air pollution data (SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2} and CO) were used. A minimum set of weather and pollutant predictors was selected using forward inclusion stepwise linear regression methods and these were used to produce a multivariate model of the different causes of mortality and morbidity. For the whole period, the mortality attributable to cardiovascular causes had an incidence higher than the mortality due to respiratory and digestive causes. The frequency distributions corresponding to the different diseases as classified by ages revealed that the population older than 69 is the most affected, the proportion of cardiovascular disease related deaths in this age sector being 7-fold higher than for the rest of the groups. Mortality and morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular-related diseases showed a high correlation coefficient with temperature, solar radiation and ozone, and in general significant correlations were also seen with SO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Se analizan las posibles relaciones existentes entre la mortalidad de la poblacion, el numero de admisiones hospitalarias (morbilidad) y los niveles de concentracion de contaminantes medidos en siete localidades y cuatro hospitales de Castilla-Leon, Espana, respectivamente, teniendo en cuenta el posible efecto de enmascaramiento que ejercen las variables

  1. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

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    Kamalini Lokuge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas.Internal service data and published reports from response agencies were analysed to describe the structure and type of response activities, EVD case numbers and epidemic characteristics. This included daily national situation reports and District-level data and reports of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF patient data and internal epidemiological reports. We used EVD case definitions provided by the World Health Organisation over the course of the outbreak. Characteristics assessed included level of response activities and epidemiological features such as reported exposure (funeral-related or not, time interval between onset of illness and admission to the EVD Management Centre (EMC, work-related exposures (health worker or not and mortality. We compared these characteristics between two time periods--June to July (the early period of response, and August to December (when coverage and quality of response had improved. A stochastic model was used to predict case numbers per generation with different numbers of beds and a varying percentage of community cases detected.There were 652 probable/confirmed EVD cases from June-December 2014 in Kailahun. An EMC providing patient care opened in June. By August 2014 an integrated detection, treatment, and prevention strategy was in place across the district catchment zone. From June-July to August-December 2014 surveillance and contact tracing staff increased from 1.0 to 8.8 per

  2. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Kamalini; Caleo, Grazia; Greig, Jane; Duncombe, Jennifer; McWilliam, Nicholas; Squire, James; Lamin, Manjo; Veltus, Emily; Wolz, Anja; Kobinger, Gary; de la Vega, Marc-Antoine; Gbabai, Osman; Nabieu, Sao; Lamin, Mohammed; Kremer, Ronald; Danis, Kostas; Banks, Emily; Glass, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas. Internal service data and published reports from response agencies were analysed to describe the structure and type of response activities, EVD case numbers and epidemic characteristics. This included daily national situation reports and District-level data and reports of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) patient data and internal epidemiological reports. We used EVD case definitions provided by the World Health Organisation over the course of the outbreak. Characteristics assessed included level of response activities and epidemiological features such as reported exposure (funeral-related or not), time interval between onset of illness and admission to the EVD Management Centre (EMC), work-related exposures (health worker or not) and mortality. We compared these characteristics between two time periods--June to July (the early period of response), and August to December (when coverage and quality of response had improved). A stochastic model was used to predict case numbers per generation with different numbers of beds and a varying percentage of community cases detected. There were 652 probable/confirmed EVD cases from June-December 2014 in Kailahun. An EMC providing patient care opened in June. By August 2014 an integrated detection, treatment, and prevention strategy was in place across the district catchment zone. From June-July to August-December 2014 surveillance and contact tracing staff increased from 1.0 to 8.8 per confirmed

  3. Chromium Contamination in Leon Valley Mexico: Insights from Chromium Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Ellis, A. S.; Armienta, M. A.; Morton, O.; Johnson, T. M.; Glessner, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a contaminant commonly found in surface and groundwater. In nature Cr commonly occurs in two valences: Cr(VI) is highly mobile, toxic and carcinogenic, while Cr(III) is less mobile. Cr was first detected in groundwater in the Leon Valley region (located in central Mexico) in 1975 (Rodriguez and Armienta, 1995). Previous work proposed an anthropogenic origin for a high concentration plume near the industrial Buenavista (BV), while the larger sub ppb plume located near San Juan de Otates (SJO) is assumed to be caused by weathering of the SJO pyroxenite. Cr stable isotopes have been shown to be useful in monitoring reduction and can also be used to infer redox and transport conditions in natural settings and the goals of our research are: 1) use stable isotope values (δ53Cr) to monitor Cr behavior in the Leon Valley, 2) identify sources (industrial vs. weathering of ultramafic rocks). Since 1975, the highly contaminated BV area is showing a decrease in groundwater Cr(VI) concentrations. Our sampling in 2007 show Cr(VI) concentrations decreasing from 0.005mg/l to 121mg/l to 0.002mg/l to 95.1mg/l. However, the Cr waste piles still exit and Cr(VI) concentrations from leachate collection ponds range from 1.2g/l to 6.8g/l. Isotopic values obtained from leaching experiments performed on the waste pile samples show enriched δ53Cr values (0.76‰ to 3.25‰) either indicating varying reduction or that the waste is fractionated during the ore processing. δ53Cr values for groundwater range from 0.33‰ to 0.46‰, indicating minimal reduction and lack of available reducing agents. The lack of variation of isotopic values seen in the groundwater plume is also consistent with the results of previous studies showing insignificant fractionation due to sorption within the plume (Villalobos-Aragon et al., 2008). The unfractionated Cr(VI) in groundwater vs. those of the waste piles, considered the contamination source, suggests that either 1) the Cr in the waste

  4. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

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    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  5. Potential Impact of Sexual Transmission on Ebola Virus Epidemiology: Sierra Leone as a Case Study.

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    Jessica L Abbate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD 6 months after onset of symptoms has been recently documented, and Ebola virus RNA has been detected in semen of survivors up to 9 months after onset of symptoms. As countries affected by the 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa, by far the largest to date, are declared free of Ebola virus disease (EVD, it remains unclear what threat is posed by rare sexual transmission events that could arise from survivors.We devised a compartmental mathematical model that includes sexual transmission from convalescent survivors: a SEICR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-convalescent-recovered transmission model. We fitted the model to weekly incidence of EVD cases from the 2014-2015 epidemic in Sierra Leone. Sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations showed that a 0.1% per sex act transmission probability and a 3-month convalescent period (the two key unknown parameters of sexual transmission create very few additional cases, but would extend the epidemic by 83 days [95% CI: 68-98 days] (p < 0.0001 on average. Strikingly, a 6-month convalescent period extended the average epidemic by 540 days (95% CI: 508-572 days, doubling the current length, despite an insignificant rise in the number of new cases generated.Our results show that reductions in the per sex act transmission probability via abstinence and condom use should reduce the number of sporadic sexual transmission events, but will not significantly reduce the epidemic size and may only minimally shorten the length of time the public health community must maintain response preparedness. While the number of infectious survivors is expected to greatly decline over the coming months, our results show that transmission events may still be expected for quite some time as each event results in a new potential cluster of non-sexual transmission. Precise measurement of the convalescent period is thus important for planning ongoing surveillance efforts.

  6. Contact tracing performance during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Kenema district, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Mikiko; Koi, Alpha; Moses, Lina; Wauquier, Nadia; Barboza, Philippe; Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Engedashet, Etsub; Kuti-George, Fredson; Mitiku, Aychiluhim Damtew; Vandi, Mohamed; Kargbo, David; Formenty, Pierre; Hugonnet, Stephane; Bertherat, Eric; Lane, Christopher

    2017-05-26

    Contact tracing in an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the process of identifying individuals who may have been exposed to infected persons with the virus, followed by monitoring for 21 days (the maximum incubation period) from the date of the most recent exposure. The goal is to achieve early detection and isolation of any new cases in order to prevent further transmission. We performed a retrospective data analysis of 261 probable and confirmed EVD cases in the national EVD database and 2525 contacts in the Contact Line Lists in Kenema district, Sierra Leone between 27 April and 4 September 2014 to assess the performance of contact tracing during the initial stage of the outbreak. The completion rate of the 21-day monitoring period was 89% among the 2525 contacts. However, only 44% of the EVD cases had contacts registered in the Contact Line List and 6% of probable or confirmed cases had previously been identified as contacts. Touching the body fluids of the case and having direct physical contact with the body of the case conferred a 9- and 20-fold increased risk of EVD status, respectively. Our findings indicate that incompleteness of contact tracing led to considerable unmonitored transmission in the early months of the epidemic. To improve the performance of early outbreak contact tracing in resource poor settings, our results suggest the need for prioritized contact tracing after careful risk assessment and better alignment of Contact Line Listing with case ascertainment and investigation.This article is part of the themed issue 'The 2013-2016 West African Ebola epidemic: data, decision-making and disease control'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Effects of Large-Scale Acquisition on Food Insecurity in Sierra Leone

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    Genesis Tambang Yengoh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent phenomenon of large-scale acquisition of land for a variety of investment purposes has raised deep concerns over the food security, livelihood and socio-economic development of communities in many regions of the developing world. This study set out to investigate the food security outcomes of land acquisitions in northern Sierra Leone. Using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative research methods, the study measures the severity of food insecurity and hunger, compares the situation of food security before and after the onset of operations of a land investing company, analyzes the food security implications of producing own food versus depending on wage labour for household food needs, and evaluates initiatives put in place by the land investing company to mitigate its food insecurity footprint. Results show an increase in the severity of food insecurity and hunger. Household income from agricultural production has fallen. Employment by the land investing company is limited in terms of the number of people it employs relative to the population of communities in which it operates. Also, wages from employment by the company cannot meet the staple food needs of its employees. The programme that has been put in place by the company to mitigate its food insecurity footprint is failing because of a host of reasons that relate to organization and power relations. In conclusion, rural people are better off producing their own food than depending on the corporate structure of land investment companies. Governments should provide an enabling framework to accommodate this food security need, both in land investment operations that are ongoing and in those that are yet to operate.

  8. Reductions in inpatient mortality following interventions to improve emergency hospital care in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

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    Matthew Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The demand for high quality hospital care for children in low resource countries is not being met. This paper describes a number of strategies to improve emergency care at a children's hospital and evaluates the impact of these on inpatient mortality. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of improving emergency care is estimated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A team of local and international staff developed a plan to improve emergency care for children arriving at The Ola During Children's Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Following focus group discussions, five priority areas were identified to improve emergency care; staff training, hospital layout, staff allocation, medical equipment, and medical record keeping. A team of international volunteers worked with local staff for six months to design and implement improvements in these five priority areas. The improvements were evaluated collectively rather than individually. Before the intervention, the inpatient mortality rate was 12.4%. After the intervention this improved to 5.9%. The relative risk of dying was 47% (95% CI 0.369-0.607 lower after the intervention. The estimated number of lives saved in the first two months after the intervention was 103. The total cost of the intervention was USD 29 714, the estimated cost per death averted was USD 148. There are two main limitation of the study. Firstly, the brevity of the study and secondly, the assumed homogeneity of the clinical cases that presented to the hospital before and after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstarted a signficant reductuion in inpatient mortality rate after an intervention to improve emergency hospital care If the findings of this paper could be reproduced in a larger more rigorous study, improving the quality of care in hospitals would be a very cost effective strategy to save children's lives in low resource settings.

  9. Diversity of inland valleys and opportunities for agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

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    Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and

  10. The Potential of Women’s Organization for Rural Development in Sierra Leone

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    Theresa Tenneh Dick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are among the preferred outlets women use both to voice societal prejudices against them and to showcase their potential for rural/community development. There is an increasing advocacy for gender equality, women’s empowerment and the integration of women folks into the socio-economic, political and cultural fabrics of society. Girl-child education and women-based capacity building programs such as micro-finance, entrepreneurship, political activism, etc. have surfaced prominently on these women’s empowerment efforts. In this study, a questionnaire-driven survey is conducted in two districts in southern Sierra Leone. The survey covers 36 influential women in 36 town-level communities in the country. The study analyzes the personal and organization characteristics of the women in relation to social perceptions and rural/community development. A large percent of the women surveyed are educated, married and belong to social organizations. In addition to other social/development organizations, women’s organizations are also present in each of the surveyed communities. Most of the women organizations are local in nature and operate entirely on funds raised from within the local communities. This display of organizational ability of the surveyed rural women shows a significant perceptional shift towards recognizing women folks as productive counterparts in our societies. This trend also psychologically strengthens the women community to take on tangible responsibilities that were ones meant for men only. The analysis also shows that rural women hold managerial and other administrative positions in the organizations which are strongly oriented towards various forms of rural/community development. This is a significant positive deviation from the traditional perception which has unduly confined the women folks to the backyard for centuries now. This trend not only has the potential of benefiting the millions more women languishing in

  11. Carbon stock estimates for forests in the Castilla y Leon region, Spain. A GIS based method for evaluating spatial distribution of residual biomass for bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Maria Victoria; Blanco, Daniel; Carballo, Maria Teresa; Calvo, Luis Fernando [Chemical Engineering, Institute of Natural Resources, University of Leon, Avenida de Portugal, 41, 24071 Leon (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Analysis of aboveground biomass and carbon stocks (as equivalent CO{sub 2}) was performed in the Castilla y Leon region, Spain. Data from the second and third Spanish Forest Inventories (1996 and 2006) were used. Total aboveground biomass was calculated using allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEF), the first method giving higher values. Forests of Castilla y Leon stored 77,051,308 Mg of biomass, with a mean of 8.18 Mg ha{sup -1}, in 1996 and 135,531,737 Mg of biomass, with a mean of 14.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, in 2006. The total equivalent CO{sub 2} in this region's forests increased 9,608,824 Mg year{sup -1} between 1996 and 2006. In relation to the Kyoto Protocol, the Castilla y Leon forests have sequestered 3 million tons of CO{sub 2} per year, which represents 6.4% of the total regional emission of CO{sub 2}. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based method was also used to assess the geographic distribution of residual forest biomass for bio-energy in the region. The forest statistics data on area of each species were used. The fraction of vegetation cover, land slope and protected areas were also considered. The residual forest biomass in Castilla y Leon was 1,464,991 Mg year{sup -1}, or 1.90% of the total aboveground biomass in 1996. The residual forest biomass was concentrated in specific zones of the Castilla y Leon region, suitable for the location of industries that utilize biomass as energy source. The energy potential of the residual forest biomass in the Castilla y Leon region is 7350 million MJ per year. (author)

  12. [Western area surge for controlling Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Sierra Leone and evaluation of its effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wenyi; Chen, Zeliang; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Chao

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the Western Area Surge (WAS) program in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone, and to analyze its implementing effect. The subject of this study was 3,813 laboratory confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) cases reported in Sierra Leone from November 19, 2014 through January 27, 2015, a period before and after the implementation of the WAS program. To analyze and make conclusions according to the working experience of China Mobile Laboratory Reponses Team in the fight of Ebola outbreak, using WHO published EHF case definition to make diagnosis and compare the number of bed numbers, confirmed EHF cases, samples tested, and positive rates before and after implementation of WAS program. From the implementation of WAS program on 17th December 2014 to half a month later, the total numbers of Ebola holding and treatment centers increased from 640 to 960, six additional laboratories were established. On January, 2015, another two laboratories from America and The Netherlands were established. The numbers of samples tested one month before and after WAS program were 7,891 and 9,783, respectively, with an increase of 24.0 percent, while the positive rate of Ebola virus decreased from 22.2% (1,752/7,891) to 11.0% (1,077/9,783). The positive rate of blood samples decreased from 39.6% (248/626) in the month before WAS program to 27.4% (131/478) (χ2=17.93, P<0.001) in the mother after WAS program, the positive rate of blood samples 22.7% (103/454) to 10% (62/609) (χ2=31.03, P<0.001), accordingly. After 3 weeks of WAS program, in addition to Western Area, another four hotspots in Sierra Leone had also reported a significant decrease of the numbers of confirmed EVD cases. Forty-two days after implementation of WAS program, the daily number of laboratory confirmed EHF cases decreased from 63 to 10. WAS program played a vital role in controlling the EHF outbreak rapidly in Sierra Leone. It could also provide guidance for the control similar large infectious diseases

  13. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola syndromic surveillance in high risked settings in Southern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kangbai; Mohamed, Koroma

    2015-09-01

    Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other developing countries like Sri Lanka. In this study we set to evaluate the effectiveness of using cell phone technology for Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in a high risked community in Sierra Leone. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using cell phone messaging (text and calls) for community Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in high risked community in southern Sierra Leone. All cell phone syndromic surveillance data used for this study was reported as cell phone alert messages-texts and voice calls; by the Moyamba District Health Management Team for both Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and mortalities. We conducted a longitudinal data analysis of the monthly cumulative confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases and mortalities collected by both the traditional sentinel and community cell phone syndromic surveillance from August 2014 to October 2014. A total of 129 and 49 Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and confirmed cases respectively were recorded using the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in October 2014. The average number of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspects and confirmed cases for October 2014 were 4.16 (Std.dev 3.76) and 1.58 (Std.dev 1.43) respectively. Thirty-four percent (n=76) of the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alerts that were followed-up within 24 hours reported Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect cases while 65.92% (n=147) reported mortality. Our study suggests some form of underreporting by the traditional sentinel Ebola hemorrhagic fever disease surveillance system in Moyamba District southern Sierra Leone for August

  14. Alimentos gravídicos: anáise da doutrina e da jurisprudência atual sobre os aspectos polêmicos da lei

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Natalia Alberti Andrzejewski

    2013-01-01

    A presente monografia tem como objetivo analisar a atual a Lei nº 11.804, de 5 de novembro de 2008, que introduziu os chamados “alimentos gravídicos” no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro. A Lei é uma inovação no regramento jurídico civil, cujo objetivo é amparar a mulher grávida e assegurar o direito à vida do nascituro. O dispositivo legal surgiu para suprir uma lacuna na legislação, porém já positivada pela jurisprudência. Alguns direitos e princípios constitucionais inerentes à família serão...

  15. Memória vs esquecimento: análise do processo de formulação da Lei de Acesso à Informação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Guimarães Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar o processo político que levou as mudanças na Lei de Acesso à Informação Pública que permitiram a abertura dos arquivos do período de exceção e, consequentemente, serviram para viabilizar os trabalhos da Comissão Nacional da Verdade (CNV. A análise, realizada a partir do binômio memória vs esquecimento, traz os embates travados sobre esse tema no Congresso Nacional pós-Constituição de 1988 até o ano de 2011, momento de criação da CNV e da edição da última alteração da Lei de Acesso à Informação. O referencial teórico metodológico empregado foi o do advocacy coalition framework.

  16. A Submissão das Sociedades de Economia Mista e das Empresas Públicas ao Regime Jurídico Falimentar Previsto na Lei 11.101/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa analisar a situação jurídica das sociedades de economia mista e das empresas públicas, diante do regime jurídico falimentar previsto na Lei nº 11.101/05. Realiza-se uma retrospectiva histórica a respeito do tema, apresentando as definições e diferenças existentes entre referidas “empresas”. Demonstra-se o modo pelo qual o empresário é definido pelo direito brasileiro, como regra geral, ressaltando, ainda, as exceções a tal definição. Por fim, conclui-se que, ou se dá ao art. 2º, I, da Lei nº 11.101/05 uma interpretação conforme ou deve ser declarado inconstitucional.

  17. O ENSINO DE ÁFRICA NAS AULAS DE GEOGRAFIA E A IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DA LEI 10.639/03

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    Gabriela da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available No campo educacional, entre as medidas que visam combater as desigualdades sociais brasileiras, bem como propiciar desconstruções e construções necessárias para práticas da promoção de igualdade racial, está a Lei 103693/03. Um dos pontos de conteúdos indicados pela Lei é o ensino da História da África e dos afrodescendentes. Conhecer a África, para o brasileiro, deve ser enxergá-la nas manifestações culturais, nas peles, nos jeitos e gingas das pessoas; é ir à busca de uma parcela importante de um nosso passado. O Ensino de África deve estar objetivado para romper com as percepções carregadas de preconceitos e estereótipos contidos nas imagens que os livros didáticos trazem do continente africano.

  18. Tensiomiografia utilizada para a avaliação de jogadores de vôlei de praia de alto nível

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ruiz,David; Quiroga Escudero,Miriam Esther; Rodríguez Matoso,Dario; Sarmiento Montesdeoca,Samuel; Losa Reyna,José; Saá Guerra,Yves de; Perdomo Bautista,Gloria; García Manso,Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Esta investigação tem por objetivo coletar dados sobre rigidez muscular, as propriedades mecânicas e contráteis dos músculos utilizando a TMG em jogadores de vôlei de praia de alto nível, assim como demonstrar a utilidade deste método para a avaliação dos músculos responsáveis pela flexão e extensão do joelho. MÉTODOS: A investigação foi conduzida com um grupo de 24 jogadores de vôlei de praia os quais participaram do Torneio Europeu Nestea - Master Espanhol realizado nas Ilhas Grâ-...

