WorldWideScience

Sample records for legume white clover

  1. White clover regenerative ability under N fertilizing and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, ecological and economic factors in milk and meat production stimulate use of legumes and grass-legumes mixtures, with zero or minimum mineral N as alternative to grass monoculture with high rate of mineral N. Research objective was to examine the effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S on white clover: growing points number, stolon lenght, stolon dry weight, dry matter yield and clover contribution to total annual herbage production. N150 significantly reduced the growing points number, stolon length and stolon dry weight for more than 70 % compared to N0. Grazing treatment affected stolon population density only in interaction with N application because of N150 significantly reduced white clover population density only in sheep grazing. S-treatment had higher clover DM yield (0.21 t ha-1 than C-treatment (0.13 t ha-1. N0 had higher clover DM yield (0.25 t ha-1 than N150 (0.09 t ha-1. However, the interaction grazing management x N rate was significant for clover DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield. N150 reduced both parameters for 80 % only in sheep grazing while difference in DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield between grazing treatment was recorded only in N0 Sheep grazing increased DM yield for 150 % and clover contribution for 99 % compared to cattle grazing.

  2. Environmental Impact Research Program: White Clover (Trifolium repens). Section 7.3.5, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    types where they are common (Kohn and Mooty 1971). Rumen analyses of white-tailed deer in Montana showed that forbs comprised 80% of summer samples...frequency of occurrence in deer rumens collected from January through March in the Northern Black Hills. Bluegrass- white clover meadows are also...CAUTIONS AND LIMITATIONS White clover, like most legumes, occasionally causes bloat in animals, particularly cattle and sheep that have overfilled

  3. Genetic variation of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... incompatibility mechanism of disomic inheritance (Thomas,. 1987). In essence ..... Badr A, Sayed-Ahmed H, El-Shanshouri A, Watson LE (2002). Ancestors of white ... Caradus JR, Woodfield DR (1997). World checklist of ... within a natural population of white clover (Trifolium repense L). J. Ecol. 73: 615-624 ...

  4. Complementary effects of red clover inclusion in ryegrass-white clover swards for grazing and cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Søegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Increasing plant species diversity in grasslands may improve productivity and stability of yields. In a field experiment, we investigated the herbage dry-matter (DM) yield and crude protein content of two-species swards of perennial ryegrass–white clover (Lolium perenne L.–Trifolium repens L...... clover in sown swards are discussed. These may include higher nitrogen-use efficiency in ruminants, increased soil fertility and improved sward flexibility to cope with changing managements. The findings also suggest positive yield effects of alternating between cutting and grazing within the season...

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  6. Genetic variation of white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) to investigate the genetic relationships among white clover germplasms of China, and four commercial cultivars were included for a comparison. The results revealed that the populations showed diverse morphological traits, RAPD and SSR patterns.

  7. Growth of bermudagrass with white clover or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White clover (Trifolium repens) var ‘Durana’ was oversown into established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in 2009. Soil analysis indicated potassium (K) was low and potash at 112 and 336 kg/ha was added as main plots. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate or an ammonium sulfate/urea blend was added as 0, 34...

  8. Fate in Soil of Flavonoids Released from White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Sandra C. K.; Pedersen, Hans A.; Spliid, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    the presence in soil of bioactive secondary metabolites from clover has received limited attention. In this paper we examine for the first time the release of flavonoids both from field-grown white clover and from soil-incorporated white clover plants of flavonoids, as analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The dominant...... flavonoid aglycones were formononetin, medicarpin, and kaempferol. Soil-incorporated white clover plants generated high concentrations of the glycosides kaempferol-Rha-Xyl-Gal and quercetin-Xyl-Gal. Substantial amounts of kaempferol persisted in the soil for days while the other compounds were degraded...

  9. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White clover grows naturally all over the Himalayan regions including the hilly areas of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of white clover residues alone or in combination with phosphorus (P) fertilizer on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, nutrient uptake and ...

