WorldWideScience

Sample records for lehtinen pille korpen

  1. Millised on füüsilised riskid tulevikus? / tõlk. Pille Korpen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kokkuvõte Euroopa Töötervishoiu ja Tööohutuse Agentuuri raportist töötervishoiu ning tööohutusega seotud uute füüsiliste riskide identifitseerimise ja ennetamise kohta. Kommenteerib Elcoteq Tallinna ergonoom Eva-Maria Reimers

  2. Müra kontoris segab tööd / Patrick Kurtz ; tõlk. Pille Korpen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurtz, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Üldnõuetest kontorite planeerimisel. Müra vähendamise planeerimisest. Tabelid: Müra helivõimsuse taseme allikad; Arvutitöökohtade akustika. Vt. ka: Avatud kontor võib olla ka vaikne. BNSi vastutav peatoimetaja Anvar Samost räägib avatud tööruumi eelistest

  3. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  4. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  5. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  6. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  7. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  8. Morning-After Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and within 120 hours. You can take emergency contraceptive pills anytime during your menstrual cycle. To use the ... to five weeks after taking the morning-after pill, contact him or her. These may ... B One-Step emergency contraceptive for use without a prescription for all women ...

  9. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oral contraceptive pill is much more than a birth control pill. Adolescent girls and young women are frequently prescribed the ... Control Pills: General Information Medical Uses of the Birth Control Pill PCOS: All ... Chat with us! Our PCOS chats are safe places for teens and young women who share a common condition ...

  10. Progestogen-only pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-27

    Essential facts Oral contraception remains the most popular method of birth control for a majority of women in the UK. According to a 2012/13 report by the Health and Social Care Information Centre, it was chosen by 47% of women attending NHS community contraceptive clinics in England. An Office of National Statistics survey of 2008/09 shows that of the three quarters of UK women aged up to 49 using contraception, a third were prescribed the contraceptive pill. Of these, 6% used progestogen-only pills, also known as the mini-pill or POP.

  11. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  12. Tri voprossa / Pille Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Asula tänaval avati Tallinna perekeskus, mis hakkab tegutsema ülelinnalise koordineeriva asutusena, pakkudes lastele ja peredele nõustamist ja päevategevust. Küsimustele vastab juhataja Pille Teder

  13. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  14. Thrombosis and the Pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, M P

    1970-02-01

    The results of 3 British and 1 American investigation of the risk of thromboembolism among women using oral contraceptives are reviewed. 1 British study conducted among general practitioners found the risk of developing superficial thrombophlebitis about 3 times greater among pill users. Neither of 2 other studies, in which hospital admissions and fatalities were analyzed, found any significant link between oral contraceptives and coronary thrombosis, but both indicated a 6 to 8-fold increase in risks of venous thromboembolism and of cerebral thrombosis. The findings of the American study were similar. None of the 4 studies discovered any evidence that the thromboembolic risk is greater early in the course of medication or, that it increases with duration of use. The American study obtained some evidence that sequential preparations might be more harmful than combined ones. The British Committee on Safety of Drugs has since determined, on the basis of analysis of routinely submitted reports of suspected adverse reactions, that the thromboembolic risk is higher with pills containing 75 mcg or more of estrogen than among those containing only 50 mcg. For the woman, who for any reason finds oral contraception to be the only satisfactory method of birth control, the risks may be considered acceptable provided medical supervision is adequate. Use of the pill entails other known major hazards (jaundice, hypertension) and knowledge of the longterm effects is very incomplete. Substantial evidence suggests that the estrogenic component of combined and sequential pills is responsible for the thromboembolic risks. The greater risks of pregnancy and menstrual disturbances accompanying progestogen-only oral contraceptives may limit their advantages.

  15. Extended-cycle oral contraceptive pills with 10 microg ethinyl estradiol pills in place of placebo pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita L

    2007-09-01

    The elimination of monthly withdrawal bleeding with use of extended-cycle (84 pills) monophasic birth-control pills has modernized oral contraceptives. The use of ethinyl estradiol 10 microg pills in place of the seven placebo pills addresses the problems posed by 21/7 formulations of low-dose birth-control pills, which allow early stimulation of ovarian follicles, and of the early 84/7 formulations, which had higher rates of unscheduled bleeding and spotting.

  16. There's good news about birth control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Some scientists have shown that the oral contraceptive pill can cause breast cancer and heart disease. But no one is really quite sure about the negative side effects of the pill. Experts are sure that the pill can even prevent some forms of cancer. Studies have shown that users will be more protected from cancer of the ovaries than women who do not take the pill. And the protection lasts even after one stops taking the pill. Through the chemical hormones estrogen and progestogen, the pill sends a message to the ovaries not to produce an egg. When a woman is on the pill, her ovaries get a rest. For that reason, there is less chance for problems like cancer to develop. Also, a woman who takes the pill will be more protected from cancer of the endometrium, because the pill causes her to have lighter periods. In addition, with lighter periods, she will probably have less painful periods, too. Taking the pill also will decrease the risk for getting ovary and breast cysts. Pill users have less chance of developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which, if left untreated, can cause damage to the reproductive organs. The best way to ease any concerns about taking the pill is to talk with health care providers about all the issues of birth control pills and other contraception.

  17. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen.

  18. Rein Pill tegi fantastilise sõidu / Rein Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Rein

    2008-01-01

    Septembris Chernjahovskis peetud CS14 taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel tegi Rein Pill ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  19. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Pamukcu Gunaydin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times.

  20. Rein Pill tegi fantastilise sõidu / Rein Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Rein

    2008-01-01

    Septembris Chernjahovskis peetud CS14 taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel tegi Rein Pill ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  1. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources Tools for K-12 Educators You are here: Home | Public Resources | Pet ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your pet can easily ingest dropped pills ...

  2. Kaks hiidlast poliitikas / Pille Shalamov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shalamov, Pille

    2008-01-01

    Katkendeid Pille Shalamovi uurimustööst "Kaks hiidlast poliitikas", kus käsitletakse Vaino Väljase ja Hillar Elleri rolle Eesti poliitikas. Järgneb: 11. nov. ; 18. nov. ; 21. nov. ; 25. nov. ; 28. nov. ; 2. dets. ; 9. nov ; 16. dets. ; 23. dets. ; 30. dets.

  3. An update on the pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The discussion traces the development of the oral contraceptive (OC) pill and presents the most recent medical findings on OC and its effects. In 1959 the 1st combined OC, Enovid, was officially approved for use in the US after clinical trials in Los Angeles and Puerto Rico. By 1975, OCs were being used in the US by more than 1/3 of married women who practiced family planning and by an even higher percentage of unmarried contraceptive users. Retail pharmacy sales of OCs have declined by 40% during the 1975-79 period. The major reason given for the decline was the side effects or fear of side effects arising from OC use. Many OCs are available today because of an increasing variety of chemical combinations and the rapid increase in product names, according to "Oral Contraceptives: A Guide for Programs and Clinics," a Pathfinder Fund handbook. The authors classified OCs into 2 general groups -- combined pills and the mini-pills. OCs used in the combined preparation each contain 2 synthetic hormones -- estrogen and progestin. The combined OC is 99% effective when taken properly. The most popular belief now is that OCs act by interfering with the normal menstrual cycle. The mini-pills, which contain small doses of synthetic progestins, have a contraceptive effect by altering the cervical mucus and by altering the lining of the womb or endometrium. Absolute, strong relative, and other relative contraindications to pill use are listed. Side effects that are possibly life threatening include blood clots in the legs, pelvis (lower abdomen), lungs, heart, or brain. Women OC users over 40 have a higher risk of heart attack than younger users, and users over 40 who smoke have the highest risk of heart attack. Benign tumors of the liver, which have been found to be more common in women who use OCs, may cause rupture of the capsule of the liver, extensive bleeding, and even death. Rare tumors of the liver, hepatocelluar adenomas, are more likely to occur in long term OC users

  4. Antibiotics, the pill, and pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrantonio, M; Minhas, H; Gammon, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish if advice concerning risks of pregnancy when taking oral contraceptive pill and antibiotics is being offered. METHOD: A retrospective audit of notes of 100 female patients aged 15-39 who were prescribed antibiotics. RESULTS: Documentation of use of contraception was noted in 3% of patients. Advice concerning risks and further precautions was noted in this 3% but not in any other records. CONCLUSION: The audit identified a gap in documentation and/or clinical practice ...

  5. The Pill and Marital Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Zuppann

    2012-01-01

    Better contraception will have competing impacts on marital stability and divorce rates. Preexisting marriages are likely to become less stable as better contraception raises the value of reentering the dating market. Subsequent marriages are likely to be more stable as couples delay marriages and use better contraception to search for better partners. Â I investigate this hypothesis using variation in access to the birth control pill by state and cohort as developed by Goldin and Katz (2002)...

  6. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-susta......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  7. "HYPERTENSION RESULTING FROM USING BIRTHCONTROL PILLS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rostami

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study on 685 healthy women who have been using birth control pills for a period of about 27 months, the following results were found: 1.Blood pressure has been increased with a rate of 1.416%. 2. The increase in arterial Wood pressure is on both the systolicand diastolic blood pressures. 3. It seems that hypertension results from the Estrogen which is present in the Pills. 4. This hypertension is not grave I and with stopping, the Pills within a maximum period of 5 months, blood pressure will return to its control level, without having any effect on the cardiac or renal function. 5. When noticing the above mentioned points, we can conclude that if a woman had previous hypertension after using birth control pills, it is less dangerous than giving birth to a baby due to not using the pills.

  8. Pill organizers and pill cutters: risks and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja-Oliveira, Caroline Ribeiro de

    2013-02-01

    In this essay, based on documental analysis, the limitations associated with the use of pill organizers and cutters are discussed and analyzed as a matter of public health. The use of the organizers for storing and carrying tablets and capsules exposes these medications to environmental factors from which their original packaging protected them, compromising their stability and safeness. Cutters also pose the additional risk of causing loss of efficacy, adverse reactions and overdose. On the other hand, the user carrying their own medication reflects the balance between autonomy and self-care, and splitting is sometimes required to comply with certain regimens. It can be concluded that healthcare professionals should observe and guide patients and caregivers in order to avoid risks.

  9. [Mamy-boom and baby-flop, pill and pill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraud, R

    1989-05-01

    Data from France's National Institute of Demographic Studies indicate that in 1986, 778,859 infants were born in France, including 80,874 to foreign mothers. France's total fertility rate was 1.83, higher than the 1.40 of the Federal Republic of Germany or the 1.35 of Italy but not high enough to ensure replacement. A 1988 survey by the National Institute of Demographic Studies indicated that almost 2/3 of fertile-aged French women used pills or IUDs. 7% had undergone sterilization, 4% were infertile, 13% had no partners, and 10% were pregnant or desired to become pregnant. All the developed countries, regardless of their form of government, have low fertility rates. The complete explanations of the trend to low fertility are not known. Economic and sociological explanations probably carry less weight than psychological factors. The desire for material goods, greater freedom of women, changing roles of men in the family and society, and fragility of marriages probably all play a part. The pill and to a lesser extent abortion have been blamed for the declining fertility, but do not furnish the complete explanation. Greater availability of RU 486 may cause further decline, but nobody can predict with assurance. Falling nuptiality, increased nonmarital cohabitation with its low fertility rates, the low rate of remarriage after divorce, and the greater life expectancy of women all affect France's population structure and prospects. By 2010, some 20% of the European population will be aged 65 and over. By 2035 almost 10 million persons will be over 70 years old in France, and nearly 2/3 of them will be female. This large cohort of elderly will require expensive care that the smaller young cohorts will be expected to finance. Intergenerational solidarity, however, already shows signs of strain. Serious conflicts will inevitably arise over the care and maintenance of this large elderly population group and will be exacerbated by the uneven population structure resulting

  10. Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by Weight Loss Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Pareek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged.

  11. 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161206.html 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk Study also ties hormonal patches, IUDs to ... may have a slightly higher risk of developing depression -- and teenagers may be most vulnerable, a large ...

  12. The risks of oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pymar, H C; Creinin, M D

    2001-12-01

    Oral contraceptive pills have been associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. Studies have been published recently that suggest that these risks are minimal in appropriately chosen low-risk women. Stroke is a very uncommon event in childbearing women, occurring in approximately 11 per 100,000 women over 1 year. Thus, even a doubling of this risk with oral contraceptive pills would have minimal effect on attributable risk. The estimated risk of myocardial infarction associated with oral contraceptive pill use in nonsmokers is 3 per million women over 1 year. The estimated risk of venous thromboembolism attributable to oral contraceptive pills is less than 3 per 10,000 women per year. Additionally, the literature suggests that there may be an increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term oral contraceptive pill use in women under the age of 35. However, because the incidence of breast cancer is so low in this population, the attributable risk of breast cancer from birth control pill use is small.

  13. Impact of pill organizers and blister packs on adherence to pill taking in two vitamin supplementation trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H Y; Maguire, M G; Miller, E R; Appel, L J

    2000-10-15

    The impact of pill organizers on pill taking was determined in the Trial of Antioxidant Vitamins C and E (TRACE) Study, a factorial trial of vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation in 184 individuals. Participants were recruited in 1996-1997 and randomized to one of two groups (pill organizer or no organizer) and to one of four supplement groups for 2 months. The pill count (observed/expected X 100%) distribution was similar in the organizer and no organizer group for both vitamins. Mean differences in changes in serum vitamin levels between active and placebo groups did not differ by pill organizer use. The impact of pill organizers and blister packs was compared in another trial, the Vitamins, Teachers, and Longevity (VITAL) Study, in 297 individuals randomized in 1993-1994 to receive study pills either in blister packs or in pill organizers and to take one of two supplements. Among those with lower adherence, the pill count distribution in the blister-pack group exceeded that in the organizer group. Mean differences in serum vitamin E levels between active and placebo groups did not differ by types of pill packaging. In summary, use of blister packs, but not pill organizers, improved adherence as measured by pill counts among those with lower adherence. Neither pill delivery system improved adherence as measured by serum vitamin levels.

  14. Osteoarthritis: No Pills Yet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis "No Pills Yet..." Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... Robert Boston "There are no pills yet for osteoarthritis, but we're working on it," says Linda ...

  15. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask how the diffusion of oral contraception to young unmarried women affected the number and maternal characteristics of children born to these women. Using census data, we find that early pill access led to an increase in the share of children whose mothers were married, college-educated, and had professional occupations. The pill's effects on the average mother are different from the pill's effects on the average woman, and the effects of the pill on maternal characteristic...

  16. The Pill and Partnerships: The impact of the birth control pill on cohabitation

    OpenAIRE

    Finn Christensen

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact on cohabitation behavior of the introduction and dispersion of the birth control pill in the US during the 1960s and early 1970s. A theoretical model generates several predictions that are tested using the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. Empirically, the causal effect is identified by exploiting plausibly exogenous variation in state laws granting access to the pill to unmarried women under age 21. The evidence shows that the pi...

  17. Image Analysis of Fabric Pilling Based on Light Projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞; 黄秀宝

    2003-01-01

    The objective assessment of fabric pilling based on light projection and image analysis has been exploited recently.The device for capturing the cross-sectional images of the pilled fabrics with light projection is elaborated.The detection of the profile line and integration of the sequential cross-sectional pilled image are discussed.The threshold based on Gaussian model is recommended for pill segmentation.The results show that the installed system is capable of eliminating the interference with pill information from the fabric color and pattern.

  18. Contraception. Low-dose pill launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    At a vibrant ceremony in Kampala, Uganda, the Minister of Women in Development, Youth and Culture launched the new low-dose oral contraceptive Pilplan which provides women more options for birth spacing. Diplomats, physicians, government officials, and business leaders attended the ceremony at the Sheraton Hotel Kampala. A dance group did an interpretation of "Women in Uganda: Gaining Momentum." The Minister considered the introduction of this new pill as a turning point for reproductive rights. A baseline survey among Ugandan women has shown that although almost all women were familiar with the pill, only 36% have ever used it and only 15% were currently using it. 80% thought that pill use was preferable to having an unplanned pregnancy. These findings convinced the Minister that ignorance and misconception keep women from using the pill. The government, health providers, and others need to educate women about Pilplan and how to use it correctly. A bilateral agreement between the Ministry of Health and USAID set in motion a social marketing project which has now launched two contraceptive methods: Pilplan in 1993 and the Protector condom in 1990. USAID vowed to continue to support Pilplan, particularly if men could also help in supporting birth spacing. A Uganda-based pharmaceutical firm will distribute Pilplan in Uganda through pharmacies, clinics, and health facilities. Pilplan targets all middle- to low-income women.

  19. Progestin-Only Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can I still get pregnant?There is no contraceptive method that is perfect, even when used correctly. Two or 3 out of every 100 women who use the progestin-only pill correctly, could still get pregnant. The risk of pregnancy is almost the same as the ...

  20. The misunderstood pill: thirty years of testing and development have reduced pill's major, minor side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Many users of oral contraceptives (OCs) and potential users misunderstand the risks and benefits of OCs. A recent poll in the US revealed that 3 out of 4 women thought the pill carried substantial health risks. Nearly 2/3 of the women surveyed believe using OCs is at least as risky as childbearing. Family Health International (FHI) recently conducted a world survey of perceptions of OCs. It shows that women in many other countries share US womens negative image of the pill. Women believe in pill-related dangers scientists have never even suspected, much less proven, such as an increased risk of stomach cancer. Yet, many women, especially women in developing countries, are unaware of problems such as cardiovascular disease that are related to OC use, and they are ignorant of the proven health benefits of OCs, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer. Despite the persistence of negative perceptions of the pill, research conducted over the past 30 years has shown that the pill is safe for the great majority of women and, in fact, provides significant health benefits for many users. With the contraceptive effectiveness of the pill established through the early tests, drug companies began steadily lowering the hormone dosages. By 1983, more than half of the OCs sold in the US contained less than 0.5 mg estrogen. Many of the combination OCs now sold have only 0.2 to 0.4 mg estrogen. Eventually, pill researchers learned that OCs containing only progestogen, even in comparatively small doses, also could effectively prevent pregnancy, though not as effectively as pills containing estrogen. The first progestogen-only pills received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 1973. Continued research on OCs shows that the increased risks of cardiovascular diseases actually were almost entirely confined to specific groups women who were over 35 or who both were over 30 and smoked. For the great majority of women, studies showed, the risk of cardiovascular

  1. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the ...

  2. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  3. Happy-People-Pills for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    It is argued that we have a moral duty to create, and make available, advanced pharmacological agents to boost the happiness of those in the normal, i.e., the non-depressed, range of happiness. Happiness, conceived as a propensity to positive moods, is a quantitative trait with a sizeable genetic component. One means to boost the happiness of those in the normal range is to test the efficacy of antidepressants for enhancement. A second possibility is to model new pharmacologicals based on the genetics of the happiest amongst us, that is, the hyperthymic. The suggestion, in other words, is to “reverse engineer” the hyperthymic: to investigate what makes the hyperthymic genetically and physiologically different and then put what they have into pill form. To the ‘Brave New World’ objection, that there is more to wellbeing than happiness and that taking happy-people-pills will require the sacrifice of these other aspects of wellbeing, it is countered that contemporary social science research supports the view that happiness promotes achievement in the ‘higher’ endeavors of humanity, including work, love and virtue. In other words, happiness promotes acquisition of traits valued by perfectionists. Those born with genes for hyperthymia, on average, tend to be doubly blessed: they are happier and achieve more than the rest of the population. Happy-people-pills are a means to allow everyone else to share in this good

  4. How to use mini-pills: helpful patient instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Progestin only birth control pills appeared on the US market in 1973. As there is no estrogen in these mini pills, they may have fewer dangerous side effects than the combined pills. Some clinics suggest mini pills for women who suffer from estrogen excess side effects. The 3 mini pills available in the U.S. are called Micronor, NOR-QD, and Ovrette. Instructions are presented for patients who are interested in using mini pills. The mini pills most likely work by affecting a women's fertility in several ways: act as a messenger to the woman's ovaries and uterus to prevent the release of an egg; thicken the mucous on the cervix, making it difficult for the sperm to "get through" the cervix and reach the egg; and change the lining of the uterus so that it may not develop properly for the fertilized egg to grow. The mini pills can be 97% effective is used perfectly. The mini pills are only effective for as long as a woman takes them. A woman must take a pill every day to prevent pregnancy. A woman should not use the mini pill if she has or ever has had any of these problems: blood clotting problems in veins; stroke; cancer of the breast or reproductive parts of the body; suspected pregnancy, current pregnancy; and undiagnosed, abnormal genital bleeding. Possible benefits for a woman using mini pills include: an effective method of birth control; a method for nursing mothers since it does not seem to affect the amount of their breast milk; and a possible reduction in premenstrual cramps. Possible risks for a woman using mini pills include: irregular periods; and a less effective method if the patient does not take a pill every day. The danger signals to look for are abdominal pain, chest pain, headaches, eye problems, and severe leg pain. A patient should revisit a clinic in the following situations: has not had a period within 45 days of the last period; severe abdominal pains while taking mini pills; experiences a warning signal; any time one thinks the pills are

  5. Divorce and the birth control pill

    OpenAIRE

    MARCÉN, MIRIAM

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the birth control pill on divorce. To identify its effect, we use a quasi experiment exploiting the differences in the language of the Comstock anti-obscenity statutes approved in the 1800s and early 1900s in the US. Results suggest that banning the sales of oral contraceptive methods has a negative impact on divorce. These findings are robust to alternative specifications and controls for observed (such as female labour force participation, or changes in the e...

  6. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  7. Oral contraceptive use and protective behavior after missed pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, D; Potter, L; de Leon-Wong, E; Visness, C

    1997-01-01

    A three-month prospective study of 103 women initiating oral contraceptive use examined how consistently the women took their pills and whether those who missed pills employed other means to avoid pregnancy. The results showed that 52% took each active pill or never missed more than one pill at a time after the first week of the initial cycle, according to electronic devices that recorded the date and time each pill was removed from the blister pack. Another 21% were protected by behaviors that reduce the risk of pregnancy when two or more consecutive pills have been missed: avoiding coitus for the next seven days (18%) or using backup contraception during that period (3%). The remaining 27% were at increased risk of pregnancy. Predictors of increased risk were receiving low partner support for effective pill use, being unmarried and not considering it especially important to avoid pregnancy. Increased risk was most likely during the first seven days and during the third cycle of pill use.

  8. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin-only ...

  9. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  10. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin-only ...

  11. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  12. Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) continue to be the most commonly used form of prescription contraceptives used by adolescents in the United States. With proper use, oral contraceptives provide safe and effective birth control. Broad categories of OCPs include progestin-only pills (POPs) and combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs). Certain types of progestins have more potent antiandrogenic properties and are more effective in treating acne, hirsutism, and polycystic ovary syndrome. This article reviews types of OCPs, discusses risks and benefits of OCPs, and provides guidance for how to choose the most beneficial and appropriate OCP for individual adolescent patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two techniques to make swallowing pills easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Julia T; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly.

  14. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  15. Veevillad - hollandlaste väljakutse ja paratamatus / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2005-01-01

    Arhitekt Pille Nagel veele ehitatud elumajadest Hollandis. Paatmajadest, Veersche Poorti elurajoonist (1999-2004) Middelburgis, "Gewild Wonen" elurajoonist (1999-2001) Eilandenbuurti linnajaos Almeres, kanaliäärsetest linnavilladest Sheepstimmermanstraatil Amsterdamis jm. 9 värv. ill

  16. Ulatuslik näitus Eesti arhitektuurifoto ajaloost / Pille Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Pille

    2003-01-01

    Näitus "Kahemõõtmelised pildid : arhitektuurifoto arengust Eestis 1860. aastatest tänapäevani" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Koostasid Pille Epner Ja Liina Jänes, kujundasid Kristjan Holm ja August Künnapu

  17. in vivo cytogenotoxic and haematotoxic screening of a triherbal pill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is unprecedented increase in the use of medicinal plants as source of ... The tri-herbal pill induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in A. cepa and mice, and ... Keywords: Allium Test, Cytogenotoxicity, Haematology, Herbal Drugs, Mice, ...

  18. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  19. The Birth Control Pill: Popular Discourse and Personal Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vogels, Shannon Claire

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the evolution of the birth control pill from contraceptive technology to a lifestyle drug over the past fifty years. Drawing from biomedicalization theory, I suggest that contraception is one of many areas of life that have become subject to medical intervention, and use the pill to illustrate how contemporary health is characterized by a shifting landscape of privatization and commodification, new sources of information and knowledge, and an emphasis on optimization of t...

  20. Fabrication of CPA Salt Pill with Circulating Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, A.; Tokoi, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; McCammon, D.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on fabrication of a Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill. CPA is a typical paramagnetic salt used as refrigerant of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) because of its low Curie point, 4 11 mK. We made an test model of CPA salt pill by fast crystallizing method, namely circulating solution between 36°C and 15°C. The crystallizing rate was 0.5 g h-1, and 40 g of CPA crystal was obtained inside a stainless steel cylinder equipped with 160 copper wires. The cooling test was operated utilizing a commercial ADR system. We attached three thermometers and four heaters to the salt pill, in order to measure thermal conductance among different parts of the pill. It is confirmed that our salt pill was cooled down from B/ T=4 T/2 K to 64 mK at zero magnetic field. We suspect the cause of limiting the cooling temperature in the present level to be the dehydration of CPA, non-uniformity of magnetic field, and stainless steel of the pill which has large heat capacity below 0.1 K.

  1. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR. As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively. Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases, 9% (2 cases and 32% (7 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases versus 10% (2 cases, respectively (P < 0.05. Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively. In conclusion, diffuse

  2. THE BEHAVIOUR OF FABRICS USED FOR ANTIMIS PRODUCTION TO PILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRILĂ Mihai Maxim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study about the behaviour of plain textiles used for the production of antimis (Christian-orthodox liturgical item used in the liturgy to pilling explores the functional classification of different types of antimis as a textile product made out the following different types of fabrics: natural silk, flax, viscose, polyamide 6.6. Pilling is a phenomenon which consists of the formation of small balls made out of fibre congeries on the textile’s surface due to attrition and fatigue. For textiles used as liturgical items, the process of pilling formation includes the following stages: the emergence of the pilling surfaces (the formation of fuzzy, fibre tangle (appearance of small balls, and the detachment of small balls from the fabric’s surface. The analysis method of pilling for liturgical items made out the four types of fabrics mentioned above consists of stereoscopic microscopy techniques and electronic microscopy methods (SEM. The images of textiles samples (yarns and fabrics will be captured using a video microscope. Quantitative tests have been done to determine the metric number and the tex title of the above-mentioned fabrics. The increased resistance of silk to pilling compared to nylon, flax, and viscose can be attributed to the chemical properties of fibres and structural characteristics of silk fabric. The structural compactness of the same fiber mixture of natural silk fabric with bonded fabric will have a higher resistance coefficient to pilling compared to the other mentioned fabrics. Through this, the value of use and durability of the antimis will increase.

  3. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K., E-mail: katerina_bas@abv.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lagunov, O. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-06-15

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  4. Unmarried Mother's Knowledge and Attitudes toward Emergency Contraceptive Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong Mi Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.

  5. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  6. Four new species of the spider genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980 from Laos, Thailand and Myanmar and the first description of the male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 with a proposed new diagnostic character for the family Nesticidae Simon, 1894 (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Elena; Jäger, Peter

    2016-03-02

    During various expeditions to Laos between 2003 and 2012 and one expedition to Myanmar in 2014, spiders of the family Nesticidae were collected inside and outside of caves. This was the first time this family was encountered in Laos. All specimens belong to the genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980. Four species have been recognized as being new to science, which are described in this paper: Nesticella beccus n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province, Luang Prabang Province, Huaphan Province, Khammouan Province, THAILAND: Mae Hong Son Province), Nesticella laotica n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Vientiane Province, Huaphan Province, Luang Prabang Province, Bolikhamsay Province), Nesticella foelixi n. sp. (male; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province) and Nesticella michaliki n. sp. (male, female; MYANMAR: Chin State). The male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 is described for the first time and it is the first record for Laos. Results from a first micro-computed tomography analysis of a female copulatory organ for this genus are provided. This analysis proves that female Nesticella exhibit a complex functional receptaculum, which is highly complex within the genus. The presence of a special type of leg setae (pipette setae) in males is proposed as diagnostic for the family Nesticidae.

  7. [Adequacy of contraceptive pill use among women in union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, E E; de Moraes, T M; Faúndes, A; Vera, S; Pinotti, J A

    1991-04-01

    A total of 2,364 women in marital union, 15 to 49 years of age, were interviewed at home. They lived in poor neighbourhoods in the metropolitan area and in the interior of S. Paulo State, Brazil. The prevalence of contraceptive pill use and the association between socio-demographic characteristics of users and the presence or not of risk factors for pill use were studied. One fourth (25.8 percent) of the women interviewed were using contraceptive pills. Prevalence was higher among younger women, those with no more than one live child and those who had completed between three and eight grades of schooling. Over 40 percent of the users referred having risk factors for pill use at the time they initiated the method. No association was found between age and the percentage of women with risk factors. This percentage increased with number of children and decreased with women's schooling. The fact that pills were prescribed or obtained through the health system was not associated with the proportion of users with risk factors. The percentage of users with risk factors was similar when comparing women who did not consult any health service before initiating use with those who had consulted a public service. The prevalence of use observed in this study is similar to that described by other authors. Results show that the health system in the State of S. Paulo played no role in the improvement in the prescription of hormonal contraceptive pills. Central policy seemed not to have filtered down to the peripheral areas of the system.

  8. Frequency and severity of premenstrual symptoms in women taking birth control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, V J; Cumming, C E; Fox, E E; Cumming, D C

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective study of a wide range of premenstrual symptomatology using the Premenstrual Assessment Form found little difference between women taking a low-dose birth control pill and non-pill-takers. These data are in keeping with older, but narrower, studies of women taking high-dose pills and raise questions about mechanisms of symptomatic and subclinical premenstrual changes.

  9. Berlex introduces new 20 mcg birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Another low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), Levlite, has received US Food and Drug Administration approval. Levlite, manufactured by Berlex Laboratories, contains 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 100 mcg levonorgestrel. Alesse, an OC manufactured by Wyeth-Ayerst, has the same components. Two other OCs--Loestrin and Mircette--contain 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol, but differ in their progestin component or dose. A pill containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol provides women with 33% less estrogen than a 30-mcg pill. Clinical trials involving 755 US women confirmed that Levlite provides high contraceptive efficacy with good cycle control. Headache, reported by 17.3% of study participants, was the most common side effect.

  10. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with a new progestogen-only pill containing drospirenone after scheduled 24-h delays in pill intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Traditional progestogen-only pills (POPs) have stringent daily timing and missed pill rules that might affect contraceptive reliability. A new-generation oestrogen-free pill has been developed, containing 4-mg drospirenone with a unique regimen of 24 active treatment days followed....... This property distinguishes this new-generation oestrogen-free pill from traditional POPs by allowing the same "safety window" or flexibility in intake as combined oral contraceptives without compromising contraceptive reliability. IMPLICATIONS: Delayed or forgotten pill intake is very common. Ovulation...... inhibition by the new-generation oestrogen-free pill, containing 4-mg drospirenone for 24 days followed by a 4-day treatment-free period, was maintained despite four 24-h delays in tablet intake, so the impact of delayed intake on contraceptive reliability will be low....

  11. Pharmaceutical effect of contraceptive pills on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldes, E G

    1988-07-01

    Described are the various effects of birth control methods on the skin-mainly those of the contraceptive pill. The equilibrium of healthy skins and mucosa might be affected by these chemicals or pharmaceutical agents, causing different manifestations. The skin and mucosa should be looked upon as integral parts of the human body and its functions even where localized symptoms arise.

  12. Association between birth control pills and voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2004-06-01

    The objective was to extend our knowledge of the effect of birth control pills on voice quality in women based on various acoustic measures. A longitudinal comparative study of 14 healthy young women over a 36- to 45-day period. Voices of seven women who used birth control pills and seven women who did not were recorded repeatedly approximately 20 times. Voice samples were analyzed acoustically, using an extended set of frequency perturbation parameters (jitter, relative average perturbation, pitch period perturbation quotient), amplitude perturbation parameters (shimmer, amplitude average perturbation quotient), and noise indices (noise-to-harmonics ratio, voice turbulence index). Voice quality and stability were found to be better among the women who used birth control pills. Lower values were found for all acoustic measures with the exception of voice turbulence index. Results also provided preliminary indication for vocal changes associated with the days preceding ovulation. In contrast to the traditional view of oral contraceptives as a risk factor for voice quality, and in keeping with the authors' previous work, the data in the present study showed that not only did oral contraceptives have no adverse effect on voice quality but, in effect, most acoustic measures showed improved voice quality among women who used the birth control pill. The differences in the noise indices between groups may also shed light on the nature of the effect of sex hormones on vocal fold activity. It was suggested that hormonal fluctuations may have more of an effect on vocal fold regulation of vibration than on glottal adduction.

  13. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  14. Teaching through Trade Books: Roly-Poly Pill Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs, also called roly-polies, are small terrestrial isopods that are abundant in temperate areas throughout the world. Because they are engaging, harmless, and easily collected, they provide an excellent opportunity for children to learn about invertebrate body parts, behaviors, and information processing. This column includes activities…

  15. Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-­- or poly-­-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-­- and mid-­-temperature applications.

  16. A METABOLIC STUDY ON CHINESE NO. 1 CONTRACEPTIVE PILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJun-Kang; SONGSi; YANGPei-Juan; HEMei-Li; LILa-Mei; GUIYou-Lun; FotherbyK

    1989-01-01

    A prospective study of Chinese No. I pill (ethinyl estradio] 35 ,μg/ norethisterone 600 ,μg) taken for six months was carried out in 20 healthy women. Blood samples for various analyses were taken in pretreatment cycle, during the first and sixth treatment cycle and three

  17. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  18. Determination and application of location and angular orientation of a pill transmitter within a body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system that moves through or adjacent to one or more organs in an animal's body and that provides signals from which the pill's present location and/or present angular orientation can be determined. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into or onto the body. Optionally, the pill as it moves also provides a sequence of visually perceptible images; the times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one or at least four different criteria.

  19. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu rezhiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist ning Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  20. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu rezhiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist ning Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  1. Vitamin nutritional status of women using oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, N K; Vijaya, S

    1980-03-01

    A comparative study was conducted to assess the biochemical effects of a low-estrogen combined OC (oral contraceptive). The focus of the study was on possible biochemical effects indicative of altered nutritional status. Both low and high income women on pills were compared with others not on pills. The groups were further divided according to the duration of OC usage. Blood hemoglobin, serum Vitamin A, plasma ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, and aspartate transaminase levels were measured. Higher income women had better measures on all the indices than the low income women, indicating a better initial nutritional status. Deficiencies increased with duration of use. Results of the study show that OCs reduce the vitamin nutritional level in women. For poor women on OCs, special nutrition intervention programs should be instituted.

  2. Pioneering Studies of the “Morning-After” Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjappu, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Yale School of Medicine produced the first proof-of-concept study on the viability of a “morning-after” pill for human use. This study was a result of a fruitful collaboration between a pair of Yale scientists, Drs. John M. Morris and Gertrude van Wagenen, who sought a non-abortion, post-coital contraceptive. They tested a variety of hormones, hormone-based synthetic drugs, and other compounds in monkeys in an effort to uncover a compound that was non-toxic but highly effective. Unfortunately, although they were unable to identify such a drug, their initial studies inspired other scientists to further pursue the concept of a “morning-after” pill, leading to the development of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved emergency contraceptives. PMID:21698041

  3. The combined oral contraceptive pill -- recent developments, risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Monica V

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill as an effective, coitally-independent method of contraception was a public health milestone of the last century. Over time, combined oral contraception (COC) formulations and pill-taking regimens have evolved with improved safety and tolerability while maintaining contraceptive efficacy. In addition to protection against pregnancy, use of combined oral contraception confers a number of significant non-contraceptive benefits to users. COC use is also associated with well-studied risks. Common side effects are generally self-limiting and improve with increasing duration of use while serious adverse events, including venous thromboembolism, are rare among healthy COC users. Contraceptive decision-making should include consideration of both the risks and benefits of a given method versus the real consequences of unintended pregnancy.

  4. The post-coital pills as over the counter drugs

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Post-coital pill or emergency contraceptives are birth control measures that, if taken after sexual intercourse, may prevent pregnancy. High dose of postcoital contraceptives like diethylstilbestrol & other estrogens were being used for some time without any approval by FDA. Task force on postovulatory methods of fertility regulations 1998, conducted clinical trials leading to approval of two preparations for postcoital contraception by FDA namely levonorgestrel 0.75mg & combination of 0.25 l...

  5. [Psychodiagnostic findings in anorexia nervosa and post-pill amenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehle, G; Wahlstab, A; Ott, J

    1982-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa is originated from disturbances at various points of the cortico-hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. 65 patients suffering from anorexia nervosa or post-pill-amenorrhea were classified by cluster-analysis with 174 marks of the social, psychodynamic and biological levels. The different psychodiagnostic characteristics (470-F-Test, Hamilton-Depression-Scale, Beck-Depression-Scale, Giessen-test) are discussed according to the 3 clusters.

  6. The aftermath of a pill scare: regression to reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W O

    1999-01-01

    In October 1995, following confidential exchanges of findings among investigators in several epidemiological studies, the UK Medicines Control Agency sent a 'Dear Doctor' letter to all clinical practitioners in the country. The letter alerted them to the possibility of an excess risk of venous thromboembolism among women taking combined oral contraceptives (OC) with the 'newer' progestins, notably desogestrel and gestodene. The communication provoked a major pill scare, not just in the United Kingdom but in other countries. The preliminary and unpublished findings from the four initial 1995-96 studies reported odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.5 to 23 in the point estimates. These are very low relative risks but were communicated in a way that the public perceived as a 'doubling of the risks'. In the 3 years since the pill scare, additional research has been done. First, deliberate and careful analysis of some of the studies and replication of others have shown that the epidemiological investigations were affected by unavoidable systematic error. Three types of bias were demonstrated empirically, namely, prescription bias, referral bias and healthy user effect or attrition of susceptibles. All those biases would tend to drive OR spuriously upwards. Additional epidemiological studies have progressively shown lower ORs, some of them under the threshold of 1.0, i.e. 'no association'. Two major consensus assessments, one carried out by a World Health Organization Scientific Group and another undertaken by the International Federation of Fertility Societies, both attach little importance to differences between older (second generation) combined OC and newer ones (third generation). This paper is a synthesis of all published evidence since October 1995, at the time of the pill scare and in the 3 years since. In conclusion, all combined oral contraceptive pills are equally safe.

  7. Putting teenagers on the pill: The consequences of subsidized contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of a series of Swedish policy changes beginning in 1989 where different regions started subsidizing the birth control pill. The reforms were significant and applied to all types of oral contraceptives. My identification strategy takes advantage of the fact that the reforms were implemented successively over time and targeted specific cohorts of young women, in particular teenagers. This generates plausibly exogenous variation in access to the subsidy. ...

  8. Zuogui pills for myelinolysis in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongping Fan; Kelong Chen; Kangning Li; Jianping Zhou; Yan Shao; Hongyan Liu; Wenjing Yang

    2011-01-01

    Zuogui pills have been shown to attenuate the inflammatory reaction in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The present study attempted to investigate the pathology underlying the influence of Zuogui pills on myelinolysis in EAE rats. Hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining showed that the myelinolysis foci in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and the spinal cord of EAE rats were significantly decreased, along with serum myelin basic protein content following treatment with Zuogui pills.

  9. Knowledge and attitude towards the use of emergency contraceptive pills among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash R. Shelat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency contraception is applied to prevent pregnancy after 72-120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse. Emergency contraceptive (EC pill is used to reduce unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. EC pill is available as OTC in India since 2005. As EC pill highly used among adolescents we carried out to this study among college students. Methods: The study was conducted among female college students. A pre-validated questionnaire was used as tool for the study. It contains consent form and questions knowledge and attitude regarding EC pill. Results: We divided students into group A (medical, paramedical and pharmacy colleges and group B (nonmedical colleges like science, arts and engineering. In group A 470 and group B 280 students were participated. Knowledge about appropriate time of taking EC pill (within 72 hours after sexual intercourse was 44% in group A which is significant than 15% in group B. Knowledge about brand name, availability cost and side effects were more in group A than group B. Electronic media was the most common source of information mentioned by both the groups. Attitude regarding advice to use of EC pill to other was more in group A than group B. Conclusions: Knowledge about use of EC pill was higher in group A than group B. Attitude was not positive regarding availability of EC pill as OTC. So education about EC pill among young population is necessary. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 77-84

  10. THE IDENTIFICATION OF PILL USING FEATURE EXTRACTION IN IMAGE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hema

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the help of image mining techniques, an automatic pill identification system was investigated in this study for matching the images of the pills based on its several features like imprint, color, size and shape. Image mining is an inter-disciplinary task requiring expertise from various fields such as computer vision, image retrieval, image matching and pattern recognition. Image mining is the method in which the unusual patterns are detected so that both hidden and useful data images can only be stored in large database. It involves two different approaches for image matching. This research presents a drug identification, registration, detection and matching, Text, color and shape extraction of the image with image mining concept to identify the legal and illegal pills with more accuracy. Initially, the preprocessing process is carried out using novel interpolation algorithm. The main aim of this interpolation algorithm is to reduce the artifacts, blurring and jagged edges introduced during up-sampling. Then the registration process is proposed with two modules they are, feature extraction and corner detection. In feature extraction the noisy high frequency edges are discarded and relevant high frequency edges are selected. The corner detection approach detects the high frequency pixels in the intersection points. Through the overall performance gets improved. There is a need of segregate the dataset into groups based on the query image’s size, shape, color, text, etc. That process of segregating required information is called as feature extraction. The feature extraction is done using Geometrical Gradient feature transformation. Finally, color and shape feature extraction were performed using color histogram and geometrical gradient vector. Simulation results shows that the proposed techniques provide accurate retrieval results both in terms of time and accuracy when compared to conventional approaches.

  11. Platelet function studies in women on oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, R; Mohamed, A B; Hassan, K

    1990-06-01

    A study was conducted on a total of 100 women attending the Family Planning Clinic in Kuala Lumpur. 50 took combined low-dose estrogen and progesterone pills for a year or more and the other 50 used different methods of birth control. Platelet aggregation, ATP release, Thromboxane B2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha estimations were made to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptives (OCs) on platelet function and prostanoid production. The results showed no significant differences in the parameters measured in the 2 groups investigated. These findings are comparable to those reported by other studies, suggesting relatively low risk, if any, of thrombosis in OC users.

  12. Oral contraceptive pills: considerations for the adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, P F; Daley, A M

    2000-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are the most commonly prescribed method of birth control for adolescents. This article presents an overview of OCP pharmacology and summarizes the different types of OCPs. The initial patient evaluation and subsequent care are described, with a focus on management plans specific to adolescents. Emergency contraception, an alternative use of OCPs, is described as well. A thorough knowledge of OCPs and an appreciation of adolescent-specific management plans will enhance nurse practitioners' skills in preventing pregnancy in their adolescent patients.

  13. Pioneering Studies of the “Morning-After” Pill

    OpenAIRE

    Kunjappu, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Yale School of Medicine produced the first proof-of-concept study on the viability of a “morning-after” pill for human use. This study was a result of a fruitful collaboration between a pair of Yale scientists, Drs. John M. Morris and Gertrude van Wagenen, who sought a non-abortion, post-coital contraceptive. They tested a variety of hormones, hormone-based synthetic drugs, and other compounds in monkeys in an effort to uncover a compound that was non-toxic but highly effective. Unfortunately...

  14. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the Oral Contraceptive Pill and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N Allan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes our current knowledge of the role of the oral contraceptive pill in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBO, followed by a review of fertility in women and men. IBD and pregnancy, including the impact on the fetus and the mother with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, is considered. The safety of drug treatment during pregnancy, the outcome of surgical treatment during pregnancy and the problems that may be encountered during pregnancy in patients with an ileostomy or ileo-anal pouch are discussed, followed by a review of the short and long term prognosis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease partition.

  15. Toward a Constitutional Review of the Poison Pill

    OpenAIRE

    Bebchuk, Lucian Arye; Jackson, Robert J. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the state-law rules governing poison pills are vulnerable to challenges based on preemption by the Williams Act. Such challenges, we show, could well have a major impact on the corporate-law landscape. The Williams Act established a federal regime regulating unsolicited tender offers, but states subsequently developed a body of state antitakeover laws that impose additional impediments to such offers. In a series of well-known cases during the 1970s and 1980s, the federal c...

  16. Wine, alcohol and pills: What future for the French paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Marco; Bertelli, Alberto A E

    2015-06-15

    The present review discusses the acquisitions obtained to date on the subject of wine consumption, health and cardiovascular protection. We distinguished the cardiovascular effects related to the consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages focusing on non-alcoholic wine fraction: polyphenols and especially resveratrol. In the second part of the review we have addressed the issue of resveratrol bioavailability and the importance of wine matrix and phytocomplex highlighting the biological effects that can be obtained with nutraceuticals and resveratrol pills compared to the daily consumption of a glass of red wine.

  17. The birth control pill, thromboembolic disease, science and the media: a historical review of the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, Elyse; Fairchild, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public?

  18. Sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe - Tallinna töö- ja toidukultuuri looja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Omanimelise arhitektuuribüroo omanik sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe oma elust ja tööst, isast sisearhitekt Väino Tammest. Eesti Kunstiakadeemias õpib sisearhitektuuri ka Pille poeg Ville Lausmäe ja töötab ema büroos. Pillet iseloomustavad Priit Põldme, Riina Sildots, Rein Tallermo, Mari Kaljuste

  19. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...

  20. Sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe - Tallinna töö- ja toidukultuuri looja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Omanimelise arhitektuuribüroo omanik sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe oma elust ja tööst, isast sisearhitekt Väino Tammest. Eesti Kunstiakadeemias õpib sisearhitektuuri ka Pille poeg Ville Lausmäe ja töötab ema büroos. Pillet iseloomustavad Priit Põldme, Riina Sildots, Rein Tallermo, Mari Kaljuste

  1. Kino Kosmos Imax = Kosmos Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe ; kommenteerinud Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45. 1964. aastal valminud hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi. Renoveeritud interjööri autorid Pille Lausmäe, Kerli Lepp (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuri büroo). Projekti autorid Urmas Lõoke, Riina Poopuu (Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo)

  2. Kino Kosmos Imax = Kosmos Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe ; kommenteerinud Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45. 1964. aastal valminud hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi. Renoveeritud interjööri autorid Pille Lausmäe, Kerli Lepp (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuri büroo). Projekti autorid Urmas Lõoke, Riina Poopuu (Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo)

  3. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p PILL versus PLA, but glucose was greater in PILL versus PLA (p PILL versus PLA (p PILL phase reduces glucose and lactate responses to hypoxic exercise.

  4. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu režiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist, Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  5. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu režiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist, Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  6. Medicolegal file. Tell everything you know about birth control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelaar, P G

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a case in Quebec in 1976 concerning the alleged failure of the doctor to divulge everything he knew about the use of birth control pills to the patient. Nearly every oral contraceptive monograph in the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties contains a statement that the pill should be stopped for a month before a major elective surgery. This information was available to the doctor, but evidence revealed he did not pass it on to the patient. The judge found that the doctor had failed to meet the standard required of him when did not advise the patient about this warning. The doctrine of informed consent requires that patients be given all the reasonable information a person would want in order to decide on a course of action. The case did not raise new issues of law, but should serve to raise awareness of the need to inform patients fully not only about the specific procedures patients would undergo but also about the effects that coexist with the conditions or medications.

  7. Lipid profile of women using oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, F; Jyoti, S; Akhtar, N; Afzal, M; Siddique, Y H

    2012-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most popular type of birth control pills. The study was designed to examine the biochemical changes which occur due to the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs). The study was based on the questionnaire for having the information of any reproductive history fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding, disease etc and blood profiling for biochemical analysis of the women includes high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Lipid profiling was carried out by using a commercially available diagnostic test kits. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The results showed statistically significant differences among users of OCs compared to non-users. Total cholesterol (242.92 +/- 2.842 mg dL(-1)), HDL-C (58.65 +/- 1.098 mg dL(-1)), LDL-C (115.84 +/- 1.266 mg dL(-1)) and triglycerides (105.56 +/- 2.341 mg dL(-1)) were significantly higher compared to the non-users (Total cholesterol 218.49 +/- 1.762, HDL-C 48.17 +/- 0.543, LDL-C 100.321 +/- 0.951 and triglycerides 83.77 +/- 2.299 mg dL(-1)). The result suggests that OCs increase the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG).

  8. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  9. Cloxacillin: A New Cause of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Zezos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of medications can cause pill-induced esophagitis. Herein we present a case of cloxacillin-induced esophagitis. A 66-year-old male presented with an acute onset of epigastric and retrosternal pain on the 5th day of a course of oral cloxacillin prescribed for erysipelas. Initial clinical and imaging assessment was negative and he was sent home. A few days later, he returned with persistent severe retrosternal pain; endoscopy at the same day revealed a normal upper esophagus, several small stellate erosions in the midesophagus, and a normal squamocolumnar junction with a small hiatus hernia. Treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg bid and MucaineR suspension resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms. Pill-induced esophagitis may be underreported by patients, when symptoms are mild and unrecognized and/or underdiagnosed by the clinicians as a cause of retrosternal pain, odynophagia, or dysphagia. Failure of early recognition may result in unnecessary diagnostic investigations and prolongation of the patient’s discomfort. This case signifies the importance of enhancing clinician awareness for drug-associated esophageal injury when assessing patients with retrosternal pain, as well as the value of prophylaxis against this unpleasant condition by universally recommending drinking enough water in an upright position during ingestion of any oral medication.

  10. Treatment of hirsutism with combined pill containing drospirenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoriou, Odisseas; Papadias, Kostantinos; Konidaris, Sokratis; Bakalianou, Kostantina; Salakos, Nikolaos; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Creatsas, George

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical and clinical effects of the combined pill consisting of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and drospirenone (DRSP) in hirsute patients. Fifty-two adolescents or young women from Greece were treated with 30 mug EE and 3 mg DRSP for 1 year. Hirsutism was evaluated by the Ferriman-Gallway (FG) score in the initial visit and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, etradiol, free and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were determined at the same intervals. Hirsutism improved and FG scores reduced to 77.4%, 67.2% and 51.8% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Plasma SHBG levels rose, while free and total T levels reduced from the third month onwards. In conclusion, the EE/DRSP pill improves hirsutism in women via antiandrogenic and antimineralocorticoid action. The biochemical manifestations of hyperandrogenism are also improved.

  11. Vanha koira ei opi uusia temppuja / Lasse Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi liige Eesti ja Soome välispoliitika erinevustest Venemaa suhtes. Autor tsiteerib katkendeid artiklist: Ilves, Toomas Hendrik. Meloslaisia muistellen. Kanava, 2008, nr. 8, lk. 640-646

  12. Oral Contraceptive Pill Alters Acute Dietary Protein-Induced Thermogenesis in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhita, Maharani Retna; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    There is much interest in the role of dietary protein for weight control. However, there remains a need to characterize individual determinants of the thermogenic effects of protein. This study aimed to investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the combined, monophasic oral contraceptive pill on the thermogenic response to a standardized high-protein (HP) versus normal-protein (NP) meal. Following an overnight fast, resting energy expenditure (EE) was measured in 16 healthy young women (8 taking and 8 not taking the pill) and 8 men for 30 minutes pre ingestion and 3 hours post ingestion of a NP (11%) or HP (24%) meal. There was no effect of menstrual phase or contraceptive pill use on fasting EE or NP response. However, HP increased EE significantly more than NP in women not taking the oral contraceptive pill and in men, but not in women taking the pill. This study shows an absence of the greater thermic effect of HP versus NP in women taking the oral contraceptive pill and has important implications regarding the effectiveness of HP for body weight regulation in women. With current obesity treatment/prevention strategies remaining largely ineffective, understanding the relationship between oral contraceptive pill use and protein-induced thermogenesis may enable the successful recalibration of existing dietary recommendations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  13. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pallavee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between oral contraceptive (OC pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  14. [Literature review of post-marketing clinical evaluation of Xiaoke pill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The literatures of clinical application showed that Xiaoke pill has exact effect on type 2 diabetes. Because Xiaoke pills contain glyburide, most adverse reactions are resulted from inappropriate use. Clinical scientific and medical treatment can be guided by strengthening the mission, improving the instructions of medicines, improving pharmaceutical production technology, strengthening clinical research to further explore the relationship between blood glucose levels and dose, and clearing indications and contraindications. These also can improve security together with the good economy, and will benefit the sustainable development of Xiaoke pill.