  19. POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS E ADOLESCENTES EM CONFLITO COM A LEI: revisão sistemática da literatura nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Ligia Mella; Jéssica Limberger; Ilana Andretta

    2016-01-01

    Políticas públicas voltadas ao adolescente em conflito com a lei têm sido amplamente destacadas ao longo da história brasileira, principalmente após o processo de redemocratização do país, que culminou na promulgação da Constituição Federal de 1988 e o posterior Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA) em 1990. A presente revisão bibliográfica objetiva descrever estudos brasileiros de 2005 a 2015 acerca das políticas públicas dos adolescentes em conflito com a lei, analisando se tais estudo...

  20. As sanções da Lei de Licitações e a desconsideração da personalidade jurídica

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Moreno Machado

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação voltada ao estudo das sanções administrativas previstas na Lei Federal 8.666/1993 (Lei de Licitações). Apresenta quadro panorâmico das licitações e contratações públicas no Direito Administrativo Brasileiro. Trata do regime jurídico do exercício da atividade sancionatória pela Administração Pública, com destaque para os princípios regentes da matéria. Examina as discussões teóricas, doutrinárias e jurisprudenciais relativas à aplicabilidade das sanções administrativas previstas no...

  1. Intervenção do Estado na economia através da lei anticorrupção 12.846/2013

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    Natália Martins de Abreu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata-se de resumo sobre o livro Lei Anticorrupção: origens, comentários e análise da legislação correlata e traz em seu texto considerações dos autores a respeito das inovações, críticas e benefícios trazidos por este importante instrumento normativo para o momento que o Brasil atravessa com a crise política e empresarial advinda do instituto da corrupçào. Menciona-se aidna algumas peculiaridades da lei bem como mecanismos para o combate da corrupção realizada pelas empresas.

  2. A Lei de Acesso à Informação como instrumento de controle social: diagnóstico dos municípios do sul do Brasil à luz do artigo 8º da lei 12527/2011

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    Marcelo Medeiros da Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetiva identificar qual o percentual de municipios da região sul do Brasil divulgam as informações exigidas no art. 8° da Lei de Acesso à Informação em seus sítios eletrônicos. Em relação ao objetivo, esta pesquisa pode ser classificada como descritiva, de lógica dedutiva, abordagem qualitativa, enquadrada como bibliográfica e documental e realizada por meio de consultas aos sítios eletrônicos de 216 municípios. A partir dos dados coletados, conclui-se que, de modo geral, os municípios da região sul do Brasil, com população superior a 10 mil habitantes, atendem parcialmente aos requisitos apresentados no Art. 8 da LAI. Com esses resultados, espera-se que os cidadãos possam cobrar dos governantes a melhoria na qualidade das informações de interesse público divulgadas, exercendo assim o controle social e contribuindo para a melhoria da gestão pública e a inibição da corrupção. 

  3. ACESSIBILIDADE INFORMACIONAL DE PcD NO CONTEXTO DA LEI DE ACESSO À INFORMAÇÃO: desafios para estudo de usuários

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    Asa Fujino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Lei nº 12.527/2011, conhecida como Lei de Acesso à Informação (LAI, regula o direito de acesso à informação pública, visando a promoção da cidadania e o controle social da gestão pública. A Controladoria-Geral da União (CGU, atual Ministério da Transparência, Fiscalização e Controle (MTFC, autoridade responsável pelo monitoramento do cumprimento da lei em todo poder executivo, estabeleceu procedimentos para processar pedidos de informação e obrigações relativas à divulgação pró-ativa e ao dever de fornecer dados em formato aberto e não proprietário e as sanções para aqueles que negam o acesso a informações não protegidas por lei. No entanto, na Ciência da Informação, a acessibilidade informacional depende do conhecimento das necessidades de informação do potencial usuário, além dos aspectos que envolvem a infraestrutura para acesso e divulgação, condições fundamentais para o desenvolvimento de mediações que viabilizem o acesso cognitivo e apropriação das informações pelo usuário. Trata-se de uma reflexão sobre os desafios teórico-metodológicos para realização de estudos de necessidades de informação e estudos sobre comportamento na busca de informação do potencial usuário, com o objetivo de subsidiar políticas públicas de informação.

  4. A CPMI da Violência Contra a Mulher e a Implementação da Lei Maria Da Penha

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    Carmen Hein de Campos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as conclusões da Comissão Parlamentar Mista de Inquérito da Violência contra a Mulher, criada pelo Congresso Nacional Brasileiro em 2012, no que tange à aplicação da Lei Maria da Penha. Após um ano e meio de trabalho, o relatório da CPMI apontou a fragilidade das políticas públicas de enfrentamento à violência contra mulheres e os obstáculos na implementação da Lei Maria da Penha, dentre os quais, destacam-se: a precariedade da rede de serviços e o reduzido número de juizados especializados em atendimento às mulheres em situação de violência doméstica e familiar; o descumprimento da decisão do Supremo Tribunal Federal que proíbe a aplicação da suspensão condicional do processo; a resistência de operadores/as do direito em entender a proposta da nova lei e romper com a lógica familista e o insuficiente orçamento para o desenvolvimento e a manutenção das políticas públicas de enfrentamento a essas situações de violência. A análise do relatório da CPMI permite concluir que os estados brasileiros investem muito pouco em políticas públicas específicas e que a implementação integral da Lei Maria da Penha depende de uma nova compreensão jurídica, da articulação entre os poderes públicos e de uma política orçamentária de gênero.

  5. EM NOME DA LEI: DIREITO, ESCRITURA E DESCONSTRUÇÃO IN THE NAME OF THE LAW: LAW, WRITING AND DECONSTRUCTIONES

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    DANIEL GOMES MACHADO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Na medida em que se impõe ao pensamento, a desconstrução pode ser vista como uma lei, a Lei mesma. A desconstrução do direito implica em situá-lo no contexto da escritura, para enxergar sua submissão à différance, ao jogo de remetimentos da linguagem. A lei da desconstrução atua na desconstrução da lei, revelando aporias e fragilidades da ordem jurídica, bem como dos conceitos tradicionais de direito natural e direitos humanos. A desconstrução do direito faz emergir a justiça como indecidibilidade, o dever de decidir pelo justo, mesmo quando não se pode afirmar pela presença da justiça. Direito, escritura e desconstrução convergem, enfim, na noção de uma hospitalidade sem restrições.Abstract: Since it is imposed to thinking, deconstruction can be seen as a law, the Law itself. Deconstruction of law is to put it in the context of writing, to notice its submission to the différance, to the play in the language. The law of deconstruction acts in the deconstruction of law, revealing paradoxes and fragilities of juridical order, as well as concepts of natural law and human rights. Finally, deconstruction of law brings with it justice as undecidability, such as the obligation to make fair decisions, even when it is not possible to state the presence of justice. Law, writing and deconstruction converge then to justice, understood as the hospitality.

  6. Aspectos intervenientes da Lei de Acesso à Informação no processo de gestão documental nas organizações

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    Daniela Francescutti Martins Hott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata dos aspectos intervenientes da lei nº 12.527, de 18 de novembro de 2011, conhecida como Lei de Acesso à Informação (LAI, no processo organizacional de gestão documental. Apresenta uma breve revisão de literatura do tema, bem como sobre a questão do acesso a documentos públicos. Parte de uma pesquisa mais ampla, ainda em andamento, sobre os principais conceitos da gestão documental, atividades envolvidas e aplicação desta nas organizações. Situa-se na perspectiva das discussões acerca das influências da lei recentemente promulgada no Brasil – que tem por prerrogativa a garantia aos cidadãos brasileiros do acesso pleno e gratuito a informações do Executivo, Legislativo e Judiciário, ressalvadas aquelas com restrições ou sob sigilo – sobre a gestão documental, ligada inerentemente ao tratamento e organização dos documentos de arquivo de uma instituição para prover seu uso.

  7. Vinte Anos da Convenção de Belém do Pará e a Lei Maria Da Penha

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    Lourdes Maria Bandeira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Em 2014, completaram-se duas décadas da Convenção Interamericana para Prevenir, Punir e Erradicar a Violência Contra a Mulher (Convenção de Belém do Pará, que é a base original da Lei no 11.340 (Lei Maria da Penha e que continua a ser a referência para seu entendimento sociojurídico e a dimensionar sua eficácia. Nas comemorações destes 20 anos, vê-se maior precisão das compreensões e do desdobramento da Convenção, alcançados a partir das iniciativas tomadas pelos Estados signatários. Em um processo de retroalimentação, o refinamento de seus termos e princípios vem impactando legislações e medidas, adotados individualmente, dentro das soberanias nacionais. O presente artigo desenvolve uma reflexão sobre a Convenção e sua atual importância para o enfrentamento da violência contra as mulheres no Brasil, indicando perspectivas futuras ao escopo da Lei Maria da Penha.

  8. A EFICÁCIA DA APLICAÇÃO DA LEI DE CRIMES AMBIENTAIS PARA A PROTEÇÃO DO MEIO AMBIENTE NO LITORAL SUL DA BAHIA

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    Reinaldo Martins Lemos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou avaliar a efetividade da aplicação da Lei de Crimes Ambientais e o andamento dos processos administrativos e judiciais no Litoral Sul da Bahia, como forma de proteção ambiental. Esta região é de grande importância ecológica, onde possui várias Unidades de Conservação, por isso, é uma parte importante no Corredor Central da Mata Atlântica – CCMA – Brasil. Foram analisados 136 autos de infrações ambientais emitidos pelo IBAMA em Ilhéus/BA, no ano de 2010, para avaliar a eficácia da aplicação da Lei de Crimes Ambientais e seu andamento, situação e duração nos processos administrativo, civil e penal. O presente estudo mostrou que há a necessidade de criar iniciativas para aperfeiçoar e responsabilizar os infratores para coibir ou diminuir os crimes ambientais no Litoral Sul da Bahia, com a localização e identificação dos crimes e seus responsáveis, bem como, uma maior agilidade nos processos administrativos, civis e penais, para punir os infratores e aumentar a eficácia, eficiência e efetividades dos órgãos ambientais e das Leis de Crimes Ambientais.  

  9. Dedução via geometria analítica das equações da lei dos cossenos da trigonometria esférica

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    Carlos Henrique Oliveira da Rocha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Trigonometria Esférica é uma importante disciplina para a Geomática: dela advém diversos conceitos para a resolução dos problemas direto e indireto da Geodésia; é imprescindível para a resolução do Triângulo de Posição, da Astronomia e; é utilizada para a dedução da lei de formação de diversas Projeções Cartográficas, notadamente da Projeção Equidistante Azimutal, sendo a superfície de referência uma esfera.  As equações fundamentais para a resolução de Triângulos Esféricos são aquelas que compõem a chamada Lei dos Cossenos.  Deste modo, o presente trabalho pretende apresentar a dedução da Lei dos Cossenos, utilizando para isso da Geometria Analítica, tendo por pressuposto ser uma solução geral.  Como objetivo secundário, apresenta conceitos da Geometria Analítica, pois essa área da Matemática é também muito importante para a Geomática.

  10. Formação Continuada e suas implicações: entre a lei e o trabalho docente

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    Lígia Karam Corrêa de Magalhães

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute questões relativas à formação de professores, com ênfase na formação continuada, a partir da análise das Metas 15 e 16 do Plano Nacional de Educação - PNE 2014-2024, anexo à Lei 13005/14, evidenciando a influência da LDB 9.394/96, das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Formação de Professores da Educação Básica, em nível superior, curso de licenciatura, de graduação plena e da Rede Nacional de Formação Continuada de Professores. Nossa análise está ancorada no pressuposto de que a formação continuada é condição necessária no processo de formação ao longo da carreira, mas não suficiente para o pleno exercício da docência garantida pela formação inicial de qualidade. Defendemos que o trabalho docente afiance ao professor autonomia em suas práticas pedagógicas, voltadas para o desenvolvimento intelectual, cultural e científico, de caráter emancipatório, buscando superar a concepção dualista e economicista da educação.

  11. Drogadição e atos infracionais na voz do adolescente em conflito com a lei

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    Sandra Eni Fernandes Nunes Pereira

    Full Text Available Por meio das abordagens sistêmica e psicossocial, o presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever e discutir a relação entre os níveis de dependência relacional das drogas e a prática de atos infracionais entre os jovens, na perspectiva do adolescente em conflito com a lei. As informações foram coletadas por entrevistas semi-estruturadas, aplicadas em 29 adolescentes, autores de infração, da Vara da Infância e Juventude de Brasília. O método de análise refere-se à análise de conteúdo do tipo construtivo-interpretativo. Os resultados apontam várias conexões entre os níveis de dependência relacional das drogas (efeitos, crenças, relações afetivas, pares, provedores, fornecedores e a prática de infrações. Os diferentes níveis de dependência identificados na voz dos adolescentes mostram a multiplicidade e complexidade das relações entre a drogadição e a prática de atos infracionais entre jovens e, portanto, a necessidade de um trabalho de intervenção em rede.

  12. Racismo de Estado e tanatopolítica: reflexões sobre os jovens e a lei

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    Andrea Cristina Coelho Scisleski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo busca discutir, a partir de pesquisa realizada no contexto de Campo Grande/Brasil, as políticas públicas dirigidas a jovens em conflito com a lei, tomando como operadores de análise os conceitos de racismo de Estado e de tanatopolítica, a partir do referencial teórico de Michel Foucault e de Giorgio Agamben, respectivamente. O texto discute como as políticas públicas vêm sendo destinadas a esses jovens, tanto pelas práticas que as implementam quanto pelas suas falhas e não cumprimento, vezes em que abandonam e desprotegem essa população. O debate centra-se em uma reflexão sobre a condição em que os jovens se encontram a partir de ações jurídico-políticas que os inserem em termos de vivência pela exclusão social. As reflexões finais do estudo apontam para uma forma de gestão não apenas da vida, mas também da morte desses jovens, que os mantém em uma situação de marginalidade, porém tutelada pelo Estado.

  13. Relative agricultural aptitude of the Tuxpan municipality, Nayarit, using Almagra Model of the MicroLEIS System

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    José López García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land evaluation in the fluvial-marine plain within the municipality of Tuxpan, Nayarit, was carried out based onto a semi-detailed soil survey. Relative agricultural aptitude was evaluated, through out a modified Almagra’s model of MicroLeis 4.1 system, defining a new model: the Almagra-Tuxpan, based on the specific conditions of the zone. Using the Almagra-Tuxpan model, a software routine was written to evaluate the agricultural aptitude of twelve traditional crops (bean, sorghum, maize, tobacco (Virginia and Burley, chili, tomato, melon, watermelon, jícama, peanut, and cotton, after that, the relative agricultural aptitude was determined for every one of the mapped soils units. 21.73 % of the soils have a very good aptitude for the majority of the evaluated farming, 59.98 % have a moderate aptitude, and the remaining 18.43 % have no capacity at all. Generally speaking, excluding the units with null capacity, the soils of this municipality are suitable for farming cotton, maize and sorghum. The last two, are already intensely cultivated, meanwhile cotton will be a very good alternative for the region.

  14. Quem faz as leis na república rousseauniana? = Who makes the laws in Rousseau’s republic?

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    Moscateli, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O intuito deste artigo é analisar a cidadania proposta por Rousseau à luz de certas delimitações colocadas pelo filósofo ao exercício desse direito, as quais configuram um tipo de participação política que seria apropriado ao regime descrito no Contrato Social. Assim, procurarei mostrar que a soberania popular tem, para o autor genebrino, um papel fundamental na defesa da legislação, cabendo ao Legislador e aos magistrados guiar os cidadãos comuns na aprovação das boas leis necessárias ao Estado. Essa tese é compatível com o republicanismo rousseauniano, na medida em que ela mostra que esses cidadãos, os membros do pacto social, são os responsáveis por proteger e conservar sua própria liberdade ao longo da existência do corpo político

  15. Oxygen accumulation on metal surfaces investigated by XPS, AES and LEIS, an issue for sputter depth profiling under UHV conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, R.; Celedón, C. E.; Bruckner, B.; Roth, D.; Duchoslav, J.; Arndt, M.; Kürnsteiner, P.; Steck, T.; Faderl, J.; Riener, C. K.; Angeli, G.; Bauer, P.; Stifter, D.

    2017-07-01

    Depth profiling using surface sensitive analysis methods in combination with sputter ion etching is a common procedure for thorough material investigations, where clean surfaces free of any contamination are essential. Hence, surface analytic studies are mostly performed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, but the cleanness of such UHV environments is usually overrated. Consequently, the current study highlights the in principle known impact of the residual gas on metal surfaces (Fe, Mg, Al, Cr and Zn) for various surface analytics methods, like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). The investigations with modern, state-of-the-art equipment showed different behaviors for the metal surfaces in UHV during acquisition: (i) no impact for Zn, even after long time, (ii) solely adsorption of oxygen for Fe, slight and slow changes for Cr and (iii) adsorption accompanied by oxide formation for Al and Mg. The efficiency of different counter measures was tested and the acquired knowledge was finally used for ZnMgAl coated steel to obtain accurate depth profiles, which exhibited before serious artifacts when data acquisition was performed in an inconsiderate way.

  16. HIV/AIDS practice patterns, knowledge, and educational needs among Hispanic clinicians in Texas, USA, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico

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    Martinez J. Louis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispanic clinicians in Texas, United States of America, and in the neighboring state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of HIV/AIDS. Two-thirds of the 74 Texan and 22% of the 104 Mexican physicians queried had seen at least one HIV/AIDS patient in the previous year. The majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1 were in private practice; 2 saw more than 1 000 patients per year; 3 had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4 provided some HIV prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5 rated their own knowledge of HIV/AIDS as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6 received most of their information about HIV/AIDS from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7 thought Hispanic patients had special needs with regard to HIV/AIDS care; and 8 were willing to attend education programs to improve their HIV/AIDS management skills. The greatest barriers to caring for HIV patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. These results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the HIV/AIDS management skills of Hispanic clinicians in Texas and Nuevo Leon.

  17. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

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    Fabian Rohner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001. Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  18. High coverage of vitamin A supplementation and measles vaccination during an integrated Maternal and Child Health Week in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesay, Fatmata F; Hodges, Mary H; Kamara, Habib I; Turay, Mohamed; Wolfe, Adam; Samba, Thomas T; Koroma, Aminata S; Kamara, Wogba; Fall, Amadou; Mitula, Pamela; Conteh, Ishata; Maksha, Nuhu; Jambai, Amara

    2015-01-01

    In May 2012, the twice-yearly Maternal and Child Health Week (MCHW) integrated vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and supplementary measles vaccination to reach all children 6-59 months in Sierra Leone. Following the MCHW, a post event coverage survey was conducted to validate VAS coverage and assess adverse events following immunization. Using the WHO Expanded Program on Immunization sampling methodology, 30 clusters were randomly selected using population proportionate to size sampling. Fourteen caregivers of children 6-59 months were interviewed per cluster for precision of ±5%. Responses were collected via mobile phones using EpiSurveyor. Overall VAS and measles coverage was 91.9% and 91.6%, respectively, with no significant differences by age group, sex, religion or occupation. Major reasons given for not receiving VAS and measles vaccination were not knowing about the MCHW or being out of the area. Significantly more mild adverse events (fever, pain at injection site) were reported via the post event coverage survey (29.1%) than MCHW (0.01%) (p90% of children in Sierra Leone with equitable coverage. Increased reporting of mild adverse events during the survey may be attributed to delayed onset after measles vaccination and/or direct inquiry from enumerators. Even mild adverse events following immunization requires strengthened reporting during and after vaccination campaigns. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Donald S.; Berggren, Vanja

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM), assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.). There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent. PMID:24204384

  20. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

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    Owolabi Bjälkander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  1. Surveillance of Vector-Borne Infections (Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria) in Bo, Sierra Leone, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariano, Donald F; Taitt, Chris R; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bockarie, Moses J; Lahai, Joseph; Lamin, Joseph M; Leski, Tomasz A; Yasuda, Chadwick; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid

    2017-10-01

    Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in West Africa, but the contribution of other vector-borne infections (VBIs) to the burden of disease has been understudied. We used rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for three VBIs to test blood samples from 1,795 febrile residents of Bo City, Sierra Leone, over a 1-year period in 2012-2013. In total, 24% of the tests were positive for malaria, fewer than 5% were positive for markers of dengue virus infection, and 39% were positive for IgM directed against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) or a related alphavirus. In total, more than half (55%) of these febrile individuals tested positive for at least one of the three VBIs, which highlights the very high burden of vector-borne diseases in this population. The prevalence of positives on the Chikungunya IgM and dengue tests did not vary significantly with age ( P > 0.36), but higher rates of malaria were observed in children Chikungunya IgM RDTs were moderately correlated with rainfall ( r 2 = 0.599). Based on the high prevalence of positive results on the Chikungunya IgM RDTs from individuals Bo and its environs, there is a need to examine whether an ecological shift toward a greater burden from CHIKV or related alphaviruses is occurring in other parts of Sierra Leone or the West African region.