  10. Towards an optimal sampling strategy for assessing genetic variation within and among white clover (Trifolium repens L. cultivars using AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Mehdi Khanlou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction in plant breeding and conservation programs depends largely on correctly defining the minimal sample size required for the trustworthy assessment of intra- and inter-cultivar genetic variation. White clover, an important pasture legume, was chosen for studying this aspect. In clonal plants, such as the aforementioned, an appropriate sampling scheme eliminates the redundant analysis of identical genotypes. The aim was to define an optimal sampling strategy, i.e., the minimum sample size and appropriate sampling scheme for white clover cultivars, by using AFLP data (283 loci from three popular types. A grid-based sampling scheme, with an interplant distance of at least 40 cm, was sufficient to avoid any excess in replicates. Simulations revealed that the number of samples substantially influenced genetic diversity parameters. When using less than 15 per cultivar, the expected heterozygosity (He and Shannon diversity index (I were greatly underestimated, whereas with 20, more than 95% of total intra-cultivar genetic variation was covered. Based on AMOVA, a 20-cultivar sample was apparently sufficient to accurately quantify individual genetic structuring. The recommended sampling strategy facilitates the efficient characterization of diversity in white clover, for both conservation and exploitation.

  11. Leaching of cyanogenic glucosides and cyanide from white clover green manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Lægdsmand, Mette; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Use of crops for green manure as a substitute for chemical fertilizers and pesticides is an important approach towards more sustainable agricultural practices. Green manure from white clover is rich in nitrogen but white clover also produces the cyanogenic glucosides (CGs) linamarin...... and lotaustralin; CGs release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon hydrolysis which may be utilized for pest control. We demonstrate that applying CGs in the form of a liquid extract of white clover to large columns of intact agricultural soils can result in leaching of toxic cyanide species to a depth of at least 1...

  12. Specific activity isolation and determination of radioactive Estrogenic Substances in White Clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupiales T, G.; Mejia M, G.

    1986-01-01

    Due to high number of leguminous that exhibit estrogenic activity, subterranean clover between others, which causes infertility in sheep that eat it. It has been considered that white clover (Trifolium repens, variety Ladino, is an specie of low estrogenic activity, however at Bogota City (Colombia) it has high estrogenic activity and may cause reduction in the dairy cattle fertility. Research done in the IAN (today Ingeominas) over this clover variety, showed that the radioactivity substances presents in the white clover have high activity for stradiol, affecting organs from mouse females; Isoflavonoids from vegetables have an anabolism and utero tropic action; estrogenic activity of clover leaves, was exponentially proportional to the amount of ultraviolet radioactivity, falling upon plants during leaves development stage

  13. Does white clover (Trifolium repens abundance in temperate pastures determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae larval populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Richard McNeill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over four years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne (cv. Nui sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand with % clover measured in autumn (April and spring (September of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 310, 38, 59 and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3 and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted

  14. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Mark R; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover ( Trifolium repens ) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012-2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m -2 , respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers

  15. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... The residual effects of white clover on soil properties indicated a significant increase in saturation percentage (17–23%) and .... determined by leaching the soil with KCl followed by extraction of ...... accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. ... of the Final Workshop of the Farming System Integrated Pest.

  16. Relationships between Nitrate and Oxygen Supply in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by White Clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minchin, F. R.; Ines Minguez, M.; Sheedy, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of mature, nodulated plants of white clover (Trifolium repens) cv. Blanca to 330 mg dm−3 NO3-N for 8 d caused nitrogenase activity per plant to decrease by 80%. Total nodulated root respiration was not significantly affected but analysis of its components showed an 81% decrease in nitrog...

  17. Changes in nutritive value and herbage yield during extended growth intervals in grass-legume mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2018-01-01

    . Perennial ryegrass was sown with each of four legumes: red clover, white clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil, and white clover was sown with hybrid ryegrass, meadow fescue and timothy. Effects of species composition on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF...... in quality parameters differed among species and functional groups, i.e., grasses and legumes. Results are discussed in the context of quantifying the impact of delaying the harvest date of grass–legume mixtures and relationships between productivity and components of feed quality....