  15. Muljeid ja mõtteid kristliku kasvatuse suurfoorumilt / Pille Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valk, Pille, 1959-2009

    2001-01-01

    7.-13.05.2001 toimus Itaalias Santa Severas järjekordne Euroopa Kristliku Kasvatuse Konverents - ECCE 2001. ECCE on Euroopa suurim kristliku kasvatuse temaatikale pühendatud oikumeeniline foorum. Eestit esindasid pedagoogikamagistrid Lii Lilleoja ja Einike Pilli ning religioonipedagoogika doktorant Pille Valk. Osavõtjaid oli 19 riigist. Konverentsi üldteema oli "Läbi lapse silmade", mida lahati kolmest vaatenurgast : lapse spiritualiteet ning selle eripära ja areng, lapsed perekonnas ja ühiskonnas, lapsed Jeesuse silme läbi. Loengutest ning rühmatöödest. Konverentsi peaesineja oli dr David Hay, Oxfordi ülikooli zooloogia professor ja Usulise Kogemuse Uurimiskeskuse direktor, kes on juhtinud Nottinghami ülikooli juures lapse spiritualiteedi uurimise projekti

  16. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind.

  17. Mainstreaming of emergency contraception pill in India: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anvita; Khan, M E; Bhatnagar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP) is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP's easy access for potential users from (i) a cross-sectional survey of providers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii) three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii) evidence from scientific literature. The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users) including influential gynecologists. For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW).

  18. Mainstreaming of emergency contraception pill in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvita Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. Materials and Methods: This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP′s easy access for potential users from (i a cross-sectional survey of providers′ attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii evidence from scientific literature. Results: The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users including influential gynecologists. Conclusion: For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW.

  19. O gênero Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo (Araneae, Nesticidae no Brasil The genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo (Araneae, Nesticidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Nesticella é registrado pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Duas espécies novas são descritas e ilustradas: Nesticella murici sp. nov. da Bahia, Alagoas e Sergipe, com base em espécimes de ambos os sexos, e Nesticella ducke sp. nov. do Amazonas, conhecida apenas pela fêmea.The genus Nesticella is recorded for the first time from Brazil. Two new species are described and illustrated: Nesticella murici sp. nov. from Bahia, Alagoas and Sergipe, based on males and female and Nesticella ducke sp. nov. from Amazonas, on a female.

  20. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Dispensing Practices, Knowledge and Attitudes of South Dakota Pharmacists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristi K. Van Riper; Wendy L. Hellerstedt

    2005-01-01

    ..., especially in areas with large rural populations. Pharmacists' knowledge about and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills may affect whether pharmacies carry the medication and whether individual pharmacists dispense it. Methods...

  1. Foreign body ingestion of blister pill pack causing small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Angela W; Sodickson, Aaron

    2007-06-01

    We report a case of foreign body ingestion of a blister pill pack, causing small bowel obstruction. A 76-year-old woman on multiple medications presented with 3 days of progressive abdominal distention, nausea, and vomiting. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated small bowel obstruction with a distinctive metallic foreign body in the distal ileum with associated wall thickening and mesenteric inflammatory changes. At exploratory laparotomy, an impacted, intact blister pill pack was removed from the distal ileum. The ingestion of blister pill packs has been associated with a range of clinical and imaging findings. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of CT diagnosis of small bowel obstruction caused by blister pack ingestion. Early recognition of the imaging findings of an ingested blister pill pack is important to expedite appropriate management.

  2. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p exercise (p exercise.

  3. A new estradiol-dienogest oral contraceptive marks "The Pill's" 50th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keder, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration 50 years ago. Discovery of the physiology of reproduction and demonstration of the ability to inhibit ovulation with ovarian extracts laid the early groundwork for the development of contraceptives. Later, characterization of the hormones controlling ovulation and synthesis of progestins allowed production of oral contraceptives. Modern estrogen and progestin pills have undergone significant changes since their initial introduction. New formulations have been developed, doses have been lowered, and extended use introduced. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved a new oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest. This pill contains an orally active estradiol in combination with a progestin with strong endometrial activity. The decreasing estrogen dose combined with an increasing progestin dose decreases the risk of break through bleeding when compared to previous estradiol valerate formulations. The contraceptive efficacy and a tolerability of this new pill are similar to currently marketed low dose combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives.

  4. Relative Weight, Smoking and Contraceptive Pills: Interrelations to Blood Pressure in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Aapo; Perasalo, Juhani

    1982-01-01

    The relationships among weight, cigarette smoking, use of contraceptive pills, and blood pressure were investigated in over 1,500 college students who underwent physical examinations in their first and third academic years. Results of the study are discussed. (PP)

  5. Tallinna lasteaiad arenevad / Imbi Viisma, Anne Targem, Marika Pettai, Pille Kibur...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna lasteaianduse hetkeseisu arutasid vestlusringis linna haridusameti alushariduse peaspetsialist Imbi Viisma, vanemspetsialistid Anne Targem ja Marika Pettai, Tallinna Mahtra Lasteaia juhataja Pille Kibur ning Kadrioru Lasteaia juhataja Larissa Kot℗تatova / vahendas Anu Mõttus.

  6. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially th...

  7. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran G Piparva; Buch, Jatin G.

    2011-01-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially th...

  8. PillCam ESO versus esophagogastroduodenoscopy in esophageal variceal screening: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher M; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2009-01-01

    PillCam ESO has been evaluated as a possible strategy to screen patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices, but current guidelines recommend patients undergo screening with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), as it is currently the gold standard. Although recent data have suggested that PillCam ESO may be an acceptable alternative for screening, there is limited data on its cost-effectiveness compared with other screening modalities. This study was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of PillCam ESO versus EGD for esophageal variceal screening. Markov models were constructed to compare 2 screening strategies: PillCam ESO versus EGD. In each arm, patients were followed for a time horizon of 15 years in 1-year transition intervals. All variables, transition probabilities, and costs were derived from the medical literature, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the different variables in the model. Base-case analysis shows that PillCam ESO is associated with an average expected cost of $22,589 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.81 life-years. EGD is associated with an average expected cost of $23,083 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.67 life-years. PillCam ESO was found to dominate EGD as a screening strategy for patients with cirrhosis. Sensitivity analyses found several variables within the model to have influential effects on the results. PillCam ESO is the dominant strategy for screening patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices. However, based on a small difference in costs and effectiveness between each strategy, the results would suggest that PillCam ESO and EGD are essentially equivalent strategies.

  9. Strategies to improve compliance among oral contraceptive pill users: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Choi A; Dempsey A

    2014-01-01

    Angela Choi, Angela DempseyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) remain the most commonly used reversible birth control method. Failure to adhere to daily pill taking and gaps in use are common and contribute to the risk of unintended pregnancy among OCP users. OCP compliance is influenced by a complex interplay of cognitive, behavioral, logistic, clinical, and social factors. This review out...

  10. Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Binesh; Ali Akhavan; Azar Pirdehghan; Mahnoosh Davoodi

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopa...

  11. Omitting the first oral contraceptive pills of the cycle does not automatically lead to ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, K; Rolland, R; Brosens, I; Moorrees, M; Deprest, J; Tuominen, J; Lähteenmäki, P

    1998-07-01

    The hypothesis that omission of the first three pills of the oral contraceptive (OC) cycle leads to ovulation by extending further the pill-free period was investigated in 107 healthy women 18-35 years of age recruited from family planning programs in Finland, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Study participants were randomly allocated to one of the following treatment groups: 1) monophasic gestodene--75 mcg of gestodene and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol; 2) triphasic gestodene--6 days of 50 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol, 5 days of 70 mcg gestodene and 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol, and 10 days of 100 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol; or 3) monophasic desogestrel--150 mcg desogestrel and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol. Noncompliance with OC taking was simulated by extending the pill-free period from 7 to 10 days. During or after the extended pill-free interval, follicular growth exceeding 18 mm occurred in 24% of women in the monophasic gestodene group, 24% in the triphasic gestodene group, and 40% in the monophasic desogestrel group. Follicle-stimulating hormone reached a maximum serum concentration in most women during the first 7 pill-free days, indicating complete pituitary recovery. No normal ovulation was observed after either a 7- or 10-day pill-free period as evaluated by ultrasonography of follicles and serum progesterone assays. Since normal ovulation did not occur when pill omissions were limited to 3 days, OC users who forget to take these three tablets can be safely advised to start the pill cycle on day 11.

  12. Pill formulations and their effect on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P G

    1984-07-01

    Recent data on oral contraceptives (OCs) employing new low-dose formulations appear to indicate that most of the previously reported metabolic effects are minimized, particularly when a product is neigher ovverly estrogenic nor progestational. Evidence suggests that elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the plasma are correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic students have indicated a correlation between elevation of low denisty lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and coronary heart disease, and a correlation between decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and arterial disease. Epidemiologic evidence seems to suggest that combination OCs are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, especially risks of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. There is some debate as to whether OCs themselves are an independent risk factor or whether they increase the effects of other risk factors. Women using combination OCs have been reported to have higher total serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, related primarily to the estrogen dose. While most of the earlier literature associated estrogens with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, recent studies have increasingly implicated the progestin component. Increasing potencies of progestin have been found to proportionally lower the HDL-cholesterol level. There is a positive association between the estrogen dose and HDL-cholesterol level. Among combination pill users, HDL levels gevverally depend on the relative amounts and potencies of both components. It is generally agreed that there are some high-risk women who should be carefully monitored while using the pill or who should not use it at all. Steroid type and dosage both play a role in affecting carbohydrate metabolism. Ethinyl estradiol (EE), the estrogen component in most OCs, does not seem to have the same biphasic effect on carbohydrate metaolism as most other estrogens. Most of the recent

  13. Impact of Decontamination Therapy on Ultrasound Visualization of Ingested Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bothwell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute toxic ingestion is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians (EP caring for overdose (OD patients are often required to make critical decisions with incomplete information. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS may have a role in assisting EPs manage OD patients. We evaluated the impact of different liquid adjuncts used for gastric decontamination on examiners’ ability to identify the presence of tablets using POCUS, and assessed examiners’ ability to quantify the numbers of tablets in a simulated massive OD. Methods: This prospective, blinded, pilot study was performed at an academic emergency department. Study participants were volunteer resident and staff EPs trained in POCUS. Five non-transparent, sealed bags were prepared with the following contents: 1 liter (L of water, 1 L of water with 50 regular aspirin (ASA tablets, 1 L of water with 50 enteric-coated aspirin tablets (ECA, 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG with 50 ECA, and 1 L of activated charcoal (AC with 50 ECA. After performing POCUS on each of the bags using a 10-5 MHz linear array transducer, participants completed a standardized questionnaire composed of the following questions: (1 Were pills present? YES/NO; (2 If tablets were identified, estimate the number (1-10, 11-25, >25. We used a single test on proportions using the binomial distribution to determine if the number of EPs who identified tablets differed from 50% chance. For those tablets identified in the different solutions, another test on proportions was used to determine whether the type of solution made a difference. Since 3 options were available, we used a probability of 33.3%. Results: Thirty-seven EPs completed the study. All (37/37 EP’s correctly identified the absence of tablets in the bag containing only water, and the presence of ECA in the bags containing water and PEG. For Part 2 of the study, most participants - 25/37 (67.5% using water, 23/37 (62.1% using PEG, and

  14. Early History of Oral Contraceptive Pill in Finland: The Diffusion of the New Contraceptive and Fertility Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Pasila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s is often characterized as a decade of outstanding social and demographic changes in Western societies. The introduction of the contraceptive pill is assumed to have contributed to these changes. Yet the social as well as the demographic significance of the pill is ambiguous. This article has two aims: 1 to describe the early history of the pill in Finland in the 1960s and in the early 1970s and 2 to explore relationships between fertility and the pill. Surveys, pharmaceutical market data, and estimations are used to depict the diffusion of the pill. Based on calculated user percentages, the pill was adopted neither instantly nor extremely widely in Finland during the period under study. The results show that the diffusion coincided with fertility decline and other changes in fertility patterns. However, a causal connection of any kind cannot be established due to a lack of sufficient data.

  15. Japanese government takes steps toward approving birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-27

    On September 12, 1995, the Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council of Japan recommended approval of low-dose oral contraceptives as a method of family planning. Doctors should be able to prescribe the pills after the standing members of the Council, part of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, meet next March. High-dose oral contraceptives can be obtained currently to treat menstrual irregularities, although many of the 200,000 prescriptions written annually are used for family planning. Approval for the low-dose contraceptives has been slow because of concerns regarding a possible relaxation of sexual mores (1965); adverse side effects (until 1987 when the Japanese Ministry of Health initiated clinical trials that established the safety and efficacy of the contraceptives); increased rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1992); a higher number of drug reimbursement claims under the national health insurance system; and a decline in Japan's birthrate. Japan's birthrate fell from 4.5 children per woman in 1947 to 1.5 in 1993. 80% of contraceptive users rely on condom; 22% use the rhythm method, usually in conjunction with the condom; 7% use the IUD; and less than 2% use sterilization. Sterilization is only permitted for married couples and only when the woman's life or health is in danger, or either spouse has a mental illness, leprosy, or a hereditary disorder.

  16. Gastroretentive Accordion Pill: Enhancement of riboflavin bioavailability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Leonid; Lapidot, Noa; Afargan, Michel; Kirmayer, David; Moor, Eytan; Mardor, Yael; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2006-07-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Accordion Pill (AP), a novel controlled release gastroretentive unfolding dosage form (DF), to increase the bioavailability of riboflavin (RF) in humans. Three formulations containing 75 mg of RF and differing in release rate (immediate release (IR) capsule, AP#1, and AP#2) were administered with a low-calorie meal. Gastric residence time (GRT) of the AP was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Serial blood and urine samples were taken and assayed for RF. The AP demonstrated prolonged (up to 10.5 h) GRT in humans. Significant elevation in RF bioavailability (209+/-37%, mean+/-S.E.) was achieved by the AP#1 in comparison to the IR capsule. A correlation was established between the in-vitro release rates from DF and bioavailability of RF in humans, and it was modeled taking into account the saturable nature of RF absorption transport and its narrow absorption window (NAW) in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. It is anticipated that the AP will provide a valuable pharmaceutical solution to enhance therapy with NAW drugs.

  17. [Impact of media alerts on contraceptive pills medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi-Gaudin, S; Deffieux, X; Davitian, C; Guerre, N; Faucher, P; Bacle, F; Teboul, M; Larmignat, P; Hatchuel, M; Benachi, A

    2015-09-01

    The end of 2012 was marked by some media alerts regarding combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) and lawsuit against pharmaceutical companies selling these birth control pills. In this study, we analyzed whether these information had an impact on the number of abortion. Prospective study determining the number of women asking for abortion and who spontaneously declare that the contraception defect was due to an abandon of their oral contraception as they were scared of some information they received from media about the medication. Eleven centers out of 16 did participate to the study, allowing the study of 2300 abortion during this time frame. Ninety-eight of these pregnancies (4.2%) were due to an interruption of the contraceptive treatment as a consequence of media alerts. Average age was 26 years old. Within these pregnancies, 4 (6%) started in December 2012, 3 months after the beginning of the alerts, 11 (16%) in January, 24 (36%) in February and 18 (27%) in March 2013 (4-6 months later). In 7 cases (10%) CHC stopped by fear of information reported by media were of 2nd generation, in 17 cases (25%) of 3rd generation, in 32 cases (48%) of 4th generation and microprogestative in 2 cases (3%). Women who declared that they stopped their birth control medication by fear of information reported in media, represented 4% of the number of abortions performed between 2013 February 18th and 2013 April 30th. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Sequential contraceptive pills in the immediate postabortion period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, P; Viala, J L

    1982-05-01

    2637 abortions were done during 1980 at the Bionne Orthogenic Center in Montpellier, France. 12.83% of women treated were not using contraception at the time of conception; 61.89% had been using OC (oral contraception); reasons for not using contraception were lack of information, negligence, 1st sexual relation, and fear. 8.9% of women had undergone a previous induced abortion; 47.26% were unmarried, 35.52% were married, and 52.12% had no children. A sequential combination pill, 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol for 7 days, and 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 2.5 mg of lynestrenol for the next 15 days, was prescribed beginning the day after abortion for 2320 women, or 88% of the total. Purpose of this treatment was to prevent hemorrhage, the formation of synechiae, and to favor an early return to normal endometrial physiology. Sequential OCs have the advantage of simulating a regular biphasic cycle, thus allowing the cicatrization of the placental scar, the return to normal of the uterine mucosa, and the hypervascularization of the endometrium; all these factors contribute to decreasing the risk of infection, such as endometritis. Effectiveness and acceptability of this method were excellent. After 3 months of this treatment a more specific type of contraception may be advisable.

  19. The post-coital pills as over the counter drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbir Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-coital pill or emergency contraceptives are birth control measures that, if taken after sexual intercourse, may prevent pregnancy. High dose of postcoital contraceptives like diethylstilbestrol & other estrogens were being used for some time without any approval by FDA. Task force on postovulatory methods of fertility regulations 1998, conducted clinical trials leading to approval of two preparations for postcoital contraception by FDA namely levonorgestrel 0.75mg & combination of 0.25 levonorgestrel & 0.05 mg of ethinyl estradiol. Levonorgestrel is more popular in India because it is more effective & has fewer side effects. The first dose of levonorgestrel 0.75mg should be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse followed by a second dose after 12 hours. This treatment reduces the risk of pregnancy by approximately 75%. Oral levonorgestrel acts as an emergency contraceptive principally by preventing ovulation or fertilization by altering tubal transport of sperm and/or ova. In addition, it may inhibit implantation by altering the endometrium. It is not effective once the process of implantation has begun. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 227-228

  20. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: pill scares and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing surveillance of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for rare complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) presents unique challenges. Prospective studies, which are costly and time consuming, have to date been undertaken by only a few contraceptive manufacturers willing to commit to full evaluation of product safety. Often such studies are conducted with the approval of regulatory authorities as a precondition for marketing. Alternatively, independent investigators with access to large databases have conducted retrospective studies to compare the incidence of VTE between new and older products. Such studies, however, run the risk of erroneous conclusions if they cannot ensure comparable risk profiles for users of these different products. Often database studies are unable to access information on important confounders, and medical records may not be available to validate the actual diagnosis of VTE. "Pill scares" generated following publication and media dissemination of worrisome findings, when the conclusions are in doubt and not corroborated by stronger prospective study designs, are frequently damaging to public health. From a review of recent publications on the VTE risk with drospirenone-containing COCs, it can be concluded that the best quality evidence does not support a difference in risk between users of COCs containing drospirenone and those of COCs containing levonorgestrel.

  1. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

    2010-01-01

    .... This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills...

  2. Effect of educational leaflets and questions on knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Griffin, S; Kelly, J; Dickson, N; Sadler, C

    1998-06-27

    To assess whether provision of educational leaflets or questions on contraception improves knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill. Randomisation of women into three groups according to type of educational leaflet on contraceptive information. These groups were subdivided into two on the basis of questions on contraception asked by the doctor or practice nurse. The women were followed up by postal questionnaire 3 months later. 15 general practices in South and West region. 636 women attending check up appointment for repeat prescription of the combined contraceptive pill. Knowledge of: factors causing pill failure, subsequent action, emergency contraception, and all the rules (pill rules) that apply to the contraceptive pill. 523 women returned completed questionnaires (response rate 82%). Knowledge of contraception with no intervention was low with only 10 (12%) women knowing all the pill rules. Educational intervention had a highly significant effect on knowledge of: factors causing pill failure (likelihood ratio chi2=22); subsequent action (21); emergency contraception (24); and all the pill rules (22) (PWomen attending check ups for repeat prescriptions of the contraceptive pill should be provided with educational leaflets on contraception or asked relevant questions to help improve their knowledge of contraception. Asking questions in addition to providing a summary leaflet is time consuming, but results in the most knowledge gained.

  3. Effect of education and pill count on hemoglobin status during prenatal care in Nepalese women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kamala; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Pradhan, Neelam

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effect of an education program and/or pill count on the change in hemoglobin levels and the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women. A randomized, factorial design controlled trial was conducted at the Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 320 eligible pregnant women receiving prenatal care were randomized into four groups (control, education, pill count and education with pill count) by block randomization with allocation concealment. All recruited women received conventional routine prenatal care with a daily dose of 60 mg iron supplementation. In addition, the education group received an education program. Pill counting was done for the pill count group at their routine prenatal visits. The education with pill count group received both the education program plus pill counting. Baseline hemoglobin at the recruitment phase and follow-up hemoglobin after three months of recruitment were measured. Changes in hemoglobin levels and anemia prevalence were analyzed and compared between groups. The education only and education with pill count groups had significantly higher hemoglobin changes (0.23 and 0.26 g/dL, respectively) than the control group (P control group (P control group. An education program along with routine iron supplementation can improve hemoglobin levels and reduce anemia prevalence in pregnant women. Pill count as a measure of compliance has no additional effect on improving hemoglobin status.

  4. Individual patient data meta-analysis of combined treatments versus psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for adult depression: a protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Erica; Kleiboer, Annet; van Straten, Annemieke; Hollon, Steven D; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There are many proven treatments (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or their combination) for the treatment of depression. Although there is growing evidence for the effectiveness of combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) over pharmacotherapy alone, psychotherapy alone or psychotherapy plus pill placebo, for depression, little is known about which specific groups of patients may respond best to combined treatment versus monotherapy. Conventional meta-analyses techniques have limitations when tasked with examining whether specific individual characteristics moderate the effect of treatment on depression. Therefore, this protocol outlines an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to explore which patients, with which clinical characteristics, have better outcomes in combined treatment compared with psychotherapy (alone or with pill placebo), pharmacotherapy and pill placebo. Methods and Analysis Study searches are completed using an established database of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the psychological treatment of adult depression that has previously been reported. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. RCTs comparing combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) with psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for the treatment of adult depression will be included. Study authors of eligible trials will be contacted and asked to contribute IPD. Conventional meta-analysis techniques will be used to examine differences between studies that have contributed data and those that did not. Then, IPD will be harmonised and analysis using multilevel regression will be conducted to examine effect moderators of treatment outcomes. Dissemination Study results outlined above will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Study results will contribute to better understanding whether certain patients respond best to combined

  5. The effects of gender and birth control pill use on spontaneous blink rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolton, D P; Yolton, R L; López, R; Bogner, B; Stevens, R; Rao, D

    1994-11-01

    Two major reference works suggest that men and women blink spontaneously at different rates, but they disagree with regard to which gender blinks faster. Spontaneous blink rates of 59 males and 86 females, 44 of whom were taking birth control (BC) pills, were measured for 5 consecutive minutes. Schirmer test results and tear break-up times (TBUTs) were also obtained. Females taking BC pills blinked at a mean rate of 19.6 times per minute, females not taking birth control pills blinked 14.9 times per minute, and males blinked 14.5 times per minute. There were very large differences between blink rates for individuals in each of the groups. No strong associations were found between spontaneous blink rates and a history of contact lens use, tear break-up time, Schirmer test results, temperature or humidity in the examination room, subject age, or menstrual cycle phase. The 32 percent increase in mean blink rate for females taking BC pills suggests that the pills affect at least one of the mechanisms that control spontaneous blinking, but it is unclear how they accomplish this.

  6. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  7. The use of birth control pills in women with medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decherney, A H

    1981-09-01

    Since little absolute data exist in the form of large prospective studies in patients with specific illnesses who are on oral contraceptives, the clinician must rely on well-founded empiric decisions in prescribing the pill for these patients. The decision should be based on a firm understanding of the pathophysiology and laboratory effects of the oral contraceptives. This must be juxtaposed with an understanding of the efficacy and effects of the estrogen and progestational components of the birth control pill and their interactions with maintenance medications. In the final analysis, though, the clinician must rely on a trial and error method in treating these patients. It must be stressed, however, that these women require careful monitoring, both clinically and biochemically. It is comforting to note that in all diseases studied to date, the use of birth control pills has not precipitated a catastrophic change.

  8. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (pDragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  9. Autopsy report on pseudo-Bartter syndrome with renal calcification induced by diuretics and diet pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuma, Kana; Tojo, Akihiro; Harada, Kazuki; Saka, Kanju; Nakajima, Makoto; Ishii, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    A woman in her mid-forties had repeated vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied by muscle weakness soon after she started taking seven different diet pills imported from Thailand. After she had taken the pills for 8 days, respiratory depression progressed rapidly to arrest. Blood tests at the Emergency Department showed severe hypokalaemia with metabolic alkalosis. We diagnosed that she had developed pseudo-Bartter syndrome from the findings based on ionic abnormalities and high renin and aldosterone levels, and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. A postmortem blood analysis indicated subtherapeutic levels of furosemide. We concluded that the patient died from pseudo-Bartter syndrome, which was triggered by chronic self-administration of furosemide and aggravated by the diet pills. This is the first pseudo-Bartter syndrome autopsy report to show histological localisation of calcification in the kidneys. PMID:21686346

  10. Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldi, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors' fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors' access to abortion and minors' birth rates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment-including abortion-in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor's legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women's birth rates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birth rates among whites.

  11. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-08-09

    To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women's desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.

  12. Phosphate binder pill burden, patient-reported non-adherence, and mineral bone disorder markers: Findings from the DOPPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissell, Rachel B; Karaboyas, Angelo; Bieber, Brian A; Sen, Ananda; Li, Yun; Lopes, Antonio A; Akiba, Takashi; Bommer, Jürgen; Ethier, Jean; Jadoul, Michel; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Tentori, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Because of multiple comorbidities, hemodialysis (HD) patients are prescribed many oral medications, including phosphate binders (PBs), often resulting in a high "pill burden." Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), we assessed associations between PB pill burden, patient-reported PB non-adherence, and levels of serum phosphorus (SPhos) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) using standard regression analyses. The study included data collected from 5262 HD patients from dialysis units participating in the DOPPS in 12 countries. PB prescription ranged from a mean of 7.4 pills per day in the United States to 3.9 pills per day in France. About half of the patients were prescribed at least 6 PB pills per day, and 13% were prescribed at least 12 PB pills per day. Overall, the proportion of patients who reported skipping PBs at least once in the past month was 45% overall, ranging from 33% in Belgium to 57% in the United States. There was a trend toward greater PB non-adherence and a higher number of prescribed PB pills per day. Non-adherence to PB prescription was associated with high SPhos (>5.5 mg/dL) and PTH (>600 pg/mL). Adherence to PB is a challenge for many HD patients and may be related to the number of PB pills prescribed. Prescription of a simplified PB regimen could improve patient adherence and perhaps improve SPhos and PTH levels. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  13. Kino Kosmos Imax restaureerimine = Restoration of the Kino Kosmos as an Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45, hoone valminud 1964, restaureeritud 2014. Hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi, restaureerimisprojekt Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo, sisearhitektid Kerli Lepp, Pille Lausmäe (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuribüroo). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  14. Kino Kosmos Imax restaureerimine = Restoration of the Kino Kosmos as an Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45, hoone valminud 1964, restaureeritud 2014. Hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi, restaureerimisprojekt Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo, sisearhitektid Kerli Lepp, Pille Lausmäe (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuribüroo). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  15. [Study on self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release drop pill of hawthorn leaves flavonoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xuan; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Li, Ning; Gao, Chong-Kai

    2014-03-01

    To prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release coated drop pill, and to study its release rate in vitro and pharmacokinetics study in vivo. In order to improve the dissolution of hawthorn leaves flavonoids, self-microemulsifying technology was used to prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsion. Hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying drop pill was prepared with the PEG 6000. Studies were made on the in vitro release of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills and the in vivo pharmacokinetic in rats. The prescription of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying drop pills was 0.25 g of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves, 0.25 g of iodophenyl maleimide, 0.375 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.375 g of cremophor RH 40 and 2 g of polyethylene glycol 6000. The optimized prescription was 4 g of ethyl cellulose 20, 0.64 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 1.8 g of diethyl phthalate, and the weight of coating materials increased by 3.5%. Flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills complied with the design of sustained-release in 12 h in terms of in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats, and its bioavailability was 2.47 times of quick-release drop pills. Slightly soluble flavonoids from hawthorn leaves could be made into sustained-release preparations by the self-micro-emulsifying and coating technology.

  16. Use of combined oral contraceptive pills among teenage girls in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iklaki CU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Christopher U Iklaki,1 John E Inaku,2 John E Ekabua,1 Patience O Odusolu,1 Charles O Njoku11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, NigeriaAbstract: The objective of this study was to find out about the use of combined oral contraceptive pills by women in Calabar, Nigeria, with a particular interest in single nulliparous teenage women. During the period from 2006 to 2010, a total of 1980 women seen in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital's family planning unit used various methods of contraception. Of these, 316 (15.96% used combined oral contraceptive pills. Twenty girls aged between 13 and 19 years accounted for 6.3% of those who used combined oral contraceptive pills. There were 296 (93.6% women between the ages of 20 and 34 years who accounted for the remaining users. Of these women, 195 (61.5% were educated to the secondary level, and 34 (10.8% were educated to primary level. No women without formal education used combined oral contraceptive pills during the period of study. The majority of the users were nulliparous (128; 40.4%; the rest had parity values of at least one to more than four. One hundred thirty-seven (43.4% of the users were single, 112 (35.4% were married, and the remaining 67 (21.1% were separated, divorced, or widowed. There is a growing need to educate young Nigerian women about the use of combined oral contraceptive pills; this medication is suitable and effective for most young women, and it also has additional noncontraceptive health benefits.Keywords: combined, oral, contraception, pills

  17. Comparative study between ormeloxifene and oral contraceptive pills in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimitkumar Jamanadas Chhatrala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is the most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. It can cause anemia, reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare costs. The present study was carried out to study the efficacy of ormeloxifene and compare it to combined oral contraceptive pills in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Methods: 140 patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups of 70 each. Group A was given ormeloxifene tablet 60 mg twice a week for 12 weeks followed by 60 mg once a week for next 12 weeks. Group B was given low dose oral contraceptive pills containing 30 and #956;g of ethinyl estradiol and 150 and #956;g levonorgestrel from day 1 of the menstrual cycle to day 21 for 6 consecutive cycles. Follow up for six months on every cycle was done to assess the symptoms in the form of amount of bleeding (which was assessed by pictorial blood loss assessment chart score, recurrence of symptoms and also the side effects of each drug. Patient's improvement was assessed by performing blood hemoglobin level. Patient's level of satisfaction was judged by general health, limitation of social activity, sexual life and patient's wish to continue treatment with the same drug. Results: The reduction in mean pictorial blood loss assessment score with ormeloxifene (174 to 75 was significantly more than with oral contraceptive pills (171 to 106 at 6 months (P 0.05. Recurrence of symptoms was 11% with ormeloxifene and 24% with oral contraceptive pills. The side effects were minimal in both the groups. 68.6% patients with ormeloxifene and 47.2% with oral contraceptive pills were highly satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: Ormeloxifene is more effective, with convenient dose schedule, well tolerated, with better compliance and shows less recurrence rate in treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding than oral contraceptive pills. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol

  18. Strategies to improve compliance among oral contraceptive pill users: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Choi, Angela DempseyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs remain the most commonly used reversible birth control method. Failure to adhere to daily pill taking and gaps in use are common and contribute to the risk of unintended pregnancy among OCP users. OCP compliance is influenced by a complex interplay of cognitive, behavioral, logistic, clinical, and social factors. This review outlines the evidence base for strategies that have been studied for their impact on OCP compliance.Keywords: adherence, continuation, unintended pregnancy, reminder system

  19. Unannounced telephone pill counts for assessing varenicline adherence in a pilot clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nia Thompson1, Niaman Nazir1, Lisa Sanderson Cox1,2, Babalola Faseru1,2, Kathy Goggin3, Jasjit S Ahluwalia4, Nicole L Nollen1,21University of Kansas School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Kansas City, KS, USA; 2University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Psychology, Kansas City, MO, USA; 4University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Medicine and Center for Health Equity, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Despite consistent evidence linking smoking cessation pharmacotherapy adherence to better outcomes, knowledge about objective adherence measures is lacking and little attention is given to monitoring pharmacotherapy use in smoking cessation clinical trials.Objectives: To examine unannounced telephone pill counts as a method for assessing adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy.Research design: Secondary data analysis of a randomized pilot study.Participants: 46 moderate-to-heavy (>10 cigarettes per day African-American smokers.Main measures: Smokers received 1 month of varenicline (Pfizer Global Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY in a pill box at baseline. Unannounced pill counts were completed by telephone 4 days prior to an in-person pill count conducted at Month 1. At both counts, each compartment of the pill box was opened and the number of remaining pills was recorded.Results: Participants were a mean age of 48 years (SD = 13, predominately female (59%, low income (60% < $1800 monthly family income, and smoked an average of 17 (SD = 7 cigarettes per day. A high degree of concordance was observed between the number of pills counted by phone and in-person (rs = 0.94, P < 0.001. Participants with discordant counts (n = 7 had lower varenicline adherence (mean [SD] = 77% [18%] vs 95% [9%], P < 0.0005, but reported better medication adherence in the past (1.0 [0.8] vs 2.8 [1.0], P < 0.0004 than participants with matching phone and in

  20. A case of oesophageal ulcer developed after taking homeopathic pill in a young woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vito D Corleto; Lidia D'Alonzo; Ermira Zykaj; Antonella Carnuccio; Francesca Chiesara; Cristiano Pagnini; Salvatore Di Somma; Gianfranco Delle Fave

    2007-01-01

    Oesophageal ulcers occur mainly as a result of gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, pillinduced oesophageal ulcers are a fairly common event.The lesion is mainly due to entrapment of the pill and/or its chemical composition thereof. This case report describes an oesophageal mucosa ulcer occurred in a healthy 35-year old woman who had no previous history of oesophageal disorders and received homeopathic medication. The present case reveals that pill entrapment can occur even in the oesophagus of healthy young individuals and that oesophageal mucosal ulcer can be triggered by substances generally thought devoid of any potentially mucosal aggressive effect.

  1. Kinematic Kevlar suspension system for the HAWC and SAFIRE ADR salt pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-03-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar® suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  2. The Power of the Pill: Oral Contraceptives and Women's Career and Marriage Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Lawrence; Goldin, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    The fraction of U.S. college graduate women entering professional programs increased substantially around 1970 and the age at first marriage among all U.S. college graduate women soared just after 1972. We explore the relationship between these two changes and how each was shaped by the diffusion of the birth control pill among young, single college educated women. Although the pill' was approved in 1960 by the FDA and diffused rapidly among married women, it did not diffuse among young singl...

  3. Biochemical composition of two giant pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Cheviri N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many invertebrates have an unexpected nutraceutical potential and are of nutritional or ethnomedicinal significance to many tribals throughout the world. The giant pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera are traditionally used as natural medicines by tribals in the Western Ghats of India. In this study, two species of pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaera fumosa and A. magna were subjected to proximate and biochemical analysis to ascertain their nutritional potential. Bodies of A. fumosa and A. magna (after removal of their intestines had a low protein content (8-15% and high quantity of carbohydrates (40-41%. They were rich in many essential elements, especially in calcium. The essential amino acids of pillmillipedes were in high quantities. The level of glycine was the highest, followed by lysine and serine. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs of males and females consist of high quantities of unsaturated fatty acids. The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were more abundant than poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Palmitic and oleic acids were dominant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The study has revealed for the first time that pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India constitute a good source of essential minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. Being valuable contributors of organic manure by processing recalcitrant plant lignocellulosic wastes, pill-millipedes become part and parcel of organic farming as well as future nutraceutical sources.

  4. How to illustrate science - a lesson from the 1970s / Pille-Triin Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Pille-Triin

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna IV rakenduskunsti triennaali Pille-Riin Männiku ja Anneli Porri kureeritud satelliitnäitusest "Teadus ja tänapäev" A-galeriis, Draakoni galeriis ja Hobusepea galeriis. Suure osa näitusest moodustavad Tõnis Vindi illustratsioonid 1979. a. ilmunud Juhan Kivi raamatule "Teadus ja tänapäev". Fotod Ene Kull

  5. [Application of microscopic spectroscopy in quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li-Xing; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Ru; Kang, Shuai; Hou, Jian-Zhong; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Application of microscopic spectroscopy in quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills was discussed. First, microscopic characteristics specified by the statutory standard of Niuhuang Qingxin pills were summarized. Then new identification method was established for Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Saigae Tataricae Cornu, Cinnamomi Cortex and Saposhnikoviae Radix. Finally, microscopic spectroscopy was used for test of Dioscoreae Rhizoma's adulterant Dioscoreae Fordii Rhizoma.It was the first time for this technology being applied in adulteration test of Chinese patent medicine.The results showed that Saigae Tataricae Cornu was not detected in 2 batches of Niuhuang Qingxin pills from 1 manufacturer while Dioscoreae Fordii Rhizoma was detected in 3 batches of samples from 2 manufacturers. The proposed methods were accurate, simple, rapid, objective and economic, which offered a more comprehensive approach for quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills. It was indicated that conventional technology such as microscopic spectroscopy could play an important role in identification of traditional Chinese medicine whose index ingredient was deficient or tiny. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Pille Lausmäe : 22 korrust betooni, klaasi ja terast / Kadi Viljak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viljak, Kadi

    2004-01-01

    Büroohoone City Plaza Tallinnas. Arhitektuurne lahend: Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Üldsisearhitekt: Pille Lausmäe. City Cafe ja LHV büroo kujundusest. City Cafe seintel on Jaan Elkeni maalid. Büroomööbel on tehtud Thulemas. 12 värv. ill

  7. Rein Pill võitis Venemaal kõrgetasemelise võistluse / Maarja Värv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värv, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    Ratsutaja Rein Pill tegi Venemaal Tsherjahovskis CS14* taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix' 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites seega Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  8. How to illustrate science - a lesson from the 1970s / Pille-Triin Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Pille-Triin

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna IV rakenduskunsti triennaali Pille-Riin Männiku ja Anneli Porri kureeritud satelliitnäitusest "Teadus ja tänapäev" A-galeriis, Draakoni galeriis ja Hobusepea galeriis. Suure osa näitusest moodustavad Tõnis Vindi illustratsioonid 1979. a. ilmunud Juhan Kivi raamatule "Teadus ja tänapäev". Fotod Ene Kull

  9. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  10. ORMELOXIFEN HCL VS. COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILL IN TREATMENT OF DUB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : DUB is defined as a state of abnormal uterine bleeding without any clinically detectable organic pelvic pathology - tumor , inflammation or pregnancy. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of ormeloxifene HCL ( SERM and combined oral contraceptive pills in medical treatment of DUB. MATERIAL & METHOD: This study is based on 100 cases of DUB from age group of 20 to 50 years , out of which fifty cases were prescribed Ormeloxifen HCL (Drug A and another 50 cases were given Combined Contrac eptive pills. (Drug B Ormeloxifen HCL was given in doses of 60mg biweekly for 12 weeks and from 13 th week one tablet weekly for another 12 weeks. CC pills (Levonorgestrel 0.15mg & Ethinyloestradiol 0.03mg – One tablet from 5th day of menses for 21 days g iven cyclically for six months. Regular cyclic follow - up was done to assess response , compliance tolerance and recurrence of the symptoms and side effects of every patient. RESULT : The study revealed marked decrease in PBAC score 82% vs. 35% , reduction in percentage of bleeding 100%vs 68% , regularization of menstrual cycle100%vs74% , recurrence of symptoms in the form of excessive bleeding 4% vs. 64% and irregular cycle 0%vs 68% in drug A vs. drug B and side effects were comparable in both the groups. CONCL USION : Ormeloxifen HCL is more effective , well tolerated with superior compliance than combined oral contraceptive pills in medical treatment of DUB.

  11. Rein Pill võitis Venemaal kõrgetasemelise võistluse / Maarja Värv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värv, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    Ratsutaja Rein Pill tegi Venemaal Tsherjahovskis CS14* taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix' 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites seega Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  12. Pille Lausmäe : 22 korrust betooni, klaasi ja terast / Kadi Viljak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viljak, Kadi

    2004-01-01

    Büroohoone City Plaza Tallinnas. Arhitektuurne lahend: Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Üldsisearhitekt: Pille Lausmäe. City Cafe ja LHV büroo kujundusest. City Cafe seintel on Jaan Elkeni maalid. Büroomööbel on tehtud Thulemas. 12 värv. ill

  13. Birthing the Pill at the University of Vermont (1970-1976)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, William A.; Schultz, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill in 1960 precipitated 2 decades of intense social change in the United States, particularly in the area of sexuality. Colleges and universities were not immune to these changes. The author examines the struggles at 1 land-grant university to find common ground on this issue among students, faculty,…

  14. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  15. The Role of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets in Treating Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To observe the clinical prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets for type 2 diabetic vascular complications. Methods. It was a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. 140 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The two groups were given basic therapy (management of blood sugar, blood pressure, etc.. Additionally, the treatment group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets, while the control group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets placebos. All subjects were followed up for consecutive 36 months and observed monthly. The clinical data as urinary microalbumin to urinary creatinine ratio (Umalb/cr, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, diabetic nephropathy (DN and diabetic retinopathy (DR prevalence, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, blood glucose, and blood pressure were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. After 36-month treatment, the Umalb/cr level and DN and DR prevalence in treatment group were all significantly lower than control group (P0.05. Conclusions. Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets are beneficial to diabetic microvascular complications, while the efficacy to diabetic macrovascular complications needs more observations.

  16. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Methods: Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Results: Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists’ gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). Conclusion: The quality of the pharmacists’ consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement. PMID:28042350

  17. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anita NelsonHarbor-UCLA Hospital, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USAAim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills.Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation.Results: The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation.Conclusion: The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis, fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women’s desires for fewer and shorter menses and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding. Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.Keywords: extended-cycle oral contraceptives, low-dose extended-cycle pills, Lo Seasonique

  18. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Anita NelsonHarbor-UCLA Hospital, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USAAim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills.Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical tri...

  19. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Anita NelsonHarbor-UCLA Hospital, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USAAim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills.Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical tri...

  20. Differences in Effects of Zuojin Pills(左金丸)and Its Similar Formulas on Wei Cold Model in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳玲; 史文丽; 山丽梅; 王伽伯; 赵海平; 肖小河

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of Zuojin Pills(左金丸)and its similar formulas on the stomach cold syndrome in a Wei cold model in rats.Methods:The rat Wei cold model was established by intragastric administration of glacial NaOH,and the gastric mucosa injury indices,together with the levels of motilin and gastrin in the stomach,were determined.The preventive and curative effects of Zuojin Pills and its similar formulas on gastric mucosa injury were investigated.Results:Zuojin Pills and its similar formul...

  1. Power of the Pill or Power of Abortion? Re-Examining the Effects of Young Women's Access to Reproductive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Caitlin Knowles

    2012-01-01

    Recent research postulating that the diffusion of confidential access to the birth control pill to young women in the United States contributed to the dramatic social changes of the late 1960s and 1970s has not adequately accounted for the largely contemporaneous diffusion of access to abortion. Estimates using a new panel of data on state policies related to access to the pill and abortion indicate that while access to the pill may have played a role in the sexual revolution, it had little e...

  2. Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Stason, William B; Davis, Roger B; Legedza, Anna R T; Schnyer, Rosa N; Kerr, Catherine E; Stone, David A; Nam, Bong Hyun; Kirsch, Irving; Goldman, Rose H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a sham device (a validated sham acupuncture needle) has a greater placebo effect than an inert pill in patients with persistent arm pain. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial created from the two week placebo run-in periods for two nested trials that compared acupuncture and amitriptyline with their respective placebo controls. Comparison of participants who remained on placebo continued beyond the run-in period to the end of the study. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 270 adults with arm pain due to repetitive use that had lasted at least three months despite treatment and who scored ≥3 on a 10 point pain scale. Interventions Acupuncture with sham device twice a week for six weeks or placebo pill once a day for eight weeks. Main outcomemeasures Arm pain measured on a 10 point pain scale. Secondary outcomes were symptoms measured by the Levine symptom severity scale, function measured by Pransky's upper extremity function scale, and grip strength. Results Pain decreased during the two week placebo run-in period in both the sham device and placebo pill groups, but changes were not different between the groups (-0.14, 95% confidence interval -0.52 to 0.25, P = 0.49). Changes in severity scores for arm symptoms and grip strength were similar between groups, but arm function improved more in the placebo pill group (2.0, 0.06 to 3.92, P = 0.04). Longitudinal regression analyses that followed participants throughout the treatment period showed significantly greater downward slopes per week on the 10 point arm pain scale in the sham device group than in the placebo pill group (-0.33 (-0.40 to -0.26) v -0.15 (-0.21 to -0.09), P = 0.0001) and on the symptom severity scale (-0.07 (-0.09 to -0.05) v -0.05 (-0.06 to -0.03), P = 0.02). Differences were not significant, however, on the function scale or for grip strength. Reported adverse effects were different in the two groups. Conclusions The sham device had greater

  3. Muusajüngrid pühitsesid Kreutzwaldi 200. sünnipäeva / Toomas Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Toomas

    2004-01-01

    13. dets. 2003 Sydneys toimunud tähtpäevaüritusel esines Toomas Pill referaadiga "Kalevipoja" retseptsioonist, loeti ette katkendeid Kreutzwaldi ja Koidula kirjavahetusest ning deklameeriti Heidi Aedma poolt valitud katkendeid "Kalevipojast"

  4. The comparative study of side effect of the two kinds of LD combined oral contraceptive pills containing Norgestimate and Levonorgestrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazizade Sh

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the new generation of oral contraceptive pills containing Norgestimate (NGM with currently available pills containing levonorgestrel (LNG a clinical trial was conducted. 413 women (age 18-35 years with no contrainindication to pill use entered the study and randomly received one type of pills. Premenstrual syndrome and depression were significantly decreased in NGM group (P=0.00016, P=0.005, on the other hand, breast tenderness, mood changes and hair loss were significantly increased in LNG group (P=0.001, P=0.042, P=0.011. Comparing two groups with each other, following variables were significantly lower in NGM group: headache (P<0.05, vertigo (P<0.05, cloasma (P<0.05, acne (P<0.04, depression (P<0.05, appetite change (P<0.03. Overall patient satisfaction was similar in two groups.

  5. Fixed combinations in the pragmatic management of hypertension: focus on aliskiren and hydrochlorothiazide as a single pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Burnier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Michel BurnierService of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: A majority of hypertensive patients need more than one antihypertensive drug to control their blood pressure. For this reason, most guidelines have introduced the possibility of prescribing fixed-dose combination therapies as first-line treatment in hypertension. Today, the concept of fixed-dose combinations has evolved and the term single pill combination might become more appropriate to reflect the large choice of drug combinations available on the market. Recently, a new single pill combination has been launched which combines the first direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and low doses of hydrochlorothiazide. This paper reviews the potential advantages of single pill combinations and presents the first results obtained with the aliskiren/HCTZ single pill combination in hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, drug adherence, combination therapies, diuretics, renin inhibition

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Five Active Components in the Chinese Patent Medicine Niuhuang Jiangya Pill by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shan; Lei, Shanshan

    2016-12-16

    Niuhuang Jiangya (NHJY) pill is one of the well-known Chinese patent medicines in China used in the treatment of high blood pressure. The primary purpose of this study was to establish and validate a method using HPLC with tandem MS for the quality evaluation of NHJY pill through simultaneous determination of the following five active components: baicalin, paeoniflorin, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid, and emodin. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HPLC C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The method established in this study was selective, linear, precise, and accurate and was successfully applied to evaluate five active components in NHJY pill collected from different production batches, which could be considered a good approach to control the quality of NHJY pill and other related botanical drugs.

  7. Muusajüngrid pühitsesid Kreutzwaldi 200. sünnipäeva / Toomas Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Toomas

    2004-01-01

    13. dets. 2003 Sydneys toimunud tähtpäevaüritusel esines Toomas Pill referaadiga "Kalevipoja" retseptsioonist, loeti ette katkendeid Kreutzwaldi ja Koidula kirjavahetusest ning deklameeriti Heidi Aedma poolt valitud katkendeid "Kalevipojast"

  8. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-01-01

    .... I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s...

  9. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Sultan Mir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ′evil′ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher′s Exact Test. Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

  10. Providers′ knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Vertika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  11. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparva, Kiran G; Buch, Jatin G

    2011-07-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP. Thus, it is still a matter of debate, whether to associate risk of DVT to the amount of estrogen alone or also to the type of progestin. Apart from careful selection of patients, one should also look for the risk of venous thromboembolism irrespective of type of OCCP prescribed.

  12. The Pill and Men’s Disappearance from the Teaching Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    In this paper I look at the relationship between increased access to reliable fertility controls and men’s disappearance from teaching. As the pill has been found to have a substantial effect on women’s family responsibilities, career investments and labor market outcomes, men’s bargaining position...... control pill bears a negative relation to the likelihood that men plan to teach, while changes in the strength of teacher unions and relative wages of teachers have limited effect on their career plans. Men’s aspirations shift away from teaching towards occupations that are associated with higher average...... and 1980, the ratio of male college freshmen planning to become a teacher fell from 12.4% to 2.4% and the share of males among those who aspired to teach dropped from 30.6% to 19.7%. Using nationally representative data on the career plans of college freshmen I find that unrestricted access to the birth...

  13. How can a state control swallowing? The home use of abortion pills in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Sally

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that there is widespread home use of abortion pills in Ireland and that ending a pregnancy in this way is potentially safer than the alternatives available to many women. This paper argues that there is a strong case for women with unwanted pregnancies to be offered truthful and objective information regarding the use of abortion pills by trusted local professionals and, further, that this is possible within existing law. A move in this direction would not, however, negate the need for legal reform to address the fundamental moral incoherence of a law that treats women who terminate pregnancies within Ireland as criminals but those who travel to access services overseas as victims in need of support. In support of these arguments, the paper draws on both library research and a small number of interviews with government officials, service providers and activists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Swallowable smart pills for local drug delivery: present status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Rosa; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Smart pills were originally developed for diagnosis; however, they are increasingly being applied to therapy - more specifically drug delivery. In addition to smart drug delivery systems, current research is also looking into localization systems for reaching the target areas, novel locomotion mechanisms and positioning systems. Focusing on the major application fields of such devices, this article reviews smart pills developed for local drug delivery. The review begins with the analysis of the medical needs and socio-economic benefits associated with the use of such devices and moves onto the discussion of the main implemented technological solutions with special attention given to locomotion systems, drug delivery systems and power supply. Finally, desired technical features of a fully autonomous robotic capsule for local drug delivery are defined and future research trends are highlighted.

  15. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran G Piparva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT. A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP. Thus, it is still a matter of debate, whether to associate risk of DVT to the amount of estrogen alone or also to the type of progestin. Apart from careful selection of patients, one should also look for the risk of venous thromboembolism irrespective of type of OCCP prescribed.

  16. Simultaneous determination of four bioactive constituents in Liuwei Dihuang Pills by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Wang, Yue; Sun, Yuqing

    2007-09-03

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method for the simultaneous determination of four bioactive constituents (morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin and paeonal) in the Chinese patent medicine Liuwei Dihuang Pills is established. A carrier composed of 0.2M boric acid, 0.02 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 5% acetonitrile (pH was adjusted to 10.5 with 0.1 M NaOH) is found to be the most suitable electrolyte for this separation. The four constituents in Liuwei Dihuang Pills can be easily determined within 16 min. Optimization of separation is realized with the univariate approach by studying the effects of four factors relevant to run buffer on migration times.

  17. Resection and radiofrequency ablation of multiple liver adenomas secondary to anti-conceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Luis; Dabbs, Andy; Sewell, Patrick; Doherty, Mike

    2004-01-01

    A case of multiple hepatic adenomas associated with birth control pills in a 25-year-old female is presented. Her only complaint was abdominal pain, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase was the only laboratory abnormality. The largest adenoma was located in the caudate lobe and was resected. The other two were small, located deep in the right lobe, and treated with radiofrequency ablation. Currently, the patient is asymptomatic and her alkaline phosphatase has returned to normal levels.