  2. Knowledge Attitude And Practice Of Street Food Vendors In Selected Schools Within Bo City Southern Sierra Leone

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    P.T. Lamin-Boima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the lack of knowledge attitude and practices of street food vendors in Bo the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. A cross sectional study conducted among eighty-seven respondents vendors in forty-four in Bo City. Data was collected using a structured and semi structured questionnaire. The collected data is analysed using a simple descriptive statistics with the help Excel Microsoft ware. A statistical significance was found in relation to knowledge. Attitude towards food safety was negative self-reported practices by Street Food Vendors were statistically significant with low hygiene standards while predisposing factors showed relatively low personal hygiene poor environmental sanitation and low food safety practice. The realize consequences are utmost health risks of consuming street foods as food contamination has caused food borne diseases and outbreaks. It is recommended that standard training be provided for these vendors by the Bo City Council in collaboration with Njala University. It is essential that poor people in a developing country such as Sierra Leone be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an easy-to-enter business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are sustained.

  3. Getting the 'blues': the existence, diffusion and influence of pornography on young peoples' sexual health in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    While substantial research has examined the effects of pornography on young people in developed societies, existing studies fall short in addressing how sexually-explicit material affects young people in developing countries. The importance of such knowledge increases as the globalising effects of technology expand young peoples' access and exposure to pornography. During the summer of 2012, a study was undertaken in Sierra Leone examining factors affecting young peoples' sexual and reproductive health. The research assessed the influence of HIV knowledge, communication about sex, civil war and contraception myths on sexual behaviours, while remaining open to unanticipated factors. During data collection, respondents identified pornography, also called blues, as an influential factor, detailing its newfound accessibility driven by improved access to information and communication technologies in the country. Respondents also addressed several presumed ways in which pornography impacts young peoples' decisions about sexual health. The following study examines perceived effects of young peoples' exposure to pornography based on existing literature. It then outlines the findings of research conducted in Sierra Leone, drawing on primary data from the respondents and relevant published literature and concludes with proposals for addressing its negative effects.

  4. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Leon Creek watershed, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the San Antonio River Authority, configured, calibrated, and tested a Hydrological Simulation Program ? FORTRAN watershed model for the approximately 238-square-mile Leon Creek watershed in Bexar County, Texas, and used the model to simulate streamflow and water quality (focusing on loads and yields of selected constituents). Streamflow in the model was calibrated and tested with available data from five U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations for 1997-2004. Simulated streamflow volumes closely matched measured streamflow volumes at all streamflow-gaging stations. Total simulated streamflow volumes were within 10 percent of measured values. Streamflow volumes are greatly influenced by large storms. Two months that included major floods accounted for about 50 percent of all the streamflow measured at the most downstream gaging station during 1997-2004. Water-quality properties and constituents (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, suspended sediment, dissolved ammonia nitrogen, dissolved nitrate nitrogen, and dissolved and total lead and zinc) in the model were calibrated using available data from 13 sites in and near the Leon Creek watershed for varying periods of record during 1992-2005. Average simulated daily mean water temperature and dissolved oxygen at the most downstream gaging station during 1997-2000 were within 1 percent of average measured daily mean water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Simulated suspended-sediment load at the most downstream gaging station during 2001-04 (excluding July 2002 because of major storms) was 77,700 tons compared with 74,600 tons estimated from a streamflow-load regression relation (coefficient of determination = .869). Simulated concentrations of dissolved ammonia nitrogen and dissolved nitrate nitrogen closely matched measured concentrations after calibration. At the most downstream gaging station, average simulated monthly

  5. Clinical presentations and outcomes of patients with Ebola virus disease in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying-Jie; Duan, Xue-Zhang; Gao, Xu-Dong; Li, Lei; Li, Chen; Ji, Dong; Li, Wen-Gang; Wang, Li-Fu; Meng, Yu-Hua; Yang, Xiao; Ling, Bin-Fang; Song, Xue-Ai; Gu, Mei-Lei; Jiang, Tao; Koroma, She-Ku M; Bangalie, James; Duan, Hui-Juan

    2016-11-03

    Clinical and laboratory data were collected and analysed from patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Jui Government Hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone, where patients with EVD were received and/or treated from October 1, 2014 to March 21, 2015 during the West Africa EVD outbreak. The study admitted 285 patients with confirmed EVD and followed them up till the endpoint (recovery or death). EVD was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR assays detecting blood Ebola virus (EBOV). Among the 285 lab-confirmed EVD cases in Jui Government Hospital, 146 recovered and 139 died, with an overall survival rate of 51.23 %. Patients under the age of 6 years had a lower survival rate (37.50 %). Most non-survivors (79.86 %) died within 7 days after admission and the mean hospitalization time for non-survivors was 5.56 ± 6.11 days. More than half survivors (63.69 %) turned blood EBOV negative within 3 weeks after admission and the mean hospitalization time for survivors was 20.38 ± 7.58 days. High blood viral load (≥10 6 copies/ml) was found to be predictive of the non-survival outcome as indicated by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The probability of patients' survival was less than 15 % when blood viral load was greater than 10 6 copies/ml. Multivariate analyses showed that blood viral load (P = 0.005), confusion (P = 0.010), abdominal pain (P = 0.003), conjunctivitis (P = 0.035), and vomiting (P = 0.004) were factors independently associated with the outcomes of EVD patients. Most death occurred within 1 week after admission, and patients at the age of 6 or younger had a lower survival rate. Most surviving patients turned blood EBOV negative within 1-4 weeks after admission. Factors such as high blood viral load, confusion, abdominal pain, vomiting and conjunctivitis were associated with poor prognosis for EVD patients.

  6. Maintaining effective mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis through in-process monitoring in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Mary H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2007 Sierra Leone has conducted mass drug administration (MDA for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF implemented by unpaid community health volunteers (CHVs. Other health campaigns such as Mother and Child Health Weeks (MCHW pay for services to be implemented at community level and these persons are then known as community health workers (CHWs. In 2010, the LF MDA in the 12 districts of the Southern, Northern and Eastern Provinces un-expectantly coincided with universal distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs during the MCHW. In-process monitoring of LF MDA was performed to ensure effective coverage was attained in hard to reach sites (HTR in both urban and rural locations where vulnerable populations reside. Methods Independent monitors interviewed individuals eligible for LF MDA and tallied those who recalled having taken ivermectin and albendazole, calculated program coverage and reported results daily by phone. Monitoring of coverage in HTR sites in the 4 most rapidly urbanizing towns was performed after 4 weeks of LF MDA and again after 8 weeks throughout all 12 districts. End process monitoring was performed in randomly selected HTR sites not previously sampled throughout all 12 districts and compared to coverage calculated from the pre-MDA census and reported treatments. Results Only one town had reached effective program coverage (≥80% after 4 weeks following which CHWs were recruited for LF MDA in all district headquarter towns. After 8 weeks only 4 of 12 districts had reached effective coverage so LF MDA was extended for a further month in all districts. By 12 weeks effective program coverage had been reached in all districts except Port Loko and there was no significant difference between those interviewed in communities versus households or by sex. Effective epidemiological coverage (≥65% was reported in all districts and overall was significantly higher in males versus

  7. Soberania, lei, vontade geral e autoridade legítima segundo Do contrato social de Jean-Jacques Rousseau Soberania, lei, vontade geral e autoridade legítima segundo Do contrato social de Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kritsch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste artigo é introduzir o leitor no pensamento político de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, com base nas reflexões do autor em Do contrato social. Partindo-se da distinção entre poder e autoridade, procura-se mostrar o fundamento da legitimidade e a construção do contrato social ideal. Para o filósofo genebrino, a soberania, entendida como a vontade geral em ação, constitui o fundamento mais adequado às repúblicas, regidas por leis emanadas da vontade geral, as únicas capazes de expressar os interesses gerais de um “eu comum” que não se confunde nem com a maioria nem com os particulares. Depois de apresentadas as características centrais do poder soberano, discute-se o papel do governo e da religião civil na vida politicamente organizada sob um Estado republicano.

    O objetivo deste artigo é introduzir o leitor no pensamento político de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, com base nas reflexões do autor em Do contrato social. Partindo-se da distinção entre poder e autoridade, procura-se mostrar o fundamento da legitimidade e a construção do contrato social ideal. Para o filósofo genebrino, a soberania, entendida como a vontade geral em a

  8. Rapid assessment of knowledge, attitudes, practices, and risk perception related to the prevention and control of Ebola virus disease in three communities of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Shi, Guo-Qing; Tu, Wen-Xiao; Zheng, Can-Jun; Lai, Xue-Hui; Li, Xin-Xu; Wei, Qiang; Li, Mei; Deng, Li-Quan; Huo, Xiang; Chen, Ming-Quan; Xu, Feng; Ye, Long-Jie; Bai, Xi-Chen; Chen, Tong-Nian; Yin, Shao-Hua; Samba, Thomas T; Liang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-06-06

    The recent outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone has been characterized by the World Health Organization as one of the most challenging EVD outbreaks to date. The first confirmed case in Sierra Leone was a young woman who was admitted to a government hospital in Kenema following a miscarriage on 24 May 2014. On 5 January 2015, intensified training for an EVD response project was initiated at the medical university of Sierra Leone in Jui. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceived risk of EVD among the public, especially after this training, a rapid assessment was conducted from 10 to 16 March 2015. Interviews were conducted with 466 participants based on questionnaires that were distributed from 10 to 16 March 2015 by cluster sampling in three adjacent communities, namely Jui, Grafton, and Kossoh Town, in the Western Area Rural District of Sierra Leone. It was found that knowledge about EVD was comprehensive and high. Positive attitude towards prevention was found to be satisfactory. Nearly all participants knew the reporting phone number 117 and had reported some change in behavior since learning about Ebola. More than half (62 %) of the participants had a history of travelling to urban areas, which increases the risk of infection. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that community and occupation were variables associated with perceived risk of EVD. Our study showed that community level social mobilization and community engagement were an effective strategy in the special context.

  9. Exploring whether behavior in context-free experiments is predictive of behavior in the field : Evidence from public good experiments in rural Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, M.J.; Turley, T.; Kontoleon, A.; Bulte, E.H.; List, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of subsistence farmers in Sierra Leone as respondents to compare behavior in a context-free experiment (a standard public goods game) and behavior in the field (a real development intervention). There is no meaningful correlation in behavior across contexts. This casts doubt on the

  10. Improving mapping for Ebola response through mobilising a local community with self-owned smartphones: Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, January 2015.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura M; Gayton, Ivan; Theocharopoulos, Georgios; Edwards, Robin; Danis, Kostas; Kremer, Ronald; Kleijer, Karline; Tejan, Sumaila M; Sankoh, Mohamed; Jimissa, Augustin; Greig, Jane; Caleo, Grazia

    2018-01-01

    During the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, the Magburaka Ebola Management Centre (EMC) operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, identified that available district maps lacked up-to-date village information to facilitate timely implementation of EVD

  11. Does Community Poverty Reduce Children's School Attendance More at Primary Education than at Secondary Education? Evidence from Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanda, Mamusu

    2016-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, the number of primary schools is almost seven times more than junior-secondary schools (JSS). Living in a poor community has been shown to reduce children's school attendance because of lower access and poorer quality of education in these communities. However, it is unclear whether living in a poor community reduces attendance at…

  12. When free healthcare is not free. Corruption and mistrust in Sierra Leone's primary healthcare system immediately prior to the Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Pieternella; Lodge, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Sierra Leone is one of three countries recently affected by Ebola. In debates surrounding the circumstances that contributed to the initial failure to contain the outbreak, the word 'trust' is often used: In December 2014, WHO director Margret Chan used 'lack of trust in governments'; The Lancet's Editor-in-Chief, wrote how Ebola has exposed the '… breakdown of trust between communities and their governments.' This article explores the lack of trust in public healthcare providers in Sierra Leone, predating the Ebola outbreak, apparently linked to widespread petty corruption in primary healthcare facilities. It compares four NGO-supported accountability interventions targeting Sierra Leone's primary health sector. Field research was conducted in Kailahun, Kono and Tonkolili Districts, based on interviews with health workers and focus group discussions with primary healthcare users. Field research showed that in most clinics, women and children entitled to free care routinely paid for health services. A lack of accountability in Sierra Leone's health sector appears pervasive at all levels. Petty corruption is rife. Understaffing leads to charging for free care in order to pay clinic-based 'volunteers' who function as vaccinators, health workers and birth attendants. Accountability interventions were found to have little impact on healthworker (mis)behaviour. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Multi-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistant HIV type-1 in a patient from Sierra Leone failing stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, Raph L.; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Back, Nicole K. T.; Arcilla, Maria S.; Frissen, Jos P. H.

    2011-01-01

    We report a 33-year-old HIV type-1 (HIV-1)-infected male from Sierra Leone who harboured extensive drug resistance mutations to all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs, including the multi-NRTI-resistance Q151M complex, K65R, M184I and Y181I, after using standard

  14. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  15. Lei de acesso á informação: o cidadão enquanto sujeito informativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gomes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre a questão do acesso à informação enquanto um direito fundamental e assegurado. Muitas foram as iniciativas voltadas para a liberação de acesso à informação nos arquivos nacionais nos diversos países, sobretudo a partir do século XVIII. No entanto tal direito ganhara efetivo destaque através da promulgação da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos (1948, sendo consumada consonante às legislações de cada país. Assim, houve diversas iniciativas com relação ao estabelecimento do direito ao acesso às informações públicas ao longo do século passado e início desse século. Objetiva-se nesse artigo tratar a questão do acesso à informação enquanto objeto de interesse coletivo e que tem efeitos diretos sobre a coletividade. Para tanto, realiza-se uma revisão bibliográfica com o intuito de esclarecer o processo histórico que tenha convergido para a criação da Lei de Acesso a Informação (2011, concluindo que o acesso informacional fornece a possibilidade de tomada de consciência e emancipação cívica, política e social, garantindo ao indivíduo a participação não apenas enquanto governado, mas também de regulamentador de seu governo.

  16. Lei de Acesso à Informação nos municípios do extremo oeste de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneide Teresinha de Carli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Lei de Acesso à Informação (LAI, no 12.527, de 18/11/2011, regula o acesso a informações públicas em todos os âmbitos do Poder Público. Objetivou investigar de que forma a LAI é disponibilizada nas prefeituras catarinenses integrantes da Associação dos Municípios do Extremo Oeste de Santa Catarina (AMEOSC. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, documental e quantitativa. Utilizou checklist e questionário aplicado às 13 prefeituras da AMEOSC, que formaram o universo desta pesquisa. Fundamentou-se a revisão de literatura abordando sobre a LAI, a gestão documental arquivística e os ciclos de vida dos documentos. Dos 13 questionários aplicados, responderam seis prefeituras, (três possuem população acima de dez mil, obrigadas a disponibilizar o acesso à LAI e três abaixo de dez mil. Conclui-se que é cedo para fazer uma ampla avaliação da disponibilização da LAI nos municípios pesquisados, visto que a mesma foi aprovada em 2011. As prefeituras estão se estruturando para atender as demandas. Considerou-se como obstáculos a insuficiência de recursos humanos, inadequada divulgação e conscientização dos servidores e da população em geral.

  17. Análise crítica do discurso em dois textos penais sobre a Lei Maria da Penha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, aplico uma análise linguístico-discursiva a dois textos judiciais: 1 um "pedido de reconsideração" de um promotor feito a um juiz; 2 a "decisão" do juiz em resposta ao promotor. Os dois textos fazem parte do corpus de um estudo maior financiado pelo edital MCT/CNPq/SPM-PR/MDA nº. 57/2008 CNPq que analisou 25 processos (cerca de 200 documentos jurídicos enquadrados na Lei Maria da Penha. O viés teórico-analítico baseia-se na Análise de Discurso Crítica (FAIRCLOUGH, 2003, uma forma de pesquisa que situa material linguístico-discursivo em práticas sociais e focaliza-o dentro de estruturas sociopolíticas mais abrangentes de poder. Nessa linha de estudo é fundamental a noção de que significado linguístico e ideologia são entidades inseparáveis e mutuamente dependentes da estrutura social, estando ambas impressas na própria estrutura textual. Nessa direção, o trabalho se concentra nos modos de operação da ideologia nos textos que revelam as constituições subjetivas dos operadores do Direito e suas intenções. Alguns focos analíticos recaem sobre os arranjos linguísticos usados na representação de atores sociais, recursos avaliativos, as estratégias de proteção de face e polidez. Os resultados discutem criticamente os fundamentos básicos que orientam a cultura jurídica, como "igualdade de direitos", "consenso", "objetividade", "neutralidade" e "transparência".

  18. Aplicação da Lei Maria da Penha nas delegacias de mulheres: O caso do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Abdala

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a trajetória das queixas de violência conjugal prestadas por mulheres em cinco DEAMs do estado do Rio de Janeiro. São discutidos: o número de queixas realizadas e efetivamente transformadas em registros de ocorrência no período de 2005-2008; os diversos obstáculos encontrados pelas mulheres para tornar públicos os maus-tratos que sofrem e o impacto da sanção da Lei Maria da Penha no número de registros de ocorrência nessas delegacias. O estudo mostrou o risco que ainda hoje uma mulher corre quando decide denunciar a violência. Buscou-se também destacar o quanto à violência psicológica contra a mulher é naturalizada nas delegacias.  The article Application of the Maria da Penha Law at Police Stations for Women in Rio de Janeiro reviews the history of complaints of domestic violence reported by women in five DEAMs (special police stations for women in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The study investigates the number of complaints made and effectively transformed into reports in the period 2005-2008, the various obstacles faced by women to make known the abuse they suffer and the impact of the sanctioning of the Maria da Penha Act on the number those reports. The study demonstrates the risk that women still run when they decide to report violence and the extent to which psychological abuse against women is naturalized in the police stations. Key words: domestic violence, complaints, Maria da Penha Act, Rio de Janeiro, police stations for women

  19. Análise crítica do discurso em dois textos penais sobre a Lei Maria da Penha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Gonçalves Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, aplico uma análise linguístico-discursiva a dois textos judiciais: 1 um “pedido de reconsideração” de um promotor feito a um juiz; 2 a “decisão” do juiz em resposta ao promotor. Os dois textos fazem parte do corpus de um estudo maior financiado pelo edital MCT/CNPq/SPM-PR/MDA nº. 57/2008 CNPq que analisou 25 processos (cerca de 200 documentos jurídicos enquadrados na Lei Maria da Penha. O viés teórico-analítico baseia-se na Análise de Discurso Crítica (FAIRCLOUGH, 2003, uma forma de pesquisa que situa material linguístico-discursivo em práticas sociais e focaliza-o dentro de estruturas sociopolíticas mais abrangentes de poder. Nessa linha de estudo é fundamental a noção de que significado linguístico e ideologia são entidades inseparáveis e mutuamente dependentes da estrutura social, estando ambas impressas na própria estrutura textual. Nessa direção, o trabalho se concentra nos modos de operação da ideologia nos textos que revelam as constituições subjetivas dos operadores do Direito e suas intenções. Alguns focos analíticos recaem sobre os arranjos linguísticos usados na representação de atores sociais, recursos avaliativos, as estratégias de proteção de face e polidez. Os resultados discutem criticamente os fundamentos básicos que orientam a cultura jurídica, como “igualdade de direitos”, “consenso”, “objetividade”, “neutralidade” e “transparência”.