  18. Molecular evolution of the Li/li chemical defence polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K M; Sutherland, B L; Small, L L

    2007-10-01

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is naturally polymorphic for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage). The ecological factors favouring cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants have been examined in numerous studies over the last half century, making this one of the best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. White clover cyanogenesis is controlled by two, independently segregating Mendelian genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolysing enzyme, linamarase. In this study, we examine the molecular evolution and population genetics of Li as it relates to the cyanogenesis polymorphism. We report here that Li exists as a single-copy gene in plants possessing linamarase activity, and that the absence of enzyme activity in li/li plants is correlated with the absence of much or all of the gene from the white clover genome. Consistent with this finding, we confirm by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that Li gene expression is absent in plants lacking enzyme activity. In a molecular population genetic analysis of Li and three unlinked genes using a worldwide sample of clover plants, we find an absence of nucleotide variation and statistically significant deviations from neutrality at Li; these findings are consistent with recent positive directional selection at this cyanogenesis locus.

  19. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...... amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...

  20. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics - Dry matter digestibility and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions...... was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. RESULTS: Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) content of 451 g/kg DM and 530 g/kg DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively and a pulp with CP content of 313 and 374 g...

  1. High spatial variation in population size and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with white clover in New Zealand pasture soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillard, Guyléne; van Ham, Robert; Ballard, Ross; Farquharson, Elizabeth; Gerard, Emily; Geurts, Rene; Brown, Matthew; Ridgway, Hayley; O’Callaghan, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation through the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is important for sustainable pastoral production. In New Zealand, the most widespread and valuable symbiosis occurs between white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (Rlt). As variation in the population size (determined by most probable number assays; MPN) and effectiveness of N-fixation (symbiotic potential; SP) of Rlt in soils may affect white clover performance, the extent in variation in these properties was examined at three different spatial scales: (1) From 26 sites across New Zealand, (2) at farm-wide scale, and (3) within single fields. Overall, Rlt populations ranged from 95 to >1 x 108 per g soil, with variation similar at the three spatial scales assessed. For almost all samples, there was no relationship between rhizobia population size and ability of the population to fix N during legume symbiosis (SP). When compared with the commercial inoculant strain, the SP of soils ranged between 14 to 143% efficacy. The N-fixing ability of rhizobia populations varied more between samples collected from within a single hill country field (0.8 ha) than between 26 samples collected from diverse locations across New Zealand. Correlations between SP and calcium and aluminium content were found in all sites, except within a dairy farm field. Given the general lack of association between SP and MPN, and high spatial variability of SP at single field scale, provision of advice for treating legume seed with rhizobia based on field-average MPN counts needs to be carefully considered. PMID:29489845

  2. Estimating legume N-2 fixation in grass-clover mixtures of a grazed organic cropping system using two N-15 methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, F.P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The input of Nitrogen (N) through symbiotic N-2 fixation (SNF) in grass-clover mixtures was determined in an organic cropping. system for grazing during 3 years. The mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) was established by undersowing in spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maintained subsequently for two production years. Dinitrogen fixation was determined using the N-15 isotope dilution techniques and two labelling procedures. Using either pre-labelling of the soil with immobilisation of the N-15 by addition of a carbon source before...

  3. Modelling Gene Flow between Fields of White Clover with Honeybees as Pollen Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løjtnant, Christina; Boelt, Birte; Clausen, Sabine Karin

    2012-01-01

    The portion-dilution model is a parametric restatement of the conventional view of animal pollination; it predicts the level of pollinator-mediated gene dispersal. In this study, the model was applied to white clover (Trifolium repens) and its most frequent pollinator, the honeybee (Apis mellifera......). One of the three parameters in the portion-dilution model is the mean number of flowers a pollinator visits in one foraging bout. An alternative method to estimate this parameter was developed that was not depending on pollinator hive-seeking behaviour. The new estimation method, based on nectar......% with an estimated 95% percentile of 70%. The results show that the European Union threshold limit of 0.9% GM admixture for food and feed will likely be exceeded at times and especially organic farmers that do not accept GM admixture and often have clover and clover–grass fields might face challenges with admixture...

  4. Predicting Dry Matter Composition of Clover Grass Leys Using Data Simulation and Camera-based Segmentation of Field Canopies into White Clover, Red Clover, Grass and Weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Søren; Dyrmann, Mads; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    species in the biomass. In our setup, we exploit the top-down canopy view of the clover grass ley to estimate the volumetric composition of the yield, and predict the composition of the dry matter of the forage. Using a deep learning approach, the canopy image is automatically pixel-wise segmented....... The biggest hindrance to training a fully convolutional deep neural network is the requirement of labeled data. Due to the complexity, the high number of leaves and high levels of occlusions in clover grass canopies, hand labeling the data requires roughly 20 hours of manual labor per image. The need...... for hundreds or thousands labeled training images renders this approach unfeasible. We have shown that implementation of image simulation of distinct clover grass fields can reduce the labeling task significantly. Investing less than 20 hours of labor, thousands of simulated images and corresponding labels can...