  18. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Bruno, Raimondo; Ezard, Nadine; Ritter, Alison

    2017-06-20

    This study aimed to determine design features of a drug-checking service that would be feasible, attractive and likely to be used by Australian festival and nightlife attendees. Web survey of 851 Australians reporting use of psychostimulants and/or hallucinogens and attendance at licensed venues past midnight and/or festivals in the past year (70% male; median age 23 years). A drug-checking service located at festivals or clubs would be used by 94%; a fixed-site service external to such events by 85%. Most (80%) were willing to wait an hour for their result. Almost all (94%) would not use a service if there was a possibility of arrest, and a majority (64%) would not use a service that did not provide individual feedback of results. Drug-checking results were only slightly more attractive if they provided comprehensive quantitative results compared with qualitative results of key ingredients. Most (93%) were willing to pay up to $5, and 68% up to $10, per test. One-third (33%) reported willingness to donate a whole dose for testing: they were more likely to be male, younger, less experienced, use drugs more frequently and attend venues/festivals less frequently. In this sample, festival- or club-based drug-checking services with low wait times and low cost appear broadly attractive under conditions of legal amnesty and individualised feedback. Quantitative analysis of ecstasy pills requiring surrender of a whole pill may appeal to a minority in Australia where pills are more expensive than elsewhere. [Barratt MJ, Bruno R, Ezard N, Ritter A. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Offering extended use of the combined contraceptive pill: a survey of specialist family planning services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer U

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Sauer,1 Sue Mann,2 Nataliya Brima,3 Judith Stephenson21Reproductive and Sexual Health, Enfield Community Service, Enfield, 2Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Group, Institute for Women’s Health, 3Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine attitudes to, and provision of, extended regimens for taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (COC by specialist contraception practitioners from three contrasting specialist contraception services in London.Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was administered to all doctors and nurses, who counsel, provide, or prescribe the oral contraceptive pill at each clinic.Results: A total of 105 clinicians received the questionnaire and 67 (64% responded. Only one of three clinics initiated and maintained guidelines for extended COC use. In that service, 60% of staff prescribing COC advised more than 50% of patients regarding alternative COC regimens. In the other two services, this was discussed with 20% and 6% of patients, respectively (P < 0.001. The reasons for prescribing extended use included cyclic headaches, menorrhagia, patient request, menstrual-related cramps, and endometriosis, and did not differ between the three different settings. The most common extended regimens were 63 pills or continuous use until bleeding occurs, followed by a hormone-free interval. Concerns highlighted by providers and patients were “unhealthy not to have a monthly bleed”, “future fertility”, and “breakthrough bleeding”. Such comments highlight the need for further information for providers and patients.Conclusion: There is growing evidence, backed by national guidance, about extended COC use, but routine provision of this information is patchy and varies ten-fold, even within specialist family planning services. Targeted training, use of service guidelines, and implementation research will be

  20. A survey of bonobo (Pan paniscus) oral contraceptive pill use in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Mary K; Asa, Cheryl S; Clyde, Victoria L; Keller, Dominique L; Meinelt, Audra

    2016-09-01

    Contraception is an essential tool in reproductive management of captive species. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Reproductive Management Center (RMC) gathers data on contraception use and provides recommendations. Although apes have been given oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for at least 30 years, there have been no published reports with basic information on why the pill is administered, formulations and brands used, and effects on physiology and behavior. Here, we report survey results characterizing OCP use in bonobos (Pan paniscus) housed in North American zoos, as well as information accumulated in the RMC's Contraception Database. Of 26 females treated, there have been no failures and nine reversals. The most commonly administered OCP formulation in bonobos contained ethinyl estradiol (EE) 35 μg/norethindrone 1 mg. Few females on combined oral contraceptives (COCs) were given a continuous active pill regimen; a hormone-free interval of at least 5 days was allowed in most. Crushing the pill and mixing with juice or food was common. Females on COCs seldom experienced breakthrough estrus or bleeding, while these conditions were sometimes observed for females on continuous COCs. All females on COCs exhibited some degree of perineal swelling, with a mean score of 3 or 3+ most commonly reported. Behavioral changes included less sexual behavior, dominant females becoming subordinate, and a negative effect on mood. No appreciable change in weight was noted. Taken together, these results indicate that OCPs are an effective and reversible contraceptive option for bonobos that can be used by zoos and sanctuaries to limit reproduction. Zoo Biol. 35:444-453, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Knowledge about missed contraceptive pills among married women at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rahila Iftikhar, Bahaa Abdulrahman Aba Al Khail Family and Community Medicine Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs are one of the most reliable methods of contraception. However, lack of knowledge about oral contraceptive use and inconsistent pill-taking might result in decreased efficacy. The study reported here aimed to explore women’s knowledge about oral contraceptive use and assess the factors associated with knowledge about OCPs among users.Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between April and June 2014. We included married, non-pregnant women >18 years old who had used a combined 21-day OCP for at least 3 months prior to recruitment. A questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ demographic information. It also assessed their knowledge about OCPs. Data were entered into and analyzed using SPSS software.Results: A total of 357 women were recruited. Of these, 57.7% reported they knew what to do after missing one or two pills, but only 18.3% knew exactly what to do after missing more than two pills consecutively. Postgraduate women had a significantly higher knowledge score than illiterate women (P=0.002 and those who had completed at least primary education (P=0.001. Conversely, there was no difference in knowledge scores between Saudi and expatriate women (P=0.2. Monthly incomes (P=0.2 and mode of OCP selection (P=0.2 were also not significantly associated with knowledge scores.Conclusion: Women had poor knowledge about OCP use. Appropriate measures should be taken to educate women about proper oral contraceptive use. Keywords: oral contraception, oral contraceptive, Saudi Arabia, OCP

  2. Hyperglycemia in poor controlled diabetes from crude tamarind herbal pill:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is an important finding in the diabetic patient with poor glycemic control.There are several possible causes of hyperglycemic.Here,the author presents an interesting case study on a female diabetic patient presenting with hyperglycemic due to intake of crude tamarind herbal pill.General practitioner should realize that the use of alternative medicine can be a cause of unexplained hyperglycemic episode in diabetic patient.

  3. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  4. Fertility Effects of Abortion and Birth Control Pill Access for Minors

    OpenAIRE

    GULDI, MELANIE

    2008-01-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors’ fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors’ access to abortion and minors’ birthrates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment—including abortion—in some st...

  5. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning; Comment on “The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger-Mark De Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article by Potts et al, “The Pill is Mightier than the Sword,” points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight.

  6. Quality evaluation of moluodan concentrated pill using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lingyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol/L phosphate solution and acetonitrile with a 1 mL/min eluent velocity, under a detection temperature of 30°C and a UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. After the methodology validation, 16 batches of Moluodan Concentrated Pill were analyzed by this high-performance liquid chromatography method and both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results were achieved by similarity analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of these three chemometrics were in good agreement and all indicated that batch 10 and batch 16 showed significant differences with the other 14 batches. This suggested that the developed high-performance liquid chromatography method could be applied in the quality evaluation of Moluodan Concentrated Pill.

  7. Use of birth control pills, condoms, and withdrawal among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S A; Warren, C W; Santelli, J S; Kann, L; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-08-01

    To examine the use of contraception at last sexual intercourse among currently sexually active adolescents. We analyzed data from national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. The YRBS is a self-administered, anonymous survey which uses a national probability sample of U.S. students in public and private schools from grades 9 through 12. From 1991 to 1997, condom use significantly increased (from 46% to 57%), birth control pill use decreased (from 21% to 17%), and use of withdrawal significantly decreased (from 18% to 13%). In 1997, although more students were using condoms, 13% reported using withdrawal and 15% reported using no method to prevent pregnancy at last sexual intercourse. In 1997, condom use among females was significantly lower in the 9th grade than in the 12th grade (p birth control pill use was higher (p birth control pill use by their partner increased (p <.001). Inadequate contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. For young people who will not remain sexually abstinent, families, health care providers, schools, and other influential societal institutions should promote the correct and continued use of condoms as essential protection against sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  8. Can pill placebo augment cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Rachel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of drug and psychotherapy comparative trials, psychotherapy-placebo combination has been assumed to represent psychotherapy. Whether psychotherapy plus pill placebo is the same as psychotherapy alone is an empirical question which however has to date never been examined systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs that directly compared cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT alone against CBT plus pill placebo in the treatment of panic disorder. Results Extensive literature search was able to identify three relevant RCTs. At the end of the acute phase treatment, patients who received CBT plus placebo had 26% (95%CI: 2 to 55% increased chances of responding than those who received CBT alone. At follow-up the difference was no longer statistically significant (22%, 95%CI: -10% to 64%. Conclusion The act of taking a pill placebo may enhance the placebo effect already contained in the effective psychotherapeutic intervention during the acute phase treatment. Theoretically this is an argument against the recently claimed null hypothesis of placebo effect in general and clinically it may point to some further room for enhancing the psychotherapeutic approach for panic disorder.

  9. Interactive Effects of the Carbon Paper, Sodium Bicarbonate and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Morphine Urine Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solhi, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: A major problem for labs. esp. medicolegal centers is drug test false positive and negative results. Using carbonpaper, sodium bicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills (OCP are commonamong addict people to make the results negative. Therefore, we decidedto evaluate the effect of carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP onmorphine urine test.Material and Methods: We performed this pre-experimental study onthe urine samples of all people referred to narcotic drug laboratory ofMarkazi province during May of 2005. Of 2110 urine samples, theMorphine Rapid Test of 208 samples was positive. Then by means ofTLC method, we confirmed the presence of morphine metabolites in 150urine samples. After that, we divided these samples into three equalgroups for adding carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP.Results: The results show that in carbon paper group, 41 cases arepositive and nine cases unclear. In sodium bicarbonate group, 45 samplesare positive and 5 cases unclear. In estrogen conjugate group, all 50samples are positive.Conclusion: According to this study, adding carbon paper, sodiumbicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills cannot make negative theMorphine Rapid Test result.Key words: Morphine Rapid Test, Carbon paper, Sodium bicarbonate,Oral contraceptive pill.

  10. Harm reduction or women's rights? Debating access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, L L; Erdman, Joanna N; Foster, Angel M; Trussell, James

    2007-12-01

    This article compares the ethical pivot points in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States. These include women's right to be informed about the contraceptive method and its mechanism of action, pharmacists' conscientious objection concerning the dispensing of emergency contraceptive pills, and rights and equality of access to the method, especially for poor women and minorities. In both countries, arguments in support of expanding access to the pills were shaped by two competing orientations toward health and sexuality. The first, "harm reduction," promotes emergency contraception as attenuating the public health risks entailed in sex. The second orientation regards access to pills as a question of women's right to engage in nonprocreative sex and to choose from among all reproductive health-care options. The authors contend that arguments for expanding access to emergency contraceptive pills that frame issues in terms of health and science are insufficient bases for drug regulation; ultimately, women's health is also a matter of women's rights.

  11. Continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and satisfaction of women using an oral contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest versus a progestogen-only pill after switching from an ethinylestradiol-containing pill in a real-life setting: results of the CONTENT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paula Briggs,1 Marco Serrani,2 Kai Vogtländer,3 Susanne Parke4 1Sexual and Reproductive Health, Southport and Ormskirk Hospital NHS Trust, Merseyside, UK; 2Global Medical Affairs Women’s HealthCare, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, 3Global Integrated Analysis & Life Cycle Management Statistics, Bayer Pharma AG, Wuppertal, 4Global Clinical Development Women’s HealthCare, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany Background: Oral contraceptives are still associated with high discontinuation rates, despite their efficacy. There is a wide choice of oral contraceptives available, and the aim of this study was to assess continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and the satisfaction of women in the first year of using a contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest (E2V/DNG versus a progestogen-only pill (POP in a real-life setting after discontinuing an ethinylestradiol-containing pill.Methods and results: In this prospective, noninterventional, observational study, 3,152 patients were included for the efficacy analyses (n=2,558 women in the E2V/DNG group and n=592 in the POP group (two patients fulfilled the criteria of the efficacy population, but the used product was not known. Women had been taking an ethinylestradiol-containing pill ≥3 months before deciding to switch to the E2V/DNG pill or a POP. Overall, 19.8% (n=506 of E2V/DNG users and 25.8% (n=153 of POP users discontinued their prescribed pill. The median time to discontinuation was 157.0 days and 127.5 days, respectively. Time to discontinuation due to bleeding (P<0.0001 or other reasons (P=0.022 was significantly longer in the E2V/DNG group versus the POP group. The E2V/DNG pill was also associated with shorter (48.7% vs 44.1%, lighter (54% vs 46.1%, and less painful bleeding (91.1% vs 73.7% and greater user satisfaction (80.7% vs 64.6% than POP use, within 3–5 months after switch.Conclusion: The E2V/DNG pill was associated with higher rates of continuation

  12. Are all placebo effects equal? Placebo pills, sham acupuncture, cue conditioning and their association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kong

    Full Text Available Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol, sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subject's pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for "placebo responders." However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non

  13. Are All Placebo Effects Equal? Placebo Pills, Sham Acupuncture, Cue Conditioning and Their Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Spaeth, Rosa; Cook, Amanda; Kirsch, Irving; Claggett, Brian; Vangel, Mark; Gollub, Randy L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2013-01-01

    Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol), sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subject's pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for “placebo responders.” However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non-specific effects of

  14. Jinkui Shenqi Pill treatment of insomnia%金匮肾气丸治疗不寐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建波

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep depends on the balance of Yin Yang,harmony of organs,plentiful of Qi and blood. The im-balance of Yin Yang,as well as Yang does not enter Yin,will cause insomnia disease. Jinkui Shenqi Pill comes from JinkuiYaolue,and it is a classical prescription of invigorating kidney,strengthening Yang,and filling in the lean pulp. The article explains the meaning of JinkuiShenqi Pill,pathogenesis of insomnia disease,and Yin Yang pre-served in kidney. Combining with clinical cases,this article clarifies that it has good clinical curative effect for self -made decoction combined with Jingui Shenqi Pill to threat insomnia disease.%正常的睡眠,有赖于人体的阴阳平衡、脏腑调和、气血充盈,若阴阳失调,阳不入阴而发为不寐病。金匮肾气丸源自《金匮要略》,是补肾壮阳、填精益髓之经典方剂,可调补一身之阴阳。从金匮肾气丸方义、不寐病的病机、肾藏元阴元阳等方面,结合临床病例,阐明了自拟汤药联合使用金匮肾气丸治疗不寐病确有较好的临床疗效。

  15. Oral Contraception for Younger Woman: The Benefits of the Low-Dose Pill

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Oral contraceptives provide the woman under 35 with the most effective and safest reversible method of birth control. As the estrogen content of oral contraceptives has gradually been lowered during the past 20 years, there has been a lessening of the side-effects first reported by the Royal College of General Practice in 1967. The research of two decades has brought about changes in “the pill”. The most recent change has been the introduction of biphasic and triphasic pills with lower hormon...

  16. Oral Contraception for Younger Woman: The Benefits of the Low-Dose Pill

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Marion

    1986-01-01

    Oral contraceptives provide the woman under 35 with the most effective and safest reversible method of birth control. As the estrogen content of oral contraceptives has gradually been lowered during the past 20 years, there has been a lessening of the side-effects first reported by the Royal College of General Practice in 1967. The research of two decades has brought about changes in “the pill”. The most recent change has been the introduction of biphasic and triphasic pills with lower hormon...

  17. The Pill Really Can Be Mightier Than the Sword: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Potts

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We appreciate the four commentaries that add new material and fresh perspectives to our article “The pill is mightier than the sword.” In emphasizing the role of voluntary family planning and girls’ education as achievable strategies with a potential to make the world a more peaceable place, we did not mean to oversimplify or disregard the intrinsic complexity of human conflict. On the whole, the commentators support and add to our thesis, although we question Pillai and Ya-Chien Wang’s suggestion that we may have overstated the unique human predisposition to kill our own species. We present additional data on male team aggression.

  18. Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC Drugs: Time to Take a Bitter Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Mani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC drugs are an emerging public health concern in India. With one of the huge pharmaceutical sectors in the world, India has a varied prevalence of SSSFC drugs ranging from 0.04% to 34% according to various studies. Apart from severe health consequences, SSSFC drugs also weaken community's trust in the health care system. India is tackling the epidemic of SSSFC drugs through various existing and new regulatory measures. Considering the calamitous consequences of this silent epidemic, it is time to prescribe a bitter pill.

  19. Ghost pill: knowledge and awareness of this phenomenon among health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongeji E. Tungaraza

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Our survey has shown that the ghost pill phenomenon, a normal outcome of a novel way of delivering orally taken SR drugs, is not well-known among health care professionals. Lack of awareness of it has implications to trainers, medical and nonmedical prescribers and nursing staff working with patients who are taking these medications. Lack of awareness among health care staff, may result in relevant information not being shared with patients at the time of prescribing or when patients enquires of it. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 602-607

  20. Pill in the blister pack: a rare cause of dysphagia in an elderly adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeq, Syed Mudassir; Rai, Ayesha Aslam; Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Majid, Zain

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body impaction in the esophagus amongst adults is not a common cause of dysphagia. Fish bone, food bolus, dentures may cause symptoms of dysphagia, odynophagia, chest pain or respiratory distress. It needs prompt evaluation along with removal of the substance either surgically or endoscopically to avoid the development of life threatening complications. Here we are reporting a case of an elderly male, who presented to us with a history of absolute dysphagia for one week, as a consequence of ingestion of a pill in blister pack.

  1. [Investigation of JinKui ShenQi pills by ultraviolet spectra and tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-lan; Sun, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Ji, Yu-bin; Bai, Jing

    2008-08-01

    On the base of establishing the fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills, the ultraviolet spectra-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, method was used to identify the fingerprint. Seperation was performed on the Symmetry Shield RP18 (5 microm, 4. 6 mm X 15 mm) analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elute at the flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was set at 248 nm. Using the above-mentioned chromatographic condition, the fingerprint of different samples was established and the same fingerprint was defined. The fingerprints of different samples were compared with similarity evaluation software published by Pharmacopeia committee codex (2004A). The mass spectrograph with API-ESI ionization source was used, setting the flow rate at 0.5 mL x min(-1) after splitting stream. The pressure of atomization room was 50 Psi, the flow rate of dry gas was 9.0 L x min(-1), the capillary voltage was 4 kV, and the transmission voltage was 70 V. The negative scanner mode was chosen, scan scope was 100-2000, using ion trap to analyze quasimolecular ion peak and the selected fragment ion, and TIC chromatography and second order mass chromatogram were recorded. The major constituents among in JinKui ShenQi pills from different origins were separated well by HPLC. Although there was difference among different origins, they showed nineteen identical characteristic absorption bands. Three fingerprints chemical compositions such as loganin, cinnamal and paeonol were identified based on the retention time and ultraviolet spectra of standard preparation. According to their ultraviolet spectra, molecular weight and fragmentation information, ten peaks in the fingerprint were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy-mass, spectrometry/massg spectrometry. They are 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-glucose, loganin, paeoniflorin, 1,2,3,6-tetro-O-galloyl-glucose, soya-cerebroside, cornuside, and PGG, benzoyl

  2. Pill Cam COLON 2~? as a pan-enteroscopic test in Crohn’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry; Hall; Grainne; Holleran; Deirdre; McNamara

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper by Boal Carvalho et al demonstrates the potential of Pill Cam COLON 2?(PCC2) as a panenteric investigation in Crohn’s disease(CD). Our own prospective data in patients with known CD also shows good correlation between PCC2 and small/large bowel investigations(R = 0.896,P < 0.0004/R = 0.6667,P <0.035). Larger studies are warranted to prospectively validate the use of PCC2 in the investigation and monitoring of both small and large bowel CD.

  3. Effects of Naotan Pill on repair of neural cells and cognitive disorders in juvenile rats following hypoxia and ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang Wei; Huiqing Zhang; Shenglu Lu; Bingrong Dang; Jianping Hong; Qingxiang Gao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Hypoxia and ischemia induce neuronal damage,decreased neuronal numbers and synaptophysin levels,and deficits in learning and memory functions.Previous studies have shown that lycium barbarum polysaccharide,the most effective component of barbary wolfberry fruit,has protective effects on neural cells in hypoxia-ischemia.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of Naotan Pill on glutamate-treated neural cells and on cognitive function in juvenile rats following hypoxia-ischemia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The randomized,controlled,in vivo study was performed at the Cell Laboratory of Lanzhou University,Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences,and Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Gansu Provincial Rehabilitation Center Hospital,China from December 2005 to August 2006.The cellular neurobiology,in vitro experiment was conducted at the Institute of Human Anatomy,Histology,Embryology and Neuroscience,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Lanzhou University,and Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Gansu Provincial Rehabilitation Center Hospital,China from March 2007 to January 2008.MATERIALS:Naotan Pill,composed of barbary wolfberry fruit,danshen root,grassleaf sweetflag rhizome,and glossy privet fruit,was prepared by Gansu Provincial Rehabilitation Center,China.Rabbit anti-synaptophysin,choline acetyl transferase polyclonal antibody,streptavidin-biotin complex kit and diaminobenzidine kit (Boster,Wuhan,China),as well as glutamate (Hualian,Shanghai,China) were used in this study.METHODS:Cortical neural cells were isolated from neonatal Wistar rats.Neural cell damage models were induced using glutamate,and administered Naotan Pill prior to and following damage.A total of 54 juvenile Wistar rats were equally and randomly assigned into model,Naotan Pill,and sham operation groups.The left common carotid artery was ligated,and then rat models of hypoxic-ischemic injury were assigned to the model and Naotan Pill groups.At 2 days

  4. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general…

  5. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general…

  6. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general population, and…

  7. A "suicide pill" for older people: attitudes of physicians, the general population, and relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, M.L.; Philipsen, B.D.; Wal, van der G.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physician

  8. Older peoples' attitudes towards euthanasia and an end-of-life pill in The Netherlands: 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiting, Hilde M; Deeg, Dorly J H; Knol, Dirk L; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Pasman, H Roeline W; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2012-05-01

    With an ageing population, end-of-life care is increasing in importance. The present work investigated characteristics and time trends of older peoples' attitudes towards euthanasia and an end-of-life pill. Three samples aged 64 years or older from the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (N=1284 (2001), N=1303 (2005) and N=1245 (2008)) were studied. Respondents were asked whether they could imagine requesting their physician to end their life (euthanasia), or imagine asking for a pill to end their life if they became tired of living in the absence of a severe disease (end-of-life pill). Using logistic multivariable techniques, changes of attitudes over time and their association with demographic and health characteristics were assessed. The proportion of respondents with a positive attitude somewhat increased over time, but significantly only among the 64-74 age group. For euthanasia, these percentages were 58% (2001), 64% (2005) and 70% (2008) (OR of most recent versus earliest period (95% CI): 1.30 (1.17 to 1.44)). For an end-of-life pill, these percentages were 31% (2001), 33% (2005) and 45% (2008) (OR (95% CI): 1.37 (1.23 to 1.52)). For the end-of-life pill, interaction between the most recent time period and age group was significant. An increasing proportion of older people reported that they could imagine desiring euthanasia or an end-of-life pill. This may imply an increased interest in deciding about your own life and stresses the importance to take older peoples' wishes seriously.

  9. A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills%传统中药丸剂史述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许霞; 陆翔; 朱建平

    2016-01-01

    传统中药丸剂,系指药材细粉或药材提取物加适宜黏合剂或其他辅料制成的球形或类球形剂型。中药丸剂是一种古老的传统剂型,它自先秦起源后,经汉代至明清,历代不断发展和丰富,适应疾病治疗的需要,制作工艺逐步完善,相继出现了蜜丸、蜡丸、包衣丸以及蜡壳丸等多种形式。近现代随着制药机械的进步,中药丸剂不断创新,现已成为批量生产的中成药的主要剂型。%Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form,is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropri-ate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the pro-gress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production.

  10. A Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Emergency Contraceptive Pills among Female College Students in Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar, Keerti, Chandra P Sharma, Chetan K Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency contraception is administered after unprotected intercourse to prevent unintended pregnancy. Sexually active young and adolescent women are at greatest risk of unintended pregnancy and thus unsafe abortion related morbidity and mortality. Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and experiences on emergency contraceptive pill (ECP by female college students of Udaipur. Study design: Cross-sectional, pre-structured questionnaire based study. Material and methods: Study was conducted among 600 college going female students (arts, science and commerce faculty of two randomly selected girls colleges of Sukhadia University Udaipur. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and test of significance (Chi square test and Mann Whitney U test using SPSS ver.16. Results: Students included in study were of 16-29 years age group (mean age 18.6±3.2 years, 225 (37.5% had adequate knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among students who got knowledge from literary sources and health personnel (p<0.05. Majority of the science stream students (50% were having adequate knowledge followed by commerce and arts stream students respectively but statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among all faculty students(p<0.05. Majority of students (78% know about the correct timing of EC pills administration. Among all the students only 201 (33.5% students shown positive attitude regarding EC pills. No significant association seen between adequate knowledge and positive attitude (p>0.05.Only 3% students had already used EC pills. Conclusion: Awareness of EC pills is low and there is a gap between knowledge and attitude. Appropriate awareness programme needed.

  11. The Role of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Populations: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroush, Ali; Farshchian, Negin; Komasi, Saeid; Izadi, Neda; Amirifard, Nasrin; Shahmohammadi, Afshar

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the main public health issues in the world. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. It is also the second cause of mortality in women. The association between the use of oral contraceptive pills and breast cancer is controversial and a main issue in public health. Some findings have shown that taking these pills does not have a significant effect in increasing the risk of breast cancer, while others have confirmed the carcinogenic effect of these products. These contradictory findings necessitated this meta-analysis, through of all correlated studies in Iran. Methods All published studies were considered from June 2000 until June 2015, using reliable Latin databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Google search, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Persian database like SID, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Magiran. Finally, 26 papers were selected: 24 studies were case control while two were population based studies. A total of 26 papers with 46,260 participants were assessed since 2001. Results Overall estimate of OR for the effect of oral contraceptive pills on breast cancer is 1.521 (CI = 1.25–1.85), which shows that the intervention group had more chance (52%) compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Using these pills increased the risk of breast cancer up to 1.52 times. Conclusions Because of directly increasing levels of estrogen and the role of estrogen in gaining weight indirectly, oral contraceptive pills can stimulate the occurrence of breast cancer. More studies should be conducted for controlling the period of pill use. PMID:28053965

  12. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujuju C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go

  13. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreshchyshyn, M M; Hopkins, A; Zylstra, S; Anbar, M

    1988-08-01

    The relationships between parity, breast-feeding, and the use of birth control pills and the bone densities of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, measured by dual-photon densitometry, were studied in normal women. Femoral neck density was found to decrease by 1.1% per live-birth, whereas lumbar spine density showed no significant association with parity. Breast-feeding was found to increase lumbar spine density by 1.5% per breast-fed child, whereas femoral neck density was not significantly correlated. No significant relationships between the use of birth control pills and the bone densities were found.

  14. Obstruction and perforation of the small bowel caused by inadvertent ingestion of a blister pill pack in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramahi, Ghassan; Mohamed, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kristin; McCann, Michael

    2015-10-16

    Perforation of the small bowel due to foreign body ingestion is a rare instance that occurs in less than 1% of all ingestions. Although rare, ingestion of blister pill packaging is becoming more recognised as a causative agent for intestinal perforation, but is very rarely reported to cause intestinal obstruction. This is a report of a 66-year-old woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and underwent laparotomy, revealing small bowel perforation by a piece of blister pill pack foil. The patient was incognisant of the ingestion.

  15. [Effect of paidu baoshen pill in retarding the progression of chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui-hua; Deng, Hong-tao; Wang, Guo-bin

    2008-08-01

    To assess the impact of Paidu Baoshen Pill (PBP, modified Dahuang Zhechong Pill), in retarding the procession of chronic renal failure (CRF) of stage II-III. The 283 patients of CRF stage II-III were randomly assigned to two groups, 151 patients in the treatment group treated with oral administration of PBP 3 g twice a day, and 132 patients in the control group with oxidative amylase aldehyde enveloped capsule 5-10 capsules thrice a day after meal. The course for both groups was 2 months, and the changes after 1 or 2 courses treatment in scoring of quality of life (QOL) and clinical symptoms, also in laboratory indexes including serum levels of creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (UN), and intrinsic creatinine clearance rate were observed. The total effective rate was 70. 86% (107/151 cases) in the treatment group and 44.70% (59/132 cases) in the control group, showing significant difference between them (X2 = 18.69, P < 0.01). Significant differences between groups were also shown in comparisons of scores of QOL and clinical symptoms after treatment. Inter-group comparison showed no difference in all the three indexes detected before treatment, but they did show statistical significance respectively after 1 and 2 courses of treatment (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). PBP could effectively retard the progression of chronic renal failure and significantly improve the QOL of patients.

  16. [Determination of pinoresinol diglucoside in Qing' e Pills by ultra performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijia; Chen, Jie; Zhao, Junming; Liao, Liping; Sun, Qinglong; Wu, Tao; Wang, Zhengtao

    2010-08-01

    A new ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method was established for the determination of pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in Qing' e Pills. After extracted by the Soxhlet's method, the methanol extracts of the samples were passed through a Waters Oasis HLB SPE column to achieve good chromatographic performance. The separation was performed on a Waters Acquity C18 BEH column (100 mm x 1.0 mm, 1.7 microm) with acetonitrile-water (the pH adjusted to 4.0 with phosphoric acid) (9: 91, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 227 nm, the column temperature was 25 degrees C and the injection volume was 0.5 microL. Under the optimized conditions, there was good linear relationship between the mass concentration and the peak area of PDG in the range of 1.40 - 506.00 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 1. The average recoveries of PDG at three levels ranged from 100.10% to 102.37%. The method is accurate, sensitive, highly reproducible and suitable for the quality control of Qing' e Pills.

  17. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI, has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57% or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%; 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  18. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangqin Wang; Jingjing Zhang; Juan Liu; Guangsheng Qian; Chunmei Fu n

    2016-01-01

    For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP) and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD). For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Ad-ditionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, nar-ingin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9%in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside) were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  19. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangqin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC--DAD. For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, naringin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9% in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  20. De-constructing 'choice': the social imperative and women's use of the birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Kara

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the social construction of 'choice' in women's use of the oral contraceptive birth control pill. Using social and historical critiques of neo-liberalism, it is argued that the contemporary priority placed on 'choice' positions women in contradictory ways-requiring them to be both 'choosing' reproductive subjects and reproductive subjects with very few options. The paper works to de-construct contemporary understandings of choice and finds that women's use of the birth control pill is less an exercise of idealized individual agency than it is an act of repetition, tied to ambiguity around what a lived experience of choice might be. To elaborate elements of the theoretical discussion, findings from a qualitative study of women's use of the oral contraceptive are discussed. These reveal that women's articulations of 'choice' challenge the notion of genuinely available and viable alternatives for women, and demonstrate how the use of a technology can silence understandings of contraception as something other than an individual responsibility.

  1. Designing a flashcard with knowledge pills for learning to solve chemistry exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the proposed tool combines a flashcards-based method with knowledge pills. The framework has three levels: definition of problem for a teacher; the quiz; use of the quiz for the student. The tool could provide predefined or automatically generated exercises of chemicals. Students could practise where and whenever they like via the Internet. Theirs answers would be registered automatically by the tool and if the students have doubts about any of the questions, they can see a knowledge pill with a teacher explanation about the solution of the exercise. Moreover, they would be able to check their scores from the tests. Once the flashcards were designed and produced, the opinions of other lecturers and students about them were considered. Both groups considered that the tool could be useful to improve the students' learning process. For future work, this design will be used with the students and its effectiveness will be analysed.

  2. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Time-Released Garlic Powder Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagodin, Vasily P; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is believed to produce beneficial changes in different cardiovascular risk factors, thus possessing antiatherosclerotic properties. The hypotensive and cholesterol-lowering effects were investigated in two studies in men with mild arterial hypertension and in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Eight-week treatment resulted in the reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.2% (P=0.008) and 4.0% (P=0.014), respectively. In hypolipidemic study, the 12-week treatment resulted in a decrease in LDL cholesterol by 11.8% (P=0.002), while HDL cholesterol increased by 11.5% (P=0.013). In men with cerebral atherosclerosis it has been demonstrated that 14-days treatment inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 25.4% (Pgarlic powder pills on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. A significant correlation has been revealed between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity and the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.144, P=0.045). Evidence obtained from these studies as well as series of double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trials indicates that garlic powder pills are effective for prevention of cardiovascular disorders.

  3. Paramagnetic Salt Pill Design for Magnetic Refrigerators Used In-Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, C.; Benford, D. J.; Richards, P. L.

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is described which was designed for use in the multiband imaging photometer for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). This refrigerator was required to cool bolometric detectors for infrared and millimetre waves to 0.1 K. A paramagnetic salt pill with a number of novel features was developed to meet the stringent requirements for an ADR used in space. An unusual paramagnetic salt, chromic caesium alum (CCA), is used to meet the requirement of thermal stability under the bake-out temperatures used in commissioning space cryogenic vacuum systems. The cycle time for the refrigerator has been reduced to almost-equal-to 30 min by attention to thermal time constants and by growing the CCA salt directly on to an array of gold wires. Crystal growing procedures were developed to overcome problems with the low solubility of CCA in water. The salt pill is sealed in stainless steel to retain water of hydration and is constructed of materials which are not corroded by commonly used paramagnetic salts.

  4. Methamphetamine Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Against Medicine Abuse All About the Teen Years Brain Development & Teen Behavior Risk Factors & Why Teens Use Connecting with ... use methamphetamine risk long-term damage to their brain cells similar to that caused by strokes or Alzheimer’s disease. What are ... Steps Preventing Teen Drug Use: How to Spot the Early Warning ...

  5. Methamphetamine Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of prolonged meth use are characterized by paranoia, hallucinations, repetitive behavior patterns, and delusions of parasites ... violent, aggressive behavior is usually coupled with extreme paranoia. New research shows that those who use methamphetamine ...

  6. Mida teie oma tervise heaks teete? / Ly Jagor, Ülle Mihhailova, Ene Pill, Katrin Käbin...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Pärnu Õppenõustamiskeskuse psühholoog Ly Jagor, Maasika lasteaia juhataja asetäitja Ülle Mihhailova, Tallinna Perekeskuse ja Tähetorni lastekeskuse psühholoog Ene Pill, Tallinna Nõmme Noortemaja väikelaste ringijuht Katrin Käbin, Tääksi Põhikooli õpetaja Silva Kolk

  7. Effect of progestin vs. combined oral contraceptive pills on lactation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony; Leeman, Larry; Singh, Rameet; Schrader, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills on rates of breastfeeding continuation in postpartum women. Secondary outcomes include infant growth parameters, contraceptive method continuation and patient satisfaction with breastfeeding and contraceptive method. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, postpartum breastfeeding women who desired oral contraceptives were assigned to progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills. At two and eight weeks postpartum, participants completed in-person questionnaires that assessed breastfeeding continuation and contraceptive use. Infant growth parameters including weight, length and head circumference were assessed at eight weeks postpartum. Telephone questionnaires assessing breastfeeding, contraceptive continuation and satisfaction were completed at 3-7 weeks and 4 and 6 months. Breastfeeding continuation was compared between groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences in baseline demographic characteristics and in variables between the two intervention groups were compared using chi-square tests, Fisher’s Exact test, or two-sample t-tests as appropriate. Results Breastfeeding continuation rates, contraceptive continuation, and infant growth parameters did not differ between users of progestin-only and combined hormonal contraceptive pills. Infant formula supplementation and maternal perception of inadequate milk supply were associated with decreased rates of breastfeeding in both groups. Conclusions Choice of combined or progestin-only birth control pills administered two weeks postpartum did not adversely affect breastfeeding continuation. PMID:22143258

  8. The association between current low-dose oral contraceptive pills and periodontal health: a matched-case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Moeintaghavi, Amir; Talebi-Ardakani, Mahammadreza Reza; Sohrabi, Keyvan; Bahmani, Shahin; Dargahi, Maede

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed the influence of current oral contraceptive pills on periodontal health in young females. Seventy women ranging in age from 17 to 35 years (mean 24 years) had a comprehensive periodontal examination. Their current and previous oral contraceptive pill use was assessed by a questionnaire. A periodontal assessment was performed that included recording the following: plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and attachment level at six sites per tooth. The periodontal health of women taking birth control pills for at least two years was compared to that of women not taking an oral contraceptive. The control and test groups were matched for socioeconomic status, age, oral habits, occupation, and educational levels. Although there was no difference in plaque index levels between the two groups, current oral contraceptive pill users had higher levels of gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing. However, no significant differences were found regarding mean probing depths and attachment loss between the two groups. As birth control policies are advocated by most countries, and because oral contraceptives are the most widely used method for birth control, a need exists to assess the effects of oral contraceptives on the periodontal health of young women. Although additional studies are needed to better understand the mechanism of OC-induced gingivitis, female patients should be informed of the oral and periodontal side effects of OCs and the need for meticulous home care and compliance with periodontal maintenance.

  9. Oral contraceptive pill, progestogen or estrogen pre-treatment for ovarian stimulation protocols for women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, B.; Oirschot, S.M. van; Farquhar, C.; Rombauts, L.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many subfertile women, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is the only hope for a pregnancy and live birth. The combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) given prior to the hormone therapy in an IVF cycle may result in better pregnancy outcomes of ART. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether p

  10. Overdose of oral contraceptive pills as a means of intentional self-poisoning amongst young women in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most popular family planning methods in Sri Lanka. As part of two hospital-based studies on self-harm, the use of OCPs was identified, from yet unpublished results, as a means of intentional self-poisoning. To inform future guidelines...

  11. 乳腺丸的制备与质量控制%Preparation and Quality Control for Ruxian Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 王伟; 邵兵; 刘艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish the quality control of Ruxian Pill. Methods:Angelica Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Rubra and Gleditsiae Spina in Ruxian Pill were identified by TLC. The limit of heavy metal in Ruxian Pill was tested with thioacetamide after ignition. Results:The TLC identification was highly specific and the spots were clear and concentrated. The limit of heavy metal was less than l0ppm. Conclusion:The quality method is simple,rapid and is able to effectively control the quality of Ruxian Pill.%目的:制备乳腺丸及建立质量控制方法.方法:采用薄层色谱法对乳腺丸中的当归、赤芍、皂角刺等成分进行定性鉴别;采用炽灼后硫代乙酰胺法对乳腺丸进行重金属检查.结果:各主要成份分离良好,有效成分斑点清晰,阴性样品无干扰.重金属限度≤10ppm.结论:制剂稳定,所建立的鉴别方法和检查方法简便、快捷,适合制剂的质量控制.

  12. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  13. Optimization of Bromelain Treatment pH with Wool for Antifelting and Reduced Pilling Behaviour: Objective Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool fabric possesses unique properties like resiliency, warmth, wide aesthetic qualities, and comfort. However, felting-shrinkage and pilling tendency of wool after wear and repeated launderings are its inherent limitations. Proteolytic enzymes are extensively used as biocatalysts for eco-friendly wool antifelting treatments. However, uncontrolled wool protein hydrolysis by protease may lead to excessive weight loss leading to weakening of fiber and reduction in its tensile value, which further have detrimental effect on the pilling propensity of protease treated wool during use of woolen textiles. Optimum selection of protease treatment parameters like concentration, pH, temperature, and so forth can help in controlled reaction to achieve the desired effect, which generally involves cumbersome sampling and analysis. Optimization for pH of bromelain (proteolytic enzyme having activity in acidic conditions treatment with wool has been done while aiming at the desired areawise shrinkage value, minimum weight loss, and reduced pilling by using standard methods and objective fast Fourier transformation technique for pilling evaluation specifically.

  14. Assessing medication adherence simultaneously by electronic monitoring and pill count in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A.W. van; Verberk, W.J.; Kessels, A.G.; Kroon, A.A.; Neef, C.; Kuy, P.H. van der; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to antihypertensive medication is one of the major problems in the treatment of hypertension. Electronic monitoring is currently considered to be the gold standard for assessing adherence, but it may trigger patients to open the pill bottle without taking medication or to

  15. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Haan, A. de; Koning, J.J. de; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The p

  16. [Identification of yougui and jisheng shenqi pills with FTIR and EDS fingerprint spectra by new visual comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Shuang; Zou, Hua-Bin; Tian, Fang; Du, Ai-Qin; Dong, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Xin-Ling

    2011-09-01

    FTIR combined with EDS fingerprint spectra was first applied to the identification of two kind of traditional Chinese compound formulae-Yougui pill and Jisheng shenqi pills, which have the similar composition The IR FPS of extraction of two kinds of pills extracted with chloroform were measured by liquid membrane method. The exclusively characteristic peak groups of these two kinds of formulae were theoretically established based on the Shapiro-Wilk W testing method,and the characteristic radicals and compound species corresponding to each characteristic peak were determined. Meanwhile, EDS fingerprint spectra of the two kinds of original powders were also measured which can reflect the element species and content information. Based on the three kinds of information (characteristic peak groups, radicals and compound species, different elements), Yougui and Jisheng shenqi pills were identified quickly, precisely and reliably. In this method, infrared fingerprint spectra possess the similar ability with chromatograph fingerprint spectra in identification of traditional Chinese compound formulae. The results show that the new visual comparison method is suitable for identifying traditional Chinese compound formulae with the same dosage-form and similar composition.

  17. Identification and determination of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Pill by HPLC-D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Juan Su; Xu Liang; Xi Zhang; Ya-Jun He; Hai-Qiang Huan; Ji Ye; Wei-Dong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A novel and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of twelve major compounds in Longdan Xiegan Pill.The chemical profile of the twelve compounds,including geniposidic acid(1),geniposide(2),gentiopicroside(3),liquiri

  18. Sex, tensions and pills : Young people’s use of contemporary reproductive and sexual health technologies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, R.E.C.

    2017-01-01

    This study sheds light on why some young men and women from diverse backgrounds in Addis Ababa use emergency contraceptive pills (ECs) and sildenafil citrate (Viagra) repeatedly, sometimes in a routinized manner. It unravels the reasons behind the frequent yet secretive purchasing of these two

  19. Mida teie oma tervise heaks teete? / Ly Jagor, Ülle Mihhailova, Ene Pill, Katrin Käbin...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Pärnu Õppenõustamiskeskuse psühholoog Ly Jagor, Maasika lasteaia juhataja asetäitja Ülle Mihhailova, Tallinna Perekeskuse ja Tähetorni lastekeskuse psühholoog Ene Pill, Tallinna Nõmme Noortemaja väikelaste ringijuht Katrin Käbin, Tääksi Põhikooli õpetaja Silva Kolk

  20. Oral contraceptive pill, progestogen or estrogen pre-treatment for ovarian stimulation protocols for women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, B.; Oirschot, S.M. van; Farquhar, C.; Rombauts, L.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many subfertile women, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is the only hope for a pregnancy and live birth. The combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) given prior to the hormone therapy in an IVF cycle may result in better pregnancy outcomes of ART. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether p

  1. Õpilaskodud ei ole imerohi, aga rohi siiski / Rein Ansip, Pille Liblik, Kalev Saar...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Õpilaskodude kasvatajate suvekoolis Krabil arutlesid sotsiaalsete probleemidega kodudest pärit laste koolitamise üle Krabi põhikooli direktor Ale Sprenk, Varstu vallavanem Rein Ansip, Võru maavalitsuse haridusosakonna juhataja Pille Liblik, Viira kooli direktor Kalev Saar ja psühholoog Tõnu Ots

  2. Therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Xiong, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy, 19 patients with early diabetic retinopathy were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. The TaiYang, YangBai, YuYao and ZanZhu acupoints of patients in the treatment group were irradiated with a semiconductor laser combined with the oral compound Danshen dropping pills, while those in the control group only used the oral compound Danshen dropping pills. The indicators of vision, mean defect of light sensitivity in the visual field, renal function and fasting blood glucose, were examined to evaluate the efficacy. After treatment, the above indicators of patients in the two groups were significantly improved and there was a significant difference between the two groups. This showed that the compound Danshen dripping pills combined with the laser acupoint irradiation can improve the ischemic and anoxic state of early diabetic retinopathy and improve the visual field.

  3. Estradiol valerate and dienogest: a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micks, Elizabeth; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-09-01

    Estradiol valerate and dienogest have been combined to create a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for both pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. This formulation represents the only oral contraceptive pill available in the USA containing an estrogen component that is biologically active as the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol. This medication was developed out of efforts to replace the most common estrogen in contraceptive pills, ethinyl estradiol, which is known to be a potent inducer of hepatic protein synthesis. Estradiol valerate has been available since the 1970s in oral and injectable forms indicated for the treatment of menopausal climacteric symptoms. Dienogest has been used in other oral contraceptive pills for over 10 years. Previous attempts to develop an oral contraceptive pill with natural estradiol or estradiol valerate were unsuccessful due to poor cycle control. A novel dynamic-dosing regimen was devised to improve the bleeding pattern. This medication has been shown in several clinical trials to have good contraceptive efficacy and cycle control. Recent studies have also demonstrated that this medication is effective for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. However, compared with other oral contraceptive pills, this medication is associated with a higher frequency of absent withdrawal bleeding. Furthermore, the dynamic dosing regimen requires relatively complex instructions for users who miss pills.

  4. A randomized-controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eStip

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR is about 49.5 % in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill® and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill® provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. Methods: The DoPill® is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill® or Treatment As Usual group (TAU for six weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Results: Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67 % after six weeks. DoPill® recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. Conclusion: These results suggest that DoPill® is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient’s adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen.

  5. Review on the Applications and Molecular Mechanisms of Xihuang Pill in Tumor Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiujun Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xihuang pill (XH is a complementary and alternative medicine that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of tumors since the 18th century. XH has clinical effects on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and bone metastasis. XH can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells and cancer stem cells, prevent tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and regulate the tumor microenvironment. XH is composed of Ru Xiang (olibanum, Mo Yao (Commiphora myrrha, She Xiang (Moschus, and Niu Huang (Calculus bovis. Some of the compounds found in these ingredients exert multiple antitumor effects and may synergize with the other ingredients. We aimed to summarize the clinical applications and molecular mechanisms of XH and its chemical composition. This review will provide potential new strategies and alternative perspectives for tumor treatments and basic research into complementary and alternative medicine.

  6. Misconceptions about missed conceptions: the meanings of emergency contraceptive pills use among young adult couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Richard; Kools, Susan; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Humphreys, Janice

    2011-11-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) are a safe and efficacious backup method of birth control. Despite widespread availability, ECP is underutilized by young women. While partner level of involvement has been shown to influence contraceptive behavior, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding any possible association between partner influence and ECP use. To better understand the reasons for the seemingly underuse of ECP, a grounded theory study was conducted to elucidate the relationship of couple dynamics and knowledge of, attitudes toward, and decision making regarding the use of ECP in coupled young adults. Consistent with contemporary constructivist grounded theory methods, several categories were identified including the meanings associated with ECP use. This article presents an elaboration of this particular finding. The meanings that participants ascribed to ECP use represented a continuum of value attributes regarding ethics, safety, efficacy, and responsibility.

  7. Review on the Applications and Molecular Mechanisms of Xihuang Pill in Tumor Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiujun; Lin, Jinyin; Liu, Rui; Gao, Yebo; He, Shulin; Xu, Xinyao; Hua, Baojin; Li, Conghuang; Hou, Wei; Zheng, Honggang; Bao, Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Xihuang pill (XH) is a complementary and alternative medicine that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of tumors since the 18th century. XH has clinical effects on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and bone metastasis. XH can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells and cancer stem cells, prevent tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and regulate the tumor microenvironment. XH is composed of Ru Xiang (olibanum), Mo Yao (Commiphora myrrha), She Xiang (Moschus), and Niu Huang (Calculus bovis). Some of the compounds found in these ingredients exert multiple antitumor effects and may synergize with the other ingredients. We aimed to summarize the clinical applications and molecular mechanisms of XH and its chemical composition. This review will provide potential new strategies and alternative perspectives for tumor treatments and basic research into complementary and alternative medicine.

  8. Pill power: oral contraceptives hold top spot in family planning arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Results of the 1998 "Contraceptive Technology Update" Pill Survey indicate that oral contraceptives (OCs) remain the top birth control choice for US women. More than 70% of providers who responded to the survey reported that at least 50 women leave their offices each month with an OC prescription. When asked to cite their first OC choice, for a 21-year-old nonsmoking woman, Ortho Tri-Cyclen was selected by 43.6% of providers. This OC is considered an excellent choice for young women because of its ease of use, good cycle control, and beneficial effect on acne. The top choices for a 42-year-old nonsmoking woman were Loestrin (26.5%) and Alesse (21.1%), both of which have low estrogen doses. 25% of providers indicated they had prescribed OCs specifically to decrease the ovarian cancer risk in genetically predisposed women.

  9. [Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by the use of diet pills and unbalanced diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Adrián; Aradi, Gabriella; Várallyay, György; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Bereczki, Dániel; Vastagh, Ildikó

    2014-03-23

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute, potentially life-threatening, neurological syndrome resulting from thiamine deficiency. The disorder is still greatly underdiagnosed and, without prompt treatment, the condition can lead to the chronic form of the disease, Korsakoff's syndrome or even death. In developed countries Wernicke's encephalopathy has been associated with alcoholism, but in recent years there has been an increasing number of non-alcoholic cases. Authors report the case of a 23-year-old woman who developed oculomotor dysfunction, encephalopathy and ataxia as a result of an extreme diet and use of diet pills. The diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy was supported by the resolution of neurological signs after parenteral thiamine replacement. This case is presented because of the rare etiology and diagnostic difficulty, and the latest diagnostic and therapic guidelines are also highlighted.

  10. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers.

  11. Low-cost, high-performance nonevaporable getter pumps using nonevaporable getter pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Hiraku; Ohno, Shinya; Tanaka, Masatoshi [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Masato; Okudaira, Koji K. [Faculty of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku 263-8522 (Japan); Mase, Kazuhiko, E-mail: mase@post.kek.jp; Kikuchi, Takashi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps are widely used for maintaining a clean ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) of ≤10{sup −8 }Pa because of their high pumping speeds for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and active gases in the UHV region. In addition, they are oil free, evaporation free, sputtering free, sublimation free, magnetic field free, vibration free, economical, compact, lightweight, and energy saving. In the present paper, the authors report a new NEG pump which is composed of commercial 60 NEG pills (ϕ10 × 3 mm; 70 wt. % Zr, 24.6 wt. % V, and 5.4 wt. % Fe), titanium parts, a DN 40 conflat flange, and a tantalum heater. The NEG pills are vertically and radially aligned around the heater to maximize the effective area for pumping. After activation at 400 °C for 30 min, the pumping speeds of the NEG pump were measured with the orifice method. Pumping speeds of 140–130, 200–140, 190–130, and 35–17 l/s were estimated for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} gasses, respectively, in a pumped-quantity range of 0.01–0.1 Pa l. Since the NEG pump is composed of a heating unit and a NEG module, the pumping speeds can be improved by increasing the number of NEG modules. These NEG pumps are favorable alternatives to sputtering ion pumps or titanium sublimation pumps.

  12. Women's perceptions and reasons for choosing the pill, patch, or ring in the CHOICE study: a cross-sectional survey of contraceptive method selection after counseling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egarter, Christian; Frey Tirri, Brigitte; Bitzer, Johannes; Kaminskyy, Vyacheslav; Oddens, Björn J; Prilepskaya, Vera; Yeshaya, Arie; Marintcheva-Petrova, Maya; Weyers, Steven

    2013-01-01

    .... In this paper we present the reasons given by the 18,787 participating women for selecting their contraceptive method of choice, as well as their perceptions about the contraceptive pill, patch...

  13. 低起球聚酯纤维的开发现状%THE DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF LOW-PILLING POLYESTER FIBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志勇

    2015-01-01

    简述了低起球聚酯纤维国内外的开发状况;比较了不同低起球聚酯纤维制备方法的利弊;概括了制备低起球聚酯纤维的原理,为之后开展低起球聚酯纤维的研发工作提供了借鉴与指导。%Describe the development status of low-pilling polyester fiber and abroad; compare the pros and cons of different low-pilling polyester fiber preparation methods; outline the principles from low-pilling polyester fiber preparation to provide reference and guidance for the following low-pilling polyester fiber re-search and development work.

  14. Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT and low-dose combined oral pill on skin thickness, lipid profile and blood chemistry of menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study to evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy ( HRT and low-dose combinated oral pill on skin thickness , lipid profile and blood chemistry on menopausal woman.This study was carried out in one year randomized prospective study. 36 women were divided into 18 women receiving HRT and the other 18 receiving low-dose oral pill. The result of this study showed an increase in skin thickness (collagen in both groups. But Those received low dose oral pill showed more . The increase of the skin thickness can prevent osteoporosis. The administration of HRT or low-dose oral pill could cause allteration in blood lipip profile and blood chemistry. But The changes were still within in normal limit. The administration of low-dose oral pill can be considered in postmeno-pausal women. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 224-8Keywords: Hormone replacement therapy, low-dose oral pill, menopausal women, skin thickness, lipid profile, blood chemistry.

  15. The effect of the oral contraceptive pill on the passive stiffness of the human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, C I; Spencer, J; Hussain, A W; Onambele, G L

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of sustained monophasic oral contraceptive pill (MOCP) use on the in vivo passive stiffness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle-tendon unit. Twenty four females volunteered for this study (age range 20-25 yrs); twelve participants had been taking the combined MOCP for a minimum of 12 months, and twelve participants, who had never taken the MOCP, formed a control group. Distal displacement of the GM myotendinous junction (MTJ) was measured during passive dorsiflexion at 2 Nm increments to 20 Nm, and at end range of motion using ultrasonography. In addition, GM MTJ displacement was measured at passive torques equivalent to 5, 10 and 15% of plantarflexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, and relative to GM length. MOCP users had significantly greater GM MTJ displacement at all passive torques (PMTJ displacement, passive muscle stiffness is less in MOCP using females, compared to non-pill users.