  20. Lei de Acesso à Informação nos Municípios do Extremo Oeste de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneide Teresinha de Carli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Lei de Acesso à Informação (LAI, nº 12.527, de 18/11/2011, regula o acesso a informações públicas em todos os âmbitos do Poder Público. Objetivou investigar de que forma a LAI é disponibilizada nas prefeituras catarinenses integrantes da Associação dos Municípios do Extremo Oeste de Santa Catarina (AMEOSC. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, documental e quantitativa. Utilizou checklist e questionário aplicado às 13 prefeituras da AMEOSC, que formaram o universo desta pesquisa. Fundamentou-se a revisão de literatura abordando sobre a LAI, a gestão documental arquivística e os ciclos de vida dos documentos. Dos 13 questionários aplicados, responderam seis prefeituras, (três possuem população acima de dez mil, obrigadas a disponibilizar o acesso à LAI e três abaixo de dez mil. Conclui-se que é cedo para fazer uma ampla avaliação da disponibilização da LAI nos municípios pesquisados, visto que a mesma foi aprovada em 2011. As prefeituras estão se estruturando para atender as demandas. Considerou-se como obstáculos a insuficiência de recursos humanos, inadequada divulgação e conscientização dos servidores e da população em geral.

  1. Oxygen accumulation on metal surfaces investigated by XPS, AES and LEIS, an issue for sputter depth profiling under UHV conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, R., E-mail: roland.steinberger@jku.at [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Celedón, C.E., E-mail: carlos.celedon@usm.cl [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valaparaíso, Casilla 110-V (Chile); Bruckner, B., E-mail: barbara.bruckner@jku.at [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D., E-mail: dietmar.roth@jku.at [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Duchoslav, J., E-mail: jiri.duchoslav@jku.at [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Arndt, M., E-mail: martin.arndt@voestalpine.com [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, voestalpine-Straße 3, 4031 Linz (Austria); Kürnsteiner, P., E-mail: p.kuernsteiner@mpie.de [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); and others

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Investigation on the impact of residual gas prevailing in UHV chambers. • For some metals detrimental oxygen uptake could be observed within shortest time. • Totally different behavior was found: no changes, solely adsorption and oxidation. • The UHV residual gas may severely corrupt results obtained from depth profiling. • A well-considered data acquisition sequence is the key for reliable depth profiles. - Abstract: Depth profiling using surface sensitive analysis methods in combination with sputter ion etching is a common procedure for thorough material investigations, where clean surfaces free of any contamination are essential. Hence, surface analytic studies are mostly performed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, but the cleanness of such UHV environments is usually overrated. Consequently, the current study highlights the in principle known impact of the residual gas on metal surfaces (Fe, Mg, Al, Cr and Zn) for various surface analytics methods, like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). The investigations with modern, state-of-the-art equipment showed different behaviors for the metal surfaces in UHV during acquisition: (i) no impact for Zn, even after long time, (ii) solely adsorption of oxygen for Fe, slight and slow changes for Cr and (iii) adsorption accompanied by oxide formation for Al and Mg. The efficiency of different counter measures was tested and the acquired knowledge was finally used for ZnMgAl coated steel to obtain accurate depth profiles, which exhibited before serious artifacts when data acquisition was performed in an inconsiderate way.

  2. Reparabilidade do dano ambiental no sistema da responsabilização civil: 25 anos da lei 6938/1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Pilati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da evolução daresponsabilização civil ambiental noordenamento jurídico brasileiro. Procurasistematizar os aspectos relacionados à reparaçãodo meio ambiente, a partir de uma visãopanorâmica. Nesse passo, trata, inicialmente, dohistórico da responsabilização civil ambiental noBrasil, com enfoque para a Lei da Política Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente e para as funções daresponsabilidade civil. Em seguida, analisa o danoambiental, sua conceituação e classificação.Examina, a seguir, as formas de reparação do dano,destacando a prevalência da restauração in natura,assim como alguns julgados concernentes ao tema.Por fim, aborda – em função da sua atualidade –a questão do dano moral extrapatrimonialcoletivo, aduzindo julgados que já contemplarama sua reparabilidade.The present article deals with the evolutionof the ambient civil responsabilização in the Brazilianlegal system. Search systemize the aspects relatedto the repairing of the environment, from apanoramic vision. In this step, it treats, initially, ofthe description of the ambient civil responsabilizaçãoin Brazil, with approach for the Law of the NationalPolitics of the Environment and for the functions ofthe civil liability. After that, it analyzes the ambientdamage, its conceptualization and classification. Itexamines, to follow, the forms of repairing of thedamage, detaching the prevalence of the restorationin natura, as well as some concernentes judgeshipsto the subject. Finally, it approaches – in function ofits present time – the question of the collectiveextrapatrimonial pain and suffering, alleging judgedthat already they had contemplated its repairability.

  3. Deaths, late deaths, and role of infecting dose in Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hilary; Smout, Elizabeth; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Osman; Turay, Cecilia; Johnson, Sembia; Oza, Shefali; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R

    2016-05-17

     To assess the frequency of fatal recrudescence from Ebola virus disease after discharge from treatment centres, and explore the influence of infecting dose on case fatality rates.  Retrospective cohort study.  Western Area, Sierra Leone.  151 survivors treated for Ebola virus disease at the Kerry Town treatment centre and discharged. Survivors were followed up for a vital status check at four to nine months after discharge, and again at six to 13 months after discharge. Verbal autopsies were conducted for four survivors who had died since discharge (that is, late deaths). Survivors still living in Western Area were interviewed together with their household members. Exposure level to Ebola virus disease was ascertained as a proxy of infecting dose, including for those who died.  Risks and causes of late death; case fatality rates; odds ratios of death from Ebola virus disease by age, sex, exposure level, date, occupation, and household risk factors.  Follow-up information was obtained on all 151 survivors of Ebola virus disease, a mean of 10 months after discharge. Four deaths occurred after discharge, all within six weeks: two probably due to late complications, one to prior tuberculosis, and only one after apparent full recovery, giving a maximum estimate of recrudescence leading to death of 0.7%. In these households, 395 people were reported to have had Ebola virus disease, of whom 227 died. A further 53 people fulfilled the case definition for probable disease, of whom 11 died. Therefore, the case fatality rate was 57.5% (227/395) for reported Ebola virus disease, or 53.1% (238/448) including probable disease. Case fatality rates were higher in children aged under 2 years and adults older than 30 years, in larger households, and in infections occurring earlier in the epidemic in Sierra Leone. There was no consistent trend of case fatality rate with exposure level, although increasing exposure increased the risk of Ebola virus disease.  In this study of

  4. Hydro chemistry of public-benefit-declared mineral and medicinal waters in the province of Leon; Hidroquimica de las aguas minerales y minero-medicinales declaradas de utilidad publica en la provincia de Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller Urdiales, A.; Gomez Fernandez, E.; Martinez Moran, O.; Moran Palao, A. [Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Minera, Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad de Leon, Leon (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    In this work the inventory of historically Public-Benefit-declared mineral and medicinal waters of Leon is set out. these waters are studied through 26 parameters. These parameters are divided in the following groups: general features (source emergence temperature), pH, conductivity, dry residue, dissolved oxygen and CDO, major components (bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium), oligoelements (manganese, lead, zinc, cobalt and boron), undesirable components (ammonium, nitrites and nitrates), and other components (fluoride, hydrogen sulphur, silica, lithium and iron). These features are chareacteriszed in relation to dry residue at 110 degree centigree and are classified according Firstly to characteristic components (ferruginous, sulphurous, fluorous...), and secondly, to major anions and cations (calcium-bicarbonated, magnesium-sulfated...). (Author) 9 refs.

  5. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  6. Features of Ebola Virus Disease at the Late Outbreak Stage in Sierra Leone: Clinical, Virological, Immunological, and Evolutionary Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Fan, Hang; Han, Jian-Feng; Hu, Yi; Zhuang, Dao-Min; Kargbo, David; An, Xiao-Ping; Mi, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Guang-Yu; Xin, Wen-Wen; Tan, Ya-Fang; He, Jun; Gao, Rong-Bao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Cao; Wang, Feng; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Cui, Yu-Jun; Bei, Zhu-Chun; Zhang, Ke; Shang, Xue-Yi; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Pei, Guang-Qian; Wang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Wei; Shu, Peng; Liu, Wen-Li; Cheng, Shi; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Kanu, Alex; Kargbo, Brima; Gao, Bo; Tong, Yi-Gang; Fang, Tong-Yu; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2017-04-01

    We performed Ebola virus disease diagnosis and viral load estimation for Ebola cases in Sierra Leone during the late stage of the 2014-2015 outbreak (January-March 2015) and analyzed antibody and cytokine levels and the viral genome sequences. Ebola virus disease was confirmed in 86 of 1001 (9.7%) patients, with an overall case fatality rate of 46.8%. Fatal cases exhibited significantly higher levels of viral loads, cytokines, and chemokines at late stages of infection versus early stage compared with survivors. The viruses converged in a new clade within sublineage 3.2.4, which had a significantly lower case fatality rate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children 60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  8. Fundamentos teoricos de la creacion de un modelo de adquisicion corporativa internacional: Caso de las principales empresas de Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabeza, L.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance to propose a success Model in the international corporate acquisitions consists of offering to the important Mexican firms the factors that will allow having greater success with the international investments. In this research we selected four of the most important firms of Nuevo Leon that have important experience with international acquisitions and present them the questionnaire that was designed to validate the variables of the Model. In this paper we present the theories that give the theoretical foundations to the variables of the proposed Model that consist of 6 variables or key success factors that need to be considered for an international acquisitions, which are: Country Knowledge, Industry Knowledge, Customer relationship, Supplier relationship, Technology and Market.

  9. Clinical Features of and Risk Factors for Fatal Ebola Virus Disease, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, December 2014-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaskjold, Yngvar Lunde; Bolkan, Håkon Angell; Krogh, Kurt Østhuus; Jongopi, James; Lundeby, Karen Marie; Mellesmo, Sindre; Garcés, Pedro San José; Jøsendal, Ola; Øpstad, Åsmund; Svensen, Erling; Fuentes, Luis Matias Zabala; Kamara, Alfred Sandy; Riera, Melchor; Arranz, Javier; Roberts, David P; Stamper, Paul D; Austin, Paula; Moosa, Alfredo J; Marke, Dennis; Hassan, Shoaib; Eide, Geir Egil; Berg, Åse; Blomberg, Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa infected >28,000 people, including >11,000 who died, and disrupted social life in the region. We retrospectively studied clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors for fatal outcome among 31 Ebola virus-positive patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Center in Moyamba District, Sierra Leone. We found a higher rate of bleeding manifestations than reported elsewhere during the outbreak. Significant predictors for death were shorter time from symptom onset to admission, male sex, high viral load on initial laboratory testing, severe pain, diarrhea, bloody feces, and development of other bleeding manifestations during hospitalization. These risk factors for death could be used to identify patients in need of more intensive medical support. The lack of fever in as many as one third of EVD cases may have implications for temperature-screening practices and case definitions.

  10. El utilitarismo de Jeremy Bentham ¿fundamento de la teoría de Leon Walras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Sotelo Aída-Sofía

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto cuestiona el utilitarismo de Jeremy Bentham como fundamento de la teoría marginalista walrasiana. La problemática se aborda a través de un análisis comparativo del pensamiento de Jeremy Bentham y de Leon Walras en tres áreas centrales: sus visiones de la sociedad y el objetivo social, sus aproximaciones teóricas y metodológicas en relación directa con sus respectivas teorías de la sociedad, y el lugar del principio de utilidad en el marco de las teorías generales de sociedad. El escrito contribuye a un debate vigente sobre los fundamentos filosóficos
    de la teoría de la elección racional y a deshomogenizar el pensamiento de los padres del marginalismo.

  11. Medida de calor específico e lei de resfriamento de Newton: um refinamento na análise dos dados experimentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Wilton Pereira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das técnicas para a determinação do calor específico de sólidos e líquidos dispensa o uso de um calorímetro e utiliza a lei de resfriamento de Newton na análise dos dados experimentais. O sucesso desta técnica pressupõe que seja possível determinar, com pequenas incertezas, as temperaturas do sistema imediatamente antes e imediatamente depois das transferências internas de calor devido à imersão do corpo (dujo calor específico se deseja medir em um recipiente contendo água quente. Neste artigo é proposto um refinamento desta técnica utilizando-se dois ajustes de curvas para a função que descreve a lei de resfriamento, com pequenas extrapolações, para de determinar essas temperaturas e também as suas incertezas. Isto possibilita determinar não só o valor médio do calor específico, mas também a incerteza deste valor médio, por propagação de erros. O ajuste da própria função que descreve a lei de resfriamento aos dados possibilitou a comparação imediata dos parâmetros obtidos experimentalmente com aqueles previstos pela teoria, e há uma grande concerdânciaentre eles. A aplicaçãodeste refinamento na determinação do calor específico do alumínio indica que tal procedimento é eficaz mesmo quando se trabalha com instrumentos de baixo custo, voltados para o ensino.

  12. A FALTA DE EFETIVIDADE DA LEI MARIA DA PENHA: UMA PENA JUSTA É AQUELA QUE RESTABELECE OS LAÇOS DESFEITOS PELO CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Santos Pertel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo da aplicabilidade da Justiça Restaurativa, no caso de crime de lesão corporal leve praticado contra a mulher no âmbito doméstico ou familiar, tendo como ponto central a vítima e não a lei, analisando a vontade daquela, como pressuposto primeiro, para a manutenção ou não dos laços afetivos que a prendem ao seu agressor. Destaca-se o julgamento da Ação Direta de Inconstitucionalidade n. 4.424, que proporciona uma nova leitura ao artigo 16 da Lei Maria da Penha, o qual autoriza o Ministério Público a instaurar a ação pública, sem necessidade de representação da vítima, excluindo-a do processo e, consequentemente, desconsiderando sua capacidade de realizar escolhas na vida. Esse entendimento atribuído pela Suprema Corte contraria a nova filosofia da Criminologia crítica, baseada em princípios de conciliação e mediação, com o objetivo de humanizar a pena e fazer com que a vítima participe da construção da solução do conflito, bem como de buscar o sentimento de responsabilidade, respeito e arrependimento do agressor. Palavras-chave: Justiça restaurativa. Vitimização. Lei Maria da Penha. Judiciário.

  13. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Anna J; Lee, Katherine C; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E; Kamara, Thaim B; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J M; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political, technical, and financial support from

  14. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Dare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs.We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable.National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political, technical, and financial

  15. Levels of coverage and accessibility of infrastructure services of drinking water and health in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Lagunas, Elias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analyze the distribution infrastructure potable water and health in the state of Nuevo Leon. Materials and methods. To this end, the territorial distribution of the company is analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS in order to demonstrate the existing territorial gap in the formulation of public policy in the hydraulic and health sectors. Results. We show that municipalities with greater social marginalization (no running water or access to health services tend to have the worst health outcomes. Conclusion. It is located in Nuevo Leon there is an unequal distribution of material and human resources in the drinking water and health, as there is a high concentration of these resources in the metropolitan area and the consequent neglect of the municipalities of the periphery. Objetivo. Analizar la distribución de la infraestructura de los sistemas de agua potable y de salud en el estado de Nuevo León. Materiales y métodos. Para tal fin, se analiza la distribución territorial de la entidad mediante un sistema de información geográfica (SIG con el objeto de demostrar la carencia territorial existente en la formulación de las políticas públicas en los sectores hidráulico y de la salud. Resultados. Se demuestra que los municipios con mayor marginación social (sin agua potable ni acceso a servicios de salud tienden a presentar los peores resultados sanitarios. Conclusión. Se encuentra que en Nuevo León existe una distribución desigual de los recursos materiales y humanos en los sistemas de agua potable y de salud, ya que existe una alta concentración de estos recursos en el área metropolitana y el consecuente descuido de los municipios de la periferia.

  16. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangura James J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lassa fever (LF is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from the Sierra Leone cholera outbreak in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Zahid H; Islam, Shafiqul; Zaman, Rokon U; Akter, Mahmuda; Talukder, Kaisar A; Bardhan, Pradip K; Khan, Azharul I; Rhodes, Faye C; Kamara, Abdul; Wurie, Isatta M; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Jambai, Amara; Faruque, Shah M; Clemens, John D; Islam, Mohammad S

    2014-11-01

    This study describes phenotypic, genotypic and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the strains isolated from the 2012 Sierra Leone cholera outbreak. Rectal swabs were collected from patients and cultured for Vibrio cholerae O1. The isolates were subjected to multiplex PCR, mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antibiotic sensitivity tests using disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) E-test following standard procedures. Out of 17 rectal swabs tested, 15 yielded V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa. All the strains belonged to 'altered' variants as MAMA PCR result showed the presence of classical cholera toxin B. PFGE result revealed four pulse types. Using antibiotic disk diffusion, all the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, furazolidone, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) except SL1 which was sensitive to chloramphenicol and SXT. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, doxycycline, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin except SL2 which was resistant to nalidixic acid. However, variable sensitivity patterns were observed for kanamycin. The ranges of MIC were 0.125-0.50 mg/l, 0.003-0.023 mg/l and 0.38-0.75 mg/l for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, respectively. This study demonstrates that altered variants of V. cholerae O1 of four clonal types were responsible for the 2012 outbreak of cholera in Sierra Leone. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. An exploration of the political economy dynamics shaping health worker incentives in three districts in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Witter, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The need for evidence-based practice calls for research focussing not only on the effectiveness of interventions and their translation into policies, but also on implementation processes and the factors influencing them, in particular for complex health system policies. In this paper, we use the lens of one of the health system's 'building blocks', human resources for health (HRH), to examine the implementation of official policies on HRH incentives and the emergence of informal practices in three districts of Sierra Leone. Our mixed-methods research draws mostly from 18 key informant interviews at district level. Data are organised using a political economy framework which focuses on the dynamic interactions between structure (context, historical legacies, institutions) and agency (actors, agendas, power relations) to show how these elements affect the HRH incentive practices in each district. It appears that the official policies are re-shaped both by implementation challenges and by informal practices emerging at local level as the result of the district-level dynamics and negotiations between District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs). Emerging informal practices take the form of selective supervision, salary supplementations and per diems paid to health workers, and aim to ensure a better fit between the actors' agendas and the incentive package. Importantly, the negotiations which shape such practices are characterised by a substantial asymmetry of power between DHMTs and NGOs. In conclusion, our findings reveal the influence of NGOs on the HRH incentive package and highlight the need to empower DHMTs to limit the discrepancy between policies defined at central level and practices in the districts, and to reduce inequalities in health worker remuneration across districts. For Sierra Leone, these findings are now more relevant than ever as new players enter the stage at district level, as part of the Ebola response and

  19. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Carrizalez-Yáñez, Leticia; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) in outdoor surface soils (50 samples) collected from the metropolitan area of Monterrey in Mexico. Total PBDEs levels ranged from 1.80 to 127 µg/kg, with mean total PBDEs level of 14.2 ± 21.5 µg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the mean total level in the studied soils was 23.5 ± 20.2 µg/kg (range 4.0-65.5 µg/kg). An important finding in our study was that all soil samples (100%) had detectable levels of the metabolite p,p'-DDE. Moreover, the mean total DDT level (∑p'p-DDT and p'p-DDE) was approximately 132 ± 175 µg/kg. The mean levels for arsenic, cadmium, and lead in soil were 5.30 ± 1.35 (range 1.55-7.85) mg/kg, 2.20 ± 1.20 (range 0.65-6.40) mg/kg, and 455 ± 204 (range 224-1230) mg/kg, respectively. Our study has several limitations, the most notable of which is the small sample of soils evaluated. However, this screening study provided concentration data for the occurrence of POPs and four heavy metals in soil from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and taking into consideration that soil is an important pathway of exposure for people, a biomonitoring program for the surveillance of the general population in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon is deemed necessary.