  5. The influence of phosphorus deficiency on growth and nitrogen fixation of white clover plants

    OpenAIRE

    Høgh-Jensen, Dr Henning; Schjoerring, Dr Jan K.; Soussana, Dr Jean-Francois

    2002-01-01

    The effects of P deficiency on growth, N2‐fixation and photosynthesis in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) plants were investigated using three contrasting relative addition rates of P, or following abrupt withdrawal of the P supply. Responses to a constant below‐optimum P supply rate consisted of a decline in N2‐fixation per unit root weight and a small reduction in the efficiency with which electrons were allocated to the reduction of N2 in nodules. Abrupt removal of P arrested nodule grow...

  6. Effect of substituting fresh-cut perennial ryegrass with fresh-cut white clover on bovine milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Hynes, Deborah N; Thomson, Anna L; Kliem, Kirsty E; Berlitz, Carolina Gb; Günal, Mevlüt; Yan, Tianhai

    2018-03-06

    Including forage legumes in dairy systems can help address increasing environmental/economic concerns about perennial ryegrass monoculture pastures. This work investigated the effect of substituting fresh-cut grass with increasing quantities of fresh-cut white clover (WC) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and transfer efficiency of dietary linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic (ALNA) acids to milk fat. Three groups of three crossbred dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 crossover design. Dietary treatments were 0 g kg -1 WC + 600 g kg -1 grass, 200 g kg -1 WC + 400 g kg -1 grass, and 400 g kg -1 WC + 200 g kg -1 grass. All treatments were supplemented with 400 g kg -1 concentrates on a dry matter basis. Cows had a 19-day adaptation period to the experimental diet before a 6-day measurement period in individual tie stalls. Increasing dietary WC did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield or milk concentrations of fat, protein or lactose. Milk polyunsaturated FA concentrations (total n-3, total n-6, LA and ALNA) and transfer efficiency of LA and ALNA were increased with increasing dietary WC supply. Inclusion of WC in pastures may increase concentrations of nutritionally beneficial FA, without influencing milk yield and basic composition, but any implications on human health cannot be drawn. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A note on the effects of paddock size on the white clover content of swards grazed by sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.L.; Schulte, R.P.O.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The maintenance of a high white clover content in mixed swards under sheep grazing has been a challenge to date. This paper presents the results of an experiment in which the effect of the length of a grazing period on the botanical composition of a mixed sward was studied. Paddocks ranging in size

  8. Yields and quality of forage legumes under imbalanced year precipitation conditions on south Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, yield and quality of forage following species of forage legumes were evaluated with regard to precipitations: lucerne (Medicago sativa L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L., white clover (Trifolium repens L., kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M., alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L. and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. The trial was sown in the spring of 2008, evaluated in the period 2009–2011. Analysis of samples was performed with the apparatus NIRS 6500. Following parameters were evaluated: production of dry matter, energy concentration (NEL, contents of fibre and crude protein. The highest three year yield average was measured for lucerne (15.01 t.ha−1, followed by red clover group (9.3–11.8 t.ha−1. Kura clover gained the lowest yield (1.97 t.ha−1. The average crude protein contents (g.kg−1 were: lucerne 211.47, red clover group (184.3–194.8, white clover group (229.1–238.7 and birdsfoot trefoil (204.2. The obtained results indicated that lucerne responded at best to periods of drought. Although the production of dry matter decreased in periods of drought, the canopy of stands remained to be complete in contradistinction to white clover, which partly disappeared from the stand. Red clover and alsike clover disappeared from the stand during the trial.