  16. Using caffeine pills for performance enhancement. An experimental study on university students’ willingness and their intention to try neuroenhancements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eBrand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical, non-addictive use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience, especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%, low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5% or control condition (no information about peer prevalence. Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants’ willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40 45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  17. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf eBrand; Helen Maria Koch

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical, non-addictive use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors in...

  18. Does incentivising pill-taking 'crowd out' risk-information processing? Evidence from a web-based experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzari, Eleni; Vogt, Florian; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-04-01

    The use of financial incentives for changing health-related behaviours raises concerns regarding their potential to undermine the processing of risks associated with incentivised behaviours. Uncertainty remains about the validity of such concerns. This web-based experiment assessed the impact of financial incentives on i) willingness to take a pill with side-effects; ii) the time spent viewing risk-information and iii) risk-information processing, assessed by perceived-risk of taking the pill and knowledge of its side-effects. It further assesses whether effects are moderated by limiting cognitive capacity. Two-hundred and seventy-five UK-based university staff and students were recruited online under the pretext of being screened for a fictitious drug-trial. Participants were randomised to the offer of different compensation levels for taking a fictitious pill (£0; £25; £1000) and the presence or absence of a cognitive load task (presentation of five digits for later recall). Willingness to take the pill increased with the offer of £1000 (84% vs. 67%; OR 3.66, CI 95% 1.27-10.6), but not with the offer of £25 (79% vs. 67%; OR 1.68, CI 95% 0.71-4.01). Risk-information processing was unaffected by the offer of incentives. The time spent viewing the risk-information was affected by the offer of incentives, an effect moderated by cognitive load: Without load, time increased with the value of incentives (£1000: M = 304.4sec vs. £0: M = 37.8sec, p information processing. On the contrary, incentives appear to signal risk, an effect, however, which disappears under cognitive load. Although these findings require replication, they highlight the need to maximise cognitive capacity when presenting information about incentivised health-related behaviours.

  19. Research on Quality Standard of Shenshehuoluo Pill%参麝活络丸质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红晖; 王根才; 罗京; 付雯; 吴瑜

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立参麝活络丸的质量控制方法.方法 采用薄层色谱鉴别法对参麝活络丸中的黄连定性,HPLC法测定黄连的盐酸小檗碱的含量.结果 在薄层色谱中能检出黄连;盐酸小檗碱在9.2-230.0 μg范围内呈线性关系,r=0.9998,平均回收率为98.95%,RSD为1.9%.结论 所建立的方法专属简便可行,重现性好,为参麝活络丸质量控制提供了方法.%Objective Intends to establish and Shenshehuoluo pill quality control method. Methods TLC identification method of Shenshehuoluo pill of rhizoma coptidis qualitative, HPLC for determination of coptis root of the content of berberine hydrochloride. Results In thin layer chromatography can checkout coptis root; Berberine hydrochloride in 9. 2 -230.0 μg range in a linear relationship, r =0. 9998, and the average recovery was 98.95% , RSD was 1.9%. Conclusion The method exclusive is simple, feasible, and reproducible, for the quality control and Shenshehuoluo pill provides method.

  20. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-07-26

    BACKGROUND Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. RESULTS Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative determination of 15 main active constituents in Fructus Sophorae pill by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-ran Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fructus Sophorae pill, one of the traditional Chinese medicine, was widely used for hemorrhoids, hypertension and odontalgia. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of the 15 active constituents (sophoricoside, genistin, genistein, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, baicalein, baicalin, naringin, naringenin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, wogonin and cimifugin, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin in Fructus Sophorae pill. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was performed on a C 18 column with acidified aqueous methanol gradients at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The identification and quantification of the analytes were achieved by use of a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Multiple-reaction monitoring scanning was applied to quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes. Results: The proposed method was used to analyze 40 batches of samples with good linearity (r, 0.9990-0.9999, intraday precisions (RSD, 0.14-2.55%, interday precisions (RSD, 0.51-2.81%, stability (RSD, 0.31-2.65%, and recovery (RSD, 1.29-2.95% of the 15 compounds. In addition, the hierarchical cluster analysis, including a method called furthest neighbor and nearest neighbor, was employed to classify samples according to characteristics of the 15 constituents. Conclusion: The results indicated that the analytical method was rapid, reliable, simple and suitable for the quality evaluation of Fructus Sophorae pill.

  2. Menstrual abnormalities in the adolescent abuse of the birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J E

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the physiology of menstrual abnormalities in the adolescent and suggests a management protocol based on this pathophysiological framework. Initial discussion covers the physiology of puberty and menstruation. Menstrual abnormalities occur often in the adolescent. Excessive bleeding is the most dramatic symptom, but the most common complaints concern the frequency, duration, and variability of menstrual flow. Often the oral contraceptive (OC) pill is the panacea for the patient, her family, and the physician. This solution has several advantages. It is attractive, inexpensive, easy to use, and regulates the menstrual cycle. Although menstrual abnormalities are seemingly corrected, the treatment is not physiological. This use of the OC pill may mask the underlying problem and delay the diagnosis of a medical disorder and will interfere with the normal maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, which is necessary for regular menses to occur. The diagnosis of anovulatory bleeding is one of exclusion. Both local and systemic problems can mimic dysfunctional bleeding. Pregnancy must always be considered but is often overlooked in the young teenager. A satisfactory history and physical examination, including a vaginal and/or rectal examination, is paramount to rule out other causes. Coagulation defects may play a significant role in adolescent bleeding abnormalities. Endocrine disorders, including thyroid disease, Cushing's syndrome, hypoprolactinemia, and acromegaly, can result in menstrual abnormalities. After a meticulous history and physical examination, any teenager presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding should not exhibit any physical abnormality other than the signs and symptoms of blood loss. The initial laboratory tests need not be extensive but must include a hemoglobin estimation, blood smear, platelet count, bleeding time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and thyroid function tests. Only the simplest

  3. Uusim tehnika annab säästu ka maasoojuspumpades / Lauri Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Õhksoojuspumpadega tuntust kogunud inverter- ehk sagedusmuunduriga kompressortehnikat kasutatakse ka uue põlvkonna maasoojuspumpades. Tootjate sõnul annab invertertehnika varasemate seadmetega võrreldes umbes 10–15% kokkuhoidu

  4. Uusim tehnika annab säästu ka maasoojuspumpades / Lauri Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Õhksoojuspumpadega tuntust kogunud inverter- ehk sagedusmuunduriga kompressortehnikat kasutatakse ka uue põlvkonna maasoojuspumpades. Tootjate sõnul annab invertertehnika varasemate seadmetega võrreldes umbes 10–15% kokkuhoidu

  5. Design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill for use in a millikelvin cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature (24 mm outer diameter by 30 mm long) Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill is described. The need for a fast thermal response has been driven by the development of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC) which uses 2 T superconducting magnets that can be ramped to full field in 30 s. The consequence of magnetising and demagnetising the CPA pill in such a short time is that thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating have a significant impact on the performance of the pill, which was investigated in detail using modelling. The complete design of a prototype CPA pill is described in this paper, including the methods used to minimise thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating as well as the manufacturing and assembly processes. The performance of the prototype CPA pill operated from a 3.6 K bath is presented, demonstrating that a complete CPA cycle (magnetising, cooling to bath and demagnetising) can be accomplished in under 2.5 min, with magnetisation and demagnetisation taking just 30 s each. The cold finger base temperature of the prototype varies with demagnetisation speed as a consequence of eddy current heating; for a 30 s demagnetisation, a base temperature of 161 mK is obtained, whilst for a 5 min demagnetisation, a base temperature of 149 mK was measured (both from a 3.6 K and 2 T starting position). The measured hold times of the CPA pill at 200 mK, 300 mK, and 1 K are given, proving that the hold time far exceeds the recycle time and demonstrating the potential for continuous operation when two ADRs are used in a tandem configuration. The ease and speed at which the CPA pill temperature can be changed and controlled when stepping between operating temperatures in the range of 200 mK to 4 K using a servo control program is also shown, once again highlighting the excellent thermal response of the pill. All of the test results are in good agreement with the

  6. [Clinical observation on treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux with modified zhizhu pill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghen, Jian-yong; Qiu, Jian-rong; Pan, Feng

    2004-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of modified Zhizhu pill (ZZP) in treating gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to explore its mechanism. Sixty-three GERD patients were randomly divided into the treated group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 33). The treated group was treated with ZZP 100 ml, twice daily by orally taking half an hour before meal. The control group was treated with Ranitidine 0.15 g, twice daily and Cisapride 10 mg, three times a day by orally taking before meal. The therapeutic course for both groups was 8 weeks. The changes of symptom scoring, endoscopic examination, esophageal pressure, 24 hrs monitoring on pH and blood level of motilin in the two groups were recorded and compared. After treatment, the symptom scoring, esophageal pressure, 24 hrs monitoring on pH and blood motilin level were improved in both groups (P < 0.05), and the improvement in the treated group was more significant than that in the control group (P < 0.05). ZZP has good effect in treating GERD.

  7. Measuring perceptions of synergistic circulatory disease risk due to smoking and the oral contraceptive pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Gayton, Emma L; Burton, Jessica; Thorogood, Margaret; Marteau, Theresa M

    2002-12-01

    There is evidence that the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and smoking contribute independently to risk of circulatory disease. There is mixed evidence that the combined risk may be greater than the sum of these factors operating in isolation. Little is known about how the general population views the risks from OCP use, singly and in combination with smoking. Previous attempts at assessing whether the public views risks as operating synergistically have generally found evidence for subadditive models, where the combined risk is less than the sum of factors operating in isolation. However, concerns have been expressed over the validity of the measures of risk perception used. Therefore, this study used three distinct methods of measurement to assess the extent to which 241 undergraduate students perceive the risks of smoking and the OCP separately and combined, for circulatory disease. For all three methods, respondents read each of four vignettes describing information about a woman's risk factors (with high and low levels of both OCP and smoking), and then estimated risk of circulatory disease using one of the three risk measures. The three measures produced similar ratings. Consistent with the epidemiological evidence, information about smoking had more impact on estimates of overall risk than did information about the OCP For all three measures, responses were consistent with an additive model of risk from smoking and the OCP. This convergence of results from different methods suggests that all three methods of measurement employed, which all had a large number of response options, may be valid.

  8. Revaluation of Xihuang Pill on tumor treatment:from ancient literatures to modern studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yang; Xiong-ZhiWu

    2016-01-01

    Xihuang Pill (XHP), an old prescription since the 18th century to treat various diseases, including breast cancer, is used widely for tumor therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. XHP is composed of Niu Huang (Calculus bovis), She Xiang (Moschus), Ru Xiang (Olibanum), and Mo Yao (Myrrha). XHP was recorded to have effects on treating breast cancer, intestinal cancer, lymphomas, ovarian cancer. Modern studies indicate that XHP can inhibit tumor cells proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and regulate tumor microenvironment. In this review, we firstly introduced the application of XHP on tumor therapy in ancient literatures. Then, the antitumor studies of XHP in both clinical and basic aspects were summarized and we also discussed the antitumor material basis and mechanisms of Calculus Bovis, Moschus, Olibanum and Myrrha. In addition, with the development of time, the dosage form of XHP, source and dose of herbs and processing methods of Olibanum and Myrrha have been changed and we also evaluated the advantage and disadvantage of these changes of XHP. Taken together, XHP has various antitumor active ingredients, which is multi-target. Moreover, beneficial technology improvement has been made in modern XHP compared to the ancient prescription. Here, we aimed to put forward a new method to revaluating XHP on its application from ancient literatures to modern studies and from pharmacy to medicine.

  9. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

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    Táňa Drahokoupilová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1 activity during 24 hours and (2 specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of A. vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only.

  10. Yueju Pill Rapidly Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects and Acutely Enhances BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

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    Wenda Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional antidepressants have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy, and the emerging fast-acting antidepressant ketamine has adverse behavioral and neurotoxic effects. Yueju pill, an herb medicine formulated eight hundred years ago by Doctor Zhu Danxi, has been popularly prescribed in China for alleviation of depression-like symptoms. Although several clinical outcome studies reported the relative short onset of antidepressant effects of Yueju, this has not been scientifically investigated. We, therefore, examined the rapid antidepressant effect of Yueju in mice and tested the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute administration of ethanol extract of Yueju rapidly attenuated depressive-like symptoms in learned helpless paradigm, and the antidepressant-like effects were sustained for at least 24 hours in tail suspension test in ICR mice. Additionally, Yueju, like ketamine, rapidly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus, whereas the BDNF mRNA expression remained unaltered. Yueju rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2, leading to desuppression of BDNF synthesis. Unlike ketamine, both the BDNF expression and eEF2 phosphorylation were revered at 24 hours after Yueju administration. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid antidepressant effects of an herb medicine, offering an opportunity to improve therapy of depression.

  11. Oral contraceptive pills: A risk factor for retinal vascular occlusion in in-vitro fertilization patients

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    Rohina S Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular occlusion is the most common cause of retinopathy leading to severe visual loss in all age groups. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is usually seen in older age group and is often associated with systemic vascular diseases. Although the exact cause and effect relationship has not been proven, central retinal vein occlusion has been associated with various systemic pathological conditions, hence a direct review of systems toward the various systemic and local factors predisposing the central retinal vein occlusion is advocated. We describe the development of central retinal venous occlusion with associated cystoid macular edema (CME in two healthy infertile women who were recruited for in vitro fertilization cycle for infertility. Predisposing risk factors associated with central retinal vein occlusion are obesity, sedentary life style, smoking, and some systemic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, associated autoimmune disorders e.g., antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, lupus, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, bleeding or clotting disorders, vasculitis, closed-head trauma, alcohol consumption, primary open-angle glaucoma or angle-closure glaucoma.In our patients, they were ruled out afterdoing allpertaining investigations. The cases were managed with further avoidance of oral contraceptives and intra-vitreal injections of Bevacizumab (Avastin, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF drug and Triamcinolone acetonide (a long acting synthetic steroid. Hence, even if no systemic diseases are detected. Physical examinations are recommended periodically for young women on oral contraceptive pills.

  12. What’s in a Label? Ecstasy Sellers’ Perceptions of Pill Brands†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duterte, Micheline; Jacinto, Camille; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2009-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from a qualitative study of Ecstasy sellers and their sales practices, knowledge of distribution networks, buyer-seller relationships, and self-reported drug use. In-depth interviews were conducted with 80 men and women who had sold five or more hits of Ecstasy five or more times in the six months prior to the interview. Study participants described their perceptions of the various types of Ecstasy they had distributed or used themselves. The participants had experience with a variety of Ecstasy labels, from the popular “Blue Dolphin” tablets to the powdered form called “Molly.” We tracked pill brand mentions on Ecstasy-related websites to compare with interviewees’ descriptions of Ecstasy brands. This study examines Ecstasy sellers’ ideas about the role of brand names in Ecstasy markets and their relationship to their beliefs about different types of Ecstasy’s purity and quality. We demonstrate that considering Ecstasy branding increases our understanding of buyer and seller relationships. PMID:19455907

  13. Monitorization of drug content in furosemide and lorazepam tablets stored in multidose pill boxes

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    Jessica Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Therapeutic nonadherence is a major health problem, particularly when therapeutic regimens are complex and long-lasting. Therefore, tools such as multidose pill boxes have been designed to provide the means for higher therapeutic compliance. However, no studies are available reporting on their capacity to keep the drug content of the stored tablets unaltered. Objective : This work aimed at monitoring the drug content of tablets stored in multidose boxes for a period of two weeks. Materials and Methods : Furosemide and lorazepam were selected as model drugs, given their frequent chronic use, which is coherent with the profile of medicines susceptible of storage in the referred boxes. Variations of the tablets drug content were assessed as a function of temperature (25°C and 40°C and the presence of blister. Results and Discussion : The obtained results allowed concluding that concerning temperature, only lorazepam tablets registered drug content alterations and only when stored at 40°C. On the other side, it was concluded that the absence of blister does not compromise the drug content of the studied tablets. Conclusion : In the specific conditions of this study, the storage of these medicines in multidose boxes is considered reliable and adequate.

  14. The chronic hepatotoxicity assessment of the herbal formula Zishen Yutai pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xuehong; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Meishuang; Sun, Guibo; Tang, Shimin; Huang, Qiuling; Sun, Xiaobo

    2017-02-01

    Zishen Yutai pill (ZYP) is an oriental herbal formula, while hepatotoxicity assessment of ZYP was rarely evaluated. Therefore, our aim is to re-evaluate its hepatotoxicity in both normal and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced chronic liver injury rats. In the normal model, two doses of ZYP (1.575 and 9.450 g kg(-1) d(-1); i.e. 1 × , 6 × clinical doses) were given orally to rats for 24 weeks. In the chronic liver injury model, 10% CCl4 was administered to rats abdominally twice a week at a dose of 5 mL kg(-1) for 12 consecutive weeks. Administration time started from 4 weeks after the beginning of CCl4 treatment. Toxicological parameters included mortality, body weight, food consumption, clinical signs, biochemical parameters, gross observation, organ weight, necropsy findings and histopathology were monitored. In the normal model, we found no any mortality or abnormality in clinical signs, relative liver weight, biochemical parameters and histopathology in ZYP treatment groups. In the chronic liver injury model, liver damage related parameter such as ALT was elevated at the high dose of ZYP treatment in contrast to the CCl4-treated group (P rats and 9.450 g kg(-1) d(-1) ZYP in the injury rats.

  15. A curious abnormally developed embryo of the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Villers, 1789

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    Ralf Janssen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an abnormally developed embryo (ADE of the common pill millipede Glomeris marginata. This ADE represents a modified case of Duplicitas posterior, in which two posterior ends are present, but only one anterior end. While the major posterior germ band of the embryo appears almost normally developed, the minor posterior germ band is heavily malformed, has no clear correlation to the single head, little or no ventral tissue, and a minute amount of yolk. The anterior end of the minor germ band is fused to the ventral side of the major germ band between the first and second trunk segment. At least one appendage of the second trunk segment appears to be shared by the two germ bands. Morphology and position of the minor germ band suggest that the ADE may be the result of an incorrectly established single cumulus [the later posterior segment addition zone (SAZ]. This differs from earlier reports on D. posterior type ADEs in G. marginata that are likely the result of the early formation of two separate cumuli.

  16. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion- A rare complication of oral contraceptive pills

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    Nidhi Pancholi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To propose a hypothesis of causal association between central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and oral contraceptive pills (OCPCase Summary:A case report-A 22 yr old, female presented with sudden painless loss of vision in OS [Right Eye] for 1 day. VA [Visual Activity] in OS was PL PR [Perception of Light and Projection of Rays] Faulty with RAPD [Relative Afferent Papillary Defect] with normal for fifteen minutes, given five hundred mg of acetazolamide orally stat, 0.4 ml of anterior chamber paracentesis done, 5400 IU LMW [Low Molecular Weight] heparin given SC[Subcutaneous] with carbogen inhalation. Retrospectively she was on oral contraceptives(Mala D for 1 month. She was not hypertensive or diabetic with normal blood, coagulation profile & carotid Doppler. She was evaluated by an intern to find the cause of coagulation disorder and was found to be normal. On first day FFA [Fundus Florescien Angiography] showed no blockage with normal cilioretinal artery perfusion established. Visual fields after one week showed central tubular vision and OCT [Ocular Coherent Tomography] showed normal fovea. After 2 weeks vision was 20/80 with persistent RAPD papilla macular bundle being perfused.

  17. Absorption, metabolism and effect of compatibility on absorption of qishenyiqi dropping pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan-Qi; Wang, Jing; Cui, Qing-Xin; Wang, Li-Qiang; Cheng, Bin-Feng; Zhao, Hong-Zhi; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-An

    2014-04-01

    Qishenyiqi dropping pill (QSYQ), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription for treating heart diseases in China. Knowledge concerning the systemic identification of active compounds and metabolic components of QSYQ is generally lacking. Therefore, it is essential to develop a valid method for the analysis of active compounds of the combined prescription and determination of interactions among the herbs. The absorbable compounds and metabolites of QSYQ were profiled using computational chemistry prediction, an improved everted gut sac in vitro experiment, the Caco-2 cell monolayer in vitro test, a rat in vivo experiment and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrum (UPLC/DAD/Q-TOF MS). In total, 42 prototype compounds were recognized as absorbable compounds, and eight metabolites were identified by UPLC/DAD/Q-TOF MS. The absorption rates of phenolic acids and saponins were significantly improved and the absorption of isoflavone was inhibited after compatibility. The volatile oil component had an improved effect on the absorption of other compounds, while its own absorption was inhibited. In conclusion, the present study established a rapid and effective strategy for demonstrating the absorption and metabolism of QSYQ and revealing the compatible relationship among herbs. This investigation can provide a reference for the compatibility of prescriptions and the modernization of TCM.

  18. Diplosegmentation in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata is the result of dorsal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    All trunk segments in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) are initially patterned genetically, (as visualized by the embryonic expression pattern of the even-skipped gene) and formed morphologically, (as visualized by 4-6-diamidin-2-phenylindol stained embryos) in a single segmental period. In addition, formation of every nascent trunk segment concerns ventral as well as dorsal segmental units. Only after the formation of the nascent posterior trunk segments, the dorsal segmental units of two adjacent segments fuse to form a single dorsal segmental unit that subsequently covers two ventral leg-bearing segmental units. The formation of a diplosegmental unit, or in short a diplosegment, is thus the result of dorsal fusion of embryonic tissue and not the result of any splitting-process or fusion of dorsal tergites. The new data also argue against heterochrony as a primary causative factor for the formation of the diplosegments during the formation of dorsal versus ventral segmental units. Furthermore, no evidence was found supporting the hypothesis that anterior trunk segments in diplopods represent degenerate diplosegments. Two possible scenarios arise from the ontogenetic data presented here, whether this represents an ancestral feature of the diplopods, or alternatively if they represent an isolated case only found in Glomeris (and close relatives). If the former is the case, my work may provide an impressive example of Haeckel's recapitulation theory.

  19. A randomised study comparing the effect on ovarian activity of a progestogen-only pill (POP) containing desogestrel and a new POP containing drospirenone in a 24/4 regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Progestogen-only pills (POPs) are safer with respect to cardiovascular risks than contraceptives containing estrogens. Despite the increased contraceptive efficacy of a desogestrel-only pill compared with a traditional POP, POPs are still not widely used due to an unpredictable bleeding...... pattern. A new POP containing 4 mg drospirenone has been developed with a 24/4 intake regimen which may improve the bleeding pattern. The objectives of this study were to investigate ovulation inhibition with the new drospirenone-only pill in comparison with the desogestrel-only pill and, in addition...

  20. Evaluation of Distributive Frequency of Oral Contraceptive Pills Consumption in Women with Cerebrovascular Events Admitted in Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan between 1997-2007

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    Mehrdokht Mazdeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Although there is no prolonged time elapsed from propagation of oral contraceptive pills (OCP, case reports demonstrated occurrence of pulmonary embolism and cerebral infarction in women using these pills. Present study was done to specify distributive frequency of oral contraceptive pills consumption in women with cerebrovascular events admitted in Farshchian hospital of Hamadan between 1997 to 2007. Materials & Methods: Every woman with cerebrovascular events during years 1997-2007 who was admitted in Farshchian hospital of Hamadan and her dossier was present in archive of hospital, were carefully checked and those who hadn’t exclusion criteria, were include in this study, a total of 1587 of them with respect to their Characteristics such as type of cerebrovascular event, age, type of oral contraceptive pill and duration of pill use were extracted from patient dossier and registered in respective checklist. Results: 24.1% of patient used oral contraceptive pill and 76.9% of patients were non users. Mean age of OCP users and non users were 45 years. Mean duration of pill use among these patients was 33 months. In assessing type of vascular events, in the group OCP users 73.1% and non users 66.4% had ischemic stroke.Which was statistically significant. In the group OCP users 24.6% and non users 29.1% were hemorrhagic stroke.. Also in the group OCP users 2.3% and non users 4.5% were affected sagital sinuses thrombosis that showed no significant difference. Among OCP users 85% of the patients used OCP, LD and 15% of the patients OCP, HD. Conclusion: The present study showed, the ischemic stroke rate of the patients with OCP consumption were significantly more than those of non users.

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of Anwei Pills%安胃丸抗炎镇痛作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任守忠; 李鑫; 郭建生; 何书华; 师振宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of Anwci Pills. Methods The analgesic effects of Anwci Pills were observed by acetic acid writhing assay and hot plate methods in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect was observed by c-valuating xylcnc-induccd car swelling in mice (acute inflammation) and cotton-induced granuloma in rats (chronic inflammation). Results Anwci Pills at various doses significantly reduced the number of writhing caused by acetic acid in mice. Anwci Pills at middle doses significantly prolonged the latency of writhing in mice. Anwci Pills at high doses improved the pain threshold in mice; Anwci Pills at various doses significantly inhibited car swelling caused by xylcne in mice and cotton-induced proliferation of granulation tissue in rats. Conclusion Anwci Pills has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.%目的 研究安胃丸的镇痛、抗炎作用.方法 采用扭体法和热板法,观察安胃丸的镇痛作用;采用二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀模型和大鼠棉球肉芽肿模型,观察该药的抗炎作用.结果 安胃丸各剂量组小鼠扭体次数显著减少;其中安胃丸中剂量可显著延长小鼠扭体潜伏期.安胃丸高剂量可提高热刺激小鼠的痛阈值.安胃丸各组二甲苯引起的小鼠耳肿胀度及大鼠棉球所致肉芽组织的质量显著降低.结论 安胃丸具有良好的抗炎、镇痛作用.

  2. Monitoring quality consistency of Liuwei Dihuang Pill by integrating the ultraviolet spectroscopic fingerprint, a multi-wavelength fusion fingerprint method, and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-08-24

    Liuwei Dihuang Pill, a classical traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat kidney yin deficiency in China for hundreds of years. Little attention, however, has been paid to quality control methods for this formulation. In the present study, we aimed to establish a comprehensive and practical quality evaluation system for Liuwei Dihuang Pill. Thus, ultraviolet spectroscopic fingerprints and multi-wavelength fusion fingerprints have been proposed for quality consistency evaluation of the popular patent. The similarity analysis of Liuwei Dihuang Pill samples was evaluated by systematic quantitative fingerprint method from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. The results showed that 26 batches of samples were classified into five grades for fusion fingerprints and three grades for ultraviolet spectroscopic fingerprints. Moreover, the fingerprint-efficacy correlation was also established and confirmed through the partial least squares model to visualize the antioxidant activity of Liuwei Dihuang Pill in vitro. In conclusion, these results indicated that integrating ultraviolet spectroscopic fingerprints and multi-wavelength fusion fingerprints coupled with antioxidant activities provide a rapid and effective approach to monitor the quality consistency of Liuwei Dihuang Pill. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Katy A. van Galen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03–1.71. Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00–2.13. We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only.

  4. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Katy A; Nellen, Jeannine F; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03-1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00-2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only.

  5. Self Medication of Abortion Pill: Women’s Health in Jeopardy

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    Rajal Thaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI recommends close monitoring of distribution of drugs that are used for medical abortion and that the medical profession and pharmaceutical industry should exercise due diligence in the promotion and usage of drugs that are used for medical abortion. Despite this, it has been perceived by the society that, medical abortions are extremely safe option even in hands of untrained personnel, leading to its over the counter dispensing and possibly increase in unsupervised terminations and life threatening complications. Objective: To study consequences of self medication of Abortion pill on women’s health Study Design: Retrospective Observational Study Duration of Study: One Year: August 2012 to July 2013 Material and Methods: After due permission from authority, data was collected from patients who had come for follow-up and treatment after self medication (purchased over the counter by self/family member without medical guidance/supervision for Medical method of Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP. Results: Data was collected in 37 patients, who had history of self medication of abortion pill. More than half, 20 (54% women were in age group of 20-29 years and married women were 35 (94.5%. Uneducated women were 12 (32.4%. Majority 33(89.1% of women had complaint of bleeding per vaginum. On Ultrasonography (USG, 26(70.2% women had incomplete abortion, 4 (10.8% women had intrauterine gestational sac with cardiac activity, 2(5.4% women had complete abortion and 1(2.7% woman had missed abortion. Surgical curettage was performed in 28(75.6% women. In 2(5.4% women, there was complete abortion after oxytocin and misoprostol. One woman (2.7% wanted to continue the pregnancy. Laparotomy was performed in 2 (5.4% women having ectopic pregnancy and in 1(2.7% woman who had perforation of uterus while undergoing surgical curettage at private hospital. Moderate and severe anaemia

  6. Adherence to the oral contraceptive pill: a cross-sectional survey of modifiable behavioural determinants

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    Molloy Gerard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP is reported as one of the main causes of unintended pregnancy in women that rely on this form of contraception. This study aims to estimate the associations between a range of well-established modifiable psychological factors and adherence to OCP. Method A cross-sectional survey of 130 female University students currently using OCP (Mean age: 20.46 SD: 3.01, range 17–36 was conducted. An OCP specific Medication Adherence Report Scale was used to assess non-adherence. Psychological predictor measures included necessity and concern beliefs about OCP, intentions, perceived behavioural control (pbc, anticipated regret and action and coping planning. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-two per cent of participants reported missing their OCP once or more per month and 14% twice or more per month. In bivariate analysis intentions (r = −0.25, perceived behavioural control (r= −0.66, anticipated regret (r=0.20, concerns about OCP (r =0.31, and action (r= −0.25 and coping (r= −0.28 planning were all significantly associated with adherence to OCP in the predicted direction. In a multivariate model almost half (48% of the variation in OCP adherence could be explained. The strongest and only statistically significant predictors in this model were perceived behavioural control (β=−0.62, p Conclusion The present data point to a number of key modifiable psychological determinants of OCP use. Future work will establish whether changing these variables results in better adherence to the OCP.

  7. Effects of Zhengtian Pills on Migraine Headache in Rats via Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-hua Sun; Ke-zhu Wang; Hui Fu; Zhi Dai; Fei-fei Pu; Song Yin; Tian-xiu Qian; Xin-min Liu; Xiao-ying Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects and molecular mechanism of Zhengtian Pills(ZTP) on migraine headache. Methods All rats were randomly divided into control, positive control, migraine model, low- and high-dose ZTP groups, and glyceryl trinitrate was injected to induce migraine headache. The time of ears turning red, frequency of scratching head, climbing the cage, and head-twitching were used to evaluate rat behaviors. After 10 d administration of ZTP, the expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1) both in cortex and hippocampus were determined by Western blotting. Results After 2 min of glyceryl trinitrate injection, rats showed headache phenomena that parallels the clinical symptoms of migraine, which peaked in 30 min, and lasted for 60 min. Frequency of head-twitching and numbers of scratching head in glyceryl trinitrate(GTN) group were significantly increased. In contrast, after ZTP(1.08 g/kg, ig) treatment, the numbers of scratching head with fore-limb, hind-limb and the frequency of head-twitching were significantly decreased. Flunarizine(FLU) and low-dose ZTP(0.54 g/kg) also showed a trend to decrease the numbers of scratching head and head-twitching frequency, but no significant difference. Besides, ZTP significantly decreased the up-regulated TRPV1 protein expression level both in cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion The present study shows that ZTP could significantly improve the migraine symptoms of headache in rats and TRPV1 might be one of the important molecular mechanisms. This is the first report about the effect of ZTP on TRPV1 protein expression level both in cortex and hippocampus of rats.

  8. Oral Contraceptive Pills: Combinations, Dosages and the Rationale behind 50 Years or Oral Hormonal Contraceptive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first oral hormonal contraceptive Enovid™ (9.85 mg norethynodreland 0.15 mg mestranol(G.D.Searle, US was approved for contraception by the FDA in the US in 1959 but was never marketed by Searle for contraception. One year later Searle got approval for a lower dose product Enovid 5mg™ (5 mg norethinodrel and 75 µg mestranol as a contraceptive pill. On the 1st of January 1961, Bayer HealthCare (then Schering launched its first oral contraceptive (brandname: Anovlar® by Schering in Australia, followed a few months later by the launch in West Germany. In the beginning it was approved only on prescription for the “treatment of painful menstrual cycles” in married women until later the indication „contraception“ was added. Shortly after the introduction of the pill in Europe severe cardiovascular side effects were observed in the UK for Enovid™. The development of different formulations of oral contraceptives with less estrogen and progestins was initiated. Furthermore, highly selective derivatives of steroid hormones were investigated to find products well tolerated and with a low profile of undesired side effects. New, preferably neutral products were developed taking into consideration the metabolic profile and safety aspects of cardiovascular disease and cancer, especially breast cancer. Growing knowledge in the field of gene analysis and a deeper understanding of the regulatory changes in the coagulation system led to a discussion as to the influence of oral contraceptives on women having genetic risk factors for thrombophilia. The development of oral hormonal contraceptives during the past 50 years has been accompanied by the continued search for new products. Specific formulas have been analyzed not only to provide data on the safety and reliability of the contraceptive method, in addition to possible non-contraceptive benefits (i.e. regular menstrual cycles, improvement of acne vulgaris, dysmenorrhea and fewer premenstrual

  9. Review of the safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the combined dienogest/estradiol valerate contraceptive pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Guida

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Guida, Giuseppe Bifulco, Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Mariamaddalena Scala, Loredana Maria Sosa Fernandez, Carmine NappiDipartimento di Scienze Ostetriche Ginecologiche Urologiche e Medicina della Riproduzione Umana, Università degli Studi “Federico II”, Napoli, Italia Abstract: The aim of this review is to define the role of the combined dienogest (DNG/­estradiol valerate (E2V contraceptive pill, in terms of biochemistry, metabolic and ­pharmacological effects and clinical application as well. E2V is the esterified form of 17β-estradiol (E2, while dienogest is a fourth-generation progestin with a partial antiandrogenic effect. The cycle stability is achieved with 2 to 3 mg DNG, supporting contraceptive efficacy. In this new oral contraceptive, E2V is combined with DNG in a four-phasic dose regimen (the first two tablets contain 3 mg E2V; the next five tablets include 2 mg E2V + 2 mg DNG, followed by 17 tablets with 2 mg E2V + 3 mg DNG; followed by two tablets with 1 mg E2V only, and finally two placebo tablets. Duration and intensity of scheduled withdrawal bleeding are lower with this ­contraceptive pill, whereas the incidence and the intensity of intra-cyclic bleeding are similar to the other oral contraceptive. With this new pill the levels of high density lipoprotein increased, while the levels of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and D-dimer remained relatively unchanged; the levels of sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol binding globulin, thyroxine binding globulin increased. The most frequently reported adverse events are: breast pain, headache, acne, alopecia, migraine, increase of ­bodyweight. The satisfaction rate is about 79.4%.Keywords: estradiol valerate, dienogest, combined oral contraceptive, four-phasic regimen, contraceptive safety

  10. Effect of pill burden on dosing preferences, willingness to pay, and likely adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, A Brett; Han, Steven; Yang, Jui-Chen; Gantz, Ira; Tunceli, Kaan; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos; Brodovicz, Kimberly; Alexander, Charles M; Davies, Michael; Iglay, Kristy; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Radican, Larry

    2013-01-01

    To quantify willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing pill burden and dosing frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to examine the effect of dosing frequency and pill burden on likely medication adherence. Participants were US adults with T2DM on oral antihyperglycemic therapy. Each patient completed an online discrete-choice experiment (DCE) with eight choice questions, each including a pair of hypothetical medication profiles. Each profile was defined by reduction in average glucose (AG), daily dosing, chance of mild-to-moderate stomach problems, frequency of hypoglycemia, weight change, incremental risk of congestive heart failure (CHF), and cost. Patients were asked to rate their likely adherence to the profiles presented in each question. Choice questions were based on a predetermined experimental design. Choice data were analyzed using random-parameters logit. Likely treatment adherence was analyzed using a Heckman two-stage model. Of the 1,114 patients who completed the survey, 90 had lower dosing burden (medications, and 1,024 had higher dosing burden (≥5 pills/day or more than once/day). Reduction in AG was valued most highly by patients. Hypoglycemia, chance of mild-to-moderate stomach problems, weight change, incremental risk of CHF, and daily dosing were less valued. Patients with higher current dosing burden had lower WTP for more convenient dosing schedules than patients with lower current dosing burden. Changes in dosing and cost impacted likely adherence. The magnitude of the impact of dosing on likely adherence was higher for patients with lower current dosing burden than for patients with higher current dosing burden. Patients with T2DM were willing to pay for improvements in efficacy, side effects, and dosing. Patients' WTP for more convenient dosing depended on current dosing burden, as did the effect of these attributes on likely adherence.

  11. Patents, pills and politics: the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ken

    2004-11-08

    There is tension between the need of the pharmaceutical innovator for intellectual property protection and the need of society for equitable and affordable access to innovative drugs. The recent Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement provides a nice illustration of this interplay between patents, pills and politics. This article provides a brief history of patent law as applied to pharmaceuticals, describes how the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme got caught up in AUSFTA negotiations, analyses the clauses that are likely to impact upon the PBS and describes the political process that reviewed and ultimately amended the AUSFTA.

  12. Rethinking agency and medical adherence technology: applying Actor Network Theory to the case study of Digital Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Cabling, Mark L; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-12-01

    Much literature surrounding medical technology and adherence posits that technology is a mechanism for social control. This assumes that the medical establishment can take away patients' agency. Although power relationships and social control can play a key role, medical technology can also serve as an agentive tool to be utilized. We (1) offer the alternative framework of Actor Network Theory to view medical technology, (2) discuss the literature on medication adherence and technology, (3) delve into the ramifications of looking at adherence as a network and (4) use Digital Pills as a case study of dispersed agency.

  13. A danger of induction of Brugada syndrome during pill-in-the-pocket therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyasu Aizawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiyasu Aizawa, Tomohiro Matsuhashi, Toshiaki Sato, Seiji Takatsuki, Keiichi FukudaDivision of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Rhythm control therapy by sodium channel blockers is widely performed for the ­treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Here, we present a case of acquired Brugada ­syndrome by pill-in-the-pocket treatment using pilsicainide. It is important that this therapy should be applied only after confirming the drug safety to the patients.Keywords: syncope, sudden death, drug, rhythm control, pilsicainide, atrial flutter

  14. Effect of pill burden on dosing preferences, willingness to pay, and likely adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauber AB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Brett Hauber,1 Steven Han,2,3 Jui-Chen Yang,1 Ira Gantz,2 Kaan Tunceli,2 Juan Marcos Gonzalez,1 Kimberly Brodovicz,2 Charles M Alexander,2 Michael Davies,2 Kristy Iglay,2 Qiaoyi Zhang,2 Larry Radican2 1Health Preference Assessment, Research Triangle Institute (RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Merck Sharp and Dohme Corporation, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: To quantify willingness-to-pay (WTP for reducing pill burden and dosing frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and to examine the effect of dosing frequency and pill burden on likely medication adherence. Patients and methods: Participants were US adults with T2DM on oral antihyperglycemic therapy. Each patient completed an online discrete-choice experiment (DCE with eight choice questions, each including a pair of hypothetical medication profiles. Each profile was defined by reduction in average glucose (AG, daily dosing, chance of mild-to-moderate stomach problems, frequency of hypoglycemia, weight change, incremental risk of congestive heart failure (CHF, and cost. Patients were asked to rate their likely adherence to the profiles presented in each question. Choice questions were based on a predetermined experimental design. Choice data were analyzed using random-parameters logit. Likely treatment adherence was analyzed using a Heckman two-stage model. Results: Of the 1,114 patients who completed the survey, 90 had lower dosing burden (<5 pills/day taken once/day or as needed for all medications, and 1,024 had higher dosing burden (≥5 pills/day or more than once/day. Reduction in AG was valued most highly by patients. Hypoglycemia, chance of mild-to-moderate stomach problems, weight change, incremental risk of CHF, and daily dosing were less valued. Patients with higher current dosing burden had lower WTP for more convenient dosing schedules than patients with lower current dosing burden

  15. Z-line examination by the PillCam~(TM) SB:Prospective comparison of three ingestion protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio; Fernandez-Urien; Erika; Borobio; Inmaculada; Elizalde; Rebeca; Irisarri; Juan; Jose; Vila; Jesus; Maria; Urman; Javier; Jimenez

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the Z-line visualization by the PillCamTM SB2 using three different ingestion protocols. METHODS:Ninety consecutive patients undergoing small bowel capsule endoscopy(SBCE)between January and May 2008 were included in the study. They swallowed the capsule in the standing(Group A= 30),supine(Group B=30)and right supine positions (Group C=30).Baseline patient characteristics, difficulties in capsule ingestion,esophageal transit times(ETT)and Z-line visualization were noted. RESULTS:No significa...

  16. "Pregnancy and labour cause more deaths than oral contraceptives": The debate on the pill in the Spanish press in the 1960s and 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Ignaciuk, Agata

    2015-08-01

    From 1941 to 1978, Franco's regime in Spain banned all contraceptive methods. The pill started circulating in Spain from the 1960s, officially as a drug used in gynaecological therapy. However, in the following decade it was also increasingly used and prescribed as a contraceptive. This paper analyses debates about the contraceptive pill in the Spanish daily newspaper ABC and in two magazines, Blanco y Negro and Triunfo, in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes that the debate on this contraceptive method was much more heterogeneous than might be expected given the Catholic-conservative character of the dictatorship. The daily press focused on the adverse effects of the drug and magazines concentrated on the ethical and religious aspects of the pill and discussed it in a generally positive light. Male doctors and Catholic authors dominated the debate.

  17. Daily Activities of the Giant Pill-Millipede Zephronia cf. viridescens Attems, 1936 (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Zephroniidae) in a Deciduous Forest in Northern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wongthamwanich, N.; Panha, S.; Sitthicharoenchai, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Daily activities of the giant pill-millipede Zephronia cf. viridescens Attems, 1936 (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Zephroniidae) in a deciduous forest in northern Thailand. Zoological Studies 51(7): 913-926. For the 1st time in the order Sphaerotheriida, daily activities of the giant pill-millipede....... It was concluded that females tend to accumulate energy throughout the day, probably for reproduction, while males tend to spend more time walking, probably for the purpose of finding mates. http://zoolstud.sinica.edu.tw/Journals/51.7/913.pdf...

  18. Preparation and clinical application of the Maidi Yuye pills%麦地玉液丸的制备和临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱玲; 史亚芳

    2012-01-01

      Diabetes is a common clinical disease, we use homemade the Maidi Yuye pills to treat diabetes, the effect is significant. The preparation process and the clinical experience of the Maidi Yuye pills were introduced and summarized in this paper.%  糖尿病是临床常见疾病,我们运用自制的麦地玉液丸治疗糖尿病,效果显著。本文对麦地玉液丸的制备工艺和临床应用经验进行了介绍和总结。

  19. Improvement of barrier function and stimulation of colonic epithelial anion secretion by Menoease Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Xia Zhu; Ning Yang; Gui-Hong Zhang; Lai-Ling Tsang; Yu-Lin Gou; Hau-Yan Connie Wong; Yiu-Wa Chung; Hsiao-Chang Chan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Menoease Pills (MP), a Chinese medicine-based new formula for postmenopausal women, has been shown to modulate the endocrine and immune systems[1]. The present study investigated the effects of MP and one of its active ingredients, ligustrazine, on epithelial barrier and ion transport function in a human colonic cell line, T84.METHODS: Colonic transepithelial electrophysiological characteristics and colonic anion secretion were studied using the short circuit current (ISC) technique. RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of cytoplasmic proteins associated with the tight junctions, ZO-1(zonula occludens-1) and ZO-2 (zonula occludens-2).RESULTS: Pretreatment of T84 cells with MP (15 μg/mL) for 72 h significantly increased basal potential difference,transepithelial resistance and basal ISC. RT-PCR results showed that the expressions of ZO-1 and ZO-2 were significantly increased after MP treatment, consistent with improved epithelial barrier function. Results of acute stimulation showed that apical addition of MP produced a concentrationdependent (10-5 000 μg/mL, EC50 = 293.9 μg/mL) increase in ISC. MP-induced ISC was inhibited by basolateral treatment with bumetanide (100 μmol/L), an inhibitor of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, apical addition of Cl-channel blockers, diphenylamine-2, 2'-dicarboxylic acid (1 mmol/L) or glibenclamide (1 mmol/L), but not 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene2, 2'-disulfonic acid or epithelial Na+ channel blocker,amiloride. The effect of MP on ZO-1 and ZO-2 was mimicked by Ligustrazine and the ligustrazine-induced ISC was also blocked by basolateral application of bumetanide and apical addition of diphenylamine-2, 2'-dicarboxylic acid or glibenclamide, and reduced by a removal of extracellular Cl-.CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that MP and lligustrazine may improve epithelial barrier function and exert a stimulatory effect on colonic anion secretion, indicating the potential use of MP and its active ingredients

  20. Long-term safety and efficacy of telmisartan/amlodipine single pill combination in the treatment of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billecke SS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott S Billecke, Pamela A Marcovitz Beaumont Health System, Ministrelli Women’s Heart Center, Royal Oak, MI, USA Abstract: The use of multiple drug regimens is increasingly recognized as a tacit requirement for the management of hypertension, a necessity fueled in part by rising rates of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. By targeting complementary pathways, combinations of antihypertensive drugs can be applied to provide effective blood pressure control while minimizing side effects and reducing exposure to high doses of individual medications. In addition, combination therapies, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, have the added benefit of reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity over other dual therapies while providing equivalent blood pressure control. It is possible that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, which unlike ACE inhibitors are minimally affected by upregulation of alternative pathways for angiotensin II accumulation following long-term treatment, would also provide such outcome benefits. At issue, however, is maintaining patient compliance, as adding medications is known to reduce adherence to treatment regimens. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing trial data for the long-term safety and efficacy of a recent addition to the armamentarium of dual-antihypertensive therapeutic options, the telmisartan/amlodipine single pill combination. The areas where long-term data are lacking, notably clinical information regarding minorities and women, will also be discussed. Keywords: Angiotensin receptor blocker, antihypertensive, calcium channel blocker, clinical trial, combination pill

  1. 参橘止咳滴丸的指纹图谱研究%HPLC Fingerprint Analysis of Shenjuzhike Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小花; 沈孝丽; 石义凯; 梁瑾; 封士兰

    2012-01-01

    目的建立中药参橘止咳滴丸HPLC指纹图谱,全面评价其质量.方法 采用HPLC法,色谱柱:Hypersil C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相为甲醇-0.2%醋酸溶液梯度洗脱,检测波长280 nm,柱温25℃,流速0.6~1.0 mL·min-1.结果 找到16个共有峰;鉴别了肉桂酸、橙皮苷、哈巴俄苷.结论 该方法准确可靠,为全面控制制剂质量提供了依据.%Objective To establish the fingerprint analysis method of Shenjuzhike pills and assess its quality completely. Methods Aanalysis was performed on an Hypersil C18 column with a methanol-0.2% acetic acid gradient,detection wavelength was 280 run , the flow rate was 0.6~1.0 mL-min-1, and the colunm temperature was at 25℃. Results 16 peaks were separated on HPLC fingerprint in Shenjuzhike pills, cinnamic acid , hesperidin,and harpagoside were identified. Conclusion The method was reliable and accurate for controling its quality completely.

  2. Effect of Chengzai Pill on the L-Type Ca2+ Channel Currents of Osteoblasts Pretreated with Methylprednisolone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of the serum containing Chengzai Pill on the L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels current (L-VSCCsC) of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells pretreated with methylprednisolone (mPSL). Methods: A control group, a model group, a low dose group and a high dose group were set up. The whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record L-VSCCsC of 10 osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in each group and their peak currents were determined. Results: The peak current of the control group was 0.2284±0.0209 nA; the peak current of the model group was 0.1839±0.0179 nA; decreased by 19.5% as compared with the control group (P<0.01); the peak current of the low and high dose groups was 0.2526±0.0093 nA and 0.2671±0.0120 nA respectively, increased by 37.4% and 45.2% as compared with the model group (P<0.01); the difference between the low and high dose groups was P<0.05. Conclusion: 1. mPSL inhibits L-VSCCsC of osteoblasts; and 2. The serum containing Chengzai Pill increases L-VSCCsC of osteoblasts pretreated with mPSL.

  3. Impact of antiretroviral dosing frequency and daily pill burden on virological success rates in patients of the ICoNA cohort starting their first ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ammassari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of antiretroviral treatment (ART is a reason for non-adherence and may impact treatment outcome. The association between daily dosing and pill burden and chance of virological success (VS of first ART has been rarely assessed. 3,674 naïve patients who started treatment after January 2000 were identified from the ICoNA cohort. Number of daily doses and pills were estimated on the basis of the drugs used to rank first ART complexity: 1–2 daily pills once a day (low-pills QD [lpQD]; 3–6 daily pills QD (high-pills QD [hpQD]; 2–5 daily pills BID (low-pills BID [lpBID]; >6 daily pills BID (high-pills BID [hpBID]. VS was the date of first HIV RNA <50 cp/ml. Follow-up was censored at the date of VS or last available HIV RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves estimated probability of achieving VS according to ART complexity. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression stratified by clinical site was used to identify variables associated with VS. ITT principle was applied, using competing risk approach for death. Population: male 75%; median age 37 y (IQR, 32–44; HIV transmission heterosexual 43%, homosexual 33%, drug use 16%; Italian origin 86%; CDC group C 17%; median pre-ART CD4 and log HIV-RNA were 271/mm3 (range, 0–1672 and 4.84 cp/ml (1.70–6.38, respectively. Regimens were started in ‘00–‘02 24%,‘03–‘05 17%,‘06–‘08 17%,‘09–‘12 42% and based on NNRTI in 40%, PI/r 43%, PI 8%, other ART 10%. Frequencies in complexity ranks were: 19% lpQD, 23% hpQD, 32% lpBID, 26% hpBID. VS was achieved by 85% of patients with an overall median time to VS of 5.6 months (95% CI: 5.4–5.8. Median months to VS were shorter with decreasing complexity: hpBID 6.5; lpBID 6.0; hpQD 5.3, lpQD 4.5. Kaplan-Meier curves are shown (Figure. After stratifying for clinical site and adjusting for age, gender, origin, transmission route, CDC group C, HCV/HBV infection, years of HIV, pre-cART CD4 and HIV-RNA, type of regimen a significantly reduced

  4. Estimated cardiovascular relative risk reduction from fixed-dose combination pill (polypill) treatment in a wide range of patients with a moderate risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, Melvin; Webster, Ruth; Visseren, Frank L J; Bots, Michiel L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Spiering, W.; Rodgers, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Aims Recent data indicate that fixed-dose combination (FDC) pills, polypills, can produce sizeable risk factor reductions. There are very few published data on the consistency of the effects of a polypill in different patient populations. It is unclear for example whether the effects of the polypill

  5. Comparison of a morning polypill, evening polypill and individual pills on LDL-cholesterol, ambulatory blood pressure and adherence in high-risk patients; a randomized crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Schrover, I. M.; Thom, S.; Webster, R.; Rodgers, A.; Visseren, F. L. J.; Bots, M. L.; Spiering, W.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Cardiovascular polypills are a novel strategy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Based on considerations about the effectiveness, the individual pills of a polypill are taken at different times of the day. This study aimed therefore to compare the use of a polypill in the morning, in

  6. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  7. Use of birth control pills and condoms among 17-19-year-old adolescents in Norway: contraceptive versus protective behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeen, B; Lewin, B; Sundet, J M

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between sexual risk behaviour and contraceptive behaviour, and considers whether adolescents who use condoms are practising birth control or STD protective behaviour. The material comprised a representative sample of 3000 Norwegians aged 17-19 years. Data were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The response-rate was 63%. At the first sexual intercourse 51% of the adolescents used condoms and 7% birth control pills. At the most recent intercourse 31% used condoms and 38% the pill. Use of the pill was widespread among adolescents with high coital frequency and few coital partners. Use of condoms was not particularly widespread among adolescents who reported a relatively large number of coital partners. Irrespective of the number of years they had been coitally active there was no significant difference between those who intended to use condoms at the next sexual intercourse and those who did not as regards their beliefs about condoms as protection against STDs, HIV and unintended pregnancies. The results from this study indicate that the majority of adolescents who use contraception do this for protection against unintended pregnancy and not for protection against STDs. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practise STD protective behaviour in specific situations.