  20. Rapid deployment of a mobile biosafety level-3 laboratory in Sierra Leone during the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Gong, Yan; Wang, Chengyu; Liu, Wensen; Wang, Zhongyi; Xia, Zhiping; Bu, Zhaoyang; Lu, Huijun; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cao, Yuxi; Yang, Fan; Su, Haoxiang; Hu, Yi; Deng, Yongqiang; Zhou, Bo; Zhao, Zongzheng; Fu, Yingying; Kargbo, David; Dafae, Foday; Kargbo, Brima; Kanu, Alex; Qian, Jun; Guo, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    Background Ebola virus emerged in West Africa in December 2013. The high population mobility and poor public health infrastructure in this region led to the development of the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak to date. Methodology/Principal findings On September 26, 2014, China dispatched a Mobile Biosafety Level-3 Laboratory (MBSL-3 Lab) and a well-trained diagnostic team to Sierra Leone to assist in EVD diagnosis using quantitative real-time PCR, which allowed the diagnosis of suspected EVD cases in less than 4 hours from the time of sample receiving. This laboratory was composed of three container vehicles equipped with advanced ventilation system, communication system, electricity and gas supply system. We strictly applied multiple safety precautions to reduce exposure risks. Personnel, materials, water and air flow management were the key elements of the biosafety measures in the MBSL-3 Lab. Air samples were regularly collected from the MBSL-3 Lab, but no evidence of Ebola virus infectious aerosols was detected. Potentially contaminated objects were also tested by collecting swabs. On one occasion, a pipette tested positive for EVD. A total of 1,635 suspected EVD cases (824 positive [50.4%]) were tested from September 28 to November 11, 2014, and no member of the diagnostic team was infected with Ebola virus or other pathogens, including Lassa fever. The specimens tested included blood (69.2%) and oral swabs (30.8%) with positivity rates of 54.2% and 41.9%, respectively. The China mobile laboratory was thus instrumental in the EVD outbreak response by providing timely and reliable diagnostics. Conclusions/Significance The MBSL-3 Lab significantly contributed to establishing a suitable laboratory response capacity during the emergence of EVD in Sierra Leone. PMID:28505171

  1. Health workers' experiences of coping with the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone's health system: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Wurie, Haja; Witter, Sophie

    2018-04-05

    The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease epidemic evolved in alarming ways in Sierra Leone spreading to all districts. The country struggled to control it against a backdrop of a health system that was already over-burdened. Health workers play an important role during epidemics but there is limited research on how they cope during health epidemics in fragile states. This paper explores the challenges faced by health workers and their coping strategies during the Ebola outbreak in four districts - Bonthe, Kenema, Koinadugu and Western Area - of Sierra Leone. We used a qualitative study design: key informant interviews (n = 19) with members of the District Health Management Teams and local councils, health facility managers and international partners; and in depth interviews with health workers (n = 25) working in public health facilities and international health workers involved with the treatment of Ebola patients. There were several important coping strategies including those that drew upon existing mechanisms: being sustained by religion, a sense of serving their country and community, and peer and family support. Externally derived strategies included: training which built health worker confidence in providing care; provision of equipment to do their job safely; a social media platform which helped health workers deal with challenges; workshops that provided ways to deal with the stigma associated with being a health worker; and the risk allowance, which motivated staff to work in facilities and provided an additional income source. Supportive supervision, peer support networks and better use of communication technology should be pursued, alongside a programme for rebuilding trusting relations with community structures. The challenge is building these mechanisms into routine systems, pre-empting shocks, rather than waiting to respond belatedly to crises.

  2. Rapid deployment of a mobile biosafety level-3 laboratory in Sierra Leone during the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Gong, Yan; Wang, Chengyu; Liu, Wensen; Wang, Zhongyi; Xia, Zhiping; Bu, Zhaoyang; Lu, Huijun; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cao, Yuxi; Yang, Fan; Su, Haoxiang; Hu, Yi; Deng, Yongqiang; Zhou, Bo; Zhao, Zongzheng; Fu, Yingying; Kargbo, David; Dafae, Foday; Kargbo, Brima; Kanu, Alex; Liu, Linna; Qian, Jun; Guo, Zhendong

    2017-05-01

    Ebola virus emerged in West Africa in December 2013. The high population mobility and poor public health infrastructure in this region led to the development of the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak to date. On September 26, 2014, China dispatched a Mobile Biosafety Level-3 Laboratory (MBSL-3 Lab) and a well-trained diagnostic team to Sierra Leone to assist in EVD diagnosis using quantitative real-time PCR, which allowed the diagnosis of suspected EVD cases in less than 4 hours from the time of sample receiving. This laboratory was composed of three container vehicles equipped with advanced ventilation system, communication system, electricity and gas supply system. We strictly applied multiple safety precautions to reduce exposure risks. Personnel, materials, water and air flow management were the key elements of the biosafety measures in the MBSL-3 Lab. Air samples were regularly collected from the MBSL-3 Lab, but no evidence of Ebola virus infectious aerosols was detected. Potentially contaminated objects were also tested by collecting swabs. On one occasion, a pipette tested positive for EVD. A total of 1,635 suspected EVD cases (824 positive [50.4%]) were tested from September 28 to November 11, 2014, and no member of the diagnostic team was infected with Ebola virus or other pathogens, including Lassa fever. The specimens tested included blood (69.2%) and oral swabs (30.8%) with positivity rates of 54.2% and 41.9%, respectively. The China mobile laboratory was thus instrumental in the EVD outbreak response by providing timely and reliable diagnostics. The MBSL-3 Lab significantly contributed to establishing a suitable laboratory response capacity during the emergence of EVD in Sierra Leone.

  3. Mapping deforestation and urban expansion in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from pre- to post-war economic recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Lamin R; Huang, Jingfeng; Kamara, Alimamy A

    2016-08-01

    Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone has experienced vast land-cover changes over the past three decades. In Sierra Leone, however, availability of updated land-cover data is still a problem even for environmental managers. This study was therefore, conducted to provide up-to-date land-cover data for Freetown. Multi-temporal Landsat data at 1986, 2001, and 2015 were obtained, and a maximum likelihood supervised classification was employed. Eight land-cover classes or categories were recognized as follows: water, wetland, built-up, dense forest, sparse forest, grassland, barren, and mangrove. Land-cover changes were mapped via post-classification change detection. The persistence, gain, and loss of each land-cover class, and selected land conversions were also quantified. An overall classification accuracy of 87.3 % and a Kappa statistic of 0.85 were obtained for the 2015 map. From 1986 to 2015, water, built-up, grassland, and barren had net gains, whereas forests, wetlands, and mangrove had net loses. Conversion analyses among forests, grassland, and built-up show that built-up had targeted grassland and avoided forests. This study also revealed that, the overall land-cover change at 2001-2015 was higher (28.5 %) than that recorded at 1986-2001 (20.9 %). This is attributable to the population increase in Freetown and the high economic growth and infrastructural development recorded countrywide after the civil war. In view of the rapid land-cover change and its associated environmental impacts, this study recommends the enactment of policies that would strike a balance between urbanization and environmental sustainability in Freetown.

  4. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Packaged Sachet Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Mohamed F.; Saquee, George; Bain, Robert E. S.; Bartram, Jamie K.

    2015-01-01

    Packaged drinking water (PW) sold in bottles and plastic bags/sachets is widely consumed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many urban users in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) rely on packaged sachet water (PSW) as their primary source of water for consumption. However, few rigorous studies have investigated PSW quality in SSA, and none have compared PSW to stored household water for consumption (HWC). A clearer understanding of PSW quality in the context of alternative sources is needed to inform policy and regulation. As elsewhere in SSA, PSW is widely consumed in Sierra Leone, but government oversight is nearly nonexistent. This study examined the microbiological and chemical quality of a representative sample of PSW products in Freetown, Sierra Leone at packaged water manufacturing facilities (PWMFs) and at points of sale (POSs). Samples of HWC were also analyzed for comparison. The study did not find evidence of serious chemical contamination among the parameters studied. However, 19% of 45 PSW products sampled at the PWMF contained detectable Escherichia coli (EC), although only two samples exceeded 10 CFU/100 mL. Concentrations of total coliforms (TC) in PSW (but not EC) increased along the supply chain. Samples of HWC from 60 households in Freetown were significantly more likely to contain EC and TC than PSW at the point of production (p<0.01), and had significantly higher concentrations of both bacterial indicators (p<0.01). These results highlight the need for additional PSW regulation and surveillance, while demonstrating the need to prioritize the safety of HWC. At present, PSW may be the least unsafe option for many households. PMID:26162082

  5. O pensamento e a linguagem na fundamentação de conceitos, leis e princípios que regem a física moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro Paulo Santos da; Silveira, Marisa Rosâni Abreu da

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho é um ensaio argumentativo onde se pretende fazer uma apreciação dos aspectos epistemológicos que fundamentam conceitos, leis e princípios que deram origem a Física Moderna. Concentra-se na busca de entendimentos a respeito das funções elementares da linguagem, que ao serem utilizadas por professores e alunos, servem como instrumentos transmissores das ideias e pensamentos que compõem o processo ensino aprendizagem da Física Contemporânes. Discute-se o uso de uma linguagem do sen...

  6. Recusa à Judicialização e ao Projeto de Lei "Escola Sem Partido": Análises a Partir das Ocupações Estudantis

    OpenAIRE

    Marafon, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Este artigo realiza descrição analítica de ocupações estudantis no Brasil, marcadamente nos meses finais de 2016. Trata-se de um processo de ocupação variada entre escolas de ensino médio e unidades de ensino superior, em universidades e institutos federais. Discute, por meio das ocupações, o Projeto de Lei (PL) direcionado à escola básica brasileira, intitulado PL Escola Sem Partido e, para tanto, atem-se à experiência de ocupação de uma das unidades do complexo escolar Colégio Pedro II, no ...

  7. Esporte de alto rendimento: produção social da modernidade - o caso do vôlei de praia

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Marília Maciel

    2007-01-01

     O estudo, inicialmente, apresenta a inserção do esporte nos tempos modernos com o objetivo de resgatar e discutir a estruturação da produção do esporte de alto rendimento no Brasil. A modalidade vôlei de praia serviu de modelo empírico e procurou-se verificar, durante o levantamento dos dados coletados, a forma e os valores que predominavam no ambiente social em que se desenvolvia essa modalidade. Para isso, foram focalizadas as relações que se processavam no decorrer de sua estruturação e p...

  8. O PAPEL DO MUNICÍPIO DIANTE DO FENÔMENO DO ATO INFRACIONAL: DEMARCAÇÕES SOCIOJURÍDICAS A PARTIR DA LEI DO SINASE

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Valdira; Guimarães, Cláudio Alberto Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar o papel desempenhado pelos municípios para enfrentamento do fenômeno do ato infracional a partir das inovações introduzidas pela Lei do SINASE. Baseado em revisão bibliográfica e pesquisa documental, demarca-se a fundamentação teórica e legal do sistema de controle do ato infracional no âmbito do ordenamento jurídico brasileiro. Investiga-se, outrossim, o contexto social de ocorrência e a natureza dos atos infracionais praticados pelos menores, o perfi...

  9. Entre o terreiro e a escola: Lei 10.639/2003 e intolerância religiosa sob o olhar antropológico

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Patrício Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Resultado de uma pesquisa de doutorado, este trabalho trata sobre a Lei 10.639/2003, pluralismo religioso, diversidade, intolerância religiosa e racismo. Partindo da hipótese de que a intolerância religiosa contra pessoas ligadas às religiões afrobrasileiras constitui uma forma de racismo, este trabalho demonstra como o racismo tem assumido diferentes formas no Brasil e se manifestado através da negação da herança cultural africana representada por essas religiões. A pesquisa consistiu em uma...

  10. A LEI DE CRIMES AMBIENTAIS E ANÁLISE DA EFETIVIDADE JURÍDICO-ECONÔMICA A PARTIR DE MODELOS ECONOMÉTRICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacicleide Souza Cunha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa tem como objetivo estudar a efetividade da Lei de Crimes Ambientais (9.605/98 aplicada a crimes contra a flora no estado do Amapá no período entre 2000 e 2008. A metodologia do estudo consistiu nas seguintes etapas: a obtenção de dados sobre os Autos de Infração contra a flora (banco de dados do IBAMA-AP, b análise da cobrança cível, c análise da impetração de ação criminal pelos Ministérios Públicos Estadual e Federal e d verificação de etapas de procedimentos e conclusão dos processos cíveis e criminais, utilizando probabilidades de sucesso e insucesso. Como resultado foram desenvolvidos dois modelos conceituais econométricos, um cívil e um criminal, ambos aplicados na análise da efetividade da Lei a partir de cenários jurídico-econômicos. Parâmetros econométricos, como montante da multa, taxa de juros (%a.m e período de aplicação da multa foram utilizados nos modelos, bem como probabilidades observacionais relacionadas com o nível de sucesso de cada etapa dos processos cívis e criminais. Os resultados da aplicação dos modelos econométricos propostos representam razoavelmente bem os riscos de efetividade da Lei, com base em números de autuações, condenações penais e pagamento das multas cíveis. Por esta perspectiva, os instrumentos administrativos e criminais mostraram reduzida efetividade, com poucas condenações, provavelmente incrementada pela complexidade jurídica do setor no sistema brasileiro. Conclui-se que há falhas consideráveis no cumprimento de procedimentos administrativos e judiciais, mas que podem ser relativamente bem explicadas pelos modelos econométricos propostos. Palavras-chave: Amazônia Oriental, Lei de Crimes Ambientais, efetividade, modelo matemático. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p50-64

  11. O regime do recurso de agravo a partir das alteraçãoes introduzidas pela lei 11.187/2005

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luiza Duarte Pires de Castro

    2011-01-01

    O direito processual civil é um ramo dinâmico do direito que busca ajustar-se às mudanças da sociedade e tem o fito de, pacificamente, solucionar os litígios que a ela se apresentam. Nesse norte, em virtude de estar sempre em busca de prestar uma tutela jurisdicional mais eficaz, o legislador pretendeu, através da edição da Lei 11.187/2005 - a qual disciplina o novo regime do recurso de agravo, dar maior celeridade processual. Para tanto, restringiu o uso do agravo de instrumento (caput do...

  12. Representações de indígenas na ficção e na lei: em quadrinhos e no estatuto do índio

    OpenAIRE

    Mina, Sandra Regina Nóia

    2014-01-01

    O intuito deste trabalho é problematizar as representações sobre o índio presentes na Lei nº 6.001, de 1973, conhecida como Estatuto do Índio (EI) e nas Histórias em Quadrinhos (HQ) da Turma de Papa Capim, de Mauricio de Sousa. Para tanto, temos como objetivo específico interpretar como são construídas as representações sobre o índio que constituem o discurso do documento oficial EI e o discurso das HQ, a partir da perspectiva discursiva, dos Estudos Culturais e do processo de referenciação l...

  13. O guardião da Constituição: o Supremo Tribunal Federal como poder autônomo no julgamento da Lei da Ficha Limpa

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Luís Antônio

    2016-01-01

    A presente tese, subsumindo a decisão diante do debate entre os juristas Hans Kelsen e Carl Schmitt sobre o controle de constitucionalidade pátrio, tem o escopo de analisar o comportamento do Supremo Tribunal Federal no julgamento da constitucionalidade da Lei da Ficha Limpa. A tese, ao analisar e refletir sobre quem deve ser o guardião da Constituição , pretende demonstrar que o sistema constitucional brasileiro adotou o positivismo de Hans Kelsen, mas a amplitude da Constituição de 1988, o...

  14. As leis do orçamento como instrumento técnico-financeiro de controle para efetivação de políticas públicas de acessibilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Feijó, Alexsandro Rahbani Aragão

    2011-01-01

    A dissertação em questão tem por objetivo examinar a relação entre o Estado Constitucional, os Direitos Fundamentais e as políticas públicas, em especial, a de acessibilidade. O estudo se faz sob o prisma das Leis do Orçamento (Plano Plurianual PPA, Lei de Diretrizes Orçamentárias LDO e Lei Orçamentária Anual - LOA) como instrumento técnico-financeiro de controle para a efetivação dessa política pública. Discorre, portanto, sobre a pessoa com deficiência, seu conceito, a história do seu t...

  15. A Lei de Improbidade Administrativa: sua aplicação e apontamentos para uma melhor eficácia. Doi: 10.5020/2317-2150.2014.v19n2p427

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, José Carlos de; Pires, Alex Facciolo

    2015-01-01

    A Constituinte de 1988, buscando reprimir a corrupção, previu a figura da improbidade administrativa no art. 37, parágrafo 4º. Foi editada, então, a Lei nº 8.429/92, Lei de Improbidade Administrativa. A má-fé, a desonestidade, a perversidade e a maldade, aliadas à ilegalidade, são premissas da improbidade administrativa. A Lei é aplicável a todos os agentes públicos, indistintamente, sem qualquer exceção, notadamente aos agentes políticos. Às ações por atos de improbidade administrativa não s...

  16. Avaliação de transparência pública em universidades federais : estudo de múltiplos casos sob a perspectiva da Lei de Acesso à Informação

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Domingos da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Desde o ano de 2011, com o estabelecimento da Lei nº 12.527, o Estado brasileiro trabalha para estabelecer, na cultura organizacional das instituições públicas, um novo marco regulatório sobre o acesso às informações públicas, ou seja, efetivar um paradigma onde o foco do Estado seja a transparência dos atos públicos. É também conhecida como Lei da Transparência ou Lei de Acesso à Informação (LAI). Essa nova obrigação das entidades governamentais cria uma mola impulsora no sentido de uma muda...

  17. A Irresponsabilidade da Administração Pública por Encargos Trabalhistas em Face do Inadimplemento de Pessoa Contratada: Constitucionalidade do Art. 71, § 1º, da Lei 8.666/1993.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Figueredo Carneiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo licitatório é o meio pelo qual a Administração Pública, em regra, contrata pessoas para a realização de obras, serviços, compras, alienações e locações, e tem seu fundamento no art. 37, XXI, da Constituição Federal de 1988, de maneira que o contrato realizado sob o manto da Lei nº 8.666/93 (Lei de Licitações e Contratos será regido, em sua plenitude, pelas normas ali insculpidas, em face do critério da legalidade e da especialidade. A ordem jurídica licitatória e contratual excluiu a responsabilidade da Administração Pública pelos encargos trabalhistas, fiscais e comerciais resultantes da inadimplência do contratado, nos termos do art. 71, § 1º, da Lei nº 8.666/93, porém a Justiça Trabalhista, com fundamento no art. 2º, § 2º, da Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho (CLT e na Súmula nº 331, do Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, vem declarando a responsabilidade da Administração Pública pelos encargos trabalhistas, em flagrante desrespeito à lei que regula a espécie. Procura-se, neste resumido trabalho, assentar o entendimento da constitucionalidade do art. 71, § 1º, da Lei nº 8.666/93, e da não aplicação da Súmula sobredita, na parte em que enuncia a responsabilidade subsidiária dos órgãos da administração pública direta e indireta, pelos encargos trabalhistas, em virtude de inadimplência da pessoa que foi contratada.

  18. Privaatsuse õigusest / Meelis Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leis, Meelis

    1998-01-01

    Privaatsuse kui kaitstava hüve tekkeloost, selle õiguslikust ja psühholoogilisest käsitlusest, privaatsuse õigusest kohustisõiguses, Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsioonis ning Saksa, USA ja Eesti õiguskorras

  19. O exercício da arquitetura da informação na Web: reflexões relativas à Lei dos Direitos Autorais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Paiva Marinho de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta uma reflexão sobre a Arquitetura da Informação (AI e a Lei nº 9.610, de 19 de fevereiro de 1998, que regula os Direitos Autorais, considerando-se o livre acesso à informação, sem esquecer as questões éticas e legais. A metodologia aplicada é de natureza qualitativa, bibliográfica e de caráter exploratório. São abordados os componentes da Arquitetura da Informação, além de tecer uma discussão sobre os direitos autorais pertinentes aos referidos componentes da AI existentes nos websites. O livre acesso à informação é um fator primordial, mas devem ser impostas exigências que regulamentem projetos derivados, atentando-se para as leis que regulamentam os direitos autorais e produtos de software, levando em consideração o conteúdo neles expostos, para possíveis modificações.

  20. O profissional da informação frente à lei de acesso à informação pública: condutas possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger de Miranda Guedes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discorre sobre a Lei de Acesso à Informação Pública (LAI, Lei nº 12.527, de 18 de novembro de 2011, que regula o acesso à informação na esfera pública, tendo por objetivo assinalar oportunidades de atuação do profissional da informação nos contextos de adequações à LAI. As reflexões são orientadas pelo método de pesquisa bibliográfica, focando em questões-dilema e aspectos práticos relacionados à implementação da referida legislação. São ressaltados a importância e o papel fundamental do profissional da informação, por ser ele detentor de conhecimentos que devem ser levados em conta na consecução de programas e legislações concernentes ao acesso à informação pública.

  1. O exercício da arquitetura da informação na Web: reflexões relativas à Lei dos Direitos Autorais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Paiva Marinho de Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2013v18n36p107   Apresenta uma reflexão sobre a Arquitetura da Informação (AI e a Lei nº 9.610, de 19 de fevereiro de 1998, que regula os Direitos Autorais, considerando-se o livre acesso à informação, sem esquecer as questões éticas e legais. A metodologia aplicada é de natureza qualitativa, bibliográfica e de caráter exploratório. São abordados os componentes da Arquitetura da Informação, além de tecer uma discussão sobre os direitos autorais pertinentes aos referidos componentes da AI existentes nos websites. O livre acesso à informação é um fator primordial, mas devem ser impostas exigências que regulamentem projetos derivados, atentando-se para as leis que regulamentam os direitos autorais e produtos de software, levando em consideração o conteúdo neles expostos, para possíveis modificações.