  9. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics: dry matter digestibility and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry; Laerke, Helle N; Jensen, Søren K

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the use of white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) contents of 451 g kg -1 and 530 g kg -1 DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively, and a pulp with CP contents of 313 and 374 g kg -1 DM from plant and leaves, respectively. The amino acid composition ranged from 4.72 to 6.49 g per 16 g of nitrogen (N) for lysine, 1.82-2.6 g per 16 g N for methionine and cysteine, and 3.66-5.24 g per 16 g N for threonine. True faecal digestibility of protein varied from 0.81 to 0.88, whereas DM digestibility was in the range 0.72-0.80. Methionine and cysteine were found to be limiting in all fractions, regardless of the reference group used. A high digestibility of white clover protein was found irrespective of the physical fractionation. Together with a well-balanced amino acid composition, this makes white clover a promising protein source for monogastrics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The performance of a white clover-based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system. II. Animal production, economics and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Boxem, T.; Jagtenberg, C.J.; Verboom, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a white clover based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system was studied during three years. Both systems had 59 cows, plus young stock, on an area of 40.6 ha for grass/clover and 34.4 ha for grass/fertiliser-N. During the grazing season, the cows in both

  11. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based

  12. Development of Genomic Resources in the Species of Trifolium L. and Its Application in Forage Legume Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Skøt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Clovers (genus Trifolium are a large and widespread genus of legumes. A number of clovers are of agricultural importance as forage crops in grassland agriculture, particularly temperate areas. White clover (Trifolium repens L. is used in grazed pasture and red clover (T. pratense L. is widely cut and conserved as a winter feed. For the diploid red clover, genetic and genomic tools and resources have developed rapidly over the last five years including genetic and physical maps, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence and transcriptome sequence information. This has paved the way for the use of genome wide selection and high throughput phenotyping in germplasm development. For the allotetraploid white clover progress has been slower although marker assisted selection is in use and relatively robust genetic maps and QTL (quantitative trait locus information now exist. For both species the sequencing of the model legume Medicago truncatula gene space is an important development to aid genomic, biological and evolutionary studies. The first genetic maps of another species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. have also been published and its comparative genomics with red clover and M. truncatula conducted. Next generation sequencing brings the potential to revolutionize clover genomics, but international consortia and effective use of germplasm, novel population structures and phenomics will be required to carry out effective translation into breeding. Another avenue for clover genomic and genetic improvement is interspecific hybridization. This approach has considerable potential with regard to crop improvement but also opens windows of opportunity for studies of biological and evolutionary processes.

  13. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    and actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass...... microbial groups in soil under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following leaf-labelling with 13C-bicarbonate and 15N-urea. In this way microbial N and 15N and the composition of PLFAs reflect the medium-term (two months) response of microorganisms to rhizodeposits......, whereas the 13C-label of the PLFAs reflects the short-term (one week) utilisation of root exudates following labelling of shoots. In the medium term, microbial biomass N and 15N were greater under the ryegrass, whereas total PLFA was higher under white clover. The relative abundance of fungi...

  14. The beneficial effect of dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, XG.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight of shoots and roots, total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements, the final yields and recovery of phosphorus of white clover were significantly increased by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and dual inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium. The highest response of inoculation was obtained by adding fertilizer phosphorus at the level of 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate.

  15. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitors Limit Water Stress Responses in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Nikmatullah, Aluh; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    The response of plants to water deficiency or drought is a complex process, the perception of which is triggered at the molecular level before any visible morphological responses are detected. It was found that different groups of plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are induced and play an active role during abiotic stress conditions such as drought. Our previous work with the white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitor ( Tr-KPI ) gene family showed that Tr-KPIs are differentially regulated to ontogenetic and biotic stress associated cues and that, at least some members of this gene family may be required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Altered cellular homeostasis may also affect abiotic stress responses and therefore, we aimed to understand if distinct Tr-PKI members function during drought stress. First, the expression level of three Tr-KPI genes, Tr-KPI1 , Tr-KPI2 , and Tr-KPI5 , was measured in two cultivars and one white clover ecotype with differing capacity to tolerate drought. The expression of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 increased in response to water deficiency and this was exaggerated when the plants were treated with a previous period of water deficiency. In contrast, proline accumulation and increased expression of Tr-NCED1 , a gene encoding a protein involved in ABA biosynthesis, was delayed in plants that experienced a previous drought period. RNAi knock-down of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 resulted in increased proline accumulation in leaf tissue of plants grown under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. In addition, increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was found. The data suggests that Tr-KPIs , particularly Tr-KPI5 , have an explicit function during water limitation. The results also imply that the Tr-KPI family has different in planta proteinase targets and that the functions of this protein family are not solely restricted to one of storage proteins or in response to biotic stress.