  8. Oral contraceptive use before and after the latest pill scare in the Netherlands - Changes in oral contraceptive use and how users change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, CS; van den Berg, PB; de Jong-vandenBerg, LTW

    1998-01-01

    In October 1995, a "pill scare" developed in Europe. In the Netherlands, the recommendations given were 1) to not alarm women without risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and 2) to be reserved in prescribing third generation oral contraceptives (OC) for young women who were beginning OC use. To dete

  9. Tasemetöö ei peaks tõkkeid seadma / Kaja Kivisikk, Pille Kõiv, Rain Sannik ... [jt.] ; küsitles Sirje Pärismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Vestlusringis lahkasid teemat Tartu Kivilinna kooli direktor Karin Lukk, klassiõpetajate liidu esimees ja Tartu Descartes’i kooli õpetaja Küllike Kütimets, Descartes’i kooli klassiõpetaja Kaja Kivisikk, HTM-i välishindamisosakonna peaekspert Pille Kõiv, SA Innove testide keskuse juhataja Rain Sannik ja välishindamise valdkonnajuht Regina Multram

  10. 化瘀通闭丸的药理作用及临床应用%Pharmacological Action and Clinical Application of Huayu Tongbi Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭国富

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨化疼通闭丸的药理作用和临床应用.方法:结合科研及实际,对化瘀通用丸的药理作用及临床应用进行归纳和总结.结果:化瘀通闭丸具有抗炎消炎、抑菌杀菌、镇痛、提高免疫力等作用,临床用于治疗泌尿系统及生殖系统炎症.结论:化瘀通闭丸治疗泌尿系统及生殖系统炎症疗效确切、安全可靠.%Objective;To investigate the pharmacological effects of huayu tongbi pill in clinical application. Methods:Pharmacological function and clinical application of huayu tongbi pill are summarized combined with scientific research and practice. Results; Huayu tongbi pill has anti - inflammatory, antibacterial sterilization .analgesia and immunity function improvement, the clinic for the treatment of urinary system and reproductive system inflammation. Conclusion;The curative effect of huayu tongbi pill in the treatment of urinary system and reproductive system inflammation is accurate,safe and reliable.

  11. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  12. Assessment of sperm quality, oxidative stress injury as well as ACP, AC and PDE expression in patients with oligoasthenozoospermia before and after qilin pill treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Jun Zhang; Jian-Gang Kuang; Tao Ren; Peng Liu; Long Liu; Yu-Gang Liu; Zhi-Ping Lei; Ma-Long Shi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the sperm quality, oxidative stress injury as well as ACP, AC and PDE expression in patients with oligoasthenozoospermia before and after qilin pill treatment. Methods:A total of 60 patients with oligoasthenozoospermia were randomly divided into observation group and control group, control group received routine western medicine treatment, observation group received qilin pill + conventional western medicine treatment, and then differences in sperm quality, oxidative stress injury, ACP, AC and PDE expression, etc. were compared between two groups after treatment.Results:Semen volume and sperm density in semen samples of observation group after qilin pill treatment were higher than those of control group; serum FSH and LH levels were lower than those of control group, and the T level was higher than that of control group; ROS and MDA levels in seminal plasma were lower than those of control group, and SOD level was higher than that of control group; ACP, AC, -Glu and Fru levels in seminal plasma were higher than those of control group, and PDE level was lower than that of control group.Conclusion: Qilin pill can improve sperm quality and optimize testicular internal environment in patients with oligoasthenozoospermia, and it has positive clinical significance.

  13. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  14. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  15. Oral contraceptive use before and after the latest pill scare in the Netherlands - Changes in oral contraceptive use and how users change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, CS; van den Berg, PB; de Jong-vandenBerg, LTW

    1998-01-01

    In October 1995, a "pill scare" developed in Europe. In the Netherlands, the recommendations given were 1) to not alarm women without risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and 2) to be reserved in prescribing third generation oral contraceptives (OC) for young women who were beginning OC use. To dete

  16. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  17. HPLC Determination of logganin in Qi Chrysanthemum rehmanrha pill(concentrated pill)%HPLC法测定杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)中马钱苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑风敏; 刘会艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estabilish a method for the determination of of loganin in Qi Chrysanthemum rehmanrha pill (concentrated pill) Method:HPLC C18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm) ,column was used with methanol—acetonitrile—phosphate(0.1%)(5:9:86). The flow rate was 1.0mL/min. The detection wave length was 236nm. The column temperature was at 30℃, and the inject volume was 10μL. Results:The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2μg~0.8416μg (loganin)(r=0.9998).The average recoveries were 99.0%,RSD were1.2%(n=6).Conclusion:This Method is simple, accurate, and could be adopted for the quality control of this durg .%目的:建立测定杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)中马钱苷的含量测定方法.方法:HPLC法;C18柱(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(5:9:86),流速为1.0mL/min;检测波长236nm;柱温30℃;进样量10μL. 结果:马钱苷的线性范围为2μg~0.8416μg,相关系数为0.9998;平均加样回收率为99.0%,RSD为1.2%(n=6). 结论:该法简单,准确度高,重复性好,可用于控制杞菊地黄丸(浓缩丸)的质量.

  18. Effects of serum containing Zuigui pill, Yougui pill and their disassembled prescriptions on the cell cycle and cell apoptosis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenic differentiation%左、右归丸及其拆方对骨髓间充质干细胞成骨分化后细胞周期和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋囡; 何文智; 王智民; 任艳玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of serum containing Zuigui pill and Yougui pill and their disassembled prescriptions on the cell cycle and cell apoptosis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the process of osteogenic differentiation. Methods: The containing serum of Zuigui pill, Yougui pill, mutual drugs of Zuigui pill and Yougui pill, nourishing kidney-yin drugs, tonifying kidney-yang drugs and positive control drug (Estradiol Valerate, BJL) were prepared. Intervention of BMSCs to the containing serum by separately and simultaneously adding inducer (dexamethasone, vitamin C, sodium (3-glycerophosphate), with other two groups of inducer and control containing serum. And to identify BMSCs by FCM (flow cytometry), test BMSCs proliferation by the method of MTT; analyse BMSCs cell cycle and cell apoptosis by MUSE cytoanalyze. Results: In the process of the BMSCs to the osteogenic differentiation, Zuigui pill and nourishing kidney-yin drugs of Zuigui pill could significantly improve BMSCs proliferation and had better effect on the cell cycle and cell apoptosis of BMSCs (P<0.05). Conclusion: In the process of serum containing Zuigui pill, Yougui pill and their disassembled prescriptions helping inducer on the osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs. Zuigui pill and nourishing kidney-yin drugs of Zuigui pill could significantly improve the BMSCs proliferation and effect on the cell cycle and cell apoptosis of BMSCs.%目的:研究左、右归丸及其拆方含药血清对骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)成骨分化的过程中细胞周期和凋亡的影响.方法:分别以左归丸、右归丸、两方共同药组、滋肾阴药组、补肾阳药组、阳性对照药戊酸雌二醇片制备的大鼠含药血清加诱导剂(地塞米松、维生素C、β-甘油磷酸钠)、诱导剂及空白含药血清组共8组对BMSCs进行干预,采用流式细胞仪鉴定BMSCs,MTT法检测各组BMSCs增殖情况,MUSE细胞分析仪检测各组BMSCs细胞周期和细胞凋亡.

  19. Bone density in premenopausal women: effects of age, dietary intake, physical activity, smoking, and birth-control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R B; Barden, H S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age, calcium, smoking, and physical activity on appendicular and axial bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in a 2-y study of 200-300 healthy young women aged 20-39 y. There was no cross-sectional change of BMD with age or longitudinal change with bone loss. No effect of birth-control pills on BMD was seen. There also was no association of calcium intake with BMD and/or with BMD changes. Current calcium intake was not a significant influence on BMD in this age group. Daily activity had no effect on BMD and there was no apparent additive interaction of activity and calcium intake on BMD. Smokers had significantly lower spine BMD and a tendency for lower BMD at other sites. Body weight was a better predictor of BMD than was any other factor. There was no association of BMD or BMD changes with both urinary calcium and hydroxyproline normalized for creatinine.

  20. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-08-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs.

  1. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice.

  2. 顽痹清丸的质量标准研究%Study on Quality Standard of Wanbiqing Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜天信; 罗石任; 杜志谦; 李洁; 张毅; 王秀真

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish the quality standards of Wanbiqing Pill. Methods:Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was applied for the qualitative identification of Starjasmine Stem, Frankincense, Cortex moutan, and Herba Leonuri in Wanbiqing Pill and HPLC method was used to determine the content of baicalin in Wanbiqing Pill. Agilent C18 Column (4.6 mm ×250 mm,5 μm) was used as chroma-tographic column,and rnethanol -0.1% phosphoric acid (47:53) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1 and the column temperature was 30℃. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. The number of theoretic plate of baicalin was not less than 5 000. Results:Starjasmine Stem,Frankincense,Cortex moutan,and Herba Leonuri could be qualitatively identificated by TLC,which had clear spots, good separating degree, strong specificity, and negativity without interference. The content determination of baicalin had good linear relation in the range of 0.277 6-2.776 0 μg,r=0.999 4;the average recovery rate was 99. 10% ,and RSD was 1.29% . Conclusion: This method is simple and feasible,accurate,reproducible,which can be regarded as the quality control of Wanbiqing Pill.%目的:建立顽痹清丸的质量标准.方法:用薄层色谱法对顽痹清丸中络石藤、乳香、牡丹皮、益母草进行定性鉴别,用高效液相色谱法测定顽痹清丸中黄芩苷的含量,采用色谱柱Agilent C18柱(4.6 mm× 250 mm,5μm);流动相:甲醇-0.1%磷酸溶液(47∶53);流速:1.0 mL·min-1;柱温:30℃;检测波长为280 nm.理论塔板数以黄芩苷计不低于5 000.结果:薄层色谱鉴别法能定性鉴别络石藤、乳香、牡丹皮、益母草,斑点清晰,分离度好,专属性强,且阴性无干扰.含量测定中黄芩苷在0.277 6~2.776 0 μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,r=0.999 4;平均加样回收率为99.10%,RSD为1.29%.结论:该方法简便可行、结果准确、重现性好,可作为顽痹清丸的质量标准.

  3. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley L Breech

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Lesley L Breech, Paula K BravermanDivision of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD is estimated to affect 3%–8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 µg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality.Keywords: drospirenone, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, premenstrual syndrome, oral contraceptive pill

  4. 通督活血丸质量标准研究%Quality Standard Research of Tongdu Huoxue Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜迪; 陈随清; 孙孝亚

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立通督活血丸的质量控制标准.方法:对处方中血竭、赤芍、片姜黄、秦艽进行薄层色谱定性鉴别,同时对赤芍中的芍药苷采用高效液相色谱法进行含量测定.结果:薄层鉴别专属性强,方法可行;芍药苷在2.41 ~8.44μg范围内呈良好的线性关系;回归方程为Y=2 044 088 088.823 1X-473 462.990 5,r=0.999 7;加样回收率平均值为99.51%,RSD为0.97%,加样回收良好.结论:所用方法简便、重现性好、专属性强,为通督活血丸质量评价提供了依据.%Objective:To study the quality standard of tongdu huoxue pill. Methods:To use thin layer chromatography to identify the xue-jie,chishao,pianjianghuang and qinjiao. Use high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of shaoyao content. Results:The thin layer chromatography is a feasible method with strong specificity. Shaoyaogan has a good linear relationship in in 2.41 -8.44 μg. The regression equation for Y = 2 044 088 088.823 1X-473 462.990 5,r =0.999 7.The coefficient of recovery was 99. 51% and RSD was 0.97% with good sample recovery. Conclusion :The method is simple and reproducible with strong specificity to provide a basis for quality evaluation of tongdu huoxue pill.

  5. Pill characterization data streams for reducing exposure to inadequately identified anti-malarial medication in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crandall Ian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large fraction of anti-malaria medicines (and indeed many other medicines classes used in developing countries are inadequately identified. Framing this problem as one of misidentification rather than the more common framing of criminal misrepresentation leads to new solutions sets not currently being considered. Method That reframing led to consideration and analysis of 4 new problems that informed design of a digital platform technology for delivering a distributed medicine characterization system: 1 problematic interests associated with a focus on preventing counterfeiting, 2 the complexity of the many ways that medicines can deviate from expected identities, 3 the challenge of choosing amongst a diversity of attribute characterization technologies, and 4 the need for a flexible and distributed data aggregation mechanism. Results Analysis of those new problems confirmed an initial insight that a previously described digital technology for tracking malaria tests results in infrastructure limited regions could be adapted for characterizing pill attributes. Feasibility is illustrated by describing how the platform design can be implemented using open-source software and commodity computational and communication technology readily available and supportable in developing countries. Discussion A system of this type would allow users to answer several questions. Is this medicine what it is supposed to be? Can it be used to treat locally encountered malaria? What has been the experience of others who have used pills having the same identity? Ubiquitous access to global digital telecommunication infrastructure allows the system to generate data streams from these distributed medicine characterization transactions that can be used to map global patterns of use of specifically identified medicines. This can provide feedback necessary to guide efforts to reduce the burden of malaria.

  6. Report - Renovation of a traditional Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) to a standard Pharmaceutical molded tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Arman; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2016-09-01

    The Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) is a traditional combination suggested as one of the most effective preparations useful for treatment of sciatica. Although traditional preparations can be applied as new therapeutic drugs for investigations and clinical trials, they need to be reformulated to achieve pharmacopoeial standards for modern medicine. In this research, based on seven traditional Persian pharmacopeias for Ergh-al-NassaHab, nine different molded tablets were reformulated. Each formulation comprised the same amount of colchicum, ginger, aloe and yellow myrobalan fruit. Sweet almond oil had to be added in the maximum amount needed to be absorbed by the yellow myrobalan fruit according to its particle size (30-40 mesh sizes). The studies were performed in order to optimize the formulation process according to the role of three levels in particle size of the herbal ingredients (60-70, 80-100, 100-150 mesh sizes) and three levels of initial water for granulation. The molded tablets were evaluated according to standard quality controls for tablets (mass uniformity, LOD, hardness, friability, and disintegration time at 20 and 30 min). Myrobalan powdered to 30-40 mesh size absorbed the maximum amount of sweet almond oil (1:0.75 w/v). The best formulations occurred when the particle size of colchicum, ginger, and aloe was 60-70 mesh size with an initial moisture content of 0.47 ml per 1g of dried powder. The outcome of this research is a pharmaceutical standardized formulation from the traditional Ergh-al-Nassa pill which can be suggested as a sample drug discovery based on traditional knowledge.

  7. 六味地黄丸药渣对土壤微生物的影响%Effect of Liuwei Dihuang Pill Residues on Soil Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛振鹏; 赵羽; 周强强; 肖嫩群; 雷志丹; 肖冰梅; 谭周进

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effect of Liuwei dihuang pill residues on soil fertility improvement ,microbial variation was studied by using traditional microbiological culture methods after Liuwei dihuang pill residues were put into pot experimental soils for one month and two months ,which could reflect the functions of Liuwei dihuang pill residues on soil fertility improvement.The results showed that Liuwei dihuang pill residues had positive role on bacteria.Compared with the soil which didn′t add any material,Liuwei dihuang pill residue improved the number of bacteria,nitrogen-fixing bacteria,especially aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria in soil.Liuwei dihuang pill residues could improve soil fertility by promoting the activities of microbes in soil and last a long time.%为探究六味地黄丸药物残渣对土壤肥力的改良作用,采用盆栽试验,在药渣施用1个月和2个月后分别采集土壤,运用传统微生物培养方法研究土壤微生物的分布规律,反映六味地黄丸药物残渣对土壤肥力的改良效果。结果表明,六味地黄丸药物残渣对土壤中所测细菌的生长均具有促进作用,较不添加任何物质的土壤而言,对细菌、固氮菌,尤其是对好气分解纤维素细菌的促进作用最明显,说明药渣显著提高了土壤微生物的活性,改善了土壤肥力,而且效果持久稳定。

  8. 新人参二醇滴丸制备及体外溶出度研究%Preparation and in Vitro Evaluation of Neopanaxadiol Dropping Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管清香; 孙士淋; 张广远; 张少园; 王悦; 瞿珊珊; 刘昕

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current stuty is to make neopanaxadiol (NPD ) dropping pills and evaluate its dissolution rate in vitro .Neopanaxadiol dropping pills were prepared by solvent -melting method with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000 ) and poloxamer 188 (PF68 ) as combined carriers and a mass ratio of PEG6000 and PF68 was 1∶4 .X-ray power diffraction method was applied to investigate the state of neopanaxadiol in dropping pills and the dissolution test was performed to study the dissolution rate in vitro .The concentration of neopanaxadiol was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) .The results of X-ray power diffraction showed that some neopanaxadiols existed as molec-ular state and others existed as crystallite .The cumulative release percent of NPD -dropping pills was 67.67% at 60min and the dissolution rate of neopanaxadiol dropping pills was obviously faster than that of the drug substance and physical mixtures .Preparing neopanaxadiol Drop-ping pills could obviously enhance its dissolution rate .%制备新人参二醇滴丸,并探讨其体外溶出速率。以PEG 6000和泊洛沙姆188为联合载体,采用溶剂-熔融法制备新人参二醇与载体质量比为1∶4的新人参二醇滴丸。采用X-射线衍射法观察滴丸中新人参二醇的分散状态,以高效液相色谱法测定新人参二醇含量,考察其体外溶出速率。结果表明,固体分散体中新人参二醇一部分呈分子状态分散,另一部分呈微晶状态分散;新人参二醇滴丸60min时体外累积溶出为67.67%,明显快于原料药及物理混合物。新人参二醇制成滴丸后体外溶出速率明显增加。

  9. Two new giant pill-millipede species of the genus Zoosphaerium endemic to the Bemanevika area in northern Madagascar (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagorny, Christina; Wesener, Thomas

    2017-05-09

    Madagascar is one of the world's most important hotspots of biodiversity and a center for localized endemism. Among the highly endemic faunal elements are the giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, which are severely understudied in Madagascar. Here we provide descriptions of two new species of endemic giant-pill millipedes of the genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895: Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. and Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp.. Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. belongs to the Z. coquerelianum species-group, while Z. minutus n. sp. is not assignable to a species-group. An updated key to the 19 species of the Z. coquerelianum group is provided. Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp. has a body length of Madagascar, an only recently protected area that represents a Malagasy center of endemism.

  10. Study on the identification of TLC for Qinlianweikang Pills%薄层色谱法鉴别芩连胃康丸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红超

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the quality standard of Qinlianweikang Pills. Methods: The qualitative identification of Coplis chinensis Franch. was carried out by TLC. Results: The TLC spots were fairy clear and separated well without interference of negative sample. Conclusion: The method is rapid,accurate and specific.lt can be used for the quality control of Qinlianweikang Pills.%目的:建立芩连胃康丸的质量标准.方法:采用薄层色谱法(TLC)对方中黄连药材进行定性鉴别.结果:TLC斑点清晰,分离度好,阴性对照无干扰.结论:定性方法快速、准确、专属性强,所建方法可用于芩连胃康丸的质量控制.

  11. Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part IV: meta-analysis comparison of effect sizes of vibratory stimulation sham pads and placebo pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fred Burbank Salt Creek International Women's Health Foundation, San Clemente, CA, USA Purpose: To determine whether sham pads used as controls in randomized clinical trials of vibratory stimulation to treat patients with sleep loss associated with restless legs syndrome perform differently than placebo pills used in comparable restless legs syndrome drug trials. Patients and methods: Sham pad effect sizes from 66 control patients in two randomized clinical trials of vibratory stimulation were compared with placebo responses from 1,024 control patients in 12 randomized clinical drug trials reporting subjective sleep measurement scales. Control patient responses were measured as the standardized difference in means corrected for correlation between beginning and ending scores and for small sample sizes. Results: For parallel randomized clinical trials, sham effects in vibratory stimulation trials were not significantly different from placebo effects in drug trials (0.37 and 0.31, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =0.25, PQ≥0.62. Placebo effect sizes were significantly smaller in crossover drug trials than sham effect sizes in parallel vibratory stimulation trials (0.07 versus 0.37, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =4.59, PQ≤0.03 and placebo effect sizes in parallel drug trials (0.07 versus 0.31, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =5.50, PQ≤0.02. Conclusion: For subjective sleep loss assessments in parallel trials, sham pads in vibratory stimulation trials performed similarly to placebo pills in drug trials. Trial design (parallel versus crossover had a large influence on control effect sizes. Placebo pills in crossover drug trials had significantly smaller effect sizes than sham pads in parallel vibratory stimulation trials or placebo pills in parallel drug trials. Keywords: sham effect, placebo effect, trial design, crossover study, parallel study, counterstimulation

  12. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial of the Yiqigubiao pill for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a stable stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Sen; Zhang, Yan-Li; Li, Zheng; Xu, Dan; Liao, Chun-Yan; Ma, Huan; Gong, Li; Su, Jun; Sun, Qi; Xu, Qian; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Ling; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Min; Tian, Ge; Hasan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the Yiqigubiao pill is commonly used to enhance physical fitness. The current clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Yiqigubiao pill as an adjuvant therapy for patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial. The participants were recruited from outpatients at the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital affiliated with Xinjiang Medical University (Ürümqi, China) between February and September 2012. All participants were patients with stable COPD that were randomized to the Yiqigubiao pill (YQGB; n=84) or placebo (Pb; n=87) groups. The occurrences of acute exacerbation (AE) of COPD during the trial were recorded. Lung function value assessments, scoring of life quality and exercise endurance, arterial blood gas analysis and serum inflammatory cytokines level determination were performed prior to and throughout the study. A total of 139 participants completed the intervention and 132 participants completed the study. The interval between the initial intervention and the first AECOPD was greater in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group (P<0.01). The incidence rate of AECOPD was lower in the YQGB group than in the Pb group (P<0.01). Subsequent to the intervention or at the end of the study, the 6-min walking distance difference was longer in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group (P<0.01). The scores reflecting life quality decline became lower in the YQGB group (P<0.01). The serum levels of proinflammatory factors were downregulated to a greater extent in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group. Thus, the Yiqigubiao pill is an efficient and safe adjuvant therapy for the treatment of stable patients with COPD. PMID:27698749

  13. A quality control research of Bao tai pills%穿黄消炎胶囊的质量控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶善斌; 汪电雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the method for the quality control research of Bao tai pills. Methods TLC was used to make a thin layer qualitative identification for Herba Andrographis and Soliclago decur in Bao tai pills. Determination content of Paeoniflorin in Bao tai pills was conducted by HPLC. Results The TLC identification chromatography showed obvious characteristics. Paeoniflorin had good linear relationship in the concentration range of 12. 92 ~ 129. 20 mg · L-1( r = 0. 9997 ). The average recovery was 99. 52% ,and RSD was 0. 66% . Conclusion The method is accurate,delicate and reproducible,which can be applied for the quality control research of Bao tai pills.%目的 建立穿黄消炎胶囊的质量控制研究方法.方法采用薄层色谱法对穿黄消炎胶囊中的穿心莲和一只黄花进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱测定脱水穿心莲内酯含量.结果 薄层鉴别色谱特征明显,专属性强;脱水穿心莲内酯在12.92~129.20 mg·L-1范围内线性关系良好(r=0.999 7),平均加样回收率为99.52%(RSD=0.66%).结论该方法准确、灵敏,重复性好,可作为穿黄消炎胶囊的质量控制研究.

  14. Effect of Qiju Dihuang pill on serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in pregnant women of Gan-Shen Yin deficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Qiju Dihuang Pill(QDP)on changes of Chinese medical syndrome types in pregnant women of Gan-Shen yin deficiency syndrome(GSYDS),and to explore the correlation between imbalanced cytokine levels and GSYDS.Methods This was a random controlled trail.A total of 163 pregnant women of GSYDS at 12-16 gestational weeks were randomly allo-

  15. 交泰丸加减治疗失眠40例临床观察%Jiaotai pill 40 cases of clinical observation of treatment of insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董兴旺

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe this pill and subtract the effect of treatment of insomnia,to further explore the etiology and pathogenesis of insomnia.MethodsWith Jiaotai Pill Based side,according to the individual differences of patients with syndrome differentiation,treatment of addition and subtraction to soothe the nerves,Qi,blood and other traditional Chinese Medicine.ResultsUse Jiaotai Pill for 40 cases of insomnia patients,the clinical cure in 13 cases, 15 cases markedly effective in 8,4 cases ineffective,the total effective for insomnia was 90%,a significant effect.Conclusion Traffic heart kidney method with Jiaotai Pill is represented by the effective method for the treatment of insomnia.%目的:观察交泰丸加减治疗失眠的效果,进一步探讨失眠的病因、病机。方法以交泰丸为基础方,根据患者个体差异辨证论治,以安神、益气、养血等中药进行加减治疗。结果运用交泰丸加减方对40例失眠患者治疗后,临床痊愈者13例,显效者15例,有效者8,无效者4例,总有效率为90%。结论以交泰丸为代表的交通心肾法是治疗失眠的有效方法。

  16. Effect of compound danshen dropping pill on angina as well as serum c-reactive protein (CRP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ye

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill on angina as well as serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) so as to provide reference for clinical treatment.Methods: Patients with angina treated in our hospital from February 2010 to August 2015 were enrolled in this research. The effect of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill on angina as well as serum C reaction protein (CRP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were analyzed. 110 cases of healthy subjects receiving physical examination in our hospital during the same period were taken as control.Results: After treatment, the duration of angina significantly decreased, the frequency of angina pectoris attack significantly decreased, and serum inflammatory factors IL1, IL2 and IL6 as well as Hcy, TG, TC and LDL levels significantly decreased while HDL, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels significantly increased, and compared with before treatment, differences were with notable statistical significance. Conclusion: Compound Danshen Dropping Pill can effectively treat angina, which is related to its regulation of serum C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide and inflammatory factor levels.

  17. Effect of metformin combined with Liuwei Dihuang pill on serum illness-related molecule contents in T2DM patients with NAFLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Ping Zheng; Feng Tian; Zhi-Gang Zheng; Guo-Qing Zhang; Feng Guo; Xing-Hua Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of metformin combined with Liuwei Dihuang pill on serum illness-related molecule contents in T2DM patients with NAFLD.Methods: A total of 86 cases of newly diagnosed T2DM patients with NAFLD were selected for study and randomly divided into combination therapy group and monotherapy group who received metformin combined with Liuwei Dihuang pill therapy and metformin monotherapy respectively, and then serum glycolipid metabolism indexes, liver function indexes as well as oxidative stress response and inflammatory response indexes of two groups were detected.Results:(1) Glycolipid metabolism indexes: FPG, 2hPG, HbA1c, MAGE, HOMA-IR, TG, TC and LDL-C as well as BMI and waist hip ratio of combination therapy group were lower than those of monotherapy group, and HDL-C content was significantly higher than that of monotherapy group; (2) liver function indexes: AST, ALT,γ-GT, STB and CG contents of combination therapy group were significantly lower than those of monotherapy group; (3) oxidative stress response and inflammatory response indexes: MDA, AOPP, TNF-α and IL-6 contents of combination therapy group were significantly lower than those of monotherapy group.Conclusion:Metformin combined with Liuwei Dihuang pill helps to regulate glycolipid metabolism, reduce liver function damage and alleviate oxidative stress response and inflammatory response in T2DM patients with NAFLD.

  18. 祛瘀接骨丸治疗骨折临床观察%Observation of the Curative Effect of Quyujiegu Pill on Treating 42 cases of Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙权; 唐孝富

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察祛瘀接骨丸治疗骨折的疗效.方法 将患者随机分为两组,治疗组予祛瘀接骨丸内服、外敷治疗,对照组口服碳酸钙片;每疗程15d,共治3个疗程.结果 两组均获临床愈合,均未见明显毒副作用,治疗组临床愈合时间明显短于对照组.结论 祛瘀接骨丸治疗骨折,能促进骨折愈合,有效缩短临床愈合时间,具有较好临床价值.%Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Quyu Jiegu Pill in the treatment of fracture. Methods: All cases were randomly divided into treatment group that treated with Quyu Jiegu Pill and control group that treated with Calcium carbonate tablets; the cases were treated with 3 courses of treatment and one course of treatment was 15 days. Results: Two groups of the fractures all healed without side effect,the treatment group needed less clinical time for fracture union than the control group. Conclusion: Quyujiegu Pill can promote the fracture healing and shorten the clinical healing time of fracture. It has good clinical application value.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic column packings with different particle sizes: chromatographic behavior for the quality analysis of HuanglianShangqing pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Li, Ying; Yang, Fangxiu; Du, Yan; Li, Yinjie; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Tang, Daoquan

    2015-02-01

    The chromatographic separation of traditional Chinese medicines is still a highly challenging task in analytical science with respect to its hundreds and thousands of chemical compounds, while increase of separation efficiency can greatly improve the separation power of chromatographic column for traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, 13 bioactive components in HuanglianShangqing pill were selected as an index to optimize the separation conditions and evaluate the system suitability of three commercially available columns packed with 1.8, 3.5, and 5.0 μm particles. The chromatographic separations were obtained by the most appropriate Eclipse Plus C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) within 45 min using gradient elution with aqueous-ammonium acetate (10 mmol/L, pH 5.0) and acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and an operating temperature of 30°C. The quality of HuanglianShangqing pill was assessed through combining simultaneous quantification of 13 compounds with fingerprint analysis. For the qualitative analysis, mass spectrometry was used to confirm the 13 compounds. All the validation data conformed to the acceptable requirements. For the fingerprint analysis, 32 peaks were selected as the common peaks at 254 nm to evaluate the similarities among HuanglianShangqing pills obtained from ten manufacturers.

  20. 微波干燥技术在浓缩丸生产中的应用%Application of Microwave Drying Technology in Production of Concentrated Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 周里欣

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察微波干燥技术在浓缩丸生产中的效果.方法:用微波干燥工艺对3个浓缩丸品种进行试验,对比烘箱干燥工艺数据.结果:产品的性状、溶散时限、水分、微生物限度等质量指标均符合标准规定,微波干燥效果更明显.结论:微波干燥具有加热均匀、干燥时间短、提高药品质量的特点,在浓缩丸生产中可以广泛使用.%Objective;To investigate effect of microwave drying technology in the production of concentrated pill. Method; Three varieties pills were tested by microwave drying process, compared technology data with oven drying. Result; The character of products, time-limit of dissolve, moisture, the limit of microorganism were all accord with the regulation of standard. Microwave drying was more effective. Conclusion; Microwave drying had characteristics of uniform heating, drying time was short, improved drug quality and so on. It can be widely used in the production of concentrated pill.

  1. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills.

  2. Amlodipine/valsartan single-pill combination: a prospective, observational evaluation of the real-life safety and effectiveness in the routine treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yuri; Dongre, Neelesh; Vigdorchik, Alexey; Sastravaha, Krisada

    2012-02-01

    As several international guidelines on hypertension have now recommended, single-pill/fixed-dose combination antihypertensive therapies may be particularly beneficial as first-line therapy in high-risk patients, in whom more rapid and pronounced blood pressure (BP) control is desired. Upon the single-pill combination of amlodipine and valsartan becoming available, the authors conducted this international, observational study to evaluate its efficacy and safety in a real-life practice setting. This prospective, open-label, postmarketing surveillance study enrolled adults with arterial hypertension (systolic BP >140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP >90 mmHg) who were prescribed antihypertensive therapy with single-pill combination amlodipine/valsartan 5/80, 5/160, or 10/160 mg once daily. Patients were observed over a 3-month period (12 weeks) with approximately monthly intervals between clinic visits. A total of 8336 patients completed all study visits and were included in the efficacy analysis. Mean age was 54.7 years and 83.4% of patients had received prior antihypertensive therapy. BP reductions were dose related. Overall, mean BP was reduced from 165.0/99.3 mmHg at baseline to 128.7/80.4 mmHg at 12 weeks (36.3/18.9 mmHg; Phypertension grades and allowed the vast majority of patients to achieve BP goals.

  3. Investigation of the effects of 'piperazine-containing party pills' and dexamphetamine on interhemispheric communication using electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HeeSeung; Wang, Grace Y; Curley, Louise E; Kydd, Rob R; Kirk, Ian J; Russell, Bruce R

    2016-08-01

    'Piperazine-containing party pills' were marketed and sold as legal alternatives to methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) until 2008 in New Zealand. The major constituents of these 'pills' were benzylphenylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). Despite their popularity, there is a paucity of knowledge about their central effects in humans. This study investigated their effects on human neural processing using electroencephalographic techniques. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of an acute dose of these compounds on the interhemispheric transfer of information (IHTT) using the Poffenberger task. Reaction time data were also collected. Healthy, right-handed males were given an oral dose of either BZP (n = 13) (200 mg), TFMPP (n = 15) (60 mg), a combination of BZP + TFMPP (n = 15) (100 mg/30 mg), dexamphetamine (n = 16) (20 mg), or placebo (n = 23) and tested both before and 120 min after drug administration. A mixed factorial repeated measures analysis of variance of absolute N160 latency and contrast analysis revealed that only TFMPP (F (1,77) = 17.30, p ≤ 0.001) significantly reduced the absolute N160 latency. Analysis of the IHTT revealed that only TFMPP (F (1,77) = 5.266, p ≤ 0.02) significantly reduced the IHTT, while BZP, BZP + TFMPP and dexamphetamine had no effect. Contrast analysis revealed that both TFMPP (F (1,77) = 17.30, p ≤ 0.001) and placebo (F (1,77) = 15.08, p ≤ 0.001) preserved the laterality of information transfer from one hemisphere to the other. Reaction time (p > 0.05) was not significantly affected by any of the drug treatments. The usual directional asymmetry (i.e. faster R-to-L transfer relative to L-to-R) observed in healthy control group was absent following the administration of either BZP, BZP + TFMPP or dexamphetamine. Surprisingly, lateralised hemispheric function was not

  4. The impact of using the combined oral contraceptive pill for cycle scheduling on gene expression related to endometrial receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Alfonso; Iglesias, Carlos; Ruiz-Alonso, María; Blesa, David; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; García-Velasco, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Does the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) change endometrial gene expression when used for cycle programming? COCP used for scheduling purposes does not have a significant impact on endometrial gene expression related to endometrial receptivity. Controversy exists around COCP pretreatment for IVF cycle programming, as some authors claim that it might be detrimental to the live birth rate. Microarray technology applied to the study of tissue gene expression has previously revealed the behavior of genes related to endometrial receptivity under different conditions. Proof-of-concept study of 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Microarray data were obtained from endometrial biopsies from 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing COS with GnRH antagonists and recombinant FSH. In group A (n = 5), COCP pretreatment was used for 12-16 days, and stimulation began after a 5-day pill-free interval. Stimulation in group B (n = 5) was initiated on cycle day 3 after a spontaneous menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected 7 days after triggering with hCG. No individual genes exhibited increased or decreased expression (fold change (FC) >2) in patients with prior COCP treatment (group A) compared with controls (group B). However, the results of the functional analysis showed a total of 11 biological processes that were significantly enriched in group A compared with group B (non-COCP). The Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) has only been validated on endometrial samples obtained in natural cycles and after hormonal replacement treatment (HRT). Therefore, it was not possible in this study to classify the endometrial samples as receptive or non-receptive. We used the ERA to focus on 238 genes that are intimately related to endometrial receptivity, thus simplifying the analysis and understanding of the data. Cycle scheduling is common in IVF units and is used to avoid weekend

  5. Ramipril/amlodipine single pill - effectiveness, tolerance and patient satisfaction with antihypertensive therapy in relation to nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Smertka, Mike; Almgren-Rachtan, Agnieszka; Chudek, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Overweight and obesity decrease the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy despite the more frequent use of polytherapy. One method for improving therapy effectiveness is by decreasing non-compliance with the use of fixed-dose combinations (FDC). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness, tolerance, and satisfaction with ramipril/amlodipine FDC antihypertensive therapy in relation to nutritional status. The survey enrolled 24,240 hypertensive patients recently switched to ramipril/amlodipine FDC (EGIRAMLON) at the same doses as previously prescribed separate pills. The effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy increased during follow-up from 32.9% to 76.5%. Overweight and obesity were associated with the increased risk of not attaining the recommended BP values [adjusted for age OR=0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.83) and 0.70 (0.61-0.81) for overweight; 0.54 (0.47-0.60) and 0.49 (0.42-0.57) for obese, at the first and the second examination, respectively]. "Very good" or "good" the FDP tolerance was reported by 98.8%, 97.6% and 96.4%, respectively. Adverse events (AE) were reported in 0.35% of patients regardless of nutritional status. High levels of satisfaction with the FDC were reported by 57.0% of patients with normal weight, 54.5% of overweight, and 50.6% with obesity. Effectiveness and convenience were the most important for patients. The effectiveness of therapy with ramipril/amlodipine FDC in the study population was high, but slightly lower in overweigh and obese. This FDC was well tolerated and a significant number of patients satisfied with the therapy regardless of nutritional status. Although the perceived tolerance and satisfaction with treatment were lower in obese and overweight than in normal weight patients; the incidence of AE and perceived benefit from the use of a single-pill, compared to multiple tablets, were comparable irrespective of nutritional status. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by

  6. Single-pill combination therapy in the initial treatment of marked hypertension: a propensity-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Emiliano; Vitaterna, Angelo; Lombardo, Paola; Pirelli, Michele; Refice, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs combinations are available and equally recommended for the initial treatment of patients with marked blood pressure (BP) elevation and high cardiovascular risk. To investigate safety and efficacy of such combination therapies. Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed, inclusion criteria were: initial single-pill combination therapy, availability of clinical and echocardiographic 6-month follow-up. Six treatment groups were identified: Enalapril 20 mg+ Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (E/H), E 20 mg + Lercanidipine 10 mg (E/L), Ramipril 2.5 mg+ H 12.5 mg (R/H), Perindopril 5 mg+ Amlodipine 5 mg (P/A), Olmesartan 40 mg+ H 12.5 mg (O/H) and Telmisartan 40 mg+ H 12.5 mg (T/H). To avoid selection bias a Propensity score (goodness of fit: c-statistic 0.78, p = 0.0001) was used to select comparable cohorts of patients (n = 142 each). After 4 weeks of treatment BP goal was achieved by 624/852 (73.2%) patients, and adverse events were registered in 24/852 (2.8%) patients. After 6 months, 562/624 (90.1%) patients maintained the BP goal. Six-month responder rate was significantly higher in the E/L (69.0%) and P/A (68.3%) groups (p = 0.05); especially among diabetics (52.0% and 51.0%, respectively; p = 0.003). Patients receiving E/L (-19.8 ± 3.2 mmHg) and P/A (-19.9 ± 4.6 mmHg) showed greater reductions of diastolic BP (p = 0.03); whereas reductions of systolic BP were similar between treatment groups (p = 0.46). Echocardiographic follow-up revealed greater left ventricular reverse remodeling among patients receiving ACE-inhibitors (E/L, R/H, E/H and P/A), but this trend did not reach statistical significance. Single-pill fixed-dose combination therapies are highly effective and safe in the study settings. Best clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were noted among patients receiving E/L, R/H and P/A.

  7. Women’s perceptions and reasons for choosing the pill, patch, or ring in the CHOICE study: a cross-sectional survey of contraceptive method selection after counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The European CHOICE study was a cross-sectional survey that evaluated women’s combined hormonal contraceptive choices before and after contraceptive counseling in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic and Slovakia, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Israel, Russia, and Ukraine. The changes in method selection before and after counseling were reported previously. In this paper we present the reasons given by the 18,787 participating women for selecting their contraceptive method of choice, as well as their perceptions about the contraceptive pill, patch, and ring after counseling. Methods Women with an interest in a combined hormonal contraceptive method (pill, patch, or ring) were counseled using a standardized counseling leaflet. The women completed questionnaires, which included questions on why they had selected a particular method of contraception, and the extent to which they agreed with statements about the attributes of the pill, patch, and ring. The results for each country were compared with the percentages for all countries combined by using a binomial regression model. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the extent to which the probability of choosing a method was related to prespecified aspects (i.e. perceptions) of each contraceptive method. Results ‘Easy to use’, ‘convenience’, and ‘regular menstrual bleeding’ were important selection criteria. ‘Nondaily administration’ was one of the main reasons women selected the patch or ring. ‘Daily use’ and ‘will forget to take it’ were the primary reasons for not selecting the pill, while the main reasons for not choosing the patch included ‘not discrete, visible’ and ‘can fall off’. In a small number of instances, the ring was rejected because some women don’t like to use a ‘foreign body’. Women’s perceptions influenced their contraceptive decisions: positive perceptions about a method increased the likelihood that a woman

  8. Kongsheng Zhenzhong pill's effect on the learning and memory ability and its neuroprotective effects in vascular dementia rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuming Ji; Huayun Yu; Bin Ouyang; Guowei Liu; Zhichun Wu; Heng Liu; Fang Du

    2011-01-01

    Clinical reports have demonstrated that the Kongsheng Zhenzhong pill (KSZZP), a classical prescriptionderiving from Valuable Prescription for Emergencies, has good therapeutic effects on vascular dementia. However, the mechanisms that mediate its effects remain unclear. In this study,the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA, the content of nitric oxide, and the concentrationof calcium in neurons was determined with in situ hybridization, spectrophotometry and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, the expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1, nervegrowth factor protein, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protein w ere detected with immunohis tochemistry.We found that KSZZP could significantly decrease the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 mRNA and protein, the content of nitric oxide, and the concentration of calcium in neurons. KSZZP also increased the expression of nerve growth factor and glialcell line-derived neurotrophic factor protein in the hippocampus CA1 region and in the cerebralcortex. Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests verified that KSZZP ameliorated the cognitiveimpairments of vascular dementia rats. Moreover, the KSZZP-induced improvements in thecognitive functions of vascular dementia rats were correlated with both inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitable neurotoxicity and elevation of neurotrophic factor expression.

  9. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

  10. [Study on pharmacokinetics and in vitro/in vivo correlation of menthol in Zhike Chuanbei Pipa dropping pills in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Dan; Du, Chao; Wang, Jin-Lei; Wang, Li-Feng; Wang, Yang; Liu, Jun-Jing

    2013-05-01

    To determine the concentration of menthol in rat plasma by GC. Rats were administered with single dose of Zhike Chuanbei Pipa dropping pills (ZCPDP) and different doses of menthol herbs. DAS 3. 1.6 software was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters, and the accumulative absorption percentage of menthol was calculated by Loo-Riegelman method. The linear regression analysis was made in vitro/in vivo accumulative absorption percentages to detect the in vitro/in vivo correlation. The results of the study showed that the pharmacokinetics behavior of menthol in ZCPDP was in conformity with two-compartment model characteristics. The main parameters were: tmax was 10 min, t1/2beta was (183. 93 52. 75) min, CL/F was (0. 426 +/- 0. 194) L . min-1 . kg-1, all of which were no difference between ZCPDP and menthol herbs with the same dosage. There were significant differences in tmax, t1/2beta, CL/F between menthol herbs with different dosages (P menthol herbs with the same dosage in rats, with good in vitro/in vivo correlation. There were significant differences in pharmacokinetics of menthol in the range of 19.2-570 mg . kg-1.

  11. 豨莶丸质量标准的研究%Research on Quality Standard of Xiqian Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄明蕊; 徐丽华; 林永强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish the methods for the identification and assay of kirenol in Xiqian Pill. Methods The identification and assay of kirenol were performed by TLC and HPLC, respectively. Results The linear range of kirenol was 1.116-3.348 μg (r = 0.999 8) and the average recovery was 99 %. Conclusion This method has high precision and good stability as well as reproducibility.%目的 建立鉴别豨莶丸中奇壬醇及测定其含量的方法.方法 鉴别奇壬醇采用TLC法,含量测定采用HPLC法.结果 测得奇壬醇的线性范围为1.116~3.348 μg(r=0.999 8),平均回收率99%.结论 本法精密度高,稳定性和重现性好.

  12. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansana Visanou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.

  13. Knowledge and use of emergency contraceptive pill: An analysis of perception and practice among unmarried urban women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Purohit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to collect evidence with respect to perception and practice of unmarried women toward the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs. Materials and Methods: Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select respondents. A total of 250 respondents were administered the tools for the study, of which 228 were considered for analysis. Results and Discussion: Descriptive statistics showed that nearly 87% of the respondents were aware of ECPs and there was a significant difference in the knowledge of ECP of the respondents by type of the institution they had studied. More than half of the (52% respondents admitted to have boyfriends of which 16% were sexually involved and were using some form of contraception. Nearly 84% of the respondents used ECP, which superseded the use of other contraceptives. It was further found that around two-third respondents were using ECP regularly. The reason that "ECP did not hinder pleasure" and that it was handy in case of "unplanned contact" were the most cited reasons for using ECP as a regular contraceptive. Conclusion: The fact that ECPs was preferred over condom and was used regularly shows that the respondents were at a risk of sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus. Health-care providers could be the most authentic source of information for orienting young women toward the use of safe sexual practices.

  14. Herb formula "Fufangqishe-Pill" prevents upright posture-induced intervertebral disc degeneration at the lumbar in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian-Qian; Xi, Zhi-Jie; Bian, Qin; Cui, Xue-Jun; Li, Chen-Guang; Hou, Wei; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Degeneration of the lumbar spine plays an important role in most chronic low back pain. Prevention of lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is therefore a high research priority. Both our previous multicenter clinical trials and pharmacological research showed that Fufangqishe-Pill (FFQSP), a newly patented traditional Chinese medicine, could effectively relieve the symptoms of neck pain and prevent cervical degeneration. To clarify the effect of FFQSP on lumbar IVD degeneration, we applied a lumbar IVD degeneration rat model induced by prolonged upright posture. Pretreatment of FFQSP for one month prevented the histological changes indicating IVD disorganization; increased type II-collagen level, decreased type X-collagen protein level, and increased Col2alpha1 mRNA expression at all time points; and decreased Col10alpha1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP13, and Interleukin (IL)-1beta mRNA expression induced by upright posture for 7 and 9 months. These results suggest that FFQSP prevents lumbar IVD degeneration induced by upright posture. FFQSP is a promising medicine for lumbar IVD degeneration disease.

  15. Distribution of Pill Millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and Associated Soil Fauna in the Western Ghats and West Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. M. ASHWINI; K. R. SRIDHAR

    2008-01-01

    Seven sampling sites in each of three biomes (Western Ghats, foothills of Western Ghats and west coast) of south-western India were investigated to study the distribution, abundance and ecology of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and associated fauna in relation to edaphic features. Abundance and biomass of Arthrosphaera and other millipedes were the highest in Western Ghats, while earthworms were in foothills. Arthrosphaera magna and Arthrosphaera spp. were common in Western Ghats and foothills respectively, while no Arthrosphaera were found in the west coast. None of the sampling sites consisted of more than one species of Arthrosphaera. Biomass of Arthrosphaera, other millipedes and earthworms significantly differed in Western Ghats (P = 9.48 × 10-7) and foothills (P = 1.35 × 10-8), as did the biomass of species of Arthrosphaera (P = 2.76 × 10-7) between Western Ghats and foothills. Correlation analysis revealed that biomass of Arthrosphaera was significantly (P = 0.01, r = 0.45) correlated with soil organic carbon rather than other edaphic fea-tures (pH, phosphate, calcium and magnesium). Distribution pattern, abundance, biomass and ecology of Arthrosphaera of Western Ghats in relation to soil qualities were compared with millipedes of other regions of the world.

  16. Dahuang Zhechong Pill Combined with Doxorubicin Induces Cell Death through Regulating Energy Metabolism in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological activities such as cell survival, proliferation, defense, adaptation, and metabolism need to consume energy. Hepatoma cells can quickly start stress responses like multidrug resistance (MDR requiring adenosine triphosphate (ATP consumption after administration of chemotherapeutics. We employed CCK-8 assay to evaluate cell viability and the flow cytometry to confirm apoptosis and necrosis. ELISA kit was used to determine intracellular levels of ATP in lysates. Western blot was employed to analyze the expressions of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism. We found that doxorubicin (DOX potently stimulated apoptosis at a low dose and even induced necrosis at a high dose in SMMC-7721. DHZCP combined with DOX at low or middle dose enhanced the synergistic antihepatoma effect. Results indicated that Dahuang Zhechong Pill (DHZCP inhibited the expressions of several key enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and reduced intracellular ATP levels. The combination of DHZCP with DOX reversed the elevation of intracellular ATP levels, and a significantly synergistic antitumor effect was observed. DHZCP could not only strengthen the therapeutic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs but also decrease the doses of chemotherapeutic drugs and the incidences of adverse reactions, providing novel strategies for clinical treatment of liver cancer.

  17. Long-term safety and efficacy of telmisartan/amlodipine single pill combination in the treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billecke, Scott S; Marcovitz, Pamela A

    2013-01-01

    The use of multiple drug regimens is increasingly recognized as a tacit requirement for the management of hypertension, a necessity fueled in part by rising rates of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. By targeting complementary pathways, combinations of antihypertensive drugs can be applied to provide effective blood pressure control while minimizing side effects and reducing exposure to high doses of individual medications. In addition, combination therapies, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have the added benefit of reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity over other dual therapies while providing equivalent blood pressure control. It is possible that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), which unlike ACE inhibitors are minimally affected by upregulation of alternative pathways for angiotensin II accumulation following long-term treatment, would also provide such outcome benefits. At issue, however, is maintaining patient compliance, as adding medications is known to reduce adherence to treatment regimens. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing trial data for the long-term safety and efficacy of a recent addition to the armamentarium of dual-antihypertensive therapeutic options, the telmisartan/amlodipine single pill combination. The areas where long-term data are lacking, notably clinical information regarding minorities and women, will also be discussed.

  18. A comparative systematic review of Yasmin (drospirenone pill) versus standard treatment options for symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ren, Jing; Sun, Wenxia

    2017-03-01

    To systematically review the impact of Yasmin (drospirenone pill) compares with other standard treatments for symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). The relevant studies of the randomized controlled trials in women with PCOS treated with drospirenone were retrieved and the systematic evaluation was conducted. Eighteen articles were included. Compared with drospirenone (DRSP) monotherapy, DRSP plus metformin was better in reducing body mass index (BMI), luteinizing hormone (LH) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Compared with metformin, DRSP was better in modulating serum total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and free androgen index (FAI), while metformin was more effective in reducing BMI, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and Triglyceride (TG). DRSP was superior to cyproterone acetate (CPA) in reducing TC and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). DRSP shows better effect in modulating LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with desogestrel (DSG). The available data suggested that DRSP was effective in modulating hormones, insulin and lipid metabolism in women with PCOS. Compared with commonly used drugs for symptoms of PCOS as CPA and DSG, DRSP shows identical or better effect in improving symptoms and protect cardiovascular system. For the PCOS patients with IR, obesity or high LH/FSH ratio, DRSP combines with metformin maybe more effective than use DRSP alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Complementary treatment of 141 HIV/AIDS patients with pulmonary infection by qingfei peiyuan micro-pill: a clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiu-Xia; Xu, Li-Ran; Zheng, Zhi-Pan; Meng, Peng-Fei; Wang, Dong-Xu; Song, Xi-Yuan

    2014-08-01

    To observe the effect of Qingfei Peiyuan Micro-pill (QPM) on HIV/AIDS patients with pulmonary infection of phlegm heat obstructing lung syndrome (PHOLS). Totally 141 HIV/AIDS patients with pulmonary infection of PHOLS were randomly assigned to the treatment group (94 cases) and the control group (47cases). On the basis of Western medicine, patients in the treatment group took QPM. The therapeutic course for all was 28 days. The improvement of symptoms and signs was observed. The body temperature (BT), chest X ray, and white blood cells (WBCs) were detected. The Chinese medical syndrome score was lower in the treatment group than in the control group at the 7th, 21st, and 28th day of treatment, showing statistical difference (P difference (P difference in the patient number with normal WBCs on the 7th day (P > 0.05). But there was statistical difference in the patient number with normal WBCs on the 14th, 21st, and 28th day of treatment (P difference in the patient number with normal chest X ray on the 7th and 28th day of treatment (P > 0.05). But there was statistical difference in the patient number with normal chest X ray on the 14th and 21 st day of treatment (P HIV/AIDS patients with pulmonary infection of PHOLS.

  20. Early pregnancy loss in women stimulated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver, José; Albert, Carmen; Labarta, Elena; Pellicer, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate and compare the risk of early pregnancy loss in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment. Retrospective case-control study. Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. University of Valencia. Spain. One thousand five hundred thirty-nine patients, aged <36, stimulated with GnRH antagonists for IVF between January 1, 2000 and November 1, 2005. Reproductive outcome was compared based on the application (or not) of OCP pretreatment: 944 women were included in the OCP group and 595 in the non-OCP group. The Student's t test was used for statistics. Pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, early clinical pregnancy loss, early pregnancy loss, and ongoing pregnancy rates. No significant differences were observed in any of the outcome parameters. Early pregnancy loss rates were similar: 23% in the OCP pretreatment group versus 19.2% in the non-OCP pretreatment group. However, longer periods of ovarian stimulation and higher doses of gonadotropins needed to be employed in the OCP group. There is not sufficient evidence to confirm OCP pretreatment as a risk factor for miscarriage in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols.