  2. CINEMA, EDUCAÇÃO E ESTADO: A INSERÇÃO LEI 13.006 E A OBRIGATORIEDADE DA EXIBIÇÃO DE FILMES NAS ESCOLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Azevedo da Fonseca

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A Lei 13.006, proposta pelo senador Cristovam Buarque não está desconectada de um contexto mais amplo de debates e discussões sobre as potencialidades pedagógicas das imagens e das relações entre cinema e Estado. O cinema brasileiro, de acordo com diversos pesquisadores, tem enfrentado ao longo de sua história, algumas questões chaves que se repetem. Dentre elas estão a dificuldade de acesso ao público, o que gera um outro problema que está relacionado ao seu financiamento, que, por sua vez, vai levar a uma requisição recorrente do apoio estatal à produção cinematográfica. Dentre as medidas de incentivo estatal a essa indústria, ao longo dos anos, esteve a obrigatoriedade de exibição. Nesse sentido, a Lei 13.006 é mais uma, dentre as outras, que atua numa espécie de “reserva de mercado” para o cinema nacional, no entanto, com a especificidade de referir-se ao ambiente escolar e não aos ambientes de salas de cinema.

  3. A LEI 10.639/03 NO CONTEXTO DAS RELAÇÕES ÉTNICO-RACIAIS: UMA DISCUSSÃO SOBRE O CURRÍCULO ESCOLAR

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    Márcia Moreira Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é abordar lei 10.639/03 no contexto das relações étnico-raciais na escola e suas relações com o currículo escolar do Ensino Fundamental. A discussão faz-se necessária na medida em que a referida lei prevê um trabalho pedagógico voltado para a interação com outras culturas, desenvolvendo a aquisição de novos conhecimentos, sobretudo relacionados ao universo da cultura africana e afro-brasileira. Nesse sentido, um dos propósitos desse trabalho é verificar como se efetiva a assimilação dos conteúdos curriculares relacionados à cultura africana lusófona e à conscientização das questões étnico-raciais na sociedade, passando, entre outras coisas, por um questionamento crítico dessas relações e seus desdobramentos: a questão do preconceito, da pluralidade cultural, o substrato histórico e cultural africano e outros. Palavras-chave: Legislação. Étnico-racial. Currículo.

  4. Norma jurídica da LEI MARIA DA PENHA EM AÇÃO: análise pragmático-cognitiva

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    Fábio José Rauen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, guiados pela noção teórica de conciliação de metas de Rauen (2014, analisamos como a norma jurídica da Lei Maria da Penha é acionada em um caso de oferecimento de representação contra um agressor e solicitação de medidas protetivas à vítima. A análise sugere que a petição inicial se organizada em torno da norma jurídica, pois a seção de fatos qualifica o representado como transgressor da norma dispositiva, a seção de direitos destaca sanções para a transgressão, e a seção de pedidos decorre destas premissas. Os dados indicam que o texto funciona como hipótese abdutiva antefactual habilitadora, ao viabilizar que o juiz faça inferências similares e defira as medidas pela força lógica da conjunção dos fatos com o texto da Lei.

  5. MEDIDAS PROTETIVAS DE URGÊNCIA E AÇÕES CRIMINAIS NA LEI MARIA DA PENHA: um diálogo necessário

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    Thiago Gomes Viana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo adota como principais procedimentos metodológicos a pesquisa bibliográfica e jurisprudencial, a fim de que se possa discorrer acerca da questão da natureza jurídica das medidas protetivas de urgência (MPU da Lei nº 11.340/06 (Lei Maria da Penha - LMP, notadamente no que diz respeito à sua relação com ações criminais, também pautadas nesse diploma legal. O foco é evidenciar os aspectos positivos e negativos da ausência ou não de conexão entre esses dois mecanismos. Preliminarmente, são abordados o conceito e peculiaridades caracterizadoras das MPUs; em seguida, é trabalhada a relação das MPUs com a investigação da sua natureza cível ou penal, considerando as ações criminais com base na LMP e o entendimento jurisprudencial acerca dessa relação.

  6. Da delegacia da mulher à Lei Maria da Penha: Absorção/tradução de demandas feministas pelo Estado

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    Cecília MacDowell Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as respostas do Estado às demandas feministas para o combate à violência doméstica contra mulheres no Brasil desde meados dos anos 1980. São identificados três momentos de mudanças institucionais que direta ou indiretamente moldam e refletem os contextos da atuação estatal: o momento da criação da primeira delegacia da mulher, em 1985; o do surgimento dos Juizados Especiais Criminais, em 1995; e o da promulgação da Lei 11.340, em 2006, conhecida como Lei Maria da Penha. Estes momentos refletem a interação entre múltiplas forças sociopolíticas, sinalizando fluxos e refluxos de políticas públicas e lutas feministas. A análise destes momentos, que pretende contribuir para as teorias feministas do Estado no contexto latino‑americano, revela diferentes formas de atuação estatal e variados graus de absorção/tradução/traição/silenciamento das demandas feministas.

  7. NATURAL LAW, HISTORY AND POLITICS LEY NATURAL, HISTORIA Y POLÍTICA LEI NATURAL, HISTÓRIA E POLÍTICA

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    James Drane

    2002-01-01

    de la medicina contemporáneas. Una perspectiva católica liberal intenta mantener en juego los aspectos universales y particulares del razonamiento de la Ley NaturalA visão filosófica básica e os princípios éticos da Lei Natural Católica buscam a universalidade. O propósito da Lei Natural aspira a objetividade e universalidade e, ao mesmo tempo, permanece aberto à contínua influência da história e da política. Os princípios que repousam na base da lei positiva recebem historicamente o nome de Lei Natural. O sofrimento e a injustiça contribuem para uma visão, tanto da estrutura da existência humana como aquilo que entendemos por lei e ética humana. Quando enfrentamos uma crise cultural, a Lei Natural não olha para o passado mas sim para o futuro. Atualmente é incomum que se considere as dimensões éticas das realidades sociais tendo como referência a Lei Natural. Isto vale tanto para a Igreja quanto para o Estado. Em bioética, os princípios com origem na estrutura universal da vida humana têm que proporcionar direção e normas no âmbito das variáveis da vida e da medicina contemporânea. Uma perspectiva liberal católica tenta manter presente os aspectos universais e particulares das razões da Lei Natural

  8. Lei da gravitação universal e os satélites: uma abordagem histórico-temática usando multimídia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Vilela Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examina-se, neste artigo, o desenvolvimento de aulas de Física em que, usando-se uma multimídia, a Lei da Gravitação Universal é abordada de forma contextualizada a partir da História da Ciência e de um tema atual (os satélites. O objetivo foi examinar como estudantes de Ensino Médio aceitam e se envolvem nesse estudo. Usando uma abordagem metodológica qualitativa, a multimídia apresenta o que são e como funcionam os satélites artificiais, trazendo uma narrativa histórica desde as ideias de movimento do sistema planetário de Ptolomeu até as de Isaac Newton sobre o movimento dos corpos, culminando na Lei da Gravitação Universal. Entrevistas, observações de sala de aula e documentos produzidos pelos estudantes mostram que as imagens, os filmes e os textos contidos na multimídia enriquecem, de modo significativo, o conteúdo, facilitando o entendimento de conceitos da Física. A contextualização histórico-temática, por sua vez, produz maior envolvimento dos alunos no estudo da Física.

  9. A Lei de Sementes brasileira e os seus impactos sobre a agrobiodiversidade e os sistemas agrícolas locais e tradicionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santilli

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma análise crítica dos impactos da Lei de Sementes brasileira (10.711/2003 sobre a biodiversidade agrícola e sobre a agricultura tradicional e local. A referida lei atende, principalmente, aos interesses e necessidades do sistema 'formal' de sementes e desconsidera o importante papel dos sistemas de sementes locais e tradicionais (chamados frequentemente de 'informais', nos quais as atividades de produção, intercâmbio, melhoramento e conservação de sementes são realizadas pelos próprios agricultores por meio de suas redes sociais e segundo as normas locais. Os sistemas 'formais' de sementes estão voltados, principalmente, para as espécies agrícolas de grande valor comercial e de ampla utilização em ambientes homogêneos. Assim, não são capazes de oferecer sementes adaptadas a usos e condições locais específicas e de atender às necessidades dos agricultores tradicionais e locais, que dispõem de poucos recursos e vivem em regiões heterogêneas, ambiental e culturalmente.

  10. Tax Incentives for Technological Business Innovation in Brazil: The Use of the Good Law - Lei do Bem (Law No. 11196/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidirley Fabiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Research & Development & technological innovation (RD&I are among the main sources for the development and growth of developed and developing countries. To stimulate investment in RD&I by private companies, the government resorts to several mechanisms, such as financial and non-financial incentives, such as tax incentives. Thus, this work is aimed at analyzing, through an exploratory research with private companies from various sectors of the Brazilian economy, the use of tax incentives for RD&I in the private sector, set forth in  the main public incentive mechanism for RD&I enforced by the Federal Government of Brazil - Lei do Bem. The findings show the importance of public policies to promote investment in RD&I in Brazilian private firms, but also highlight difficulties and improvement suggestions for the use of tax incentives provided for by the Good Law - Lei do Bem, which results in a number far below the expectations of the Federal Government of Brazil.

  11. Mediação familiar: fundamentos e regulamentação pela nova Lei da Mediação

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    Nayara Souza Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo faz uma breve exposição sobre a mediação que se consolidou como uma forma alternativa de resolução de conflitos. A mediação possui natureza não adversarial e autocompositiva, isto é, a decisão não é imposta e sim construída através de diálogo com o auxílio de um terceiro imparcial. Demonstra-se a importância da mediação familiar, uma de suas espécies, indicada em conflitos que envolvam questões de família, pois abrange os aspectos psicológicos, sociais e legais do conflito. Por fim, abordam-se alguns tópicos da nova Lei da Mediação, lei 13.140/15, que surge como incentivadora da prática no Brasil e busca conferir ainda mais força ao instituto.

  12. Políticas e leis sobre violência de gênero - reflexões críticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Beiras

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leis e políticas públicas dirigidas a assuntos relacionados à violência de gênero merecem reflexão no momento de aplicação e análise. Enquadradas em uma sociedade heterocentrista e patriarcal, sua aplicação não está isenta de dificuldades, armadilhas e lacunas. Este texto, tendo como base de análise a psicologia crítica, estudos de gênero pós-estruturalistas, teoria queer e criminologia crítica, pretende ser um convite a reflexão sobre como estas leis e políticas tem contribuído para construção e permanência de um estereótipo e antinomia homem-maltratador versus vítima-mulher. Para este fim, vemos necessária a ênfase aos processos desde onde os sujeitos produzem gênero. Nossa motivação é contribuir com ferramentas de análise que permitam abrir novas perspectivas para a intervenção jurídica e assistencial. Como reflexões conclusivas, ressaltamos a importância de liberar-se de um discurso dicotômico e linear, de estar atento a relações de poder e considerar diferenças e particularidades descentradas do normativo e de posicionamentos fixos heterocentrados.

  13. RECURSOS EDUCACIONAIS ABERTOS: REFLEXÕES SOBRE AS POSSIBILIDADES ATUAIS NO ENSINO DE LÍNGUA INGLESA MEDIANTE A INFLEXIBILIDADE DA LEI 9.610 DO DIREITO AUTORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Monica Moura Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As Novas Tecnologias têm permitido uma revolução informacional por meio de diferentes possibilidades de interação como artigos científicos, filmes, músicas, imagens, e outros. Colaborações e remixagens são termos que designam as novas práticas pertinentes na utilização do ambiente em rede, mas essas integram, na maioria das vezes, o infringimento dos direitos de autoria. E o que argumentar no tocante ao processo de ensinoaprendizagem mediado pelas inovações tecnológicas e midiáticas? Esse artigo propõe-se a refletir sobre o uso de tecnologias digitais no ensino, na utilização de recursos abertos como maneira de fazer reeducar nossas posturas mediante o direito autoral vigente. Fundamentamos esse artigo em: Kenski (2003; Lemos (2005; Brasil (1998; dentre outros. Em nossas reflexões, concordamos que a lei 9,610 é infringida. Na verdade, é uma lei em desuso, pois pouco reflete os usos contemporâneos que fazemos das informações online. Uma alternativa seria o uso de recursos educacionais abertos e de licenças flexíveis como as Creative Commons, mas são raros os profissionais da educação que conhecem essas possibilidades legais.

  14. Uma aplicação da Teoria das probabilidades na contabilometria: A Lei de Newcomb-Benford como medida para análise de dados no campo da auditoria contábil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenildo Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como eixos basilares: I. o estudo da Lei de Newcomb-Benford;' 2. o desenvolvimento de um modelo contabilométrico similar ao criado por Nigriniz que se fundamenta na relação entre a Lei de Newcomb-Benford e Testes de Hipóteses (Z - Teste e x -Teste no contexto da auditoria contábil; 3. aplicação do modelo contabilométri- co a uma empresa x do estado de Pernambuco.

  15. Análise da síndrome de "burnout" e das estratégias de "coping" em atletas brasileiros de vôlei de praia

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Lenamar Fiorese; Carruzo,Nayara Malheiros; Aizava,Paulo Vitor Suto; Rigoni,Patrícia Aparecida Gaion

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a síndrome de "burnout" e as estratégias de "coping" de jogadores de vôlei de praia. Participaram 93 atletas, das categorias sub-21 e "open" do circuito brasileiro de vôlei de praia. Como instrumentos foram utilizados uma ficha com dados de identificação, Questionário de "Burnout" para Atletas e Inventário Atlético das Estratégias de "Coping". Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach, teste 'U' de Man...

  16. Uma aplicação da Teoria das probabilidades na contabilometria: A Lei de Newcomb-Benford como medida para análise de dados no campo da auditoria contábil.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Josenildo; Tenório, José Nelson Barbosa; Silva, Luiz Gustavo Cordeiro

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo tem como eixos basilares: I. o estudo da Lei de Newcomb-Benford;' 2. o desenvolvimento de um modelo contabilométrico similar ao criado por Nigriniz que se fundamenta na relação entre a Lei de Newcomb-Benford e Testes de Hipóteses (Z - Teste e x -Teste) no contexto da auditoria contábil; 3. aplicação do modelo contabilométri- co a uma empresa x do estado de Pernambuco.

  17. Le recensement des plantes vasculaires et les originalités du peuplement végétal des monts Loma en Sierra Leone (Afrique Occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jaeger

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available A FLOR1STIC INVENTORY OF THE LOMA MOUNTAINS IN SIERRA LEONE Our surveys in Sierra Leone of the flora of the Loma Mountains and the foothill country have enabled us to produce an inventory of the I 576 species, subspecies or varieties of Angiosperms belonging to 757 genera and 135 families. Gymnosperms are lacking. As in any other natural region, the Loma flora is the result of a long and complex process which took place in much earlier times. Under the influence of climatic factors, migration, speciation and also anthropological action, floristic elements with very different origins have ultimately arranged themselves into a particularly diversified but unstable mosaic and it is for us to unravel the mechanisms that have brought this about.

  18. Elliptic and solitary wave solutions for Bogoyavlenskii equations system, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M.A. Khater

    Full Text Available In this article and for the first time, we introduce and describe Khater method which is a new technique for solving nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs.. We apply this method for each of the following models Bogoyavlenskii equation, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation. Khater method is very powerful, Effective, felicitous and fabulous method to get exact and solitary wave solution of (PDEs.. Not only just like that but it considers too one of the general methods for solving that kind of equations since it involves some methods as we will see in our discuss of the results. We make a comparison between the results of this new method and another method. Keywords: Bogoyavlenskii equations system, Couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system, Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation, Khater method, Traveling wave solutions, Solitary wave solutions

  19. Study of the aging of LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3(Co1-xFex)0.75 (0≤x≤1) compounds in Ni-MH batteries by SEM and magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayari, M.; Paul-Boncour, V.; Lamloumi, J.; Percheron-Guegan, A.; Guillot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The study of LaNi 3.55 Mn 0.4 Al 0.3 (Co 1-x Fe x ) 0.75 (0≤x≤1) alloys as material for negative electrodes in Ni-MH batteries has shown that the electrochemical cycle life is strongly dependent on the amount of substituted iron. The samples have been characterized before and after 2 to 50 electrochemical cycles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetization measurements in order to follow the decrepitation and the decomposition of the alloys. The bulk magnetic properties of the alloy show an evolution from a spin glass behaviour dominated by antiferromagnetic interactions towards a ferromagnetic behaviour as the Fe content increases. After electrochemical cycling, the alloys are partially decomposed into La hydroxide and small metallic and oxidized transition metal particles. A correlation has been established between the loss of electrochemical capacity and the alloy decomposition which reaches 45% after 50 cycles for x=1, whereas it remains limited to 10-15% for x=0 and 0.47. A model combining both SEM and magnetic results has been used to estimate the average thickness of the corrosion layer

  20. Macro and Micro-Nutrient Contents of 18 Medicinal Plants used Traditionally to Alleviate Diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H. G.; Kumari, C. A.; Sarkar, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Although several medicinal plants has been documented to alleviate diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico, no systematic study has been undertaken to determine the efficacy of these plant species. The present study was undertaken to determine micronutrients (Cu, Fe and Zn) and macro-nutrients (K, Mg and P), C, N and C/N and to select plants with high macro and micronutrient contents for high efficacy in 18 medicinal plants collected from botanical gardens of Forest Science Faculty, UANL, Mexico used in Nuevo Leon in Northeast of Mexico, at the experimental station of Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Following standard protocols, carbon and nitrogen were determined using a CHN analyzer (Perkin Elmer, model 2400). Mineral contents were using the wet digestion technique (Cherney, 2000). The present study indicated the presence of large variation in the contents of several macro and micronutrients among these 18 species of medicinal plants utilized traditionally to control diabetes and other diseases in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Among these species containing high nitrogen content (%) are Moringa oleifera (6.25), Melia azadirachta (5.85), Marrubium vulgare (4.56) and Phoradendron villosum (4.9). The C/N values ranged from 8 to 30. The species having high C/N were Agave macroculmis (30), Arbutus xalapensis (26) and Rhus virens (22). The species Melia azadirachta, Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Arbutus xalapensis exhibited large variations in the contents of macro and micronutrients which, could be considered to be used effectively for the control of diabetes. Few species viz. Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Arbutus xalapensis on the basis of high nutrient content with respect to C, N, C/N, Cu, Fe, Zn, K, P and Mg are selected and recommended to control diabetes. (author)

  1. Strengthening Health Systems While Responding to a Health Crisis: Lessons Learned by a Nongovernmental Organization During the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancedda, Corrado; Davis, Sheila M.; Dierberg, Kerry L.; Lascher, Jonathan; Kelly, J. Daniel; Barrie, Mohammed Bailor; Koroma, Alimamy Philip; George, Peter; Kamara, Adikali Alpha; Marsh, Ronald; Sumbuya, Manso S.; Nutt, Cameron T.; Scott, Kirstin W.; Thomas, Edgar; Bollbach, Katherine; Sesay, Andrew; Barrie, Ahmidu; Barrera, Elizabeth; Barron, Kathryn; Welch, John; Bhadelia, Nahid; Frankfurter, Raphael G.; Dahl, Ophelia M.; Das, Sarthak; Rollins, Rebecca E.; Eustis, Bryan; Schwartz, Amanda; Pertile, Piero; Pavlopoulos, Ilias; Mayfield, Allan; Marsh, Regan H.; Dibba, Yusupha; Kloepper, Danielle; Hall, Andrew; Huster, Karin; Grady, Michael; Spray, Kimberly; Walton, David A.; Daboh, Fodei; Nally, Cora; James, Sahr; Warren, Gabriel S.; Chang, Joyce; Drasher, Michael; Lamin, Gina; Bangura, Sherry; Miller, Ann C.; Michaelis, Annie P.; McBain, Ryan; Broadhurst, M. Jana; Murray, Megan; Richardson, Eugene T.; Philip, Ted; Gottlieb, Gary L.; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Farmer, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    An epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) beginning in 2013 has claimed an estimated 11 310 lives in West Africa. As the EVD epidemic subsides, it is important for all who participated in the emergency Ebola response to reflect on strengths and weaknesses of the response. Such reflections should take into account perspectives not usually included in peer-reviewed publications and after-action reports, including those from the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), survivors of Ebola, and Ebola-affected households and communities. In this article, we first describe how the international NGO Partners In Health (PIH) partnered with the Government of Sierra Leone and Wellbody Alliance (a local NGO) to respond to the EVD epidemic in 4 of the country's most Ebola-affected districts. We then describe how, in the aftermath of the epidemic, PIH is partnering with the public sector to strengthen the health system and resume delivery of regular health services. PIH's experience in Sierra Leone is one of multiple partnerships with different stakeholders. It is also one of rapid deployment of expatriate clinicians and logistics personnel in health facilities largely deprived of health professionals, medical supplies, and physical infrastructure required to deliver health services effectively and safely. Lessons learned by PIH and its partners in Sierra Leone can contribute to the ongoing discussion within the international community on how to ensure emergency preparedness and build resilient health systems in settings without either. PMID:27688219

  2. Exploring the Knowledge and Perception of Generic Medicines among Final Year Undergraduate Medical, Pharmacy, and Nursing Students in Sierra Leone: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bai James

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2% knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50% and nursing (6/9, 66.6% students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%, believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%. All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone.