  16. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitors Limit Water Stress Responses in White Clover (Trifolium repens L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsana Islam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of plants to water deficiency or drought is a complex process, the perception of which is triggered at the molecular level before any visible morphological responses are detected. It was found that different groups of plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs are induced and play an active role during abiotic stress conditions such as drought. Our previous work with the white clover (Trifolium repens L. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitor (Tr-KPI gene family showed that Tr-KPIs are differentially regulated to ontogenetic and biotic stress associated cues and that, at least some members of this gene family may be required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Altered cellular homeostasis may also affect abiotic stress responses and therefore, we aimed to understand if distinct Tr-PKI members function during drought stress. First, the expression level of three Tr-KPI genes, Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5, was measured in two cultivars and one white clover ecotype with differing capacity to tolerate drought. The expression of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 increased in response to water deficiency and this was exaggerated when the plants were treated with a previous period of water deficiency. In contrast, proline accumulation and increased expression of Tr-NCED1, a gene encoding a protein involved in ABA biosynthesis, was delayed in plants that experienced a previous drought period. RNAi knock-down of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 resulted in increased proline accumulation in leaf tissue of plants grown under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. In addition, increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was found. The data suggests that Tr-KPIs, particularly Tr-KPI5, have an explicit function during water limitation. The results also imply that the Tr-KPI family has different in planta proteinase targets and that the functions of this protein family are not solely restricted to one of storage proteins or in response to biotic stress.

  17. The beneficial effect of dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, XG.; Hao, WY.; Wu, TH.

    1993-01-01

    Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight ...

  18. Mitigation of salt stress in white clover (Trifolium repens) by Azospirillum brasilense and its inoculation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Wang, Hang; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-12-01

    Salinity is one of the increasingly serious environmental problems worldwide for cultivating agricultural crops. The present study was aimed to ascertain the potential of beneficial soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense to alleviate saline stress in Trifolium repens. Experimental plants (white clover) were grown from seeds and inoculated with or without A. brasilense bacterial strain supplemented with 0, 40, 80, or 120 mM NaCl into soil. The growth attributes including, shoot heights, root lengths, fresh and dry weights, leaf area and chlorophyll content were significantly enhanced in T. repens plants grown in A. brasilense inoculated soil than un-inoculated controls, particularly under elevated salinity conditions (40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl). Malondialdehyde content of leaf was recorded to be declined under saline conditions. Moreover, the K + /Na + ratio was also improved in bacterium-inoculated plants, since A. brasilense significantly reduced the root and shoot Na + level under high salty environment. Results revealed that soil inoculation with A. brasilense could significantly promote T. repens growth under both non-saline and saline environments, and this study might be extended to other vegetables and crops for the germination and growth enhancement.

  19. Does introduction of clover in an agricultural grassland affect the food base and functional diversity of Collembola?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annibale, D' Alessandra; Sechi, Valentina; Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Søren; Krogh, Paul Henning; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of legumes (i.e. white clover) in agricultural grasslands is a common practice to improve yields, but how this affects soil fauna populations, particularly mesofauna, is still poorly understood. We investigated taxonomical and functional differences of Collembola communities between

  20. Response of biomass and nitrogen yield of white clover to radiation and atmospheric CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderscheid, R.; Bender, J.; Schenk, U.; Weigel, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test (i) whether the effect of season-long CO 2 enrichment on plant dry matter production of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Karina) depends on the temperature or can solely be explained by changes in radiation use efficiency, and (ii) whether the atmospheric CO 2 concentration affects the relationship between tissue %N and plant biomass. Plants were grown in pots with adequate nutrient and water supply and were exposed to ambient and above ambient CO 2 concentrations (approximately +80 ppm, +160 ppm, +280 ppm) in open-top chambers for two seasons. Nitrogen fertilizer was given only before the experiment started to promote N 2 fixation. Plants were clipped to a height of 5 cm, when the canopy had reached a height of about 20 cm and when the CO 2 effect had not been diminished due to self-shading of the leaves. Photon exposure (400–700 nm) measured above the canopy was linearly related to the above ground biomass, the leaf area index and the nitrogen yield (r 2 > 0.94). The slopes of the curves depended on the CO 2 concentration. Since most of the radiation (>90%) was absorbed by the foliage, the slopes were used to calculate the CO 2 effect on the radiation use efficiency of biomass production, which is shown to increase curvilinearly between 380 and 660 ppm CO 2 from 2.7 g MJ −1 to 3.9 g MJ −1 . CO 2 enrichment increased above ground biomass by increasing the leaf number, the individual leaf weight and the leaf area; specific leaf weight was not affected. The relative CO 2 response varied between harvests; there was a slight but not significant positive relationship with mean daytime temperature. At the beginning of the season, plant nitrogen concentration in the above ground biomass was decreased by CO 2 enrichment. However, at later growth stages, when the plants depended solely on N 2 fixation, nitrogen concentration was found to be increased when the nitrogen concentration value was adjusted for the decrease