  1. Study on material base and action mechanism of compound Danshen dripping pills for treatment of atherosclerosis based on modularity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Wen-Feng; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-Mei; Liang, Sheng-Wang

    2016-12-04

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China and its surrounding countries in clinical treatments for centuries-long time. However, due to the complexity of TCM constituents, both action mechanism and material base of TCM remain nearly unknown. The present study was designed to uncover the action mechanism and material base of TCM in a low-cost manner. Compound Danshen dripping pills (DSP) is a widely used TCM for treatment of atherosclerosis, and was researched here to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. We constructed a heterogeneous network for DSP, identified the significant network module, and analyzed the primary pharmacological units by performing GO and pathways enrichment analysis. Two significant network modules were identified from the heterogeneous network of DSP, and three compounds out of four hub nodes in the network were found to intervene in the process of atherosclerosis. Moreover, 13 out of 20 enriched pathways that were ranked in top 10 corresponding to both the two pharmacological units were found to be involved in the process of atherosclerosis. Quercetin, luteolin and apigenin may be the main active compounds which modulate the signaling pathways, such as metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, retinol metabolism, etc. The present method helps reveal the action mechanism and material base of DSP for treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of Acupuncture versus Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill in Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intira Sriprasert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture and combined oral contraceptive (COC pill in treating moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea. Fifty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (n = 27 or COC (n = 25 for three menstrual cycles. Mefenamic acid was prescribed as a recue analgesic drug with both groups. The statistical approach used for efficacy and safety assessments was intention-to-treat analysis. By the end of the study, both treatments had resulted in significant improvement over baselines in all outcomes, that is, maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores, days suffering from dysmenorrhea, amount of rescue analgesic used, and quality of life assessed by SF-36 questionnaire. Over the three treatment cycles, COC caused greater reduction in maximal pain scores than acupuncture, while improvements in the remaining outcomes were comparable. Responders were defined as participants whose maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores decreased at least 33% below their baseline. Response rates following both interventions at the end of the study were not statistically different. Acupuncture commonly caused minimal local side effects but did not cause any hormone-related side effects as did COC. In conclusion, acupuncture is an alternative option for relieving dysmenorrhea, especially when COC is not a favorable choice.

  3. Metabonomic Strategy to the Evaluation of Chinese Medicine Compound Danshen Dripping Pills Interfering Myocardial Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is one of the highest mortality diseases in the world. Traditional Chinese medicine compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDPs have currently made a great achievement in treating CHD. However, the therapeutic mechanism of CDDP is often poorly interpreted. In this study, a GC-MS-based metabonomic study was conducted to assess the holistic efficacy of CDDP for myocardial infarction in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the control group, the sham group, the model group, the control + CDDP group, and the model + CDDP, with CDDP at a dose of 107 mg/kg·d (equal to 1.8 mL/kg·d. The metabonomic findings demonstrated great differences of metabolic pattern among sham, model, and the model + CDDP in the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA models, which coordinated well with the assessment of plasma biochemistry and histopathological assay. Differentially expressed metabolites suggested that energy metabolism, glycolysis, and lipid metabolism might be disrupted by myocardial infarction. Both the potential metabolic biomarkers and the biochemical histopathological indices were regulated effectively by CDDP.

  4. SESK ja SEKK / Toomas Pill ; T. Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Toomas

    2007-01-01

    3. mail toimunud koosolekul tegi Heidi Aedma ettepaneku korraldada Sydney Eesti Seenioride Koondise kokkutulekud laupäeviti ja soovituse asendada endine nimi teisiti - Sydney Eesti Kultuuriklubi (SEKK)

  5. SESK ja SEKK / Toomas Pill ; T. Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Toomas

    2007-01-01

    3. mail toimunud koosolekul tegi Heidi Aedma ettepaneku korraldada Sydney Eesti Seenioride Koondise kokkutulekud laupäeviti ja soovituse asendada endine nimi teisiti - Sydney Eesti Kultuuriklubi (SEKK)

  6. Effects of Zuogui Pill and Yougui Pill on Expression of Apoptosis Protein Fas and Bax of Brain Tissue in Rat with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis%左归丸和右归丸对自身免疫性脑脊髓炎大鼠脑组织中凋亡蛋白Fas、 Bax表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇爽; 王义周; 李明; 齐放; 郑琦; 赵晖; 王蕾

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of Zuogui Pill and Yougui Pill on the expression of apoptosis protein Fas and Bax of brain tissue in rat with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ( EAE ) .Methods: The Lewis rat were immunized with myelin basic protein ( MBP ) 68-86 to be made EAE model. The animals were measured the body weight, temperature, volume of food and drink as well as graded daily for clinical disability. The rats were observed the incidence, incubation period, mortality rate and the change of disease course. Brain and spinal cord of the rats were harvested and the pathological changes were studied after dying by HE staining. The expression of Fas and Bax in brain and spinal cord of rats were detected by the method by immunohistochemisty. Results: Zuogui Pill and Yougui Pill can relieve the infiltrated inflammatory cells around focal zone, and inhibited the expression of Fas and Bax, similarly the hormone. Conclusion: Zuogui Pill and Yougui Pill have the effects on prevent and treatment the rats with EAE, the mechanism may be related with regulating expression of apoptosis protein Fas and Bax.%目的:观察左、右归丸对实验性自身免疫性脑脊髓炎(experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,EAE )大鼠脑组织中凋亡蛋白Fas、Bax表达的影响.方法:用髓鞘碱性蛋白(myelin basic proteir68-86,MBP68-86)免疫Lewis 大鼠建立EAE模型.观察各组大鼠体重体温变化,饮食和饮水变化,神经功能评分,发病率、死亡率、潜伏期及病程变化.取脑和脊髓,HE染色后进行病理观察;用免疫组化法检测大鼠脑组织中Fas、Bax的表达情况.结果:左归丸组和右归丸组明显减轻病灶区域的炎性细胞浸润,对Fas、Bax的表达均有一定的抑制作用,与激素组类似.结论:左、右归丸均有防治小鼠EAE的作用,其作用机制可能与调节细胞凋亡蛋白Fas、Bax的表达有关.

  7. Effect of cork liner property on fabric's pilling test%软木内衬材料的特性对织物起球测试的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 胡雪玉; 韩惠民; 蔡涛

    2009-01-01

    Cork liner is an important material for Pilling Box Tester. In this paper, the properties of cork liner used for Pilling Box Tester were analyzed. Experimental results showed that both the surface friction coefficient and the hardness of cork liner influenced the pilling test results of knitted fabric through changing the hardness (40HA, 60HA, and 80HA) and the surface friction coefficient (0. 6, 0. 8, and 1.0). With the increase of the surface friction coefficient and the hardness of cork liner, the pilling number of fabric increased. In addition, the diameter deformation degree of sample tubs influenced the fabric pilling test.%软木内衬是箱式起球仪的重要材料.分析了起球钗用软木内衬材料的性能.实验结果表明,改变软木内村材料的表面摩擦系数(0.6,0.8,1.0)与硬度(40HA,60HA,and 80HA)影响针织物的起球测试结果.随着表面摩擦系数与硬度的增加,织物的起球数增加.此外,载样管直径的变化程度也影响织物起球测试结果.

  8. 枣地安神丸质量标准研究%Study on Quality Standard of Zaodi Anshen Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智; 王爽; 许贵军; 高菲

    2013-01-01

    目的建立枣地安神丸的质量标准。方法采用薄层色谱法对制剂中酸枣仁、制何首乌进行定性鉴别。采用高效液相色谱法对五味子醇甲、五味子甲素和五味子乙素进行含量测定,用Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5µm),流动相为甲醇-水梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL/min,柱温40℃,检测波长254 nm。结果酸枣仁、制何首乌薄层色谱斑点清晰,分离效果较好,且阴性无干扰。五味子醇甲、五味子甲素和五味子乙素分别在338~1690 ng(r2=0.9991)、128~640 ng(r2=0.9993)、236~1180 ng(r2=0.9994)范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均加样回收率分别为99.2%、99.0%、98.9%。结论本方法准确可靠、专属性强、重复性好,可作为枣地安神丸的质量控制标准。%Objecfive To establish the quality standard of Zaodi Anshen Pills. Methods TLC method was used to identify Spinosae and Radix polygoni Multiflori. HPLC method was used to determine the schisandrin, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B. Eclipse XDB-C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm) was adopted by gradient elution using MeOH-water solution as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was at 254 nm, column temperature was at 40 ℃ and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Results The TLC spots were clear without interference of the negative control. The linear ranges of schisandrin, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were within 338-1690 ng (r 2=0.999 1), 128-640 ng (r 2=0.999 3) and 236-1180 ng (r 2=0.999 4), and the average recoveries were 99.2%, 99.0% and 98.9% respectively. Conclusion This method is accurate, reliable, specific and reproducible, and can be used for quality control of Zaodi Anshen Pills.

  9. Effect of Exposure to Pill Contraceptive Low-dose Levels of Homocysteine and Nitric Oxide in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is one of the public health priorities. Consumption of oral contraceptives increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and it still remains a concern. This study aimed to investigate the effect of exposure on pill contraceptive low-dose  levels on homocysteine and nitric oxide. methods: In this cohort ( retrospective+ prospective study, 100 women with normal menstrual cycle aged betwen 20-35 years old refered to health care centers of Yazd, Iran in 2015.  This study was conducted through face to face interviews by the researcher who asked for demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Anthropometic indices  was measured and the levels of homosysteine and nitric oxide was determined. The data were analyzed using t-test, chi- square test and ANOVA by SPSS 21. Results: The mean and standard deviation of homocysteine levels in the exposed group acompared to non-exposed group were (3/848±2/357 μmol/L and (3/284±1/616 μmol/L as well as the mean and standard deviation of nitric oxide in the exposed group were (p-value=0/41 and (181/360±90/44μM and in the non-exposed group were (162/654±90/913 μM and (p-value=0/29 , respectively.According to these results, there was not found any statistical significant  difference among these results. Conclusion: Taking low dose oral contraceptives in healthy women did not change any differences in homocysteine and nitric oxide levels as a modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  10. A review of the benefits of early treatment initiation with single-pill combinations of telmisartan with amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segura J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Julian Segura, Luis Miguel Ruilope Department of Nephrology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain Abstract: This review discusses the rationale for earlier use of single-pill combinations (SPCs of antihypertensive drugs, with a focus on telmisartan/amlodipine (T/A and telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide (T/H SPCs. Compared with the respective monotherapies, the once-daily T/A and T/H SPCs have been shown to result in significantly higher blood pressure (BP reductions, BP goal rates, and response rates in patients at all stages of hypertension. As expected, BP reductions are highest with the highest dose (T80/A10 and T80/H25 SPCs. Subgroup analyses of the telmisartan trials have reported the efficacy of both SPCs to be consistent, regardless of the patients' age, race, and coexisting diabetes, obesity, or renal impairment. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, the T/A combination provides superior 24-hour BP-lowering efficacy compared with either treatment administered as monotherapy. Similarly, the T/H SPC treatment provides superior 24-hour BP-lowering efficacy, especially in the last 6 hours relative to other renin–angiotensin system inhibitor-based SPCs. The T/A SPC is associated with a lower incidence of edema than amlodipine monotherapy, and the T/H SPC with a lower incidence of hypokalemia than hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy. Existing evidence supports the use of the T/A SPC for the treatment of hypertensive patients with prediabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome, due to the metabolic neutrality of both component drugs, and the use of the T/H SPC for those patients with edema or in need of volume reduction. Keywords: calcium-channel blocker, essential hypertension, diuretic, primary care physician, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor

  11. Cardiovascular risk in Egyptian healthy consumers of different types of combined oral contraceptives pills: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haggar, Sahar M; Mostafa, Tarek M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associated cardiovascular risk in Egyptian healthy consumers of different types of combined oral contraceptives pills (COCPs) via determination of lipids profiles, Castelli index I, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations as cardiovascular risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, the study groups consisted of control group that represented by 30 healthy married women who were not on any contraceptive mean or any hormonal therapy and had normal menstrual cycles, group two consisted of 30 women who were users of Levonorgesterl 0.15 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle, group three consisted of 30 women who were users of Gestodene 0.075 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle, and group four consisted of 30 women who were users of Drospirenone 3 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle. One-way analysis of variance followed by LSD post hoc test was used for comparison of variables. P value index. Formulation containing ethinylestradiol combined with gestodene neither altered adipose tissue function nor showed deleterious effect on lipid panel. Formulation containing ethinylestradiol combined with drospirenone resulted in significantly higher HDL-C and adiponectin concentrations. In conclusion, the uptake of COCPs containing levonorgestrel plus ethinylestradiol is associated with high cardiovascular risk since this formulation showed significantly lower adiponectin concentration, significantly higher leptin, resistin, and atherogenic index as compared to other studied groups. By contrast, the formulations containing ethinylestradiol combined with third generation progestin gestodene or fourth generation progestin drospirenone are associated with low cardiovascular risk since they neither altered adipose tissue function nor impaired lipoprotein metabolism as experienced by their favorable effect on leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, with non-changed atherogenic index, higher HDL-C levels and

  12. Pretreatment of normal responders in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles: A comparison of transdermal estradiol and oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Petrini, Allison C; Zhou, Zhen N; Lekovich, Jovana P; Kligman, Isaac; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment with transdermal estradiol (E2) compared to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) response in normal responders undergoing fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) cycles. A retrospective cohort study was performed of normal responders undergoing fresh IVF-ET cycles who received pretreatment with transdermal E2 versus OCPs prior to fresh IVF-ET. The total days of ovarian stimulation, total dosage of gonadotropins, total number of oocytes, and mature oocytes retrieved were noted. Pregnancy outcomes after ET were also recorded. A total of 2,092 patients met the inclusion criteria: 1,057 and 1,035 patients in the transdermal E2 and OCP groups, respectively. Patients in the OCP group had a longer duration of COS (10.7±1.63 days, p<0.01) than the E2 group (9.92±1.94 days). Patients in the OCP group also required higher cumulative doses of gonadotropins (2,657.3±1,187.9 IU) than those in the E2 group (2,550.1±1,270.2 IU, p=0.002). No statistically significant differences were found in the total and mature oocytes retrieved or in the rates of biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous miscarriage, and live birth between the groups. Our findings suggest that compared to OCPs, pretreatment with transdermal E2 is associated with a shorter duration of ovarian stimulation and lower gonadotropin utilization, without compromising the oocyte yield or pregnancy outcomes in normal-responder patients undergoing fresh IVF.

  13. Pretreatment of normal responders in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles: A comparison of transdermal estradiol and oral contraceptive pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Allison C.; Zhou, Zhen N.; Lekovich, Jovana P.; Kligman, Isaac; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment with transdermal estradiol (E2) compared to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) response in normal responders undergoing fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed of normal responders undergoing fresh IVF-ET cycles who received pretreatment with transdermal E2 versus OCPs prior to fresh IVF-ET. The total days of ovarian stimulation, total dosage of gonadotropins, total number of oocytes, and mature oocytes retrieved were noted. Pregnancy outcomes after ET were also recorded. Results A total of 2,092 patients met the inclusion criteria: 1,057 and 1,035 patients in the transdermal E2 and OCP groups, respectively. Patients in the OCP group had a longer duration of COS (10.7±1.63 days, p<0.01) than the E2 group (9.92±1.94 days). Patients in the OCP group also required higher cumulative doses of gonadotropins (2,657.3±1,187.9 IU) than those in the E2 group (2,550.1±1,270.2 IU, p=0.002). No statistically significant differences were found in the total and mature oocytes retrieved or in the rates of biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous miscarriage, and live birth between the groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that compared to OCPs, pretreatment with transdermal E2 is associated with a shorter duration of ovarian stimulation and lower gonadotropin utilization, without compromising the oocyte yield or pregnancy outcomes in normal-responder patients undergoing fresh IVF. PMID:28090462

  14. Effects of ovarian hormones and oral contraceptive pills on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André L; Ramos, Plinio S; Vianna, Lauro C; Ricardo, Djalma R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ovarian hormones and the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise. Thirty physically active women aged 19-32 years were divided into two groups: OCP users (n = 17) and non-OCP users (n = 13). Participants were studied randomly at three different phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular (day 3.6 ± 1.2; range 1-5), ovulatory (day 14.3 ± 0.8; range 13-16) and midluteal (day 21.3 ± 0.8; range 20-24), according to endogenous (in non-OCP users) or exogenous (in OCP users) estradiol and progesterone variations. The cardiac vagal withdrawal was represented by the cardiac vagal index (CVI), which was obtained by the 4-s exercise test. Additionally, resting heart rate, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were obtained. The CVI was not significantly different between the three phases of the menstrual cycle in either the non-OCP users (early follicular: 1.58 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.56 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.58 ± 0.1, P > 0.05) or OCP users (early follicular: 1.47 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.49 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.47 ± 0.1, P > 0.05) (mean ± SEM). Resting cardiovascular responses were not affected by hormonal phase or OCP use, except that the SBP was higher in the OCP users than non-OCP users in all phases of the cycle (P exercise was not impacted by the menstrual cycle or OCP use in physically active women.

  15. Adequação do uso de pílula anticoncepcional entre mulheres unidas Contraceptive pill: adequacy of use among women in union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E. Hardy

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram entrevistadas em seus domicílios 2.364 mulheres unidas de 15 a 49 anos de idade, que moravam em bairros de baixa renda, na área metropolitana e no interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Estudou-se a prevalência de uso da pílula contraceptiva, a associação entre algumas características sócio-demográficas das usuárias e a presença ou não de fatores de risco para seu uso. Verificou-se que 25,8% das mulheres usavam pílula anticoncepcional. A prevalência de uso foi maior entre as mais jovens, entre as com até um filho vivo e nas com 5ª a 8ª séries de escolaridade. Mais de 40% das usuárias referiram apresentar fatores de risco ao iniciar o uso. Não se verificou associação entre a idade e a percentagem de mulheres com fatores de risco. Essa percentagem aumentou com o número de filhos e diminuiu com a escolaridade da mulher. A presença de fatores de risco foi igualmente freqüente entre as mulheres que não consultaram nenhum serviço de saúde para iniciar o uso como entre aquelas que consultaram em serviços públicos. As políticas do nível central não parecem ter atingido a periferia do sistema.A total of 2,364 women in marital union, 15 to 49 years of age, were interviewed at home. They lived in poor neighbourhoods in the metropolitan area and in the interior of S. Paulo State, Brazil. The prevalence of contraceptive pill use and the association between socio-demographic characteristics of users and the presence or not of risk factors for pill use were studied. One fourth (25.8 percent of the women interviewed were using contraceptive pills. Prevalence was higher among younger women, those with no more than one live child and those who had completed between three and eight grades of schooling. Over 40 percent of the users referred having risk factors for pill use at the time they initiated the method. No association was found between age and the percentage of women with risk factors. This percentage increased with

  16. Efficacy of a Once-Monthly Pill Containing Ibandronate and Cholecalciferol on the Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jin Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe present study evaluated the efficacy of a combination of ibandronate and cholecalciferol on the restoration of the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D and various bone markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.MethodsThis was a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, prospective 16-week clinical trial conducted in 20 different hospitals. A total of 201 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were assigned randomly to one of two groups: the IBN group, which received a once-monthly pill containing 150 mg ibandronate (n=99, or the IBN+ group, which received a once-monthly pill containing 150 mg ibandronate and 24,000 IU cholecalciferol (n=102. Serum levels of 25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and various bone markers were assessed at baseline and at the end of a 16-week treatment period.ResultsAfter 16 weeks of treatment, the mean serum levels of 25(OHD significantly increased from 21.0 to 25.3 ng/mL in the IBN+ group but significantly decreased from 20.6 to 17.4 ng/mL in the IBN group. Additionally, both groups exhibited significant increases in mean serum levels of PTH but significant decreases in serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX at 16 weeks; no significant differences were observed between the groups. However, in subjects with a vitamin D deficiency, IBN+ treatment resulted in a significant decrease in serum CTX levels compared with IBN treatment.ConclusionThe present findings demonstrate that a once-monthly pill containing ibandronate and cholecalciferol may be useful for the amelioration of vitamin D deficiency in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, this treatment combination effectively decreased serum levels of resorption markers, especially in subjects with a vitamin D deficiency, over the 16-week treatment period.

  17. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-01

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge.

  18. HPLC法测定补脾益肠丸中苦杏仁苷含量%HPLC Determination of Amygdalin Content in Bupi Yichang Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左力

    2013-01-01

    目的:为了更好的控制补脾益肠丸质量,对补脾益肠丸中苦杏仁苷的含量进行测定.方法:采用Zorbax SB-C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(8:92);检测波长为210 nm;柱温35℃.结果:苦杏仁苷在10.25~512.5μg范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9999,平均回收率98.91%,RSD=0.48%.结论:此方法操作简便、准确、重现性好,可有效的控制补脾益肠丸的质量.%Objective:In order to better control quality of Bupi Yichang pill,amygdalin content in Bupi Yichang pill was measured.Method:A Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μ m); mobile phase:acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid (8:92); detection wavelength was 210 nm ; column temperature of 35 ℃.Results:The amygdalin linear in the range of 10.25 ~ 512.5 μ g had good relationship (r=-0.9999),the average recovery rate was 98.91% (RSD=0.48%).Conclusion:This method is simple,accurate with good reproducibility,and can effectively control the quality of Bupi Yichang pill.

  19. 血府逐瘀丸质量标准的建立%Study on Quality Standard for Xuefu Zhuyu Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞芬

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立血府逐瘀丸的质量标准.方法:采用薄层色谱法对血府逐瘀丸中当归、川芎、地黄、红花进行了定性鉴别:采用高效液相色谱法对桃仁中苦杏仁苷的含量进行了测定.结果:薄层色谱斑点清晰,阴性对照无干扰.苦杏仁苷进样量在0.348~3.482μg 范围内线性关系良好(r=0.999 9).平均加样回收率为98.9%,RSD=0.9%(n=6).结论:该法准确,灵敏,重复性好,可有效控制该制剂的质量.%Objective: To establish the quality standard for Xuefu Zhuyu pills. Method: Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix and Carthami Flos were identified by TLC. The content of amygdalin in Xuefu Zhuyu pills was determined by HPLC. Result: The spots on TLC plates were clear without interference. The linear range of amygdalin was 0. 348-3.482 μg, r =0. 999 9. The average recovery of amygdalin was 98. 9% ( n = 6 ) with RSD of 0. 9%. Conclusion: The method is accurate with good reproducibility and specificity. It is suitable for the quality control of Xuefu Zhuyu pills.

  20. 不同厂家六味地黄丸质量比对分析%Quality comparative analysis of Liuweidihuang pill with different pharmaceutical companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白林; 方旬; 任韡

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较四个不同厂家生产的六味地黄丸的质量差异.方法:按照2010年版质量标准,采用HPLC法测定六味地黄丸中丹皮酚和马钱苷的含量,并进行体外溶出度的测定.结果:两个厂家的产品含量不合格;不同厂家生产的六味地黄丸中,丹皮酚和马钱苷的含量及其体外溶出度有显著性差异.结论:为达到临床疗效的一致性,有必要对中成药的原料药材进行严格地质量控制,对制剂工艺进行标准化研究.%Objective: To compare the quality of Liuweidihuang pill produced by different pharmaceutical companies. Methods: According to the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010th edition), the HPLC method was used for the content determination of paeonol and loganin in Liuweidihuang pill. The standard dissolution test was used to investigate the dissolution in vitro of paeonol and loganin. Results: The assay results showed that samples from two manufactures were unqualified. The content of paeonol and loganin in Liuweidihuang pills from different manufactures differed significantly as well as the dissolution in vitro. Conclusion: In order to obtain the similar clinical effect, it is necessary to control the quality of the Chinese herbs strictly and develop the standardization research about the preparation technology.

  1. Effect of oral administration of Shiquandabu pill combined with bladder perfusion chemotherapy on the postoperative recurrence and malignant degree of superficial bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zhang; Yi-Shi Xing; Meng-Jia Cui; Zeng-Yue Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of oral administration of Shiquandabu pill combined with bladder perfusion chemotherapy on the postoperative recurrence and malignant degree of superficial bladder cancer.Methods:A total of 102 patients with superficial bladder cancer who received transurethral resection of bladder tumor in our hospital between April 2012 and April 2015 were selected and randomly divided into combined group who received postoperative oral administration of Shiquandabu pill combined with bladder perfusion chemotherapy and routine group who received postoperative bladder perfusion chemotherapy, the postoperative tumor recurrence was followed up for 3 years, and the levels of tumor markers in serum as well as the expression levels of stem cell marker molecules and immunoregulation molecules in peripheral blood and recurrent lesions were determined.Results: Postoperative 1-year recurrence rate and postoperative 3-year recurrence rate of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of routine group, and the mean recurrence time was significantly longer than that of routine group; 1 year after operation, serum VEGF, αFGF,βFGF, MMP2 and MMP9 levels were significantly lower than those of routine group, and ALDH1, Sox2, Nanog, CD47, CD133, B7-H1, PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were significantly lower than those of routine group; after tumor recurrence, ALDH1, Sox2, Nanog, CD47, CD133, B7-H1, PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA levels in recurrent lesions of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of routine group.Conclusion:Oral administration of Shiquandabu pill combined with bladder perfusion chemotherapy has better effect on preventing postoperative recurrence of superficial bladder cancer than bladder perfusion chemotherapy alone, and it has regulating effect on tumor load, characteristics of stem cells and immune response after transurethral resection of bladder tumor.

  2. Determination Content of Iron in Qiweitiexie Pills by Spectrophotometer%分光光度法测定七味铁屑丸中铁的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨康; 黄荣增

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish the method for determining the content of iron in Qiwei Tiexie Pills .Methods Qiwei Tiexie Pills were digested with concentrated sulphuric acid .Fe (Ⅲ) was reduced to Fe (Ⅱ) by hydroxylamine chloride at pH =4.5, and determined by spectrophotometer .Results The calibration curve was linear at the range of 1.6~16μg/mL and regression equation was y=0.0552x-0.0009,r=0.9998.The average recovery was 99.66%and RSD was 0.94%(n=6).Conclusion This method was simple, accurate and proper,with good reproducibility .It can be used for quality control of Qiwei Tiexie Pills .%目的:建立七味铁屑丸中铁的含量测定方法。方法七味铁屑丸通过浓硫酸消化处理后,加入盐酸羟胺将其中的铁(Ⅲ)还原为铁(Ⅱ),在PH为4.5的条件下,用联吡啶分光光度法测定铁含量。结果在1.6μg/mL~16μg/mL范围内具有良好的线性关系(r=0.9998),回归方程为y=0.0552x-0.0009。平均加标回收率为99.66%,RSD=0.94%(n=6)。结论本法简便、准确、重现性好,为七味铁屑丸的质量控制和评价提供了依据。

  3. Mustamäe Maarja Magdaleena kiriku arhitektuurivõistlus = Architecture competition for Mustamäe`s Church of Mary Magdalene / Pille Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Pille

    2013-01-01

    Arhitektuurikonkursist, võidutööst "Fiat Lux" (arhitektid Risto Parve, Kai Süda, Martin Kinks, Margit Valma, arhitektuuriteadlane Mait Väljas, Karisma Arhitektid), 2. koha pälvinud tööst "Õhuke Koht" (Pille Noole, Üllar Ambos, Kaisa Lasner, Kerttu Karjust, Jiannis Lykouras, Arhitektuurinurk), 3. koha pälvinud tööst "Tee" (Villem Tomiste, Stuudio Tallinn). Loetletud ostupreemia ja kolm tunnustuse pälvinud võistlustööd

  4. Toxicokinetics study of arsenic in Liushen pills and realgar%六神丸和雄黄中砷的毒代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆丽; 吴倩; 谢媛媛; 沈连忠; 樊敏伟; 胡坪; 梁琼麟; 王义明; 罗国安

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study thetoxicokinetics of beagle dogs after oral administration of Liushen pills and realgar through determination of total arsenic in plasma and arsenic speciation of plasma at Tmax point of toxicokinetic curve and to provide basis for the safety evaluation of Liushen pills. Methods ICP-MS was used to determine arsenic concentration in the plasma of beagle dogs. HPLC-ICP-MS was used to analysis arsenic speciation. Results The results showed that, after compatible application of realgar to be Liushen pills, arsenic in plasma could be cleared more easily and transformed to less toxic arsenic species, which may decrease toxicity of realgar. Conclusion The toxicokinetics of arsenic in beagle dogs after oral administration of different doses realgar and Liushen pills was studied to evaluated the attenuation effect of compatibility.%目的 研究Beagle犬服用六神丸和雄黄后,血中总砷的毒代动力学情况及毒代动力学曲线峰值点血浆中砷的形态,为评价雄黄和六神丸的安全性提供依据.方法 采用ICP-MS测定Beagle犬服用六神丸和雄黄后血浆中总砷浓度,采用HPLC-ICP-MS测定血浆中砷的形态分布.结果 雄黄经六神丸复方配伍后,血中砷的平均滞留时间(MRT)缩短,更易被清除,并通过配伍促进体内的砷化合物向毒性较小的形态转化,证实了六神丸的配伍减毒作用.结论 通过Beagle犬口服六神丸和雄黄毒代动力学研究评价六神丸的复方配伍减毒作用.

  5. Effect of oral contraceptive pills dose on controlled ovarian hyperstimulation%口服避孕药用量对超促排卵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李豫峰; 王玲; 熊露; 赖巧红; 饶群; 章汉旺; 刘玉芹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨超促排卵长方案中,采用口服避孕药联合促性腺激素释放激素激动剂双降调在体外受精-胚胎移植中的应用价值.方法:共收集397例月经规律患者行体外受精-胚胎移植,均采用长方案超促排卵,降调节均为达菲林0.1 mg隔日皮下注射共7支;其中未服用妈寓隆组25例(Ⅰ组),于月经第19天直接降调;常规服用妈富隆组194例(Ⅱ组),于月经第3天起服用妈富隆,1次/日,共21片,于月经第19天降调;加用剂量组(Ⅲ组)178例于月经第3天起服用妈富隆,1次/日,服用22~63片,其中服用2个周期(42片)及3个周期(63片)有9例,于月经第19~21天降调.结果:降调后E、LH水平用药组较未用药组低,LH水平加大剂量组较常规用药纽激素水平更低;而优势卵泡数未用药组较加大剂量组高;降调天数、获卵数、GN用量、HCG日内膜厚度、可用胚胎数、妊娠率、受精率、OHSS发生率无统计学差异.结论:①在体外受精一胚胎移植长方案中,对于月经规律患者应用口服避孕药可以更有效抑制激素水平,达到充分降调节,不影响内膜厚度、获卵数、妊娠率等,建议应用口服避孕药;②口服避孕药用量越大,降调后激素水平越低,优势卵泡数减少,建议应用1个周期的口服避孕药,不推荐门服避孕药长时间应用.%Objective: To explore the application value of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) combined with gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist ( GnRH - a) in dual suppression of in vitro fertilization - embryo transplantation ( IVF - ET) in long protocol of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.Methods: 397 cases with regular menstruation received IVF - ET ( long protocol of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation), 0.1 mg Diphereline was injected subcutaneously every two days for 7 times; 25 cases did not take Marvelon ( group Ⅰ ), down - regulation was performed on the nineteenth day of menstruation; 194 cases took Marvelon

  6. Mustamäe Maarja Magdaleena kiriku arhitektuurivõistlus = Architecture competition for Mustamäe`s Church of Mary Magdalene / Pille Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Pille

    2013-01-01

    Arhitektuurikonkursist, võidutööst "Fiat Lux" (arhitektid Risto Parve, Kai Süda, Martin Kinks, Margit Valma, arhitektuuriteadlane Mait Väljas, Karisma Arhitektid), 2. koha pälvinud tööst "Õhuke Koht" (Pille Noole, Üllar Ambos, Kaisa Lasner, Kerttu Karjust, Jiannis Lykouras, Arhitektuurinurk), 3. koha pälvinud tööst "Tee" (Villem Tomiste, Stuudio Tallinn). Loetletud ostupreemia ja kolm tunnustuse pälvinud võistlustööd

  7. 固经丸加味治疗更年期崩漏疗效观察%Clinical Observation of Gujing Pill Flavored in Treating Menopause Metrorrhagia and Metrostaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于冬梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical curative effect of gujing pills flavored in treating menopause metrorrhagia and metro staxis. Methods: All 135 patients were given gujing pills flavored treatment. Results: All 130 cases cured, the effective rate was 96.4%. Conclusion: Gujing pills flavored treatment menopause metrorrhagia and metro staxis has definite effect.%目的:观察固经丸加味治疗更年期崩漏临床疗效.方法:135例患者均给予固经丸加味治疗.结果:治愈130例.有效率达96.4%.结论:固经丸加味治疗更年期崩漏疗效确切.

  8. Benzylpiperizine-based party pills' impact on the Auckland City Hospital Emergency Department Overdose Database (2002-2004) compared with ecstasy (MDMA or methylene dioxymethamphetamine), gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), amphetamines, cocaine, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Lynn; Jansen, Karl; Miles, Jennifer

    2007-02-16

    To examine the impact of 'party pills' (PP; herbal highs) on the Auckland City Hospital Emergency Department Overdose Database 2002-2004, and to present figures for five other substances in that database. Auckland City Hospital's Emergency Department's overdose database was reviewed for 2002, 2003, and 2004 for 'herbal ingestions' and 'party pills' (PP), ecstasy, methamphetamine, GHB, cocaine, and alcohol. Adverse effects attributed to PP were examined. In 2002, 1 patient presented with PP ingestion; 4 presented in 2003 and 21 in 2004 respectively (poverdose database for 2004. 'Party pills' appeared to have a minor impact on the overdose database at Auckland City Hospital between 2002 and 2004. There was a significant decrease in GHB presentations from 2003 to 2004 (poverdose presentations.

  9. 玉泉丸对盐酸二甲双胍大鼠肠吸收的影响%Effect of Yuquan Pill on absorption of metformin in rat intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 魏玉辉; 段好刚; 张帆; 张建萍; 武新安

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of Yuquan Pill on absorption of metformin by small intestine in rat. METHODS The rat single-pass intestinal perfusion technique was applied, and the gravimetry was used to correct the perfusion volume. The effect of Yuquan Pill on absorption of metformin was studied. RESULTS The absorption rate constant at the metformin group, metformin combined with Yuquan Pill group and Yuquan Pill induced group were 0. 38,0. 28,0. 38 min- 1 and the apparent intestinal permeability were 0. 38,0. 29,0. 37 cm·min-1. CONCLUSION Yuquan Pill may compete the routes of intestinal absorption with metformin, and the absorption of metformin by small intestine in rats is inhibited Yuquan Pill.%目的:研究玉泉丸对盐酸二甲双胍大鼠肠吸收的影响.方法:采用大鼠在体肠单向灌流吸收实验模型,应用重量法校正灌流液体积,考察玉泉丸对盐酸二甲双胍肠吸收的影响.结果:盐酸二甲双胍组、盐酸二甲双胍与玉泉丸联合灌流组、玉泉丸诱导组的吸收速率常数分别为0.38,0.28,0.38 min-1,吸收渗透系数分别为0.38,0.29,0.37 cm·min-1.结论:玉泉丸可能竞争盐酸二甲双胍大鼠肠吸收途径,对盐酸二甲双胍的吸收有一定的抑制作用.

  10. Analysis of Buzhongyiqi Pills Combined with Zhibai Dihuang Pill in the Treatment of Senilestress Urinary Incontinence%补中益气丸联合知柏地黄丸治疗老年性压力性尿失禁疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of Buzhongyiqi pills combined with Zhibaidihuang pill in treatment of senile urinary incontinence.Methods:From 2013 November to 2014 November were treated in our hospital for elderly female patients with urinary incontinence in 94 cases as the research object,all patients were divided into observation group and control group, 47 cases in each group, the control group was treated with Zhibaidihuang pill treatment, the observation group were treated by fill in Buzhongyiqi pills combined with Zhibaidihuang pill treatment comparative analysis of two groups of patients,after 4 treatment after the urinary incontinence and the overall treatment effect.Results:After different treatment, the total efficiency of the observation group was 95.7% (45/47);the control group total effective rate was 76.6% (36/47 two), a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05);at the same time, the observation group were followed up for six months after the 24h average urinary incontinence (1.3±0.2);according to group 24h average urinary incontinence (2.3±1.2),significant difference.Conclusion:In elderly patients with stress urinary incontinence treatment process, adopted by Buzhongyiqi pill combined with Zhibaidihuang pill treatment can significantly reduce the number of patients with urinary incontinence, improve the elderly female urinary incontinence, the treatment effect is obvious.%目的:分析补中益气丸联合知柏地黄丸治疗老年性压力性尿失禁效果.方法:将2013年11月到2014年11月期间收治于我院的老年女性尿失禁患者94例作为研究对象,将所有患者均分成观察组和对照组,每组各47例,其中对照组患者采用知柏地黄丸治疗,观察组患者采用补中益气丸联合知柏地黄丸治疗,对比分析两组患者在经过4疗程后的尿失禁次数以及整体治疗效果.结果:在经过不同治疗后,观察组治疗总有效率为95.7%(45/47);对照组治疗总有效率为76

  11. Study on Quality Standard of Jiaweilanji Pill%加味烂积丸质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓琴; 李鸥; 董林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish the quality standard of BaiJiang Tablet.Methods Radix Aangelicae Ssinensis,Fructus Evodiae,Radix Aucklandiae and Radix Vladimiriae,Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae were identified by TLC.The contents of chrysophanol and emodin were determined by HPLC.Results The linear range of chrysophanol was 0.015 63~0.3907 5 μg,and the average recovery was 100.0%;the linear range of emodin was 0.0344 8~0.862 μg,and the average recovery was 99.8%.Conclusion The method is simple,accurate and with a good reproducibility and may be used for quality control of Jiaweilanji Pill.%目的 建立加味烂积丸的质量标准.方法 采用薄层色谱法对制剂中的当归、吴茱萸、木香及川木香、白术进行了定性鉴别,并采用高效液相色谱法测定了制剂中大黄有效成分大黄素、大黄酚的含量.结果 样品中均能检出当归、吴茱萸、木香及川木香、白术的特征斑点;大黄素在0.015 63~0.390 75 μg范围内呈线性关系(r=0.999 9),平均加样回收率为100.0%;大黄酚在0.034 48~0.862 μg范围内呈线性关系(r=1.000 0),平均加样回收率为99.8%.结论 该法操作简便,结果准确,重复性好,可以控制加味烂积丸的质量.

  12. Results from a 12 months, randomized, clinical trial comparing an olmesartan/amlodipine single pill combination to olmesartan and amlodipine monotherapies on blood pressure and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Carbone, Anna; Querci, Fabrizio; Fogari, Elena; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2014-01-23

    Hypertension affects nearly 1 in 3 adults in the United States, and it is an important modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, heart failure, renal failure, and stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fixed-dose olmesartan/amlodipine combination on blood pressure control, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation compared to singles monotherapies. We randomized 276 hypertensive patients to olmesartan 20 mg, amlodipine 10mg or a single pill containing a fixed-dose olmesartan/amlodipine combination 20/5mg for 12 months. We evaluated: body weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), lipid profile, omentin, chemerin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP). At baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, patients underwent an euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity (M value). Olmesartan/amlodipine combination was more effective than amlodipine or olmesartan in reducing blood pressure. Olmesartan/amlodipine combination, but not amlodipine, decreased FPG after 12 months. Olmesartan/amlodipine combination better decreased FPI and HOMA index and increased M value compared to olmesartan and amlodipine monotherapies. Olmesartan/amlodipine significantly decreased chemerin and omentin compared to olmesartan and amlodipine. Other than to be more effective in reducing blood pressure, olmesartan/amlodipine single pill combination gave also a major increase of insulin sensitivity and a decrease of inflammatory markers compared to single monotherapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Modified Qing'e Pill () on expression of adiponectin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 and coagulation-related factors in patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Gang; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Shuai, Bo; Ma, Chen

    2017-03-01

    To observe the regulation of Chinese herbal medicine, Modifified Qing'e Pill (, MQEP), on the expression of adiponectin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and other potentially relevant risk factors in patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). A total of 96 patients with nontraumatic ONFH were unequal randomly divided into treatment group (60 cases) and control group (36 cases). The treatment group were treated with MQEP while the control group were treated with simulated pills. Both groups were given caltrate D. Six months were taken as a treatment course. Patients were followed up every 2 months. The levels of plasma adiponectin, BMP2, OPG, von Willebrand factor (vWF), von Willebrand factor cleaving protease (vWF-cp), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), C-reactive protein (CRP), blood rheology, bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral head and Harris Hip Score were measured before and after treatment. After 6 months of treatment, compared with the control group, patients in the treatment group had signifificantly higher adiponectin and BMP2 levels (Padiponectin showed a positive association with BMP2 (r=0.231, P=0.003) and a negative association with PAI-1 (r=-0.159, Padiponectin, regulating bone metabolism and improving the hypercoagulation state, which may provide an experimental base for its clinical effects.

  14. HPLC 法测定左归丸中马钱苷的含量%HPLC Determination of Loganin in Zuogui Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟建升; 王伟丽; 杨文文; 朱明伟

    2012-01-01

      Objective To establish a HPLC method for the determination of Loganin in Zuogui Pill. Methods The chromatographic system consisted of Eclipse XDB-C18 column,using Acetonitrile-water (15:85) as mobile phase.The flow rate was 1.0ml•min-1, and the detecting waveleng was 240nm. Results The Loganin have a good tincar rolatim in the range of0.3701~1.2336μg(r=0.9999), the average recovery was 99.86% and RSD=1.20%(n=6). Conclusions The method is simple, accuracy, and suitable for the determination of constituent in Zuogui Pill.%  目的建立 HPLC 法测定左归丸中马钱苷含量的方法.方法采用 Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱,以乙腈-水(15:85)为流动相;流速1.0ml•min-1;检测波长240nm.结果马钱苷在0.3701~1.2336μg 范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.86%, RSD=1.20%(n=6).结论本方法快速简便,准确可靠,可用于左归丸的质量控制.

  15. Experimental study on treatment of diarrhea by Sishen Pill%四神丸治疗腹泻的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立运

    2014-01-01

    Objective By animal experiment observed changes of gastrointestinal motility in mice with experimental diarrhea and the expression of gastrointestinal peptides protein in rat with experimental diarrhea, to investigate the effect of Sishen Pill on diarrhea. Methods Establish model by rhubarb purge, degree of diarrhea, the diarrhea rate, loose stools rate, diarrhea index, carbon particle propelling detection to observe the propellent rate of small intestine, represent gastrointestinal motility . Experimental rat of successful modeling were divided into four groups, blank control group, model group, western medicine control group, Sishen Pill group. After the last administration, the expression of 5-HT and the expression of SP were detected by immunohistochemical method in colon, to observe intervention effect of Sishen Pill. Results By establish model by rhubarb purge, rhubarb lead to accelerate gastrointestinal motility, the expression of 5-HT the expression of SP were enhanced in colon of rat. Sishen Pill could slow gastrointestinal motility in mice, the expression of 5-HT the expression of SP were reduced. Conclusions Sishen Pill could antidiarrheal, inhibit significantly gastrointestinal motility, intervene possibly the expression of 5-HT the expression of SP and play a role.%目的:通过观察腹泻小鼠胃肠运动和腹泻大鼠结肠中胃肠肽蛋白表达的变化,探讨四神丸对腹泻的影响。方法采用大黄泻下法复制模型,以稀便级、腹泻率、稀便率、腹泻指数、碳末推进法观测小肠碳末推进率代表胃肠运动情况,将造模成功实验大鼠分为空白对照组、模型对照组、西药对照组、四神丸组,给药后对大鼠结肠通过免疫组织化学方法检测5-羟色胺(5-HT)、P物质(SP)蛋白表达的情况,观察四神丸对其干预作用。结果经大黄泻下法复制模型后,生大黄使小鼠的胃肠运动加快,大鼠结肠中5-HT和SP蛋白表达明显升高。

  16. Organizadores e cortadores de comprimidos: riscos e restrições ao uso Organizadores y cortadores de comprimidos: riesgos y restricciones del uso Pill organizers and pill cutters: risks and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ribeiro de Borja-Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    use of pill organizers and cutters are discussed and analyzed as a matter of public health. The use of the organizers for storing and carrying tablets and capsules exposes these medications to environmental factors from which their original packaging protected them, compromising their stability and safeness. Cutters also pose the additional risk of causing loss of efficacy, adverse reactions and overdose. On the other hand, the user carrying their own medication reflects the balance between autonomy and self-care, and splitting is sometimes required to comply with certain regimens. It can be concluded that healthcare professionals should observe and guide patients and caregivers in order to avoid risks.

  17. Klaasarhitektuur Berliinis / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2004-01-01

    Helmut Jahni loodud Sony keskus (1993...2000) ja Kranzlereck (1992...2000), Potsdami platsi jaam (bürood Hilmer & Sattler und Albrecht, Modersohn & Freiesleben ja Hermann + Öttl, 1997...2000), intelligentse klaasfassaadiga Debise büroohoone (Renzo Piano koostöös Critoph Kohlbeckeriga, 1991...1997) ja GSW büroohoone (Sauerbruch Hutton Architekten, 1995...1999), topeltfassaadiga Nordrhein-Westfaleni liidumaade esindushoone (Petzinka Pink Architekten, 2000/2001), Riigipäevahoone klaaskuppel (Foster ja Partnerid, 1992...1999), klaaskatusega DZ-Pank (Frank Owen Gehry, 1996...1999)

  18. The pill and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlijmen, Elizabeth Femma Willemien

    2016-01-01

    Bij pilgebruik wordt het tromboserisico vooral bepaald door de aanwezigheid van additionele risicofactoren Het gebruik van orale gecombineerde anticonceptiva, beter bekend als de ‘Pil’, is geassocieerd met trombose. Het betreft gelukkig een zeldzame bijwerking. Het risico op trombose kan echter toen

  19. Neli tellisseina / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2012-01-01

    Konkursile Wienerberger Brick Award tagasivaates vaadeldakse nelja maja seinalahendusi: programmeeritud sein (Gantenbeini veinikoda Šveitsis, Bearth & Deplazes, II preemia 2008. a.), laagerdunud sein (Kolumba Muuseum Kölnis, Peter Zumthor, I preemia 2008. a.), kohalik sein (Bloemsingel kortermaja Groningenis, Marlies Rohmer, nominent 2012. a.), sakraalne sein (Liechtensteini parlamendihooned Vaduzis, Hansjörg Göritz, I preemia 2010. a.)

  20. Connecting Pills and People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article explores the impact of intensive competition within the pharmaceutical industry and among private providers on health care in an Indian city. Methods: In-depth interviewing and clinical observation were used over a period of 18 months. Private practitioners and chemists, ...... services are urgently needed and a planned health insurance scheme should be linked to quality control measures......., who provided regular services to inhabitants of a poor neighborhood in central Bhubaneswar, were included. Results: Fierce competition in private health in Odisha, India, reduced quality of care for the poor. The pharmaceutical industry exploited weak links in the health system to push drugs...

  1. "Smart Pills" Promising, Problematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    An explosion in the variety and availability of cognitive-enhancing drugs, from prescriptions like Ritalin to commercial drinks like NeuroFuel, raises concerns for scientists and educators alike--not just over the potential for abuse, but also over what educators and researchers consider, and how they approach, normal achievement. Evidence is…

  2. Tellisepreemia 2004 / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2004-01-01

    27. V 2004 premeeriti Viinis Euroopa parimate tellishoonete loojaid ja esitleti raamatut "Brick'04". Eestist valiti raamatusse Emil Urbeli kavandatud villa Tallinnas Pirita teel. Võistluse initsiaator tellisetootja Wienerberger AG. I preemia - jalakäijate tunnel Praha kindluse juures (arhitekt Josef Pleskot), II - Humboldti Ülikooli tehniline ehitis (Benedict Tonon), III - korterelamu Veneetsias (Cino Zucchi), üks eripreemiatest - eramu Šveitsis Aargaus (Peter ja Christian Frei). 3 ill

  3. Klaasarhitektuur Berliinis / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2004-01-01

    Helmut Jahni loodud Sony keskus (1993...2000) ja Kranzlereck (1992...2000), Potsdami platsi jaam (bürood Hilmer & Sattler und Albrecht, Modersohn & Freiesleben ja Hermann + Öttl, 1997...2000), intelligentse klaasfassaadiga Debise büroohoone (Renzo Piano koostöös Critoph Kohlbeckeriga, 1991...1997) ja GSW büroohoone (Sauerbruch Hutton Architekten, 1995...1999), topeltfassaadiga Nordrhein-Westfaleni liidumaade esindushoone (Petzinka Pink Architekten, 2000/2001), Riigipäevahoone klaaskuppel (Foster ja Partnerid, 1992...1999), klaaskatusega DZ-Pank (Frank Owen Gehry, 1996...1999)

  4. Neli tellisseina / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2012-01-01

    Konkursile Wienerberger Brick Award tagasivaates vaadeldakse nelja maja seinalahendusi: programmeeritud sein (Gantenbeini veinikoda Šveitsis, Bearth & Deplazes, II preemia 2008. a.), laagerdunud sein (Kolumba Muuseum Kölnis, Peter Zumthor, I preemia 2008. a.), kohalik sein (Bloemsingel kortermaja Groningenis, Marlies Rohmer, nominent 2012. a.), sakraalne sein (Liechtensteini parlamendihooned Vaduzis, Hansjörg Göritz, I preemia 2010. a.)

  5. Aspartame, a bittersweet pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Moreno; Vivarelli, Fabio; Sapone, Andrea; Canistro, Donatella

    2016-02-24

    For the first time, the aspartame case shows how a corporation decided to ban an artificial ingredient in the wake of public opinion notwithstanding the regulatory assurance claims that it is safe. PepsiCo Inc. made an unprecedented decision most likely based on life-span carcinogenicity bioassay studies from the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the Ramazzini Institute (CMCRC/RI), which provide consistent evidence of aspartame's carcinogenicity in rodents. Although CMCRC/RI experiments have been criticized for not complying with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines, the newly launched aspartame-free soft drink may not be an isolated case. In the light of vinyl chloride-, formaldehyde- or benzene-associated carcinogenicity discovered for the first time by CMCRC/RI in the same way, it seems the guidelines need to be re-evaluated to avoid the credibility of international regulatory agencies being compromised by consumer opinion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tellisepreemia 2004 / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2004-01-01

    27. V 2004 premeeriti Viinis Euroopa parimate tellishoonete loojaid ja esitleti raamatut "Brick'04". Eestist valiti raamatusse Emil Urbeli kavandatud villa Tallinnas Pirita teel. Võistluse initsiaator tellisetootja Wienerberger AG. I preemia - jalakäijate tunnel Praha kindluse juures (arhitekt Josef Pleskot), II - Humboldti Ülikooli tehniline ehitis (Benedict Tonon), III - korterelamu Veneetsias (Cino Zucchi), üks eripreemiatest - eramu Šveitsis Aargaus (Peter ja Christian Frei). 3 ill

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p=0.001 and p=0.01. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  8. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis. PMID:26266260

  9. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  10. 麝香保心丸与复方丹参滴丸治疗冠心病心绞痛疗效与安全性评价%Efficacy and safety evaluation on the treatment of coronary artery disease with Shexiang-baoxin pill and complex Danshen drop pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 系统评价麝香保心丸与复方丹参滴丸治疗冠心病心绞痛的临床疗效及安全性.方法 计算机辅以手工检索有关文献数据库,搜索麝香保心丸与复方丹参滴丸治疗冠心病心绞痛的随机对照试验,并对其进行质量评价.用RevMan 5.1.6软件对数据进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入7个研究,包括603例患者.结果显示:试验组(麝香保心丸)较对照组(复方丹参滴丸)可改善冠心病心绞痛症状[RR=1.33,95%CI (1.21、1.45),P<0.01]、心电图(ECG)表现[RR=1.55,95%CI (1.34、1.79),P<0.01].两组不良反应发生率分别为6.85%、14.38%;但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 麝香保心丸在改善冠心病心绞痛临床症状方面优于复方丹参滴丸.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with Shexiang-baoxin pill and Complex Danshen drop pill.Methods Articles of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the treatment of CAD with Shexiang-baoxin pill and Complex Danshen drop pill were retrieved and the quality of these studies were analyzed by RevMan 5.1.6 software with Meta analysis.Results Seven studies involving 603 patients were included.The results of meta-analysis showed that the experimental group was better in ameliorating angina symptoms of angina pectoris patients [RR=1.33,95%CI (1.21,1.45),P<0.01 ] and ECG [RR=1.55,95%CI (1.34,1.79),P<0.01 ] than the control group.Adverse reaction rate of the experimental group and the control group was 6.85% and 14.38% respectively,the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusion The existing researches demonstrated that Shexiang-baoxin pill was better in treating CAD angina pectoris than Complex Danshen drop pill.