  3. OS CAMINHOS DO DIREITO: OBSTÁCULOS, FERRAMENTAS E PROCEDIMENTOS IMPORTANTES PARA SE GARANTIR A EFETIVIDADE DA LEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA SUELEN GOMES DE SOUZA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo de revisão discute o papel do Tribunal de Justiça na Bahia a fim de promover um direito constitucionalmente previsto e teoricamente garantido, o acesso à justiça. A princípio, a abordagem se faz por meio da teoria sociológica sobre o campo jurídico. Tomamos o texto literário Diante da Lei, de Franz Kafka, como fundamento para discutir a teoria de Pierre Bordieu sobre o poder simbólico e os tipos de capitais presentes no campo jurídico. A revisão bibliográfica sobre o acesso a justiça reflete sobre as exigências e as restrições que a população, especificamente a mais pobre, enfrenta para buscar a efetividade do direito. Apesar de o acesso ser, teoricamente, direito de todos, de forma a obedecer à isonomia Constitucional, o que acontece é uma seletividade decorrente daquilo que se exige de forma direta ou indireta para adentrar ao campo jurídico. Ou seja, os critérios formais e os laços estreitos da justiça com as classes mais favorecidas implica numa refinagem a respeito de quem tem poder ou não para acessar este campo. Destacam-se as peculiaridades das normas constitucionais que deveriam ser direcionadas à sociedade como um todo, através de análise das funções dos magistrados que possuem a responsabilidade para exercer, efetivar e promover essas normas, além de analisarmos criticamente a respeito das instituições que auxiliam na efetivação desses direitos. Aborda-se assim, as condições que não condizem com os parâmetros constitucionais estabelecidos pelo Estado Democrático de Direito e pelo principio da isonomia que estabelece igualdade de direito para todos os indivíduos.Palavras-chave: poder simbólico; acesso a justiça; campo jurídico; democracia ABSTRACTThis review article discusses the role of the Court in Bahia to promote a right constitutionally theoretically predicted and guaranteed access to justice. In principle, the approach is done through the sociological theory about the legal

  4. High prevalence of multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from outpatient urine samples but not the hospital environment in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz A; Taitt, Chris R; Bangura, Umaru; Stockelman, Michael G; Ansumana, Rashid; Cooper, William H; Stenger, David A; Vora, Gary J

    2016-04-18

    The rising level of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens is one of the most significant public health problems globally. While the antibiotic resistance of clinically important bacteria is closely tracked in many developed countries, the types and levels of resistance and multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogens currently circulating in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa are virtually unknown. From December 2013 to April 2014, we collected 93 urine specimens from all outpatients showing symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) and 189 fomite swabs from a small hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone. Culture on chromogenic agar combined with biochemical and DNA sequence-based assays was used to detect and identify the bacterial isolates. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using a panel of 11 antibiotics or antibiotic combinations. The 70 Enterobacteriaceae urine isolates were identified as Citrobacter freundii (n = 22), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 15), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 15), Escherichia coli (n = 13), Enterobacter sp./Leclercia sp. (n = 4) and Escherichia hermannii (n = 1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that 85.7 % of these isolates were MDR while 64.3 % produced an extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL). The most notable observations included widespread resistance to sulphonamides (91.4 %), chloramphenicol (72.9 %), gentamycin (72.9 %), ampicillin with sulbactam (51.4 %) and ciprofloxacin (47.1 %) with C. freundii exhibiting the highest and E. coli the lowest prevalence of multidrug resistance. The environmental cultures resulted in only five Enterobacteriaceae isolates out of 189 collected with lower overall antibiotic resistance. The surprisingly high proportion of C. freundii found in urine of patients with suspected UTI supports earlier findings of the growing role of this pathogen in UTIs in low-resource countries. The isolates of all analyzed species showed worryingly high

  5. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen XI.- Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid and Avila; Base de Datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. Volumen XI. Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid y Avila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled form the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Palencia. Valladolid and Avila of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  6. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria and Segovia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria y Segovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Burgos, Soria and Segovia of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  7. Uma estimativa do custo de subordinação da dívida financeira estabelecida pela atual lei de falência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Securato

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar o impacto no custo de endividamento das empresas devido à ordem de prioridade de pagamento das dívidas corporativas em caso de falência. A nova Lei de Falência em tramitação no Congresso Nacional, Projeto de Lei 4.376, define a ordem de classificação dos créditos na falência pelo artigo 83. A atual Lei de Falência estabelece que as dívidas trabalhistas, previdenciárias e tributárias possuem prioridade de pagamento às demais dívidas. Entende-se, portanto, que existe uma subordinação das dívidas contratadas junto aos bancos e investidores com relação aos passivos prioritários. Este estudo estima o custo de subordinação do passivo financeiro - empréstimos e financiamentos - aos passivos com preferência de pagamento. Primeiro, obteve-se evidência a favor do modelo de precificação, através da comparação do valor do passivo obtido pela aplicação do modelo com o valor de mercado, e finalmente, calculou-se uma média de 0,30%a.a. de custo de subordinação dos passivos financeiros.This paper studies the debt cost effect caused by the payment order when liquidating its liabilities in case of corporate bankruptcy established by the current Bankruptcy Legislation. The new Bankruptcy Legislation under discussion at the Brazilian Congress, Law project 4.376, defines the liability ranking order in case of Bankruptcy in article 86. The current Brazilian bankruptcy regulation defines that employee, social security and fiscal liabilities must be settled before other liabilities such as asset backed debt securities, suppliers and loans. Therefore, there is a subordination of financial liabilities - loans and financing contracted with banks and investors compared to those liabilities with liquidation priority. This research estimates the cost of subordination of financial liabilities. First, we applied the binomial model to estimate the present value of corporate liabilities and its

  8. Projetos de Lei do Senado Federal na área de Saúde Pública nos anos de 2011-2012: o perfil dos senadores brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn de Britto Dutra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conforme a Constituição Federal de 1988, a saúde constitui direito de todos e dever do Estado e o desenvolvimento desta questão tem mobilizado importantes debates na sociedade e no Congresso Nacional. O estudo analisou os projetos de lei na área de saúde, especificamente do Senado Federal, nas duas primeiras sessões legislativas da 54ª Legislatura, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento do Direito Sanitário. Foi descrito o perfil dos senadores propositores na área da saúde, identificando a influência da profissão, da filiação ideológico-partidária e da região de origem, além de uma análise simplificada do conteúdo material dos projetos apresentados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritivo-analítica, a base de dados foi secundária e consubstanciada no sítio eletrônico Observatório da Saúde no Legislativo (http://observatorio.fiocruz.br hospedado no servidor da Direb/Fiocruz. Os resultados apontaram que 46% dos senadores daquela legislatura atuaram na área de saúde, sendo mais atuantes os médicos (29%, os representantes do Nordeste (47,2% e os filiados aos partidos com orientação ideológico-partidária socialista e comunista (41,9%. A temática mais abordada nos projetos de lei do Senado foram as políticas públicas de saúde (29,4%. Nota se que houve um aumento na produção legislativa em Direito Sanitário quando comparada à dos anos anteriores, e que emergiram outras temáticas com grande expressão como, por exemplo, o controle de doenças. Podem-se justificar essas mudanças no contexto dos projetos de lei pela valorização da concepção preventiva.

  9. Estudo dos Modos de Produção de Justiça da Lei Maria Da Penha em Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ingrid Bragagnolo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo objetiva descrever as práticas da justiça criminal construídas a partir da Lei 11.340/2006, Lei Maria da Penha, por juízes e juízas encarregados/as da aplicação deste dispositivo legal em uma Vara Criminal e Juizado de Violência contra a Mulher, em Santa Catarina. Trata-se de um estudo de inspiração etnográfica, que utilizou como fonte de pesquisa entrevistas com operadoras/os do direito e diários de campo, construídos a partir de observação de audiências e análise documental de processos penais. A pesquisa mostrou que as práticas rotineiras das/os operadoras/es do direito, no tratamento jurídico de casos tipificados como de “violência doméstica e familiar contra a mulher”, estavam orientadas pelos “estilos” pessoais de cada magistrado/a ao conduzir as audiências de ratificação, caracterizando formas de comunicação e interação de acordo com valores morais, marcados por diferentes concepções de gênero, família e justiça. A observação das práticas de equacionamento e julgamento evidenciou que os modos de produção de justiça estavam aliados à dimensão moral, de certa forma velada nos discursos dos/as operadores/as do direito, ao fazerem uso dos códigos legais. As posições políticas dessas/es profissionais, acerca do processo de criminalização da “violência doméstica e familiar contra a mulher”, resultaram, muitas vezes, em práticas contrárias às expectativas dos movimentos feministas com a criação da Lei Maria da Penha, mostrando a importância do debate sobre a judicialização das relações sociais no campo dos estudos de gênero.

  10. MOVIMENTO ESTUDANTIL EM BELO HORIZONTE: AÇÕES E REAÇÕES DOS ESTUDANTES AO DECRETO-LEI 477 (1969-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Teles de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:Embasado em uma literatura específica sobre o movimento estudantil, a ação política dos jovens e também dos movimentos sociais, este trabalho procura discutir os meios de reação dos estudantes, em Belo Horizonte, entre os anos de 1969 e 1975, contra uma legislação específica (Lei Suplicy de Lacerda, Decreto Aragão e Decreto-Lei 477. O resgate dos mecanismos de reação do movimento estudantil permite uma análise que procura ir além da tradicional ênfase dada à luta armada, como mecanismo, por excelência, da ação dos estudantes. Desse modo, pensar as articulações e a manutenção da representatividade estudantil que construíram os meios de reação desse movimento em Belo Horizonte acrescenta novas perspectivas em relação a esse objeto. Assim, a análise da imprensa estudantil se mostrou relevante, no sentido de trazer contribuições para o entendimento da organização dos estudantes em torno de suas entidades representativas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Movimento Estudantil em Belo Horizonte, Decreto-Lei 477, Imprensa estudantil. ABSTRACT: Based in a specific literature about the student movement, political action of the youths and also about social movements, this essay seeks to discuss the means of students reaction, in Belo Horizonte, between the years of 1969 and 1975, against a specific legislation (Law Suplicy de Lacerda, Decree Aragão and Decree-Law 477.  Recovering student movements` mechanisms of reaction permits an analysis that seeks going beyond the traditional emphasis given to the armed resistance as the main mechanism of students action.  Of this way, thinking about the articulations and maintenance of the student representativeness, that built the means of movement’s reaction in Belo Horizonte, provides news perspectives regarding that subject.  Like this, the analysis of the student press was shown prominent, in the sense of bringing contributions for the understanding of the student’s organization

  11. A low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) study of the influence of the vanadium concentration on the activity of vanadium-niobium oxide catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.H.H.; Smits, R.H.H.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.; van den Oetelaar, L.C.A.; Helwegen, J.H.J.M.; Anantharaman, M.R.; Brongersma, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    A series of vanadium-niobium oxide catalysts in which the vanadia content varies between 0.3 and 18 mol% was prepared by coprecipitation. These catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), and by catalytic testing

  12. A escravidão da criança negra e a Lei do Ventre Livre (1871/The slavery of black children education and Rio Branco Law (1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Monteiro da Rocha Ramos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available RAMOS, C. M. R. A escravidão da criança negra e a Lei do Ventre Livre (1871. 215fl. 2008. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação – Faculdade de Educação, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 2008.

  13. Edible wild mushroom tourism as a source of income and employment in rural areas. The case of Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos Madrazo, P. de; Martinez Pena, F.; Esteban Laleona, S.

    2012-11-01

    Edible wild mushroom picking is becoming an important source of income in rural areas. The wide range of activities which add value to mycological production (initial sale, transformation, marketing, etc.) include those related to tourism which can attract visitors to mushroom producing areas, leading to so-called mycological tourism. To date, no research exists quantifying the importance thereof in rural areas endowed with such resources. The present research provides the first model to estimate this activity contribution to the economy of rural areas in the region of Castilla y Leon. The main finding to emerge evidences a close link between influx of visitors, who come principally to pick, and mycological productivity in the region. Based on this relation, we estimate four key variables to determine the impact which said activity has on the regional economy as a whole: the number of overnight stays and trips made by mycological tourists, as well as associated expenditure and employment created. Findings underscore the importance of this activity in the regional tourism industry and point to its significance as a major market niche, particularly during the hotel low season. The need for public administrators to implement a related management policy is also inferred. (Author) 35 refs.

  14. Il mestiere della guerra: l’organizzazione della violenza e del lavoro maschile in Sierra Leone e in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Hoffman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondo numerosi osservatori, i combattimenti scoppiati dal 1989 al 2003 nei paesi dell’Africa occidentale della Mano River Union (Sierra Leone, Liberia e Guinea erano la dimostrazione che questa regione fosse estranea all’economia globale e rappresentavano una regressione verso una violenza tribale e primitiva. In realtà, la guerra lungo il fiume Mano è stata un conflitto post-moderno per eccellenza. La ricerca etnografica fra i combattenti, in entrambi i lati della frontiera, mostra che in questo campo di battaglia si era affermata una politica economica fondata sul lavoro violento, all’interno di un continuum che includeva l’estrazione dei diamanti e dell’oro nel profondo della foresta pluviale, la raccolta della gomma nelle piantagioni regionali e le campagne elettorali a favore dei politici nelle principali città della regione. Lungi dall’essere una regressione verso uno stato pre-moderno, le dinamiche dell’aggregazione e del dispiegamento della forza lavoro nel mestiere della guerra suggeriscono che questa regione era, ed è tuttora, un laboratorio per il capitalismo del futuro. 

  15. Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Kei; Eckmanns, Tim; Kamara, Kande-Bure O’Bai; Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone experienced intense transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from May 2014 to November 2015 during which a total of 8,704 confirmed cases and over 3,589 confirmed deaths were reported. Our field observation showed many issues in the EVD data management system, which may have contributed to the magnitude and long duration of the outbreak. In this perspective article, we explain the key issues with EVD data management in the field, and the resulting obstacles in analyzing key epidemiological indicators during the outbreak response work. Our observation showed that, during the latter part of the EVD outbreak, surveillance and data management improved at all levels in the country as compared to the earlier stage. We identified incomplete filling and late arrival of the case investigation forms at data management centers, difficulties in detecting double entries and merging identified double entries in the database, and lack of clear process of how death of confirmed cases in holding, treatment, and community care centers are reported to the data centers as some of challenges to effective data management. Furthermore, there was no consolidated database that captured and linked all data sources in a structured way. We propose development of a new application tool easily adaptable to new occurrences, regular data harmonization meetings between national and district data management teams, and establishment of a data quality audit system to assure good quality data as ways to improve EVD data management during future outbreaks. PMID:27551675

  16. Infant Feeding Policy and Programming During the 2014–2015 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Amelia; Serrano Oria, Óscar; Kallon, Mustapha; Bazzano, Alessandra N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimal breastfeeding is of vital importance to infant and child health and has been adopted by countries as a standard recommendation. However, in the context of an infectious disease outbreak, especially when the disease is poorly understood, policy makers must balance the benefits of breastfeeding against the risk of disease transmission through breastfeeding. During the 2014–2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in Sierra Leone, the development of correct and consistent messaging about infant feeding and nutrition programming was considerably delayed by numerous challenges. These challenges included a lack of sufficient information about the risk of transmission through human milk, numerous stakeholders, limited communication between coordination pillars, inconsistent and evolving messages from various stakeholders, and the public's distrust of the health system and international actors. For improved response to future disease outbreaks, research on vertical transmission of EVD should be prioritized, infant and young child feeding experts should be integrated into outbreak response collaboration, and a digital repository of potential and appropriately tailored messages should be created. PMID:28963177

  17. Contours Of Microcredit Mannequin Socio-Economic Differentials Of Debtors And Non-Debtors In Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Hes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The controversies of microfinance are to a large extent fueled by its unclear definition and limited understanding of the extent of its impact. The problem of taxonomy leads to contrast between idealistic beliefs in the sectorial mission and pragmatic solutions of MFIs causing misinterpretations of the realities by financial laity as well as by development experts. Lack of comprehension of the potential as well as an ideal socio-economic habitat and target profile of microdebtors in the light of problems of over indebtedness belongs to such problems. An in-depth comprehension of the profile of a desirable microfinance client denominated as microcredit mannequin from the development perspective and a grasp of a combination of drivers that make microenterpreneurs in developing countries often contracting microdebt might serve as a tool for more efficient focus of microfinance in developing countries. An understanding of the meaning of microfinance and the characteristics of a desirable client could help focus on particular socio-economic strata prevention of overindebtedness and improve the impact of debt especially in rural areas where microfinance is most needed and where it lacks most expertise. The study was founded upon field data collected in regions in Sierra Leone from 800 microfinance debtors as well as non-microfinance practitioners and compares their socio-economic profiles in order to arrive to a set of generalised conclusions on the particular drivers that define microfinance clientele.

  18. Calidad e integracion exitosa de la cadena automotriz de las PYMES en el estado de Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Blanco Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises in the automotive industry in Mexico play an increasingly important role in the development of national industry, contributing to 2.6% of GDP and represent 11.5% of the manufacturing sector. However, in a recent study of TBM Consulting found that only 20% of auto parts manufacturers in Mexico have the potential to become world-class suppliers of the automotive industry, 40% are in the process of improvement and the remaining 40%, still doing things the traditional way. According to this analysis, including the difficulties faced by SMEs are unable to comply with the requirements of quality products, poor marketing, lack of refinancing, lack of efficient management techniques, among others. In this research is to analyze the problems of SMEs in the automotive sector in the State of Nuevo León and whether having a system implementation of 5S's is looking to integrate the methodologies needed to be innovative, strengthen intercompany and to adopt the ABC costing accounting system, allowing them to have a better quality and successful integration in the automotive supply chain in Nuevo Leon.

  19. Paula Bertúa y Lucía de Leone (comps., Escrito en el viento: lecturas sobre Sara Gallardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Angélica Cinella

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Escrito en el viento: lecturas sobre Sara Gallardo es el libro que reúne una fructífera variedad de acercamientos críticos a la producción literaria y periodística de esta original escritora argentina, quién publicó novelas exitosas como Los galgos, los galgos (1968 o  Eisejuaz (1971, única en su estilo.  Pero no se agota allí el horizonte de esta compilación de Paula Bertúa y Lucía de Leone. La faceta personal y privada de Sara Gallardo, aquella que caracteriza y sella con una marca indeleble todos sus textos, es aludida, recreada y revivida también desde la observación de las personas más allegadas a ella (hijos y amistades íntimas. En su conjunto, este compendio encuentra el camino para revitalizar y difundir su producción desde el ámbito universitario y el de la crítica literaria, donde no habían surgido, hasta ahora, estudios específicos y sistemáticos sobre su obra completa.