  11. Blood pressure control with a single-pill combination of indapamide sustained-release and amlodipine in patients with hypertension: the EFFICIENT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Jadhav

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite antihypertensive treatment, most hypertensive patients still have high blood pressure (BP, notably high systolic blood pressure (SBP. The EFFICIENT study examines the efficacy and acceptability of a single-pill combination of sustained-release (SR indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB, in the management of hypertension. METHODS: Patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy (BP≥140/90 mm Hg or were previously untreated with grade 2 or 3 essential hypertension (BP≥160/100 mm Hg received a single-pill combination tablet containing indapamide SR 1.5 mg and amlodipine 5 mg daily for 45 days, in this multicenter prospective phase 4 study. The primary outcome was mean change in BP from baseline; percentage of patients achieving BP control (BP<140/90 mm Hg was a secondary endpoint. SBP reduction (ΔSBP versus diastolic BP reduction (ΔDBP was evaluated (ΔSBP/ΔDBP from baseline to day 45. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. RESULTS: Mean baseline BP of 196 patients (mean age 52.3 years was 160.2/97.9 mm Hg. After 45 days, mean SBP decreased by 28.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 26.4 to 30.6, while diastolic BP decreased by 15.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 14.5 to 16.7. BP control (<140/90 mm Hg was achieved in 85% patients. ΔSBP/ΔDBP was 1.82 in the overall population. Few patients (n = 3 [2%] reported side effects, and most (n = 194 [99%] adhered to treatment. CONCLUSION: In patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy or untreated with grade 2 or 3 hypertension, single-pill combination indapamide SR/amlodipine reduced BP effectively--especially SBP--over 45 days, and was safe and well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry-India CTRI/2010/091/000114.

  12. Can combining different risk interventions into a single formulation contribute to improved cardiovascular disease risk reduction? The single pill of amlodipine/atorvastatin

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    FD Richard Hobbs

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available FD Richard HobbsUniversity of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.Abstract: In order to prevent cardiovascular events, it is essential to effectively manage overall risk of cardiovascular disease. However, despite guideline recommendations to this effect, current management of the major, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia is disconnected and patient adherence to therapy is poor. This is particularly important for patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who are often prescribed multiple medications. The JEWEL study program investigated the use of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin as a strategy to improve management of these patients. The JEWEL program consisted of two 16-week, international, openlabel, multicenter, titration-to-goal studies in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The two studies differed based on country of enrollment and certain tertiary endpoints, but the overall designs were very similar. Patients were enrolled from 255 centers across Canada and 13 European countries. The study was designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and utility of amlodipine/atorvastatin single pill therapy in a real-world setting. Patients were initiated at a dose of amlodipine 5 mg/atorvastatin 10 mg, unless previously treated, and were uptitrated as necessary. The primary efficacy parameter was the percentage of patients, at different levels of cardiovascular risk, achieving country-specific guideline-recommended target levels for blood pressure and lipids. A secondary analysis of efficacy measured attainment of the same single goal for blood pressure across all study participants (JEWEL I and II and the same single goal for LDL-C across all study participants (JEWEL I and II. The program utilized a newly developed questionnaire to gain better understanding of participants’ beliefs and behaviors towards medical treatment of their multiple risk factors. Approximately 2850

  13. HPLC测定元胡止痛滴丸中延胡索乙素含量%HPLC Determination of Tetrahydropalmatine in Yuanhu Zhitong Drop Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪琳; 杨锡; 陈朝晖; 朱宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of Tetrahydropalmatine in Yuanhu Zhitong Drop Pills. Methods Tetrahydropalmatine in Yuanhu Zhitong Drop Pills was determined by HPLC. CAPCELL PAK C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) column was used. The modbile phase was metanol : 0.02% potassium dihydrogen phosphate-0.96% potassium hydrogen phosphate (adjusted pH to 6.5 with phosphoric acid) = 55 : 45, with the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was 40 °C and UV detection wavelength was at 280 nm. Results Tetrahydropalmatine was linear at the range of 0.110-0.825 ng. The average recovery was 97.39% and RSD was 2.02% (n=6). Conclusion The established method is accurate, reliable and specific. The results are stable with good reproducibility. The quality of Yuanhu Zhitong Drop Pills can be controlled by the method.%目的 建立元胡止痛滴丸中延胡索乙素的含量测定方法.方法 采用高效液相色谱法对制剂中主要成分延胡索乙素进行定量分析.色谱柱:CAPCELL PAK C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm);流动相:甲醇:0.02%磷酸二氢钾和0.96%磷酸氢二钾(用磷酸调pH值至6.5) =55:45;检测波长:280 nm;柱温:40℃;流速:1.0mL/min.结果 延胡索乙素在0.110~ 0.825 μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为97.39%,RSD=2.02%(n=6).结论 方法准确可靠,专属性强,结果稳定,重复性好,可有效控制制剂质量.

  14. The content determination of radix paeoniae rubra in Lemai pill by HPLC%HPLC 测定乐脉丸中赤芍的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王从敏; 熊本立; 徐小利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish the determination method of radix paeoniae rubra in Lemai Pills by HPLC meth-od.Methods The column was Waters Symmetry RP18(5um,3.9X150mm);Acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid(13:87)as mobile phase.Detection wavelength was 230nm.Results The injection volume of paeoniflorin ranged from 0.20403 to 2.04032(r=0.9999),within the scope,with each peak,has a good linear relationship.The average respectively were 101.5%and 100.3%.RSD respectively were 1.5% and 1.4% ( n=6).Conclusion The content determination of radix paeoniae rubra in Lemai pill by HPLC is handy ,fastly and accurately ,has high sensitivity and repeatability ,can be the determined meth-od of radix paeoniae rubra in Lemai pill .%目的:建立乐脉丸中赤芍含量的HPLC测定方法。方法采用色谱柱为Waters Symmetry Shield RP18(5μm,3.9mm ×150mm);流动相为乙腈-0.05%磷酸(13∶87);检测波长为230nm。结果芍药苷的进样量在0.20403~2.04032μg ( r =0.9999)范围内与各自峰面积积分值呈良好线性关系,平均回收率分别为101.5%和100.3%,RSD分别为1.5%和1.4%(n=6)。结论 HPLC测定乐脉丸中赤芍的含量方法简便、快速准确、灵敏度高,重复性好,可作为乐脉丸中赤芍的含量测定。

  15. Single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin helps patients of diverse ethnicity attain recommended goals for blood pressure and lipids (the Gemini-AALA study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdine, S; Ro, Y M; Tse, H-F; Howes, L G; Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Chaves, H; Guindy, R; Chopra, P; Moller, R A; Schou, I M

    2009-03-01

    The Gemini-AALA (Australia, Asia, Latin America, Africa/Middle East) study evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (Caduet) for the treatment of patients of diverse ethnicity with concomitant hypertension and dyslipidaemia. This was a 14-week, open-label study including patients from 27 countries across the Middle East, Asia-Pacific, Africa and Latin America. Eight dosage strengths of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/10, 10/10, 5/20, 10/20, 5/40, 10/40, 5/80 and 10/80 mg) were titrated to improve blood pressure and lipid control. Blood pressure and lipid goals were determined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) and National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP ATP III) guidelines, respectively (blood pressure, or=1 cardiovascular risk factor (as defined by NCEP ATP III guidelines) in addition to hypertension/dyslipidaemia, and 61.7% had coronary heart disease/risk equivalent. At baseline, mean blood pressure was 146.6/88.3 mm Hg and LDL-C was 3.4 mmol l(-1) (130.2 mgdl(-1)). At week 14, 55.2% of patients reached both blood pressure and lipid goals, 61.3% reached blood pressure goal and 87.1% reached lipid goal (34.0% were at lipid goal at baseline). Mean blood pressure reduction was 20.2/11.4 mm Hg. For patients who were lipid-lowering drug naive at baseline, mean reduction in LDL-C was 41.0%. Treatment-related adverse events led to the discontinuation of 3.6% of patients. Single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin therapy was well tolerated and effective for the reduction of blood pressure and lipids to recommended goals in patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds.

  16. Adherence in HIV-positive patients treated with single-tablet regimens and multi-pill regimens: findings from the COMPACT study

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    A Antinori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of Combination AntiRetroviral Therapy (cART has decreased the morbidity and mortality of patients infected with HIV. However, adherence to cART remains crucial to prevent virological failure and disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to treatment among patients treated with Single Tablet Regimen (STR or with multi-pill regimens based on Protease Inhibitors (PI, Non-Nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI, or raltegravir (RAL. An observational retrospective cohort analysis based on administrative and clinical databases was conducted at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (Rome, Italy. HIV-positive patients treated with a cART between Jan 1st, 2008–Dec 31st, 2010 were included. Patients were followed-up for one year since the first prescription during the inclusion period or up to death or switch of at least one drug of the regimen. Adherence and selective non-adherence (days without backbone or 3rd drug were calculated using pharmacy refill compliance [1]. cART regimens were classified based on number of daily pills (STR vs multi-pill regimen and on type of third drug. Viral Load (VL and CD4 cell counts at the end of the follow-up were evaluated. A total of 1,604 patients were analyzed, 70.0% male, age 45.0±8.7, 14.3% newly treated. Patients on STR were 159 (9.9%, PI 878 (54.7%, NNRTI 523 (32.6%, RAL 44 (2.7%. Presence of at least one AIDS-defining conditions (according to Centers for Disease Control classification was 30% in the STR group, 34% PI, 26% NNRTI, 34% RAL (p=n.s.. Adherence was 80.4±14.7% for STR, 71.8±21.8% PI, 77.1±20.3% NNRTI, 74.0±22.4% RAL. Selective non-adherence was 5.5% (18 days PI, 2.8% (8 days NNRTI, 12.5% (43 days RAL (Figure 1. At the end of the follow-up, VL/CD4 values were available among 709 patients (44%; CD4 count >500 cell/mm3 was observed among 61% of patients on STR, 44% PI, 48% NNRTI, 42% RAL and VL < 50 copies/ml was observed among 96% of patients

  17. Swarming behaviour and mass occurrences in the world’s largest giant pill-millipede species, Zoosphaerium neptunus, on Madagascar and its implication for conservation efforts (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida

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    Kai Schütte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first records of mass occurrences (swarming behaviour in giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, are reported from Madagascar. Swarming behaviour in the order Sphaerotheriida seems to be restricted to a single of more than sixty described Malagasy species, Zoosphaerium neptunus (Butler, 1872, which is the world’s largest known giant pill-millipede. Rolled-up individuals can be up to the size of a baseball, tennis ball or small orange, but only females reach this giant size, males being smaller than a ping-pong ball. Nine occurrences of such Z. neptunus swarms were analyzed based on actual specimens, video or photographic evidence collected by other researchers, dating back as far as 1892. One additional swarm, comprising several thousand individuals was examined in detail, with 260 randomly collected specimens being dissected and measured. The findings highlight that the swarming behaviour inZ. neptunus differs from that of all other millipedes in two important details: (1 The individual swarm is restricted to specimens of a single related size (and presumably age class; often only sexually immature individuals; (2 the swarming behaviour is obligate, most, if not all specimens of the species in a given area participate in such swarms; Z. neptunus specimens are rarely, if ever, not found in a swarm. Reasons behind such massing events in millipedes are currently little understood, but a potential explanation for the mass occurrences in Z. neptunus might be higher survival rate from predation in combination with a close sibling relationship between members of one swarm. The almost obligate swarming behaviour in the widespread Z. neptunus species might represent a conservation problem, since whole swarms, and therefore a whole generation in a given area, can be lost through anthropogenic interferences such as over-collecting for the pet trade, habitat fragmentation or road kills.

  18. Clinical Study of Shoutai Pill in the Treatment of Threatened Abortion%寿胎丸治疗先兆流产临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永梅; 卫爱武

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨寿胎丸治疗先兆流产的疗效.方法:将100例患者按随机数字表法分为治疗组50例和对照组50例.对照组给予黄体酮针,20 mg,肌肉注射,每日1次.治疗组给予寿胎丸加减治疗.观察阴道出血、腹痛、腰酸等症状及胚胎发育情况.结果:对照组有效率为74.0%,治疗组有效率为90.0%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:寿胎丸加减可有效改善先兆流产症状,疗效显著.%Objective:To explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of threatened abortion.Methods:100 patients were divided into treatment group(n =50) and control group(n =50) according to random number table method.The treatment group was given progestin needle,20 mg,intramuscular injection,1 time daily.The treatment group was given Shoutai Pill.Observe the symptoms such as vaginal bleeding,abdominal pain,waist soreness and embryonic or fetal development by ultrasound.Results:The effective rate was 74% in control group and 90% in treatment group.Compared the effective power of two groups,the difference was statistically significant(P <0.05).Conclusion:Flavored Shoutai pill can effectively improve the symptoms of threatened abortion with remarkable curative effect.

  19. Determination of Hypoxanthine in Qinbai Qingfei Concentrated Pills by HPLC%HPLC测定芩百清肺浓缩丸中次黄嘌呤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟明; 霍金海; 孙国东

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立芩百清肺浓缩丸中次黄嘌呤的高效液相含量测定法.方法:采用HPLC-DAD法,色谱柱Diamonsil C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm);流动相甲醇-水(2∶98),检测波长254 nm,流速1.0 mL·min-1,柱温30℃.结果:次黄嘌呤在1.94~31.04μg呈良好线性关系,r=0.999 9,平均回收率为99.14%,RSD 1.28%.结论:方法操作简便、灵敏度高、准确性和重复性好,可作为芩百清肺浓缩丸的质量控制方法.%Objective:To establish the HPLC-DAD method for determination of the Hypoxanthine in Qinbaiqingfeinongsuo pills. Method :The separation was performed in a Diamonsil C is ( 4. 6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) column with a mobile phase of methanol-water (2: 98) in a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 elution at 254 nm and the column temperature was 30 ℃. Result:The linear range of Hypoxanthine was 1.94-31.04 mg·L-1 (r =0. 999 9). The average recovery was 99. 14% , RSD 1.28%. Conclusion: This method is simple, reliable, accurate, which offers advantages of higher sensitivity and precision. It can be used for quality control of Qinbai qingfei nongsuo pills.

  20. Hypertensive nephropathy treatment by heart-protecting musk pill: a study of anti-inflammatory therapy for target organ damage of hypertension

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    Dengke Tian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengke Tian1, Shuang Ling1, Gangling Chen1, Yajuan Li1, Jun Liu1, Murad Ferid1,2, Ka Bian1,21Murad Research Institute for Modernized Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, PR, China; 2Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the heart-protecting musk pill (HMP on inflammatory injury of kidney from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. Male SHRs aged 4 weeks were divided into SHR model group, HMP low-dosage group (13.5 mg/kg, and HMP high-dosage group (40 mg/kg. Age-matched Wistar–Kyoto rats were used as normal control. All rats were killed at 12 weeks of age. Tail-cuff method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine rat systolic blood pressure and angiotensin II (Ang II contents, respectively. Renal inflammatory damage was evaluated by the following parameters: protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines, carbonyl protein contents, nitrite concentration, infiltration of monocytes/macrophages in interstitium and glomeruli, kidney pathological changes, and excretion rate of urinary protein. HMP did not prevent the development of hypertension in SHR. However, this Chinese medicinal compound decreased renal Ang II content. Consistent with the change of renal Ang II, all the parameters of renal inflammatory injury were significantly decreased by HMP. This study indicates that HMP is a potent suppressor of renal inflammatory damage in SHR, which may serve as a basis for the advanced preventive and therapeutic investigation of HMP in hypertensive nephropathy.Keywords: spontaneously hypertensive rat, inflammation, musk pill, nephropathy

  1. HPLC法测定内消瘰疠丸中哈巴俄苷的含量%HPLC determination of Harpagoside in Neixiao Luoli Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许勇; 苗水; 诸艳蓉; 张威; 王柯; 季申

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To develop an HPLC method for the determination of Harpagoside in Neixiao Luoli Pill.Methods:The column was Thermo ODS- HYPERSIL(0.46 × 20 cm, 5 μm ), The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile -water( ∠5:75 ).The determination wavelength was set at 280nm.Results:Linear ranges was 15.18 ng ~4743.75 ng for Harpagoside.The average recovery of Harpagoside was 93.5% (n = 9).Conclusion:The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, specific and reproducible in the quality control of Neixiao Luoli Pill.%目的:采用高效液相色谱法测定内消瘰疠丸中哈巴俄苷的含量.方法:样品经80%甲醇溶液浸泡、超声处理,采用色谱柱Thermo ODS-HYPERSIL(0.46×20 cm,5 μm);柱温:30℃;流动相:乙腈-水(25:75);检测波长280 nm.结果:哈巴俄苷在15.18 ng~4743.75 ng范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9999,n=6).哈巴俄苷的平均加样回收率(n=9)为93.5%.结论:该方法灵敏度高、专属性好、操作简便、重现性好.

  2. HPLC法测定更年安片中大黄素含量%Determination of Emodin in Gengnian'an Pills by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲雷鸣; 龚伟

    2013-01-01

    目的:利用HPLC法对更年安片中大黄素的含量进行测定.方法:采用HPLC法,Diamonsil C18色谱柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇:0.05%磷酸溶液(72:28,v/v),检测波长为254 nm,流速为1.0 mL/min.结果:大黄素在0.2574~2.574 μg范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9996).大黄素平均回收率分别为98.1%,RSD为0.86%.结论:本方法简单、可靠、准确,可用于更年安片的质量控制.%Objective:A HPLC-UV method was established to determine Emodin in Gengnian' an Pills.Methods:Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Diamonsil C18 column,250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm.The mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.05% phosphoric acid solution (72:28,v/v)at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL · min-1.The ultraviolet detector operated at 254 nm.Results:Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration range of 0.2018 μg ~ 2.018 μg for Emodin (r =0.9997).The average recovery rate was 98.1% with RSD of 0.84%.Conclusion:The method is simple,reliabe,accurate and it could be used in the determination of puerarin in Gengnian'an Pills.

  3. 顽痹清丸质量标准提高%Studies on Improving Control Standard of Wan Bi Qing Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜天信; 罗石任; 杜志谦; 李洁; 张毅; 王秀真

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To improve the quality standard of Wanbiqing Pill. Method: The TLC method was used to identify Arnebiae Radix, Euodiae Fructus and Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma. The HPLC method was used to detect the content of loganin in Lonicerae japonicae caulis. Result: This TLC method is good in separation, strong in specificity and negative in interference. Loganin was detected in the range of 0. 013 4-0. 080 4 g·L-1 , indicating good linear relationship (r =0. 999 8) . The mean sample recovery rate was 97. 07% and the RSD was 1. 24% . Conclusion: The TLC and HPLC methods are simple and accurate in operation, high precision and good in reproducibility, and they can be taken as the standard of quality control for Wanbiqing Pill.%目的:提高顽痹清丸的质量标准体系.方法:采用薄层色谱法对处方中紫草、吴茱萸、土茯苓进行定性鉴别研究;采用高效液相色谱法对忍冬藤进行含量测定研究.结果:薄层色谱斑点清晰,阴性对照无干扰;马钱苷在0.013 4 ~0.080 4 g·L-1呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 8);平均加样回收率为97.07%,RSD 1.24%.结论:建立的薄层色谱法和高效液相色谱法专属性强、准确度高、重复性好,可用于顽痹清丸的的质量控制.

  4. High temperature compost of citrus pill residues to produce organic fertilizer%甘橘皮渣高温堆肥生产有机肥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建; 袁玲; 黄建国; 李勇; 彭良志

    2011-01-01

    果汁加工产生的柑橘皮渣体积大、含水率高、环境污染严重,亟待有效处理.该试验将柑橘皮渣与粉碎的麦秆按不同比例混合,并接种高温果胶芽孢杆菌和高温纤维芽孢杆菌,探讨了无害化处理柑橘皮渣生产有机肥的高温堆肥发酵技术,并检验了皮渣有机肥对烤烟的肥效.试验结果表明:堆肥发酵试验中,原料中的微生物种群和数量初期最高,高温期最低,后期种群增加,但数量与高温期相似或增加.在高温期,从堆肥物料中仅分离出2株细菌,均为接种的高温芽孢杆菌.在堆肥发酵过程中,物料温度迅速上升至60~73℃,然后降低;水分和有机质都呈直线持续降低;氮质量分数先迅速增加,后缓慢增加,磷、钾质量分数持续增加;pH值先升后降,最后变化于4.04~4.94之间;皮渣颜色也从黄色转变为灰褐色、褐色或黑色.在接种高温果胶芽孢杆菌和高温纤维芽孢杆菌的条件下,每吨皮渣加200 kg麦秆处理最佳.过40 d的堆制后,水分由82.2%下降到20.2%,总养分(N+P2O5+K2O)质量分数达到4.57%,有机质质量分数达到66.5%,皮渣呈深褐色或黑色,达到国家有机肥质量标准(NY525-2002).肥效试验表明,50%皮渣有机肥(每吨皮渣加200kg麦秆处理)配施50%化肥处理既能明显的提高烟草的产量和产值,也能显著提升烟草品质.%There is a large amount of pill residues with high water content resulting in serious environment pollution in citrus processing for juice. Efficiently reducing pollution is thus very urgent. In the present experiment, citrus pill residues was mixed with ground wheat straws in various proportions and inoculated with thermal bacteria {Bacillus sp) decomposing pectin and cellulose. The main object is to develop a technique to treat citrus pill residues for organic fertilizer production and decontamination by high temperature compost and to test the effect of organic fertilizer by

  5. Study on Preparation Technology and Quality Standard of Xuanshen Dropping Pills%玄参滴丸制备工艺及质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 李兆翌; 钟晓明; 盛振华

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish an optimum preparation technology and the method for quality control of Xuanshen dripping pills. METHODS Orthogonal test was applied to optimize the preparation with the choice of substrate, its proportion of substrate to drug, the drug and refrigerant temperature, dropping speed and distance to make dissolution time, appearance and weight variation up to grade. Using TLC to identify the dripping pills, harpagoside in dripping pills was determined by UPLC. Using ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm× 100 mm, 5 urn), the mobile phase was acetonitrile-1% ethylic acid (31 : 69), the column temperature was 35 ℃, the flow rate was 0.2 mL·min-1 and the detection wavelength was 278 nm. RESULTS The optimum pills preparation was the ratio of PEG4000 to PEG6000 (4 : 1) and drug to substrate (1 : 3). Drug temperature was 90 ℃. The mixed liquid of dimethicone and liquid paraffin was refrigerant. Drug was dropped into the refrigerant of 0 °C by (20+2) dropping per minute (freeze-pillar height 3 cm). The herbs could be identified by TLC. For harpagoside, the linear range was 0.010-0.040 μg(r=0.999 9), and the average recovery was 99.2%, RSD was 0.87%. CONCLUSION The good quality pills can be produced through this process with the simple and reliable method. The determination method is simple, specific,reproducible and accurate, and can be applied to the quality control for the Xuanshen dripping pills.%目的 确定玄参滴丸最佳制备工艺并制定其质量标准.方法 以滴丸的溶散时限、外观及丸重变异系数作为综合评定指标,对玄参提取物与基质的比例、基质配比(PEG4000∶PEG6000)、药液温度及滴制过程中滴速、滴距、冷凝液温度进行正交试验设计,优选出滴丸最佳成型工艺及滴制工艺.采用TLC对玄参滴丸进行定性鉴别,超高效液相色谱法(UPLC)测定玄参滴丸中哈巴俄苷的含量.色谱柱:ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18柱(2.1 mm× 100 mm,5μm);流动相:乙腈-1

  6. Study on the treatment on primary dysmenorrhea with Wujibaifeng Pills%乌鸡白凤丸治疗原发性痛经的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭起岳; 吴清和; 操红缨; 茹丽; 刘婵; 吴君; 郭重仪; 黄萍

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨乌鸡白凤丸治疗原发性痛经的作用机制。方法利用缩宫素所致SD雌性大鼠痛经模型,观察乌鸡白凤丸不同剂量对大鼠扭体潜伏期、30 min内扭体发生率和扭体次数、子宫组织中PGF2α和PGE2含量的影响;采用常规方法制备大鼠离体子宫标本,通过BL‐420E生物机能实验系统,以大鼠子宫平滑肌条的平均张力和收缩频率作为评价指标,观察不同剂量乌鸡白凤丸对大鼠子宫肌收缩活动及缩宫素所致子宫痉挛的作用。结果乌鸡白凤丸能明显延长痛经模型大鼠扭体潜伏期,降低30 min内扭体发生率,减少扭体次数(P<0.01);能明显降低痛经模型大鼠子宫组织中PGF2α的含量(P<0.01),升高PGE2的含量( P<0.05),降低PG F2α/PG E2比值( P<0.01);可显著降低大鼠正常子宫和缩宫素引起的痉挛子宫平滑肌条的平均张力和收缩频率(P<0.01)。结论乌鸡白凤丸对原发性痛经造成的疼痛具有良好的改善作用,其作用机制可能与调节子宫组织内PG F2α和PG E2含量及抑制子宫收缩相关。%Objective To explore the therapeutic mechanism of Wujibaifeng Pills .Method By using the dysmenorrhea model of SD fe‐male rats induced by oxytocin ,the effect of different doses of Wujibaifeng Pills on latency period of twist body of rats was ob‐served ,the incidence and number of twist body in 30 mins were measured ,and the content of PGF2αand PGE2 of uterus was detec‐ted;by routine method ,the specimen of uterus were prepared ,according to the evaluate average tension and contractility frequency of uterine smooth muscle (by biological and functional experimental system‐BL‐420E) ,the contractility and cramping (oxytocin‐in‐duced) of uterus at different doses of Wujibaifeng Pills were explored .Result After administered Wujibaifeng Pills ,the latency pe‐riod of twist body of primary dysmenorrhea rats was

  7. 橘核丸加减治疗弱精子症患者的临床观察%Clinical Observation on Asthenospermia Treated with Modified Juhe Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉文; 王全; 黄育新; 刘铭; 马锦煌

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察橘核丸加减治疗弱精子症患者及治疗结束后精液质量变化的情况。方法将130例患者采用区组随机观察化方法分配两组,治疗组68例采用橘核丸加减治疗,对照组60例采用维生素A软胶囊、维生素E软胶囊、左卡尼汀口服液(商品名:东维力)治疗。所有患者分别于治疗过程中及治疗结束后第30天、第60天、第90天,对精液相关指标进行测定和分析。结果经治疗后治疗组临床平均有效率为89.71%,对照组为75.00%,2组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗结束后3个月内随访,治疗组临床平均复发率为16.18%,对照组为70.00%,2组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论橘核丸加减治疗弱精子症不仅能够影响患者精液参考指标,显著提高精子活力,而且可有效降低患者停药后的近期复发率。%Objective To observe the condition of the patients of asthenospermia and the changes in sperm quality after treatment with the modified Juhe Pills.Methods One hundred and thirty patients were randomized into two groups by group randomized observation method.In the treatment group,68 cases were treated with the modified Juhe Pills.In the control group,60 cases were treated with Vitamin V Capsules,Vi-tamin E Capsules and Levocarnitine Oral Solution.The sperm relevant indicators were determined and ana-lyzed during the treatment,on the 30th,60th and 90th days after treatment in all the patients separately.Results After treatment,the mean clinical effective rate was 89.71%in the treatment and was 75.00%in the con-trol group after treatment,indicating the significant difference in comparison of the two groups(P<0.05).In 3 months follow-up,the mean clinical recurrence rate was 1 6.1 8%in the treatment group and was 70.00%in the control group,indicating the significant difference between the two groups(P<0.01 ).Conclusion The modified Juhe Pills

  8. Pharmacodynamics study on a preparation of Shuanghuanglian drop-pill%双黄连滴丸的主要药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱社敏; 李君安; 施存元

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To give some valuable data for the e valuation on its clinical effects of shuanghuanglian drop pill.METHODS:The methods of this study included anti-fever experiment,anti-inflammatory ex periment and anti-bacteria experiment.RESULTS:At the dosage of 10 an d 3g/kg(unprocessed drug),oral administration has good anti-fever effect to the fever induced by endotoxin in rabbits.At the oral dosage of 20 and 6g/kg(unproce ssed drug) to mice,this pill has the following effects:①significantly inhibitin g the increased penetrability of abdominal capillary vessel induced by acetic ac id and ear swelling induced by xylene,②preserving those mice from death caused by abdominal injection of golden-yellow grape coccous,③having good anti-bacteri al effects to golden-yellow grape coccous(40mg/ml),flubacilli(MIC=40mg/ml) and s treptococcus B(MIC=160mg/ml)(unprocessed drug).CONCLUSION:Drop-pill of Shuanghuanglian has effects of anti-fever,anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria.%目的:评价双黄连滴 丸的主要药效,为临床合理使用提供参考。方法:解热试验、抗炎试验 、抗菌试验。结果:双黄连滴丸口服灌胃给药剂量在10和3g/kg(含生药) 时,对细菌内毒素引起的家兔体温升高具有良好的解热作用;口服灌胃给药剂量在20和6g/k g(含生药)时,能显著抑制腹腔注射醋酸(HAC)所致小鼠腹腔毛细血管通透性的增高和二甲 苯所致的小鼠耳肿胀(P<0.01);能保护由腹腔注射金黄色葡萄球菌引起 的动物死亡;体外抗菌试验表明对金黄色葡萄球菌、流感杆菌、B型链球菌具有较好的抑菌 作用(最低抑菌浓度分别为40,40和160mg/ml含生药)。结论:双黄连 滴丸具有解热、抗炎、抗菌作用。

  9. Study on determination method of quality control for Siweikanglao pills%四味抗痨丸质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱远金; 朱国强; 力瓦衣丁·买合苏提; 贾晓光; 陈书强; 李忠民

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立四味抗痨丸的质量控制标准.方法:利用薄层色谱法对四味抗痨丸处方中的白芍、大黄、巴豆进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定四味抗痨丸中芍药苷的含量.色谱条件:以十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂;以乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(14:86)为流动相;检测波长为230nm;柱温30℃;流速为1.0mL·min-1;进样量为10μL.结果:白芍、大黄、巴豆采用相应的薄层鉴别方法,薄层展开后均显示与对照药材相同的特异性斑点,分离效果好.芍药苷质量在2.55×10-3g~0.51μg范围内与峰面积有良好的线性关系.平均回收率为97.5%,RSD为0.57%.结论:该方法准确、可靠、专属性强,为建立四味抗痨丸质量控制标准提供依据.%Objective:To establish a quality standard of Siweikanglao pills. Method:Traditional Chinese medicine in prescription such as herbal Paeonia lactiflora Pall.Rheum officinale Bail]. Croton tiglium L were identified by a series of TLC methods. The content of paeoniforin in Siweikanglao pills was determined by HPLC method. Phenome- nex column was adopted with the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0. 1 % phosphoric acid (14:86) at flow rate of 1.0 mL o min-1, the UV detection wavelength was 230 run, and the volume of injection was 10 μL. Results:Three methods were established for the identification of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Rheum officinale Baill. Croton tiglium L with TLC. The principal spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution was similar in position, colour and size to the principal spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. The linear range of staehydrine hydrochloride was within the range of 2.55 ×10 -3 -0.51 μg. The average recovery was 97. 5% and the RSD was 0. 57%. Conclusion:The method is accurate, reliable and specific ,and can be used for the quality control of Siweikanglao pills.

  10. 正天丸治疗青少年颈源性头痛的疗效观察%Clinical observation on treating adolescent cervicogenic headache with the Zhengtian pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁蓓; 谭为华; 刘丽英; 曾珍; 李志强; 蒋毅; 李鸣娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect on treating adolescent cervicogenic headache with the Zhengtian pills. Methods:120 patients with adolescent cervicogenic headache were divided into two groups, 60 cases in each group. The treated group was treated by Zhengtian pills combined with flunarizine hydrochloride capsules, while the control group was treated by Zhengtian pill only. Both groups were treated four weeks. Results:The total efficiency of the treated group and control group was 95%and 78%, respectively. There was significant difference between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion:The Zhengtian pills has a good therapeutic effect on patients with adolescent cervicogenic headache, and it worthy of widespread clinical application.%  目的:探讨正天丸治疗颈源性头痛的临床疗效。方法:120例颈源性头痛患者随机分为两组,治疗组60例采用正天丸联合氟桂利嗪治疗,对照组60例采用单用氟桂利嗪治疗,疗程均为4周。结果:治疗组总有效率95%;对照组总有效率78%。治疗组治疗效果明显高于对照组,两组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论:正天丸治疗颈源性头痛临床疗效好,使用方便,无明显不良反应,值得推广。

  11. Effect of compound glycyrrhizin and vitiligo pill on vitiligo%复方甘草酸苷联合白癜风丸治疗白癜风疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏青; 何启敏; 李达

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of compound glycyrrhizin and vitiligo pill on vitiligo. Methods The treatment group was treated with glycyrrhizin and vitiligo pills. The control group was treated with vitiligo pills. The effect was observed three months after treatment. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group and control group were 81.25% and 56. 67% (P<0. 05). Conclusion Compound glycyrrhizin and vitiligo pill are certainly worth of clinical application.%目的 探讨复方甘草酸苷联合白癜风丸治疗白癜风的临床疗效.方法 将82例白癜风患者随机分为治疗组46例和对照组36例,治疗组采用口服复方甘草酸苷,同时口服白癜风丸;对照组只口服白癜风丸.两组均连续用药3个月,分别观察两组疗效.结果 治疗组与对照组总有效率分别为81.25%、56.67%.两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 复方甘草酸苷联合白癜风丸治疗白痰风疗效肯定,可在临床推广应用.

  12. 复方丹参滴丸干预氯吡格雷抵抗的临床研究%Interference of compound danshen drop pill with clopidogrel resistance: a clinical research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖绍斌; 梁维基; 伍锦旋; 邓碧池; 赵崇毅; 梁雅

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨复方丹参滴丸对氯比格雷抵抗患者的干预效果.方法 采用比浊法测定血小板聚集率,将氯比格雷抵抗患者58例随机分为两组,氯比格雷+复方丹参滴丸组及单服氯吡格雷组,每组29例.干预2周后分别复查血小板聚集率.结果 干预后氯吡格雷+复方丹参滴丸组二磷酸腺甘(ADP)诱导的血小板聚集率为28.25%,较干预前的37.78%下降9.53%(P0.05).结论 复方丹参滴丸可以增强患者对氯比格雷的敏感性,减轻氯比格雷抵抗,两药有协同抗血小板作用.%Objectives To investigate the effects of compound danshen drop pill on clopidogrel resistance. Methods Fifty eight patients with clopidogrel resistance were selected according to platelet aggregation from 232 inpatients who had taken clopidogrel75mg for 24 hours.They were randomized to two groups: compound danshen drop pill plus clopidogrel,clopidogrel only. Platelet aggregation was evaluated later two weeks after interference(P> 0.05 ). Results Adenosine diphosphate(ADP) induced platelet aggregation of the grop compound danshen drop pill plus clopidogrel decreased 9.53%(P<0.01 ),while there was no significant change in clopidogrel only group. Conclusion Compound danshen drop pill improve platelet sensitivity to clopidogrel,and has synergistic anti-platelet effects,thus could be administered to interfere clopidogrel resistance effectively.

  13. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    OpenAIRE

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnos...

  14. 复方丹参滴丸治疗冠心病心绞痛的疗效观察%Observation on Curative Effects of Composite Dan Shen Guttate Pill on Angina Pectoris in Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑达; 陈长华

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the definite curative effects of Composite Dan shen Guttate Pill on angina pectoris in coronary heart disease. Methods: 52 cases of angina pectoris were treated with this pill, while 25 cases in the control group with isosorbide dinitrate. The changes in symptoms and ECG were observed.Results:The total effective rate in the observation group reached 94.2% with the effective rate of improvement on ECG being 65.5% .Conclusion: Composite Danshen Guttate Pill has significant effects on treating angina pectoris in coronary heart disease.%目的:观察复方丹参滴丸治疗冠心病心绞痛的确切疗效。方法:用该药治疗冠心病心绞痛52例,并与消心痛组25例进行对照,观察症状、心电图的变化。结果:观察组对症状疗效总有效率942%,对心电图改善情况总有效率655%。结论:复方丹参滴丸具有治疗冠心病心绞痛的作用。

  15. AWARENESS ABOUT EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS VERSUS CONVENTIONAL CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH (MCH CLINIC, BAPUJI HOSPITAL, DAVANGERE, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unwanted pregnancies are a major public health problem for both developing and developed nations, which generally results from ineffective use of contraceptives and end up in induced abortions. Emergency contraception sometimes called “morning after”, “postcoital” or “second chance pills” can be used to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected sex. Attention has been focused on the potential for emergency contraception to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and thus abortion rate. OBJECTIVES: 1 . To compare the awareness about emergency contraceptive pills and conventional contraceptive methods among mothers attending MCH clinic, Bapuji Hospital, Davangere. 2. To study the socio - demographic profile of the above group. METHODS: A pre - tested, semi - structured questionnaire was used to know the awareness about emergency contraceptive pills versus conventional contraceptive methods among mothers attending MCH clinic, Bapuji hospital, Davangere from 1 st October 2011 to 31 st December 2011. Data was entered into Excel sheet and was analysed using SPSS software version 17. Data was described as proportions, categorical data using chi square test. RESULTS: A total of 500 mothers were included in the study for duration of 3months. Approximately 80% of the respondents were in the age group of 21 - 30yrs, 72.8% from urban background, 83.4% were Hindus, 55% were from joint family. Approximately 49% belonged to socioeconomic class II and III, 97.2% were literate and 86.6% were housewives. 31.8% had knowledge about emergency contraception which is very less when compared to 84.2% of conventional methods. 6.2% have practiced emergency contraception which is very poor when compared to 47.5% of conventional methods. 77.8% were aware of female sterilization. The most common known temporary method of contrac eption was Cu - T (71% followed by OCP (60.6%. Most common method used by couples was condom (21.8% followed by Cu - T (19

  16. Study of improving quality on Neixia Luoli pill%内消瘰疬丸(浓缩丸)质量标准提高研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏立晓; 赵建邦; 刘兰生

    2014-01-01

    Objective To revise the quality of Neixiao Luoli pill, through thin layer chroma-tography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to improve the quality stan-dard of the drug.Methods On the original basis, the TLC identification of forsythia and determina-tion the content of rosemary acid and harpagoside by HPLC were measured.Results The spots were clear and nagative controls were not interfered.Rosemary acid presented a good linear realationship in the range of 0.039 34 - 0.275 38 μg (r =0.999 98).The average recovery was 98.33%, RSD was 2.27%.Harpagoside presented a good linear realationship in the range of 0.060 16 - 0.240 64μg (r=0.999 87).The average recovery was 98.26%, RSD was 2.17%.Conclusion The stan-dard of Neixiao Luoli pill was developed and improved for better quality control.%目的:修订内消瘰疬丸(浓缩丸)的质量标准,增加薄层色谱法和高效液相色谱法,提高药品的质量标准。方法采用薄层色谱法对薄荷、连翘进行鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定处方中夏枯草迷迭香酸及玄参哈巴俄苷的含量。结果薄层色谱斑点清晰,阴性对照无干扰。迷迭香酸在0.03934~0.27538μg 内有良好的线性关系,r=0.99998,加样回收率为98.33%,相对标准偏差(relative standard deviation,RSD)为2.27%;哈巴俄苷在0.06016~0.24064μg 内有良好的线性关系,r =0.99987,加样回收率为98.26%,RSD 为2.17%。结论提高内消瘰疬丸(浓缩丸)的标准,可更好地控制其质量。

  17. In vitro and in vivo preclinical evaluation of a minisphere emulsion-based formulation (SmPill®) of salmon calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Rosa, Mónica; Coulter, Ivan S; Brayden, David J

    2015-11-15

    Salmon calcitonin (sCT, MW 3432Da) is a benchmark molecule for an oral peptide delivery system because it is degraded and has low intestinal epithelial permeability. Four dry emulsion minisphere prototypes (SmPill®) containing sCT were co-formulated with permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10) or coco-glucoside (CG), or with a pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres protected sCT from thermal degradation and the released sCT retained high bioactivity, as determined by cyclic AMP generation in T47D cells. Pre-minisphere emulsions of PEs combined with sCT increased absolute bioavailability (F) compared to native sCT following rat intra-jejunal (i.j.) and intra-colonic (i.c.) loop instillations, an effect that was more pronounced in colon. Minispheres corresponding to ~2000I.U. (~390μg) sCT/kg were instilled by i.j. or i.c. instillations and hypocalcaemia resulted from all prototypes. The absolute F (i.j.) of sCT was 11.0, 4.8, and 1.4% for minispheres containing NaTDC (10μmol/kg), CG (12μmol/kg) or CA (32μmol/kg) respectively. For i.c. instillations, the largest absolute F (22% in each case) was achieved for minispheres containing either C10 (284μmol/kg) or CG (12μmol/kg), whilst the absolute F was 8.2% for minispheres loaded with CA (32μmol/kg). In terms of relative F, the best data were obtained for minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j.), a 4-fold increase over sCT solution, and also for either C10 or CG (i.c.), where there was a 3-fold increase over sCT solution. Histology of instilled intestinal loops indicated that neither the minispheres nor components thereof caused major perturbation. In conclusion, selected SmPill® minisphere formulations may have the potential to be used as oral peptide delivery systems when delivered to jejunum or colon.

  18. Studies on the UV and FTIR of Baibo Pills%白驳丸的紫外及红外光谱分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the UV and FTIR of Baibo Pills made in the regent preparation room in xuzhou city Hospi-tal of TCM.Methods Ultraviolet spectrum (UV)and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)were employed for qualitative and quantitative analysis.Results UV results indicated that,ether extract of the determination from distilled water,anhydrous etha-nol,chloroform and petroleum results showed that five batches of sample quality were stable.There was no obvious significant differ-ence existed between samples from four batches,except from sample No. 2.FTIR experiments showed that 5 batch of samples infrared spectra of graphics were similar,had the obvious characteristic peak.Conclusion The above results indicated that the quality of Baibo pills were controlled.These two mentioned methods are simple,accurate,high efficiency,and could be applied to quality control of the preparation.%目的:对徐州市中医院制剂室生产的5批白驳丸进行紫外及红外光谱分析研究。方法:采用紫外光谱法对5批样品进行定量分析;采用傅立叶变换红外光谱法(FTIR)对5批样品进行定性分析。结果:紫外光谱法显示,在蒸馏水、无水乙醇、氯仿以及石油醚浸液中测定结果表明五批样品质量稳定,除白驳丸2号样品外,其它4个批次样品的质量差异不大;红外光谱实验显示5批样品的红外光谱图形相似,特征峰明显。结论:白驳丸的质量稳定可控,上述两种方法简便、准确、高效,可用于该制剂的质量控制。

  19. Randomized and Controlled Clinical Study of Modified Prescriptions of Simiao Pill(四妙丸) in the Treatment of Acute Gouty Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xin-de; LI Guo-chun; QIAN Zu-xi; JIN Ze-qiu; SONG Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the compatibility of a modified prescription of Simiao Pill (四妙丸) in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis and to verify the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug through a clinical trial. Methods: A randomized and controlled clinical trial was designed based on clinical epidemiological principles, A total of 107 patients with acute gouty arthritis were enrolled and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group (Group Ⅰ) included 27 patients taking gout prescription Ⅰ ; the second group (Group Ⅱ) included 27 patients taking gout prescription Ⅱ ; the third group (Group Ⅲ) included 28 patients taking gout prescription Ⅲ; and the fourth group (control group) included 25 patients taking indomethacin and Benzobromarone as a control group. The duration of the treatment in all 4 groups was two weeks. After the treatment, the index of blood uric acid, blood leukocyte count, score of clinical symptoms, etc. were observed and measured. Results: The total clinical effective rate of the three different modified prescriptions of the Simiao Pill was above 96%,significantly superior to that of the control group (68%, P<0.05). In terms of the improvement of main symptoms, the scores of four symptoms in all TCM treatment and control groups decreased after treatment, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Moreover, the scores markedly fell more so in the three Chinese herb groups than in the control group, and especially in Group Ⅲ (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in blood uric acid values before and after the treatment in the same group but no significant inter-group difference was seen. Conclusion: The modified prescriptions, based on the clinical research, clinical experience and traditional Chinese medicine theory, did show a better effect than Western medicine in this clinical study. Moreover, the prescriptions were precise, with the herbs inexpensive and readily available. The

  20. Determination of Loganinin in Taiping Tangke Pills by HPLC%HPLC 法测定太平糖克丸中马钱苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖杰仁; 谢二磊

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a HPLC method for the content determination of Loganin in Taiping Tangke pills.Methods:Samples were determined by HPLC on the C18 column(250mm ×4.6mm,5μm).The column temperature was 30℃.The mobile phase was con-sisted of tetrahydrofuran -acetonitrile -methanol -0.05%phosphoric acid (1∶8∶4∶87).The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min at UV detection wavelength of 236 nm.Results:The lincear range of Loganin was 0.030 2 g~3.017 7 g,r=0.999 9.The average recovery of Loganin is 97.24%,RSD=1.55% ( n=6).Conclusion: The method is convenient,accurate,specificity and reproducibility for quality control of Taiping Tangke Pills.%目的:建立太平糖克丸中马钱苷的含量测定方法。方法:采用高效液相色谱法,Prontosil 120-5-C18柱(250mm ×4.6mm,5μm),流动相为四氢呋喃-乙腈-甲醇-0.05%磷酸溶液(1∶8∶4∶87);流速1.0mL/min;检测波长236nm;柱温30℃;进样量10μL。理论板数按马钱苷峰计算应不得低于4000。结果:马钱苷对照品进样量在0.0302 g~3.0177 g范围内,进样量与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9999),马钱苷平均加样回收率为97.24%,RSD值1.55%(n=6)。结论:本方法操作简便,准确可靠,专属性强,重现性好。适宜用于测定太平糖克丸中马钱苷的含量。

  1. Progress of Textual Research and Pharmacological Effects on Erzhi Pills%二至丸考源及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秀江; 黄美艳; 丁安伟; 姚卫峰; 张丽

    2011-01-01

    The origin of Erzhi pills and pharmacological effects were reviewed and analyzied. The ancient medical literatures and CNKI database were studied, the origin of Erzhi pills and pharmacological effects of the new progress were summarized and classified. It was indicated that it might derive from Fushou Jingfang of the Ming dynasty. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that it can be used in liver protection, liver fibrosis, anti-aging, immune function regulation, shortening the coagulation time, improving blood rheology, inhibiting rumor, increasing intelligence, anti-inflammatory, decreasing blood sugar, resisting fatigue. In recent years, study on the liver protection has more reports, other pharmacological effects, for instant the kidney Yin, need to be strengthen. Related animal model need to be established. It is suggest that further mechanism research, pharmacokinetic and metabolomics research should be proceeded. Material basis of therapeutic effects should be cleared in order to provide a basis of clinical application and further development.%对二至丸的来源和药理作用研究进行文献整理和分析.通过查阅古代医药文献及中国知网数据库,对二至丸方剂的来源和在药理作用研究方面取得的新进展,进行归纳整理并分类汇总.考证二至丸出自明代《扶寿精方》;现代药理作用表明,二至丸具有保肝降酶、抗肝纤维化、抗衰老、调节免疫机能、缩短血液凝血时间、改善血液流变性、抑制肿瘤、益智、抗炎、降血糖、抗疲劳等作用.近年来对其保肝作用研究较多,还需加强补肾滋阴等其他药理作用的研究,建立相关动物模型.建议对二至丸进行深入的作用机制研究,加强药代动力学及代谢组学研究,明确其发挥药效作用的物质基础,以期为二至丸临床应用和进一步开发提供依据.

  2. Effects of the Yiqiningshen dripping pills on sedation and hypnosis in mice: an experimental research%益气宁神滴丸镇静催眠作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红利; 张京平; 赵生芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the Yiqiningshen dripping pills on sedation and hypnosis in mice.Methods Kunming mice were selected to receive garvage of the dripping pills for 5 consecutive days.Thereafter, the effects of Yiqiningshen dripping pills on the autonomic activities were determined, as well as the sleeping latent phase and the consecutive sleeping time, in normal mice and caffeine-excited mice with pentobarbital induction.Results 0.45 g/kg Yiqiningshen dripping pills could significantly reduce the autonomic activities in normal mice and caffeine-excited mice.In addition, it could shorten the sleeping latent phase and prolong the consecutive sleeping time in both groups of mice.Conclusion Yiqiningshen dripping pills may exert obvious central inhibitory effects, such as sedation and hypnosis.%目的 观察益气宁神滴丸的镇静催眠作用.方法 取昆明种小鼠连续灌胃5 d后,测定益气宁神滴丸对正常小鼠和咖啡因兴奋小鼠的自主活动情况,对戊巴比妥钠诱导的正常小鼠和咖啡因兴奋小鼠的入睡潜伏期以及持续睡眠时间的影响.结果 益气宁神滴丸0.45 g/kg 能明显减少正常小鼠和咖啡因兴奋小鼠的自主活动,明显缩短戊巴比妥钠诱导的正常小鼠和咖啡因兴奋小鼠的入睡潜伏期,明显延长戊巴比妥钠诱导的正常小鼠和咖啡因兴奋小鼠的持续睡眠时间.结论 益气宁神滴丸具有明显的镇静催眠等中枢抑制作用.

  3. 胃肠安丸抗轮状病毒作用的体外试验%Study on the anti-rotavirus activity of Weichang'an pill in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧; 周洪经; 李晓眠

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-rotavirus activity of Weichang'an pill in vitro. Methods: The anti-rotavirus activity of Weichang'an pill was tested at the cellular level by the CPE and MTF methods; Serum containing Weichang' an pill of anti-rotavirus effects in different times and drug's metabolites were observed. Results: Weichang'an pill had the effect on prevention, treatment and directly inactivation of rotavirus. The maximum inhibition rates were 67.05%, 67.02% and 71.24%, respectively(P<0.05 ). Also, the inhibit ration of rotavirus increased with the raise of the concentration of drugs. 45~65 rain after drug was given, the concentration of drug in serum was the highest, and the effect of anti-rotavirus was obvious. Conclusion: Weichang' an pill has the ability of anti-rotavirus effects in vitro.%目的:研究胃肠安丸体外抗轮状病毒作用.方法:利用病毒致细胞病变作用终点稀释法和噻唑蓝比色分析法在细胞水平上检验胃肠安丸的抗轮状病毒作用;观察不同时间段的含药血清抑制轮状病毒情况及药物在体内代谢情况.结果:胃肠安丸有预防、治疗和直接灭活轮状病毒感染的作用,最高抑制率分别为67.05%、67.02%和71.24%(P<0.05).同时在TC0范围以下,药物浓度与病毒抑制率呈正相关.在给药后45~65 min之间,药物在血清中浓度最高,其含药血清具有明显的抗轮状病毒作用.结论:胃肠安丸具有良好的体外抗轮状病毒作用.

  4. Studies on Shanyao Shenqi Pills on Lowering the Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Rats%山药参芪丸对2型糖尿病大鼠的降糖作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彦博; 高永喜; 刘朝华; 姚萍; 王鹏; 李萌; 马宽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨山药参芪丸对2型糖尿病大鼠的降糖作用机制,为山药参芪丸的临床应用提供理论依据.方法 通过高脂饮食喂养联合小剂量链脲佐菌素(STZ)腹腔注射制备2型糖尿病大鼠模型,给予相应治疗后,分组检测大鼠的空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白(GHb)和血脂等指标.结果 与模型组相比,山药参芪丸各剂量组能明显降低2型糖尿病大鼠的血糖(P<0.05或P<0.01),呈现时间和剂量依赖关系,并且大、中剂量组能明显降低GHb、TC和TG,同时使HDL-C增加、LDL-C降低.结论 山药参芪丸能明显降低2型糖尿病大鼠的血糖、糖化血红蛋白和改善2型糖尿病大鼠的血脂状况.%Objective We investigate the effects and mechanism of yam Shanyao Shenqi Pills in type 2 diabetic rats for lowering blood glucose, to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of Shanyao Shenqi Pills. Methods Rats were induced type 2 diabetes by high fat diet feeding and injection STZ into the abdominal cavity. The blood glucose (BC) , glycosylated hemoglobin(CHb) and blood lipids were observed. Results By comparing with the model group, Shanyao Shenqi Pills could significantly lower the levers of BG in type 2 diabetic rats (P <0.05 or P <0.01 ) , with time and dose dependency, and the high dose significantly reduced GHb, TC and TG, while increased HDL, decreased LDL. Conclusion Shanyao Shenqi Pills could significantly reduced blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and improved blood lipids in type 2 diabetic rats. Key words; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Shanyao Shenqi Pills; Effect of lowering blood glucose; Blood lipids; Cholesterol.