  20. Geo-social and health disparities among persons with disabilities living in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon and Dallas, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Silviya P; Small, Eusebius; Campillo, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    In low and high income countries alike, disability exacerbates social, economic, and health disparities, in spite of their differences. This study seeks to identify factors that predict the circumstances people with disabilities face, including poverty. A cross-sectional study design was employed using census track level data for the cities of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, and Dallas, Texas, from Mexico 2010 and USA 2000 census data collections. Two methods, spatial autocorrelation and geographically weighted regression were used to identify spatial patterns of disability and to explore the relation between disability and context-specific socio-demographic factors. Results indicated that people with disabilities living below the poverty line experience high segregation levels in the semi-central zones of Dallas. In Monterrey, people with disabilities clustered in central areas of the city. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) from both data analyses reported high goodness of fit (R ≥ 0.8 for Dallas data and R ≥ 0.7 for Monterrey data, respectively) and predictability of disability prevalence when social disadvantage factors such as unemployment, housing insecurity, household living conditions, and lack of education were present. The divergent and sometimes conflicting trends in practices and policies addressing disability in low and high income environments renders a reexamination of the framework of disability. An understanding of local characteristics joins a grounded socio-cultural understanding of the various contexts that shape location-based social networks and political decisions in providing such an analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of sustainability for community-managed handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Rural water supply sustainability has remained an enduring policy challenge in sub-Saharan Africa for decades. Drawing on the largest data set assembled on rural water points in sub-Saharan Africa to date, this paper employs logistic regression analyses to identify operational, technical, institutional, financial, and environmental predictors of functionality for over 25 000 community-managed handpumps in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. Risk factors significantly associated with nonfunctionality across all three countries were (a) system age, (b) distance from district/county capital, and (c) absence of user fee collection. In at least one of the three countries, other variables found to have significant multivariable adjusted associations with functionality status included well type, handpump type, funding organization, implementing organization, spare parts proximity, availability of a handpump mechanic, regular servicing, regular water committee meetings, women in key water committee positions, rainfall season, and perceived water quality. While the findings reinforce views that a multifaceted range of conditions is critical for the sustainability of community-managed handpumps, they also demonstrate that these factors remain absent from a high proportion of cases. Governments and development partners must significantly strengthen postconstruction support for operation and maintenance systems, and greater efforts are needed to test and evaluate alternative models for managing handpump water supplies.

  2. Football and post-war reintegration: exploring the role of sport in DDR processes in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Growing enthusiasm for 'Sport for development and peace' (SDP) projects around the world has created a much greater interest among critical scholars seeking to interrogate potential gains, extant limitations and challenges of using sport to advance 'development' and 'peace' in Africa. Despite this interest, the role of sport in post-conflict peace building remains poorly understood. Since peace building, as a field of study, lends itself to practical approaches that seek to address underlying sources of violent conflict, it is surprising that it has neglected to take an interest in sport, especially its grassroots models. In Africa, football (soccer) in particular has a strong appeal because of its popularity and ability to mobilise individuals and communities. Through a case study on Sierra Leone, this paper focuses on sports in a particularly prominent post-civil war UN intervention—the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) process—to determine how ex-youth combatants, camp administrators and caregivers perceive the role and significance of sporting activities in interim care centres (ICCS) or DDR camps. It argues that sporting experiences in ddr processes are fruitful microcosms for understanding nuanced forms of violence and healing among youth combatants during their reintegration process.

  3. Patients' preferences for patient-centered communication: a survey from an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Christensen, Søren Troels; Andreasen, Jesper T

    2013-11-01

    To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone. A survey was conducted using an adapted version of the Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS) as a structured interview guide. The study population was drawn from the population of all adults attending for treatment or treatment for their children. 144 patients were included in the analysis. Factors, such as doctor's friendly approach, the interpersonal relationship and information-sharing were all scored high (patient-centered) on the PPOS. Factors associated with shared-decision making had a lower (doctor-centered) score. A high educational level was associated with a more patient-centered scoring, an association that was most pronounced in the female population. The results provide an insight into the patients' preferences for PCC. Patients expressed a patient-centered attitude toward certain areas of PCC, while other areas were less expressed. More research is needed in order to fully qualify the applicability of PCC in resource-poor settings. Stakeholders and healthcare professionals should aim to strengthen healthcare practice by focusing on PCC in the medical encounter while taking into considerations the patients' awareness and preferences for PCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Image guided radiotherapy with the Cone Beam CT kV (ElektaTM): Experience of the Leon Berard Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommier, P.; Gassa, F.; Lafay, F.; Claude, L.

    2009-01-01

    Image guide radiotherapy with the Cone Beam CT kV (C.B.C.T.-kV) developed by Elekta has been implemented at the centre Leon Berard in November 2006. The treatment procedure is presented and detailed for prostate cancer I.G.R.T. and non small cell lung cancer (N.S.C.L.C.) stereotactic radiotherapy (S.R.T.). C.B.C.T.-kV is routinely used for S.R.T., selected paediatric cancers, all prostate carcinomas, primitive brain tumours and head and neck cancers that do not require nodes irradiation. Thirty-five to 40 patients are treated within a daily 11-hours period. The general procedure for 3-dimensional images acquisition and their analysis is described. The C.B.C.T.-kV permitted to identify about 10% of prostate cancer patients for whom a positioning with bone-based 2-dimensional images only would have led to an unacceptable dose distribution for at least one session. S.R.T. is now used routinely for inoperable N.S.C.L.C.. The easiness of implementing C.B.C.T.-kV imaging and its expected medical benefit should lead to a rapid diffusion of this technology that is also submitted to prospective and multi centric medico-economical evaluations. (authors)

  5. Survey and visual detection of Zaire ebolavirus in clinical samples targeting the nucleoprotein gene in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV can lead to severe hemorrhagic fever with a high risk of death in humans and other primates. To guide treatment and prevent spread of the viral infection, a rapid and sensitive detection method is required for clinical samples. Here, we described and evaluated a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP method to detect Zaire ebolavirus using the nucleoprotein gene (NP as a target sequence. Two different techniques were used, a calcein/Mn2+ complex chromogenic method and real-time turbidity monitoring. The RT-LAMP assay detected the NP target sequence with a limit of 4.56 copies/μL within 45 min under 61°C, a similar even or increase in sensitivity than that of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Additionally, all pseudoviral particles or non- Zaire EBOV genomes were negative for LAMP detection, indicating that the assay was highly specific for EBOV. To appraise the availability of the RT-LAMP method for use in clinical diagnosis of EBOV, of 417 blood or swab samples collected from patients with clinically suspected infections in Sierra Leone, 307 were identified for RT-LAMP-based surveillance of EBOV. Therefore, the highly specific and sensitive RT-LAMP method allows the rapid detection of EBOV, and is a suitable tool for clinical screening, diagnosis, and primary quarantine purposes.

  6. "Optics 4 every1", the hands-on optics outreach program of the Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera-González, Perla M.; Sánchez-Guerrero, Guillermo E.

    2016-09-01

    The Fisica Pato2 (Physics 4 every1) outreach group started as a need of hands-on activities and active Science demonstrations in the education for kids, teenagers and basic education teachers in Nuevo Leffon maintaining a main objective of spread the word about the importance of Optics and Photonics; for accomplish this objective, since November 2013 several outreach events are organized every year by the group. The program Optics 4 every1 is supported by the Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas of the Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon and the International Society for Optics and Photonics and consist in quick hands-on activities and Optics demonstrations designed for teach basic optical phenomena related with light and its application in everyday life. During 2015, with the purpose of celebrate the International Year of Light 2015, the outreach group was involved in 13 different events and reached more than 8,000 people. The present work explains the activities done and the outcome obtained with this program.

  7. Risky sexual behaviour among women: Does economic empowerment matter? Case of Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra-Leone and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford O; De Wet, Nicole; Banda, Pamela C

    2016-12-01

    The link between economic empowerment and high risky sexual behaviour has been debated by different scholars in various settings. However, no consistently clear connection between poverty and lack of education has been found regarding engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Also, not much research has been done to examine the strength of these relationships for adolescents and women. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between female economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour in Africa. Using the latest Demographic and Health Surveys Data (DHS 2011-2014) from Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zambia, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done on women aged 15 to 49 to examine the patterns of and differences in the association between women's economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour. The findings both at community and individual level indicate that empowered women (higher education and wealth household) and adolescents aged 15 to 19 are highly significantly associated with engagement in high risky behaviour. The result of this study stresses the need to look further than individual factors in the quest to resolve risky sexual behaviour in Africa. The interrelations between female economic empowerment and engagement in risky sexual behaviour are more complicated and less straightforward than usually presumed.

  8. Detection and partial characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm strains from bush meat samples from rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Cristian; Metzger, Michael J; Richardson, David; Ling, Binhua; Telfer, Paul T; Reed, Patricia; Robertson, David L; Marx, Preston A

    2005-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) originated from simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that naturally infect sooty mangabeys (SMs; Cercocebus atys). In order to further investigate the relationship between HIV-2 and SIVsm, the SIV specific to the SM, we characterized seven new SIVsm strains from SMs sold in Sierra Leone markets as bush meat. The gag, pol, and env sequences showed that, while the viruses of all seven SMs belonged to the SIVsm-HIV-2 lineage, they were highly divergent viruses, in spite of the fact that most of the samples originated from the same geographical region. They clustered in three lineages, two of which have been previously reported. Two of the new SIVsm strains clustered differently in gag and env phylogenetic trees, suggesting SIVsm recombination that had occurred in the past. In spite of the fact that our study doubles the number of known SIVsm strains from wild SMs, none of the simian strains were close to the groups in which HIV-2 was epidemic (groups A and B).

  9. DNA fragmentation in frozen sperm of Equus asinus: Zamorano-Leonés, a breed at risk of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Crespo, F; Gosálvez, A; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; López-Fernández, C; Gósalvez, J

    2008-05-01

    The dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) and sperm viability were analyzed in frozen-thawed sperm samples of Equus asinus (Zamorano-Leonés), a breed at risk of extinction. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using an adaptation of the sperm chromatin dispersion test developed for stallions in five different frozen samples. Sperm were thawed and incubated at different temperatures (37 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 4 degrees C) and sDF was assessed at different times and compared. The mean sDF after thawing at the beginning of the experiment was 18.20+/-14.77% and did not differ significantly from the results of a neutral comet assay (22.0+/-19.34%). The tendency in the sDF of all donkeys indicated that sperm DNA is more sensitive to breakage when incubated at 37 degrees C than when incubated at 25 degrees C or 4 degrees C. Interestingly, the tendency was not the same when different animals were compared, and differences in sDF dynamics were established among individuals. sDF correlated negatively with sperm viability in some individuals but not in others. From a conservation perspective, sDF analysis may offer a new way to assess sperm quality in endangered breeds in order to identify and select the best semen samples for artificial reproduction purposes. In particular, we recommend for artificial insemination the use of semen samples with a slow increase in sDF with time after thawing.

  10. A Lei de Acesso à Informação como instrumento de controle social na gestão de medicamentos do setor público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele T. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A completa transparência no que diz respeito a informações relevantes da gestão de medicamentos do setor público, independentemente de solicitação, e utilizando os mecanismos propiciados pelas novas tecnologias, representa tanto um interessante caminho para o efetivo controle social da administração pública, quanto uma promissora alternativa para aperfeiçoar o sistema único de saúde. Nesse sentido, a lei de acesso à informação agrega um instrumental normativo que abre novas perspectivas para a sociedade e para a gestão da administração pública.

  11. A Submissão das Sociedades de Economia Mista e das Empresas Públicas ao Regime Jurídico Falimentar Previsto na Lei 11.101/05

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Magalhães

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo visa analisar a situação jurídica das sociedades de economia mista e das empresas públicas, diante do regime jurídico falimentar previsto na Lei nº 11.101/05. Realiza-se uma retrospectiva histórica a respeito do tema, apresentando as definições e diferenças existentes entre referidas “empresas”. Demonstra-se o modo pelo qual o empresário é definido pelo direito brasileiro, como regra geral, ressaltando, ainda, as exceções a tal definição. Por fim, conclui-se que, ou se dá ao art. ...

  12. Exigência para o desenvolvimento das nossas indústrias: o ensino técnico no contexto da Lei Orgânica do Ensino Industrial

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    Amorim,Mário Lopes

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo desse artigo é compreender a criação dos cursos técnico-industriais de nível médio no Brasil, a partir da Lei Orgânica do Ensino Industrial (1942), em um contexto de rápida industrialização do país, levando em conta os interesses da classe empresarial e do Estado. Utiliza-se como referência alguns artigos sobre a organização didático-pedagógica dos referidos cursos, publicados na revista Labor, da Escola Técnica de Curitiba. Procura-se identificar as influências de diversas concepç...

  13. CRIMES CONTRA A DIGNIDADE SEXUAL: ALTERAÇÕES TRAZIDAS PELA LEI N. 12.015, DE 7 DE AGOSTO DE 2009

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    Nasato, Graziela

    2010-01-01

    Neste artigo apresentam-se as alterações trazidas pela Lei n. 12.015/2009, relativas aos crimes de estupro, violação sexual mediante fraude, assédio sexual, estupro de vulnerável, corrupção de menores, satisfação de lascívia mediante presença de criança ou adolescente, favorecimento de prostituição ou outra forma de exploração sexual de vulnerável, bem como, as disposições gerais constantes do Título VI do Código Penal.Palavras-chave: Direito Penal. Crimes Contra a Dignidade Sexual. Alteração...

  14. A lei brasileira de ensino Rivadávia Corrêa (1911: paradoxo de um certo liberalismo Brazilian educational law 'Rivadavia Correa' (1911: the paradox of liberalism

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    Marlos Bessa Mendes da Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A lei Rivadávia é uma lei educacional emblemática. A historiografia educacional brasileira costuma tratá-la ou como excrescência de curta duração, pois somente prevaleceu até 1915, ou ainda como legítima expressão de um Estado republicano liberal tout court, sem necessidade de novas indagações, já que a natureza do Estado está dada. No entanto, ela é culminância de um processo histórico que tem o seu início de formulação na penúltima década do Império. Ali começa a se cogitar do "livre ensino" que, entre nós, assumiu o caráter de livre oferta de ensino. Pode-se dizer que a lei Rivadávia é a última expressão de uma "visão de mundo" que veio se estruturando naquelas duas décadas finais do Império. Ora, a prevalência de tal entendimento na República é justamente o registro de um entrave na constituição do moderno direito à educação, pois este requer um Estado propositor e garantidor. Assim, a lei Rivadávia é a expressão, entre as regulamentações de ensino, de um paradoxo: ela exacerba um liberalismo do "livre ensino" que justamente dificulta o surgimento histórico do direito social à educação em sentido moderno.ABSTRACT 'Rivadavia' educational law is emblematic. Brazilian educational historiography often refers to it as a short-term excrescence, since it prevailed until 1915, or yet, as a legitimate expression of a merely liberal republican State, with no need for further quest once the nature of the State has been given. However, it is the apogee of a historical process that has its conceptual beginnings in the second last decade of the Empire. "Liberal teaching" is then first conceived, which gained status among us as liberal educational offer. It is assertive to say that 'Rivadavia' law is the last expression of a "world view" which was developing in those two last decades of the Empire. The prevalence of such understanding in the Republic is precisely the indicator of a constitutional restraint

  15. PROCESSO JUDICIAL ELETRÔNICO: ANÁLISE DA LEI Nº 11.419-2006 SOB A ÓTICA ARQUIVÍSTICA

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    Rodrigues, Mateus De Moura; Flores, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    O presente artigo apresenta uma abordagem do processo judicial eletrônico, modalidade processual que tem como premissa a desburocratização e agilidade no trâmite, trazendo uma nova perspectiva para os usuários e profissionais envolvidos. O advento da Lei 11.419/2006 teve a finalidade de padronizar a implementação do processo eletrônico em todo o Brasil. Porém, sabe-se que todo trâmite de informação reflete diretamente no fazer arquivístico e, neste caso específico, envolve mudanças de paradig...

  16. A RACIONALIDADE LEGISLATIVA NA LEI 7.492/86: UMA ANÁLISE CRÍTICA NO ÂMBITO DOS EFEITOS E DAS GARANTIAS DOS DIREITOS HUMANOS

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    Paolo Sampaio Peres Kury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lei 7.492 de 1986 é um marco normativo no que se refere à criminalidade ligada aos crimes financeiros, representando um dos diplomas mais importantes do “direito penal econômico brasileiro”. No presente estudo, nos utilizaremos do modelo de análise da racionalidade legislativa desenvolvido por Manuel Atienza, e aperfeiçoado para o campo penal por Diez Ripollés, para verificar se é possível identificar uma racionalidade legislativa por trás da elaboração normativa deste diploma ou se estamos apenas diante de uma “legislação reativa”. A abordagem metodológica é a revisão bibliográfica e a obtenção de dados secundários no direito nacional e internacional.

  17. FLEXIBILIZAÇÃO DO DIREITO À INTIMIDADE E À PRIVACIDADE NA LEI DE COMBATE ÀS ORGANIZAÇÕES CRIMINOSAS

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    Antonio Pedro Mélo Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As práticas criminosas sempre fizeram parte da vida em sociedade. Todavia, tornaram-se mais elaboradas, com estrutura empresarial, divisão de tarefas e subordinação a um líder com uma finalidade clara. As organizações criminosas não foram sempre reprimidas pelo Estado. A partir do século XX, foram criados contornos jurídicos mais precisos, e por sua capacidade de gerar danos profundos à coletividade. Diante desse contexto foi promulgada a Lei nº 12.850/13 com o objetivo de reprimir tais arranjos criminosos. Inclusive, com investidas sobre o que outrora foi delimitado intransponível a persecução criminal por se tratar da esfera íntima e privada.

  18. ADOLESCENTES EM CONFLITO COM A LEI EM MOÇAMBIQUE: REFLEXÕES SOBRE MEDIDAS SOCIOEDUCATIVAS E LIMITES PARA SUA APLICAÇÃO PRÁTICA.

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    Tomás Xavier Francisco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por fim analisar, por um lado, a problemática dos adolescentes em conflito com a lei em Moçambique, e por outro lado, fazer reflexões sobre as medidas socioeducativas e limites para a sua aplicação prática. O trabalho contempla uma introdução, desenvolvimento onde arrola-se considerações sobre o histórico da legislação sobre adolescentes ou menores no país, reflexões sobre medidas socioeducativas e seus limites para sua aplicação prática, e por fim, contempla considerações finais e referências bibliográficas. A metodologia usada foi estudo exploratório, recorrendo-se a pesquisa bibliográfica e análise documental.

  19. Lei de Acesso à Informação: em busca da transparência e do combate à corrupção

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    Simone Assis Medeiros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O direito de acesso à informação tem ganhado um destaque, cada vez maior. Sua importância tem sido ressaltada por acadêmicos, pelos especialistas, pela mídia e até pelos governos. Objetivo: O artigo tem como objetivo analisar o alcance da Lei 12.527/11 no combate a corrupção e sua contribuição para a consolidação da democracia no Brasil. Metodologia: Como técnica de pesquisa adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa, utilizando-se de revisão bibliográfica e pesquisa documental. Resultados: A lei 12.527/11 se mostra um avanço na efetivação do direito ao acesso à informação. Dentre os aspectos relevantes, pode-se citar a estipulação de prazos razoáveis para a obtenção de informações junto aos órgãos públicos, o uso das tecnologias da informação e de comunicação como facilitador do acesso às informações públicas. Conclusões: Conclui-se que para construção de uma verdadeira democracia, torna-se indispensável o acesso claro e transparente à informação pública, além de uma maior participação popular, fortalecendo assim os sistemas democráticos.

  20. Análise de convergência espacial dos repasses da Lei Robin Hood Spatial convergence analysis of tax transfers from the Robin Hood Act

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    Noé Gonçalves Maranduba Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alega-se que a Lei Robin Hood tem permitido uma melhor distribuição dos valores do ICMS devidos aos municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo deste artigo é investigar se essa lei, entre os anos de 2001 e 2005, realmente foi eficaz, isto é, se, em termos relativos, municípios pobres receberam mais dessas transferências do que os municípios ricos. Para fazer isso metodologicamente, implementa-se uma análise exploratória de dados espaciais e uma análise de convergência, para verificar se as disparidades nos repasses diminuíram com o passar do tempo. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos espaciais importaram nas análises e que não houve um efeito redistributivo dos repasses, considerando-se que o coeficiente indicador de convergência não foi significativo.One alleges that the Robin Hood Act has allowed one better distribution of the values of ICMS to municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais. The paper is aimed at verifying if the Robin Hood Act has actually revealed a redistributive effect in tax transfers to municipalities in the state over the period 2001-2005, that is, if, in relative terms, poor municipalities have received more these transfers than rich ones. In doing methodologically so, an exploratory spatial data analysis and a convergence analysis are implemented to verify if the disparities of tax redistribution have diminished over the time. The findings showed that the spatial effects were important in the analysis as well as there was no redistributive effect in the period because the convergence coefficient was not significant.