  5. To compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills in the treatment of functional dyspepsia of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome:a randomized group sequential comparative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Luqi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM theory, functional dyspepsia (FD can be divided into different syndromes according to different clinical symptoms and signs, and the most common one is spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome that can be treated by Chinese traditional patent medicine ---- two kinds of Zhizhu pills, between which the primary difference in ingredients is that one contains immature orange fruit of Citrus aurantium L.(IFCA and the other contains that of Citrus sinensis Osbeck (IFCS. The trial's objective was to compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills on symptom changes in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Methods A randomized, group sequential, double-blinded, multicenter trial was conducted in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome at 3 hospitals in Beijing between June 2003 and May 2005. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (IFCA group and IFCS group in a 1:1 ratio, and respectively took one of the two kinds of Zhizhu pills orally, 6 g each time, 3 times a day, for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed with use of a group sequential method, the triangular test (TT. Results A total of 163 patients were randomized, and 3 patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropouts, leaving 160 patients (IFCA group: n = 82; IFCS group: n = 78 for statistical analysis. Three interim analyses were done after 62, 116, and 160 patients had completed their 4-week treatment, respectively. At the third interim analysis, the sample path crossed the upper boundary and the trial was stopped, the cure-markedly effective rates were 45% for IFCS group and 67% for IFCA group, respectively, the one-sided p-value was 0.0036, the median unbiased estimate of the odds ratio (OR for the benefit of IFCA relative to IFCS was 2.91 with 95%CI: 1.40 to 6.06. No adverse events were observed in the two groups. Conclusions Zhizhu pills

  6. A humanized mouse model for HIV-2 infection and efficacy testing of a single-pill triple-drug combination anti-retroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuang; Neff, Charles Preston; Kumar, Dipu Mohan; Habu, Yuichiro; Akkina, Sarah R; Seki, Takahiro; Akkina, Ramesh

    2017-01-15

    While HIV-2 is a causative agent for AIDS in addition to the better studied HIV-1, there is currently no suitable animal model for experimental studies for HIV-2 infection and evaluating promising drugs in vivo. Here we evaluated humanized mice for their susceptibility to HIV-2 infection and tested a single-pill three drug formulation of anti-retrovirals (NRTIs abacavir and lamivudine, integrase inhibitor dolutegravir) (trade name, Triumeq(R)). Our results showed that hu-mice are susceptible to HIV-2 infection showing persistent viremia and CD4 T cell loss, key hallmarks of AIDS pathogenesis. Oral drug treatment led to full viral suppression and protection from CD4 T cell depletion. Cessation of therapy resulted in viral rebound and CD4 T cell loss. These proof-of-concept studies establish the utility of hu-mice for evaluating HIV-2 pathogenesis in more detail in the future, testing novel therapies and providing pre-clinical efficacy data of a three drug combination to treat HIV-2 infections. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Variation of some inflammatory markers in hypertensive patients after 1 year of olmesartan/amlodipine single-pill combination compared with olmesartan or amlodipine monotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Carbone, Anna; Querci, Fabrizio; Fogari, Elena; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a fixed olmesartan/amlodipine combination on blood pressure control, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and some inflammatory markers compared with single-drug monotherapy. A total of 276 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to olmesartan 20 mg, amlodipine 10 mg, or a single pill containing olmesartan/amlodipine combination 20/5 mg for 12 months. We evaluated the following at baseline and after 6 and 12 months: body weight, body mass index, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), lipid profile, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), and interleukins 6 and 7 (IL-6 and IL-7). At baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, patients underwent an euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp. The olmesartan/amlodipine combination provided a greater decrease of SBP and DPB compared with amlodipine and olmesartan monotherapies. The olmesartan/amlodipine combination decreased FPG after 12 months compared with amlodipine monotherapy. The combination decreased FPI and homeostasis model assessment index and increased M value both compared with baseline and with olmesartan and amlodipine monotherapies. Olmesartan/amlodipine decreased IL-7, but not IL-6, compared with single drug components. The olmesartan/amlodipine combination is effective and safe in reducing blood pressure and has some additive effects not shown by single drugs, such as an improvement of IL-7. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploration on Effect and Mechanism of Suiqing Pill (髓清丸) on Tumor Angiogenesis in Nude Mouse B16 Melanoma Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振江; 赵霞; 邹映珍; 冯玉丽; 戴玲

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Suiqing Pill (SQP, 髓清丸), a TCM compound drug that can activate blood circulation and get rid of blood stasis, on angiogenesis in tumor and its possible mechanism.Method: BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with melanoma cell line R16 at right armpit subcutaneously to establish cancer spontaneous metastasis model. Levels of microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in tumor tissues were observed and compared. Results: Strong expression of anti-Factor Ⅷ (FⅧ) related antigen and plentiful tumor angiogenesis were seen in model control animals, while in the high-dose and low-dose SQP treated model mice, MVD was inhibited by 33.5 % and 22.6 % respectively ( P<0.01, P<0.05). The strong positive protein expression of VEGF and MMP-2 in model control also reduced in the SQP treated groups. Conclusion: SQP could inhibit tumor angiogenesis, protein expression of VEGF and MMP-2 in nude mice B16 melanoma models.

  9. A rare case of iron-pill induced gastritis in a female teenager: A case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Mocanu, Simona; Mărginean, Maria Oana

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of iron-deficiency anemia with oral iron supplements can present side-effects on the GI tract mucosa including necrosis, ulceration, or ischemia. The particular endoscopic findings and the histopathological exam will establish the diagnosis of erosive gastritis with iron deposits in the gastric mucosa. We present the case of a 14-year-old female admitted in our clinic for upper digestive hemorrhage, nausea, melena, and abdominal pain. Her personal history revealed iron deficiency anemia receiving oral iron supplements for approximately 2 weeks. The laboratory tests at the moment of admission pointed out anemia, increased level of serum iron, increased liver transaminases, a decreased level of ferritin, but with normal levels of both total iron-binding capacity and transferrin. The eso-gastro-duodenoscopy revealed multiple brown deposits on the surface of the gastric mucosa and multiple hemorrhagic lesions, under the aspect of erosions all over the gastric mucosa, but more severe in the antral part, and the histopathological exam confirmed the presence of iron deposits at this level. Iron-pill induced gastritis is a rare, under-diagnosed entity that can be present even at pediatric ages with potential severe clinical impact.

  10. Improving access to emergency contraception pills through strengthening service delivery and demand generation: a systematic review of current evidence in low and middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dawson

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception pills (ECP are among the 13 essential commodities in the framework for action established by the UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children. Despite having been on the market for nearly 20 years, a number of barriers still limit women's access to ECP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC including limited consumer knowledge and poor availability. This paper reports the results of a review to synthesise the current evidence on service delivery strategies to improve access to ECP.A narrative synthesis methodology was used to examine peer reviewed research literature (2003 to 2013 from diverse methodological traditions to provide critical insights into strategies to improve access from a service delivery perspective. The studies were appraised using established scoring systems and the findings of included papers thematically analysed and patterns mapped across all findings using concept mapping.Ten papers were included in the review. Despite limited research of adequate quality, promising strategies to improve access were identified including: advance provision of ECP; task shifting and sharing; intersectoral collaboration for sexual assault; m-health for information provision; and scale up through national family planning programs.There are a number of gaps in the research concerning service delivery and ECP in LMIC. These include a lack of knowledge concerning private/commercial sector contributions to improving access, the needs of vulnerable groups of women, approaches to enhancing intersectoral collaboration, evidence for social marketing models and investment cases for ECP.

  11. Efficacy and safety of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in 11,422 Chinese patients with hypertension: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dayi; Liu, Lisheng; Li, Weimin

    2014-07-01

    Single-pill combination (SPC) therapy of two drugs is recommended by international guidelines, including the Chinese guidelines (2010), for the treatment of hypertension in high-risk patients who require marked blood pressure (BP) reductions. Real-world data on the efficacy and safety of valsartan/amlodipine (Val/Aml) SPC are scarce. The present study is the first observational study in China to evaluate the efficacy (primary endpoint) and safety of Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC in Chinese patients with hypertension whose BP was not adequately controlled by monotherapy in a real-world setting. This prospective, multicenter, open-label, post-marketing observational study included 11,422 Chinese adults (≥18 years) with essential hypertension from 238 sites of 29 provinces who were prescribed once-daily Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC. Patients were treated for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy variable of the study included changes in mean sitting systolic BP (MSSBP) and mean diastolic BP (MSDBP) from baseline to week 8 (end point). The secondary efficacy variable of the study included BP control rate and response rate at week 4 and 8. Safety assessments included recording and measurement of all adverse events (AEs) and vital signs in the safety population. A significant reduction of 27.1 mmHg in MSSBP (159.6 vs. 132.5 mmHg; P hypertensive patients which demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Val/Aml (80/5 mg) SPC.

  12. Impact of Statin Therapy on the Blood Pressure-Lowering Efficacy of a Single-Pill Perindopril/Amlodipine Combination in Hypertensive Patients with Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirenko, Yuriy; Radchenko, Ganna

    2017-03-01

    Several lines of research indicate that statins can lower blood pressure (BP) independently of their lipid-lowering effects when used as monotherapy and in combination with antihypertensive agents. This short-term, open-label study examined whether statin therapy had a synergistic effect on the BP-lowering efficacy of perindopril/amlodipine in a subgroup of patients in the PERSPECTIVA study with concomitant hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, with or without statin at baseline. The PERSPECTIVA study recruited 732 adults with untreated or uncontrolled hypertension. This subgroup analysis of PERSPECTIVA included 587 patients with concomitant hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (mean age 56.7 years) of whom 226 were receiving a statin at baseline (statin [+] group) and 361 were not (statin [-] group). All patients received treatment with single-pill combination perindopril/amlodipine at a dose of 5/5, 10/5 or 10/10 mg/day. The study duration was 60 days with follow-up visits for BP monitoring at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. At day 60, BP control (hypercholesterolemia are significantly improved with a treatment regimen that combines perindopril/amlodipine with statin therapy, regardless of previous antihypertensive therapy. This subanalysis of the PERSPECTIVA study supports the synergistic BP-lowering effect of statins and perindopril/amlodipine.

  13. Clinical Studies on Functional Dyspepsia Treated with Different Dosage-Form of Zhishi Xiaopi Pill Recipe (枳实消痞丸方)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦丹波; 蔡淦; 王松坡; 倪克中; 唐静芬

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical effect of three different dosage-forms of Zhishi Xiaopi Pill (ZSXPP, 枳实消痞丸) recipe on functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods: The total of 158 patients were included in this study and were randomly divided into four groups. Three group patients of FD were respectively treated with three different dosage-forms of ZSXPP, while the control group were treated with cisapride. Results: The treatment outcome indicated that there was no difference in the total therapeutic efficacies of these four groups. The tension of vagus nerve and the plasma level of motilin in FD patients were significantly increased by the treatment with ZSXPP; the impaired contraction function of lower esophageal sphincter in some FD patients was improved, too. Conclusion: All of three different dosage-forms of ZSXPP were as effective as cisapride on FD. The efficacy was partly due to the improvement of esophageal and gastric dynamics which was probably related to the increasing of the tension of vagus nerve and the plasma level of motilin.

  14. The use Effects of oral contraceptive pill with pituitary down regulation for IVF%降调节与口服避孕药联用的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红梅

    2009-01-01

    @@ 将口服避孕药用于体外受精、胚胎移植(IVF-ET)助孕治疗中最初乃至今日仍作为调节月经周期,便于控制促性腺激素(gonadotrophin,Gn)的启动和取卵时间,达到有计划安排治疗工作的需要[1,2]的目的之一.近十多年来,围绕降调节联合口服避孕药(oral contraceptive pill,OCP)预处理用于避免使用促性腺激素释放激动剂(GnRH-a)后的卵泡囊肿形成、改善卵巢低反应患者卵巢反应性和降低卵巢高反应患者卵巢反应性以减少卵巢过度刺激综合征(OHSS)的发生开展多方面研究.

  15. Prevention of AMI Induced Ventricular Remodeling: Inhibitory Effects of Heart-Protecting Musk Pill on IL-6 and TNF-Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Hoppe, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Heart-Protecting Musk Pill (HMP) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been used for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease in clinic. The current study investigated the effect of HMP on the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and observed the relationship between level changes of inflammatory cytokines and ventricular remodeling in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Animal models of AMI were made by coronary artery ligation in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. AMI rats showed increased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. Treatment with HMP decreases IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations in rats with AMI. Histopathological and transmission electron microscopic findings were also essentially in agreement with biochemical findings. The results of our study revealed that inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α induce cardiac remodeling in rats after AMI; HMP improves cardiac function and ameliorates ventricular remodeling by downregulating the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and further suppressing the ultrastructural changes of myocardial cells. PMID:28373886

  16. Bidirectional adherence changes and associated factors in patients switched from free combinations to equivalent single-pill combinations of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Wen-Jone; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2014-05-01

    There are no reported studies assessing the effects of fixed-dose single-pill combinations (SPCs) of antihypertensive drugs on adherence in real-world patients with hypertension switched from free combinations to the corresponding SPCs. In this retrospective cohort study with a 1-year mirror-image design, a total of 896 patients who had been prescribed with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker and a thiazide-type diuretic within the preceding 12 months of the index (switching) date and the corresponding SPC within 12 months after the index date were included by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database from January 2001 to December 2007. Adherence was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR). For patients switched to SPCs, the MPR increased significantly from 42% in the preindex period to 69% in the postindex period (relative difference, 75%; 95% confidence interval, 58%-100%; Pdrugs, and congestive heart failure. In summary, despite of the dramatic effect of SPCs on improving adherence, this strategy is not effective or even worse in patients adequately adhering to their free-combined antihypertensive regimens. The inverse association between adherence improvement and number of concurrent antihypertensive drugs suggests early use of SPCs to curtail the nonadherence gap.

  17. The Effects of Compound Danshen Dripping Pills on the Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Warfarin in Humans%复方丹参滴丸对华法林在人体内药动学和药效学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易丹; 罗晓波; 陆向红; 罗圣平; 周于禄

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究复方丹参滴丸对华法林在人体内药动学和药效学的影响,以及单独服用复方丹参滴丸4 周后对凝血酶原时间(PT)和活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)的影响.方法 采用随机、单盲、双周期交叉、安慰剂对照试验设计.12 名男性健康志愿者随机分为2 组(6 人/ 组),连续5 周每日分别服用复方丹参滴丸(10 片,每天3 次)或安慰剂(10 片,每天3 次);d29 口服单剂量华法林5 mg;第2 周期2 组交叉服用安慰剂或复方丹参滴丸,其余给药方案不变.按要求收集志愿者血样,分别以高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定华法林的血药浓度以及半自动血凝仪测定常见凝血指标.结果 合用复方丹参滴丸后,华法林的药动学参数cmax、AUC0~144、AUC0~∞、t1/2显著增加(P <0.05),CL/F显著减小(P <0.05),tmax和V/F 没有显著变化;华法林的药效学参数发生显著变化.单独服用复方丹参滴丸4 周后,PT和APTT 均发生显著变化.结论复方丹参滴丸可影响华法林的药动学和药效学;单独服用复方丹参滴丸4 周对凝血功能有显著影响.%Objective To study the effect of Danshen Dripping Pills on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin, and to assess whether or not Danshen Dripping Pills alone has any anticoagulant activity. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way cross-over trial was designed.Twelve male healthy volunteers (6 person/group) were randomized to receive either Danshen Dripping Pills in the first treatment period and placebo in the second treatment period, or vice versa. In addition to their randomized trentment, all volunteers received a single dose of 5 mg warfarin on d 29 of each treatment period. Blood samples for assessment were taken at frequent intervals during each treatment period. Results Administration of Danshen Dripping Pills significantly increased cmax、AUC0~144、AUC0~∞、t1/2 and significantly decreased CL/F of warfarin

  18. 交泰丸不同配比抗抑郁作用的实验研究%Study on the Antidepressant Effect of Jiaotai Pill with Different Proportions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春泉; 王怡; 高杉; 李苒; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidepressant effect of Jiaotai pill with different proportions. Method: Male Kunming mice were randomly divided into control group, fluoxetine (7. 5 mg·kg-1) group and five different proportions of Jiaotai pill in high and low dose groups ( Rhizoma Coptidis Granules: Cinnamon Granules 10: 1 , 1: 10, 10=0, 0: 10, 1:1) according to body weight, togather 12 groups. The tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test ( FST) were used to observe the antidepressant effect of Jiaotai pillswith different proportions at 1 h after the administration (ig). Result; Compared with the control group, five different proportions of Jiaotai pill and fluoxetine (7.5 mg · kg-1) reduced the immobility time both in the TST and FST, more obviously in Jiaotai pill (Rhizoma Coptidis Granules: Cinnamon Granules 10: 1 and 1: 10). In the TST, the immobility time of Jiaotai pill ( Rhizoma Coptidis Granules: Cinnamon Granules 10: 1 ) in high and low dose groups was (69.8 ± 18. 1) s and (79.2 ± 14.6) s , respectively; the immobility time of Jiaotai pill (Rhizoma Coptidis Granules: Cinnamon Granules 1: 10) in high and low dose groups was (69. 5 ± 21. 7) s and (64. 1 ± 26. 0) s, respectively. In the FST, the immobility time of Jiaotai pill (Rhizoma Coptidis Granules: Cinnamon Granules 10: 1 ) in high and low dose groups was (83. 6 ± 29. 0) s and (72. 9 ± 37. 7) s, respectively; the immobility time of Jiaotai pill (Rhizoma Coptidis Granules: Cinnamon Granules 1: 10) in high and low dose groups was (92.2 ± 37.8) s and (71.9 ± 35.9) s, respectively. Compared with the control group, Jiaotai pill (Rhizoma Coptidis Granules: Cinnamon Granules 10: 1 and 1: 10) show an obvious difference in TST and FST test (P <0. 05 or P < 0.01). The same results in the TST werefound in the FST (P<0. 01). Conclusion: The results suggested that different proportions of Jiaotai pill performed antidepressant effect, while there may be a difference in intensity of the effect.%目

  19. 复方黑参丸的质量标准研究%Study on Quality Standard for Compound Heishen Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋; 马宏达; 高军; 胡北; 史国兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the quality standard for compound Heishen pills. Methods: Scrophulariae Radix, Radix et Rhizoma and Belamcancae Rhizoma were identified by TLC. HPLC was used to determine the content of harpagoside and cinnamic acid in Scrophulariae Radix on a Welchrom-C18 column using methanol-acetonitrile-1% ethylic acid (8∶21∶71) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1. 0 ml·min-1 . The column temperature was at 30℃ and the detection wavelength was set at 278 nm. Results:The TLC method had good specificity without interference from negative control. The linear range of harpagoside was 1. 32-65. 80μg·ml-1 with the average recovery of 98. 06%(RSD=2. 16%),and that of cinnamic acid was 0. 38-19. 20 μg·ml-1 with the average recovery of 98. 78%(RSD=1. 34%). RSDs of precision, stability and reproductibility tests were all below 2%. Conclusion: The established method is accurate, feasible and reproducible. It can be used in the quality control of compound Heishen pills.%目的:建立复方黑参丸的质量控制标准。方法:采用薄层色谱法对复方黑参丸中的玄参、山豆根、射干分别进行定性鉴别,采用高效液相色谱法同时测定哈巴俄苷及肉桂酸的含量。采用Welchrom C18色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-乙腈-1%冰醋酸溶液(8∶21∶71),柱温30℃,流速为1.0 ml·min-1,检测波长为278 nm。结果:玄参、山豆根、射干的薄层色谱鉴别具有较好的专属性,阴性对照无干扰。哈巴俄苷与肉桂酸分别在1.32~65.80μg·ml-1和0.38~19.20μg·ml-1浓度范围内与峰面积线性关系良好;精密度、稳定性、重复性试验的RSD均小于2%;平均加样回收率分别为98.06%、98.78%,RSD为2.16%、1.34%(n=6)。结论:所建立的定性和定量分析方法结果准确、可靠、重复性好,可用于复方黑参丸的质量控制。

  20. Brief Analysis of the Application of Mudanpi (Cortex Moutan) in Kidney Qi Pill%浅析肾气丸中牡丹皮的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅; 陶汉华; 吕翠霞

    2016-01-01

    There are five cases treated with Kidney Qi Pill in Synopsis of Golden Chamber:dermatophytosis,consumptive disease,phlegm and fluid retention,consumptive thirst,impeded urination during late pregnancy.Despite of the many different symptoms,they share the common clinical manifestations of abnormal urination,or difficult urination,frequent and profuse urination.In the formula,Dihuang (Radix Rehmanniae) of 8 liang,Shangzhuyu (Fructus Corni) of 4 liang and Shanyao (Rhizoma Dioscoreae) of 4 liang are used to nourish kidney yin;Guizhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) of 1 liang and Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata) of 1 liang are used to warm and tonify kidney yang;Fuling (Poria) of 2 liang,Zexie (Rhizoma Alismatis) of 2 liang,Mudanpi (Cortex Moutan) of 2 liang are applied to promote diuresis and activate blood circulation.The pathogenesis of difficult or frequent and profuse urination lies in the deficiency and decline of kidney qi.Difficult urination is due to disorder of qi activity;frequent and profuse urination is due to the dysfunction of the kidney to consolidate;both of the above two are caused by deficiency of kidney qi,mainly due to the declined function in water metabolism dominated by the kidney.For the five diseases treated with Kidney Qi Pill,the one with unobvious symptom of deficient fire,the action of Mudanpi for "clearing and purging ministerial fire" lacks theoretical evidence;for the one with prominent disorder of water metabolism,Zhongjiang started the treatment from the academic idea of "disorder of the blood flow leads to water problem",and the effect of Mudanpi of activating blood and alleviate water retention is self-evident.%《金匮要略》一书中,用肾气丸者共有5处,分别为脚气、虚劳、痰饮、消渴、妇人转胞等,虽病证不一,但都有小便异常的症状表现,或小便不利,或尿频量多,方中重用干地黄为八两,山茱萸、山药各四两,滋补肾阴,配桂枝、附子各一两温补肾阳,又加茯苓、泽

  1. The Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride Content in Cold Pill%感冒丸中盐酸麻黄碱含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 王彤

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立感冒丸中盐酸麻黄碱与盐酸伪麻黄碱的分离HPLC测定方法。方法用Agilent SB C 18(4.6 mm×250 mm 5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈-0.1豫磷酸溶液(10:90)为流动相;检测波长为207 nm。流速1.0 mL/min;柱温:30℃进样量10μl,考查方法结论。结果盐酸麻黄碱与盐酸伪庥黄碱以乙腈-0.1豫磷酸溶液(10:90)为流动相得到有效的分离,盐酸麻黄碱含量测定的线性范围0.0250-0.502μg范围内峰面积与浓度呈现良好的线性关系,(r=0.9999),精密度RSD=0.8%平均加样回收率为99.84%,RSD=0.1%。结论本次试验方法分离度效果好、快捷、准确、专属性强、灵敏度高、重复性强、拖尾因子小,可为感冒丸质量的评价提供较有效的手段。%Objective To establish a cold pill in the separation of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride by HPLC method. Methods To use Agilent SB 18 C (4.6 mmí250 mm 5 microns) chromatographic column, with acetonitrile (10:90-0.1%phosphoric acid solution as mobile phase;Detection wavelength of 207 nm. The flow rate of 1.0 ml/min;Column temperature 30 ℃ in sample quantity 10 mu l, examination method. Results Ephedrine hydrochloride and hydrochloric acid pseudo ho huang alkali with acetonitrile (10:90-0.1%phosphoric acid solution as mobile phase to get effective separation, linear range for the deter-mination of ephedrine hydrochloride content within the scope of 0.0250 to 0.502 mu g peak area and concentration show good lin-ear relationship,(r=0.9999), precision RSD=0.8%, on average, the recovery was 99.84%,RSD=99.84%. Conclusion The test method for the isolation effect is good, fast, accurate, and strong specificity, high sensitivity,strong repeatability,trailing factor is small, can provide more effective for cold pill for quality evaluation.

  2. Research on the Quality Standard of Taoren Xikang Pill%桃仁膝康丸质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜天信; 李洁; 杜志谦; 夏华玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立桃仁膝康丸的质量标准.方法 用薄层色谱法对桃仁膝康丸中独活、乳香、白芍、牛膝进行定性鉴别,用高效液相色谱法测定桃仁膝康丸中三七人参皂苷Rg1的含量,采用色谱柱Agilent C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm);流动相:以乙腈为流动相A,水为流动相B,进行梯度洗脱:0~12 min乙腈-水(19:81),12~15 min乙腈(19%→20%),15~18 min乙腈(20%→23%),18~30 min乙腈(23%→27%);检测波长为203 nm;流速1.0 mL·min-1;柱温30 ℃,理论塔板数以人参皂苷Rg1计不低于3000.结果 薄层色谱鉴别法能定性鉴别独活、乳香、白芍、牛膝,斑点清晰,分离度好,专属性强,且阴性无干扰.含量测定项中人参皂苷Rg1在2.20~11.01 μg间呈良好的线性关系,r=0.999 9;平均加样回收率为99.49%,RSD为1.52%.结论 该方法简便、准确、精密度高、重现性好,可作为桃仁膝康丸的质量控制标准.%Objective To establish the quality standard of taoren xikang pill. Methods The thin layer chromatography( TLC )was used to identify in quality radix angelicae pubescentis. frankincense , radix paeoniae alba and radix achyranthis bidentatae. The high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC )was adopted to detect the content of ginsenoside Rg1 in radix notoginseng. Color column : Agilent C18( 4.6 mm ×250 mm ,5 μm ). Mobile phase : acetonitrile as mobile phase A, water as mobile phase B. Gradient elution :0 -12 min acetonitrile - water( 19∶ 81 ),12 ~ 15 min acetonitrile( 19%→20% ).15 ~ 18 min acetonitrile( 20%→23% ). 18 - 30min acetonitrile( 20%→23% ). Detection wavelength: 203n. Flow velocity : 1.0 mL ·min -1 . Column temperature : 30 ℃ . The number of theoretic plate : not less than 3000 for ginsenoside Rg1. Results TLC could identify qualitatively radix angelicae pubescentis , frankincense , radix paeoniae alba and radix achyranthis bidentatae , characterized as explicit dots, good in separation, strong in

  3. Study of qualitative and quantitative methods for Xihuang pills%西黄丸定性定量方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新元; 张茉; 王杰; 吕曙华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To enhance and consummate the quality standard of Xihuang pills. Methods; Frankincense, myrrh were identified by TLC. Hyodeoxycholic acid in prescription was checked by HPLC - ELSD; The chromato-graphic column was Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm) , the mobile phase was acetonitrile -0. 5% formic acid (38 : 62) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL ? Min-1 ,and column temperature was 35℃ ;The flow rate of N2 in ELSD was 2 L ? Min-1 , and the temperature of drift tube was 90 ℃. The contents of bilirubinic in be-zoar(cultured ox gallstone) were determined by HPLC;The chromatographic column was Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5μm) , the mobile phase was acetonitrile - 1 % acetic acid ( 95 : 5 ) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL ? Min-1 , the detecting wavelength was 450 nm, and column temperature was 40℃. Results;The TLC I-dentification was highly specific and spots were clear. The HPLC - ELSD check - up method was convenient and specific. The bilirubin showed a good linear relationship at a rang of 0. 0046 -0. 1145 mg ? mL-1 (r =0. 9993) , and the average recovery(n -6) was 100.6% with RSD of 1.8%. Conclusion; The method established is accurate , simple and reproducible, and can be used for the study of quality and quantity for Xihuang pills.%目的:提高、完善西黄丸的质量标准.方法:建立处方中乳香、没药的薄层色谱鉴别方法;采用HPLC-ELSD法检查处方中猪去氧胆酸,使用Agilent ZORBAX SB C(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈-0.5%甲酸(38:62)为流动相,流速1.0 mL·min,柱温35℃,Alltech 2000ES蒸发光散射检测器(漂移管温度为90℃,气体流量2 L·min);采用HPLC法测定牛黄(体外培育牛黄)中胆红素的含量,使用Agilent ZORBAX SB C(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),以乙腈-1%醋酸溶液(95:5)为流动相,流速1.0 mL·min,检测波长为450 nm,柱温40℃.结果:薄层色谱斑点清晰,专属性强;HPLC-ELSD检查方法方便、快捷,专属性强;HPLC方法学考察

  4. Knowledge of, beliefs about, and perceived barriers to the use of the emergency contraception pill among women aged 18-51 in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelan AM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate women in Nova Scotia (NS, Canada with respect to their knowledge of, beliefs about, and perceptions of barriers to accessing emergency contraception pills (ECP.Methods: A random digit dialing approach was used to survey a representative sample of NS women aged 18-51. Analyses described the knowledge, beliefs, and perceived barriers associated with ECP access among participants. Particular focus was given to differences between younger (age 18-31 and older (age 32-51 women.Results: The survey response rate of 49% achieved the desired sample size of 770. Overall, women in NS appeared to be poorly informed about ECP with regards to effectiveness, proper timing of administration, how it works, as well as how to access Plan B®. Younger women (age 18-31 were significantly more likely than older women (age 32-51 to know that ECP does not always prevent pregnancy (p<0.01, that it can be taken more than 12 hours after unprotected intercourse (p<0.01, and that it is available without a prescription in pharmacies (p<0.01. Thirty percent of women agreed that ECP will cause an abortion, with older women (p<0.01 being more likely than younger women to agree. Cost and lack of privacy in pharmacies were identified as potential barriers to access.Conclusions: Lack of knowledge and the perception that ECP causes an abortion may influence a woman’s ability to consider ECP as an option should she find herself at risk of an unplanned pregnancy. To address this, efforts should be made to educate women (including older women about ECP and its availability in pharmacies.

  5. Chemical comparison of two dosage forms of Hemp Seed Pills by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS/MS and multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Song, Jing-Zheng; Fu, Wen-Wei; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2013-10-01

    Hemp seed soft gel capsule (HSSGC) is a modernised dosage form that is derived from a traditional Chinese patent medicine, Hemp Seed Pills (HSP). Two dosage forms claim the same therapeutic effects; however, their chemical components and chemical equivalency are unclear. In the present study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ToF-MS)-based chemical profiling approach was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical differences between HSP and HSSGC as model dosage forms. Samples of the two dosage forms were subjected to UHPLC-ToF-MS analysis. The datasets of retention time (TR) and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) to holistically compare the difference between these two dosage form samples. A clear classification trend was observed in the score plot, and a loading bi-plot was generated in which the variables are correlated with the group and the samples that were observed. The important chemical components that caused differences among the samples were explored with a Variables Importance Projection (VIP) index. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between the two dosage forms and among samples of the same dosage form. The most important components that are related to the differences were identified and most of them were attributed to Fructus Aurantii Immaturus. It is suggested that this newly established approach could be used for pre-clinical trial chemical equivalence study or the quality evaluation of the traditional medicinal products with large variations in quality.

  6. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7–9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica. PMID:27632210

  7. Analgesic effect and mechanism of the three TCM-herbal drug-combination Tou Feng Yu pill on treatment of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-chuan; Shen, Xiao-fei; Meng, Xian-li; Zhang, Yi; Lai, Xian-rong

    2011-06-15

    It is well known that pain is one of the most important characteristics of migraine. Therefore, it is important and interesting to investigate the analgesic effect and mechanism of drugs which are used to treat migraine. Tou Feng Yu pill (TFY) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, consisting of the three Chinese herbal drugs Radix Angelicae dahuricae (Baizhi), Rhizome Ligustici (Chuanxiong) and Folium Camelliae sinensis (green tea) for the treatment of migraine. In this study, we found that TFY could significantly reduce the writhing times induced by acetic acid and licking foot response induced by formalin, and extend the writhing latent period. But the analgesic effect was not observed at hot-plate test. Meanwhile, experimental migrainous model induced by nitroglycerin was used to investigate the therapeutic effect of TFY. Compared with the control group, the levels of plasma calcitonin gene related to peptide (CGRP), serum nitric oxide (NO) and contents of brain dopamine (DA) in TFY administration groups were significantly decreased, and the levels of plasma endothelin (ET) and contents of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) were remarkably increased, also the ratio of ET/NO was clearly corrected. Furthermore, the improving effect of behavior abnormality was observed in TFY administration rats. Meanwhile, isolated vascular ring test indicated that TFY had an significant effect on vasomotion, and antagonize vasospasm; moreover TFY also could increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduce cerebrovascular resistance index (RI) in normal rabbits, which verified the effect of TFY on vasomotion and abnormal hemorheology. All the results indicate that TFY has an effective therapeutical action on migraine, which may be related to three aspects as following: firstly, adjusting the level of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and vasoactive substances, relieving neurogenic inflammation; secondly, improving vasomotion, increase cerebral blood flow

  8. Preliminary Study on Treatment of Partial Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males with Jingui Shenqi Pill (金匮肾气丸)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Wen-jun; HE Xiao-zhou; JIANG Jian-pin; CAI Wen-yuan; XIE Si-jie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of Jingui Shengqi Pill (金匮肾气丸, JSP) in treating partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM), and to explore the new approach in improving the quality of life in PADAM patients. Methods: Forty patients with PADAM were treated with JSP, the efficacy was evaluated with international index of erectile function (IIEF) scoring, PADAM questionnaire scoring,hormone, prostatic specific antigen (PSA), etc., and the data before treatment were compared with those after treatment in the same group. Results: After 3 months of treatment, PADAM scoring and IIEF scoring were all significantly improved. Symptoms regarding physical ability, vasomotion, and psychical and mental condition all got improved more markedly than symptoms regarding sexual hypofunction. The serum level of testosterone was 3.85±0.36 before treatment and 5.02±0.83 after treatmnet (P<0.05); luteinizing hormone of 7.33±2.14 and 4.84±1.43 ( P<0.01), follicule-stimulating hormone of 10.22±4.48 and 6.47±3.28 (P<0.01), respectively. The level of PSA failed to change significantly ( 1.94 ± 0.55 and 2.06±0.47, P>0.05).Conclusion: JSP is effective and safe in treating PADAM, the mechanism of it is different from supplementing extrinsic androgen. It may have produced the effect by means of favorably regulating the condition of sex hormone to improve the balance of pituitary-sex gland axis, so it has more extensive clinical application.

  9. Protocol for ACCESS: a qualitative study exploring barriers and facilitators to accessing the emergency contraceptive pill from community pharmacies in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussainy, Safeera Yasmeen; Ghosh, Ayesha; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Black, Kirsten Isla; Clifford, Rhonda; Mc Namara, Kevin Peter; Ryan, Kath; Jackson, John Keith

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rate of unplanned pregnancy in Australia remains high, which has contributed to Australia having one of the highest abortion rates of developed countries with an estimated 1 in 5 women having an abortion. The emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) offers a safe way of preventing unintended pregnancy after unprotected sex has occurred. While the ECP has been available over-the-counter in Australian pharmacies for over a decade, its use has not significantly increased. This paper presents a protocol for a qualitative study that aims to identify the barriers and facilitators to accessing the ECP from community pharmacies in Australia. Methods and analysis Data will be collected through one-on-one interviews that are semistructured and in-depth. Partnerships have been established with 2 pharmacy groups and 2 women's health organisations to aid with the recruitment of women and pharmacists for data collection purposes. Interview questions explore domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework in order to assess the factors aiding and/or hindering access to ECP from community pharmacies. Data collected will be analysed using deductive content analysis. The expected benefits of this study are that it will help develop evidence-based workforce interventions to strengthen the capacity and performance of community pharmacists as key ECP providers. Ethics and dissemination The findings will be disseminated to the research team and study partners, who will brainstorm ideas for interventions that would address barriers and facilitators to access identified from the interviews. Dissemination will also occur through presentations and peer-reviewed publications and the study participants will receive an executive summary of the findings. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Monash Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:26656987

  10. Determination of Chlorogenic Acid in Qingguo Pills by HPLC%HPLC法测定青果丸中绿原酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岳鑫

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish an HPLC method for the determination of chlorogenic acid in Qingguo pills. Method: Chlorogenic acid was determined by HPLC with an Agilent TC-C18 column( 150 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm ) and acetonitrile-0. 4% phosphate solu-tion( 15: 85 ) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 ml · min-1, the detection wavelength was set at 327nm and the column temperature was 30℃. Result: The linearity of chlorogenic acid was promising within the range of 0. 202-1. 818 μg( r = 0. 999 3 ), and the average recovery was 97. 9% with RSD of 1. 2%( n =9 ). Conclusion: The method is simple, accurate and reproducible.%目的:建立高效液相色谱方法测定青果丸中绿原酸的含量.方法:采用Agilent TC-C18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),乙腈-0.4%磷酸溶液(15:85)为流动相,检测波长为327 nm,流速为1.0 ml · min-1,柱温为30℃.结果:绿原酸在0.202~1.818 μg范围内呈良好线形关系,r=0.999 3,平均回收率为97.9%,RSD为1.2%(n=9).结论:本法操作简便、准确,重复性好.

  11. Determination of Loganin in Qianlieshu Pills by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定前列舒丸中马钱苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冬梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To set up a method for the content determination of Qianlieshu Pills. Methods The HPLC method was developed to perform the quantitative determination. the chromatographic column was the Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm ×4. 6 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase of tetrahydrofuran - acetonitrile - methanol - 0. 05% phosphoric acid (1 ∶ 8 ∶ 4 ∶ 87). The flow rate was 0. 8 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 236 nm and the column temperature was 40 ℃. Results The calibration curve of loganin had the good linear relationship in the range of 5 - 80 μg/mL( r = 0. 999 9). The average recovery rate was 99. 77% , RSD 0. 40% ( n = 6). Conclusion The method is simple and accurate with good reproducibility, which can be used for the quality control of this preparation.%目的 建立前列舒丸的含量测定方法.方法 采用高效液相色谱法.色谱柱为PhenomenexC18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),流动相为四氢呋喃-乙腈-甲醇-0.05%磷酸溶液(1:8:4:87),流速0.8 mL/min,检测波长236nm,柱温40℃.结果 马钱苷质量浓度在5~80μg/mL范围内与峰面积线性关系良好(r=0.999 9);平均加样回收率为99.77%,RSD=0.40%(n=6).结论 该方法 简便、准确、重复性好,可用于该制剂的质量控制.

  12. Determination of Loganin in Mingmu Dihuang Pill by RP-HPLC%HPLC测定明目地黄丸(浓缩丸)中马钱苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程巧鸳; 谭春梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To establish a RP-HPLC method to determine the content of loganin in Mingmu Shangqing pill. Method; The analysis was performed on a Kromasil C18column (4. 6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm) with tetrahydrofuran-acetonitrile-methanol (1=8:4) -0.05% phosphoric acid (8=92) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL-min-1, and at a column temperature of 40 ℃. The detection wavelength was at 236 nm. The content was calculated with external standard method. Result; The linear range of loganin was 40. 43-1 213. 02 ng (r = 1. 000 0). The average recovery was 98. 2% , and the RSD was 0. 8% (n =6) Conclusion: This method was simple, accurate, reliable and suitable to be applied to the quality control for the preparation.%目的:建立HPLC测定明目地黄丸(浓缩丸)中马钱苷的含量.方法:采用Kromasil C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×250mm,5μm),流动相为[四氢呋喃-乙腈-甲醇(1∶8∶4)-0.05%磷酸溶液](8∶92),检测波长为236 nm,流速为1.0 mL? min-1,柱温为40℃,外标法计算含量.结果:马钱苷在40.43~1 213.02 ng有良好线性关系(r=1.000 0),平均回收率为98.2%,RSD0.4%(n=6).结论:此方法前处理简便,准确可靠,可作为该制剂的质控方法之一.

  13. Cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury by QiShenYiQi Pill® via ameliorate of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing Rui Chen,1–3 Jing Wei,1–3 Ling Yan Wang,1–3 Yan Zhu,1–3 Lan Li,1–3 Mary Akinyi Olunga,1–3 Xiu Mei Gao,1–3 Guan Wei Fan1–31Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae, Ministry of Education, 3Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaAim: To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of QiShenYiQi Pill® (QSYQ on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury through antioxidative stress and mitochondrial protection.Methods and results: Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with QSYQ or saline for 7 days and subjected to ischemia (30 minutes occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and reperfusion (120 minutes. Cardiac functions were evaluated by echocardiogram and hemodynamics. Myocardial mitochondria were obtained to evaluate changes in mitochondrial structure and function, immediately after 120 minutes reperfusion. Pretreatment with QSYQ protected against I/R-induced myocardial structural injury and improved cardiac hemodynamics, as demonstrated by normalized serum creatine kinase and suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, the impaired myocardial mitochondrial structure and function decreased level of ATP (accompanied by reduction of ATP5D and increase in the expression of cytochrome C. Myocardial fiber rupture, interstitial edema, and infiltrated leukocytes were all significantly ameliorated by pretreatment with QSYQ.Conclusion: Pretreatment of QSYQ in Sprague Dawley rats improves ventricular function and energy metabolism and reduces oxidative stress via ameliorating multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions during I/R injury.Keywords: QSYQ, ischemia/reperfusion injury, energy metabolism, mitochondria

  14. Limited Evidence Suggests a Protective Association Between Oral Contraceptive Pill Use and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Females: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kathleen; Balk, Ethan M; Sevetson, Erika L; Fleming, Braden C

    2017-10-01

    Female athletes aged 14 to 18 years are at particular risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Hormonal factors are thought to predispose them to this injury. Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) might reduce ACL injury risk, although the literature appears controversial. To evaluate the association between OCP use and ACL injuries in women. The secondary objective was to determine the rates of ACL injuries in the pre- and postovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle in OCP and non-OCP (NOCP) users. Searches were performed across 4 reference databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane), abstracts from 6 specialty societies, ClinicalTrials.gov , and reference lists of relevant papers. We included studies investigating the association between OCP use and ACL injuries in females of any age or the distribution of ACL injuries across the menstrual cycle in OCP and NOCP users. Systematic review. Level 3. Data regarding study design, population characteristics, OCP details, outcome definitions, analytic methods, and results were extracted from the included studies. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The search yielded 1305 citations, of which 7 retrospective observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Two large case-control studies with higher methodological quality suggested that OCP use may reduce the risk of sustaining an ACL injury. Five comparative studies examining injury distribution across the menstrual cycle in OCP and NOCP users had conflicting findings, were heterogeneous, and were limited by low methodological quality. The evidence suggests OCP use may reduce the risk of ACL injury; however, no conclusions can be drawn regarding differences in risk of ACL injuries between OCP and NOCP users across the menstrual cycle. Studies were limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneity, and methodological concerns.

  15. Improvement Effect of Kunbao Pill on Perimenopausal Sleep Disorder%坤宝丸对围绝经期睡眠障碍的改善作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志凌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Kunbao Pills for improving sleep disorder in perimenopausal women. Methods Totally 118 patients with perimenopausal sleep disorder were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group,59 cases in each group. The control group was treated by Oryzanol Tablets combined with Estradiol Valerate Tablets,while the observation group was treated by Kunbao Pill. The treatment course for both groups lasted for 3 months. The total effective rate,improvement degree of Pitts-burph sleep quality index(PSQI)score and the changes of estradiol(E2),luteinizing hormone(LH)and follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) were observed and compared between the two groups. At the same time the occurrence rates of adverse drug reactions during the treat-ment process were also compared. Results The total effective rate had no statistically significant difference between the two groups (72. 88% vs 77. 97%,P ﹥ 0. 05). The PSQI scores after treatment in the two groups were decreased significantly compared with before treatment( P ﹤ 0. 05),but the descend degree in the observation group was more obvious than that in the control group( P ﹤ 0. 05). The related hormone levels of E2,LH and FSH after treatment in the two groups were significantly improved compared with before treatment( P ﹤ 00. 05),but the differences after treatment between the two groups had no statistical significance( P ﹥ 0. 05). The occur-rence rate of adverse reactions in control group was significantly higher than that in the observation group(10. 17% vs 3. 39%,P ﹤0. 05). Conclusion Kunbao Pills has definite effect for improving perimenopausal sleep disorder,moreover has better safety than the traditional hormone replacement therapy.%目的:探讨坤宝丸对围绝经期妇女睡眠障碍的改善作用。方法将118例围绝经期睡眠障碍患者随机分为对照组和观察组,各59例。对照组患者采用戊酸雌二醇片联合谷维

  16. Influence of Zheng-tian pill on the hypnotic effects of pentobarbital sodium and barbital sodium in mice%正天丸对戊巴比妥钠及巴比妥钠催眠作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 周新卫; 王德才

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the influence of Zheng-tian pill on the hypnotic effects of pentobarbital sodium and barbital sodium. Methods:Mice were randomly divided into solvent(5% Tween-80,20 ml/kg),chloromycetin(25 mg/kg)and Zheng-tian pill(3,6 g/kg)groups,which were administered orally with equivalent volume,once a day and for three days. An hour later at the last administration,all the animals were given pentobarbital sodium(40 mg/kg,ip)or bar-bital sodium(180 mg/kg,ip),and then the latent period and duration of hypnosis were observed. Results:Hypnotic dura-tion of pentobarbital sodium was prolonged by 222. 2%,123. 1% and 42. 6% in chloromycetin and two Zheng-tian pill groups respectively,chloromycetin group and Zheng-tian pill group at the lower dose compared with solvent group,there were evident difference(P﹤0. 01),and yet the large dose of Zheng-tian pill prolonged evidently hypnotic latent period(P﹤0. 01)and shortened obviously hypnotic duration(P﹤0. 01)of barbital sodium. Conclusion:The findings in this study suggest that Zheng-tian pill is likely to inhibit liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activity and to excite the central nervous system at a higher dose in mice.%目的:通过观察正天丸对戊巴比妥钠及巴比妥钠催眠作用的影响,了解正天丸对肝微粒体细胞色素P450活性的影响。方法将60只小鼠随机分为溶媒组(2%吐温-80,20 ml/kg)、氯霉素组(25 mg/kg)及正天丸低、高剂量组(3,6 g/kg),每组15只,连续等容灌胃3d,末次给药1h后,再给小鼠腹腔注射戊巴比妥钠40 mg/kg或巴比妥钠180 mg/kg,观察小鼠的睡眠潜伏期和睡眠时间。结果氯霉素组和低、高剂量的正天丸组使戊巴比妥钠对小鼠的催眠时间分别延长222.2%、123.1%、42.6%,其中氯霉素组和小剂量正天丸组与溶媒组比较,小鼠的睡眠时间显著延长,均P﹤0.01。与溶媒组比较,高剂量的正天丸能显著延长

  17. Optimized prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract Dropping Pill%鹿角灵芝中灵芝多糖提取物滴丸成型工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星; 袁曦

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the feasibility of optimization the prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Poly-saccharide Extract Dropping Pill.METHODS The central composite design and response surface method were used to optimize prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract Dropping Pill with PEG 6000 and Poloxamer 188 as combined carrier.And Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract Dropping Pill was prepared through melt-ing method.Independent variables were Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract content and Poloxamer 188 con-tent,while dependent variables were weight variable of pills and the dissolution rate of 5,10,60min.Quadratic poly-nomial fit-ting is adopted to estimate the mathematical relationship between independent and dependent varia-bles.Response surfaces were delineated according to the established mathematic models and optimum prescriptions were predicted from there.And confirmatory tests were carried out in the end.RESULTS The best prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract Dropping Pill was that Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract con-tent was 22%,while Poloxamer 188 content was 40%.Bias between observed and predicted values of all inspection indexes were negligible,indicating the high predictability of the fit models.CONCLUSION The central composite design and r-esponse surface method can be fairly used for optimizating the prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Poly-saccharide Extract Dropping Pill,and provide new way for further exploration.%目的:探讨鹿角灵芝中灵芝多糖提取物滴丸处方条件,优化最佳处方。方法运用星点设计-效应面法优选鹿角灵芝中灵芝多糖提取物滴丸处方,以PEG6000和Poloxamer 188为联合载体,采用熔融法制备滴丸,并以主药的质量分数及 Poloxamer 188的质量分数作为考察因素,以丸重差异以及5、10、60min溶出度为评价指标,采用二次多项式拟合建立考察因素与评价指标之间的数学关系,根据所建

  18. Study on the anti-inflammatory,analgesic and anti-stress effect of Wujibaifeng Pills%乌鸡白凤丸抗炎、镇痛及抗应激的药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家艺; 吴清和; 黄萍; 操红缨

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨乌鸡白凤丸抗炎、镇痛及抗应激作用,为其临床应用提供科学的理论依据。方法采用二甲苯致小鼠耳廓肿胀实验、蛋清致大鼠足趾肿胀实验以及大鼠棉球肉芽肿实验,观察乌鸡白凤丸的抗炎作用;应用小鼠热板法、醋酸扭体法观察该药的镇痛作用;通过小鼠耐疲劳、耐缺氧、耐寒冷实验观察该药的抗应激作用。结果抗炎方面:乌鸡白凤丸可显著抑制二甲苯所致小鼠耳廓肿胀度及大鼠致炎后足肿胀度,降低大鼠肉芽肿系数;镇痛方面:乌鸡白凤丸可提高热板法引起的小鼠痛阈值,抑制醋酸所致小鼠扭体反应;抗应激方面:乌鸡白凤丸能增加小鼠负荷游泳时间,延长小鼠常压耐缺氧的存活时间,降低小鼠在低温环境中的死亡率。结论乌鸡白凤丸具有显著的抗炎、镇痛及抗应激作用。%Objective To investigate the anti‐inflammatory ,analgesic and anti‐stress effects of Wujibaifeng Pills .Methods The anti‐inflammatory action of Wujibaifeng Pills was assessed by ear edema induced by using xylene in mice and injected egg white in rats ;the analgesic effect was tested by using the rat body torsion test and hot‐plate test ;antifatigue ,anti‐anoxia and low temperature‐resistant tests were used for evaluating the effects on anti‐stress .Result Anti‐inflammatory aspects :Wujibaifeng Pills high‐dose can significantly inhibit mouse auricle swelling caused by dimethylbenzene and rats foots swelling ,in addition can also decrease the granuloma of rats .Analgesic aspects :Wujibaifeng Pills can increase the pain threshold ,inhibit body torsion reaction caused by acetic acid .Stress resistance aspect :Wujibaifeng Pills can obviously increase the weight loaded swimming time in mice ,and can pro‐long the survival time of bearing hypoxia at normal pressure in mice and significantly reduce the mortality rate of mice in the low temperature

  19. 补中益气丸中氨基酸类成分指纹图谱%Fingerprint Chromatogram of Amino Acids Compounds Analysis in Different Brands Buzhongyiqi Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯雪红; 花汝凤; 陈锦富; 杨小催; 陈为

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analyze the fingerprint chromatogram of amino acids compounds in different brands Buzhongyiqi pills and offer reference to distinguishing them. Method; By 6-aminoqtiinoly-Af-hydroxysuccinimdyl carbamate ( AQC) according to pre-column derivatization HPLC method to establish the fingerprint chromatogram of amino acids compounds, distilling the digital info of fingerprint chromatogram and analyzing with SPSS. Result; nine co-peaks on the HPLC fingerprints of Buzhongyiqi pills were indicated. The results of similarity analysis were 0. 8-1.00. Conclusion; This method is available for quality evalution and can control the quality of BuzhongYiqi pills.%目的:对5个不同药厂生产的20批补中益气丸氨基酸类成分指纹图谱进行比较研究.方法:以柱前衍生化HPLC,测定不同药厂补中益气丸氨基酸类成分指纹图谱,提取指纹图谱数字化信息,采用相似度分析、聚类分析等多种统计方法分析不同药厂产品特征.结果:不同药厂补中益气丸氨基酸类成分指纹图谱中有9个共有峰,相似度在0.8 ~1.00;A药厂样品中氨基酸类成分较多,指纹图谱特征与标准汤剂指纹图谱相似度最高.结论:方法稳定、可靠、重复性好,为区分不同药厂补中益气丸提供参考.

  20. Clinical Observation on Migraine Treated with Combination of 25-ingredient Coral Pills and Fluorine%二十五味珊瑚丸联合氟桂利嗪治疗偏头痛临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新春

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨二十五味珊瑚丸联合氟桂利嗪胶囊治疗偏头痛的临床意义.方法 将112例偏头痛患者随机分为两组,治疗组给予二十五味珊瑚丸联合氟桂利嗪治疗偏头痛,对照组单用氟桂利嗪治疗.结果 治疗后,治疗组的收缩期峰值较治疗前明显改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);对照组的收缩期峰值与治疗前比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组疗效比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 二十五味珊瑚丸联合氟桂利嗪治疗偏头痛,较之单用氟桂利嗪疗效明显增高.%Objective To explore the clinical significance of 25-ingredient coral pills combined with fluorine in treatment for migraine.Methods 112 cases of patients with Migraine randomly were divided into two groups :the treatment group receiving 25-ingredient coral pills combined with fluorine, and the contrasl group receiving migraine alone.Results Compared with before the treatment, the peak systolic velocity increased markedly after treatment in the treatment group( P < 0.05 ); There was no obvious change in the control group( P > 0.05 ).The curative rate was significiant differences in the treatment group comparing with the control group( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion The therapeutic effect of 25-ingredient coral pills combined with fluorine in treatment for migraine was obviously higher than single use of fluorine.