  1. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development...... of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...

  2. Short-term effects of a dung pat on N2 fixation and total N uptake in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The short-term effects of a simulated cattle dung pat on N-2 fixation and total uptake of N in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture was studied in a container experiment using sheep faeces mixed with water to a DM content of 13%. We used a new N-15 cross-labelling technique to determine...

  3. Dinitrogen fixation in white clover grown in pure stand and mixture with ryegrass estimated by the immobilized 15N isotope dilution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.; Schjørring, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown in pure stand and mixture with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was determined in the field using N-15 isotope dilution and harvest of the shoots. The apparent transfer of clover N to perennial ryegrass was simultaneously...... assessed. The soil was labelled either by immobilizing N-15 in organic matter prior to establishment of the sward or by using the conventional labelling procedure in which N-15 fertilizer is added after sward establishment. Immobilization of N-15 in the soil organic matter has not previously been used...

  4. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Mercer, Chris F; Leung, Susanna; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots) and systemic (leaf tissue) sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN) Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi) and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R) genotype and a susceptible (S) genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1) was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1) increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species.

  5. Avaliação do potencial de produção de sementes de acessos de trevo branco Evaluation of the seed production potential of white clover accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Lopes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de produção de sementes de 25 acessos da coleção básica de trevo-branco provenientes do Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos. Por meio de amostragens semanais realizadas entre 6/11/2003 e 10/3/2004, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de inflorescências/planta, número de flores/inflorescência, número de inflorescências maduras/planta, número de legumes maduros/inflorescência, peso de mil sementes e rendimento de sementes/planta. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com os acessos arranjados individualmente em cinco repetições. O rendimento de sementes em trevo-branco é altamente influenciado pelo número de inflorescências por planta, pelo número de inflorescências maduras por planta e pelo peso de mil sementes. Os acessos 53, 2 e 20 destacam-se pela superioridade em relação aos demais (7, 68, 19, 79, 58, 3, 15, 75, 64, 50, 33, 13, 59, 38, 28, 80, 54, 29, 31, 23, 22, 27, 65 e 73 na produção de sementes. Os acessos 27, 65 e 73 não produzem sementes nas condições locais durante o primeiro ano de avaliação.This work was carried out to evaluate the potential of seed production of 25 accessions of the basic collection of white clover from the United States Department of Agriculture. Through weekly samplings performed from 11/6th/2003 to 3/10th/04 the following variables were analyzed: number of inflorescence/plant, number of flowers/inflorescence, number of mature inflorescence/plant, number of mature legumes/inflorescence, weight of 1000 seeds, and seed yield/plant. It was used a complete randomized experimental design with the accessions individually arranged in five replications. Seed yield of white clover is highly affected by number of inflorescence/plant, number of mature inflorescence/plant, and weight of 1000 seeds. The 53, 2 and 20 accessions differ from the others because of their superiority

  6. In vitro digestion of bloat-safe and bloat-causing legumes by rumen microorganisms: gas and foam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J P; Cheng, K J; Hanna, M R; Howarth, R E; Costerton, J W

    1980-08-01

    Leaves of three bloat-safe legumes -- birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.), and cicer milkvetch (Astralagus cicer L.) -- and of three bloat-causing legumes -- alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) -- were incubated with strained rumen fluid or with mixed rumen fluid and solids. Gas released was measured during the early period (0 to 22 h) of this in vitro digestion. Gas volume was greater with a 1:1 (wt/vol) mixture of solid and fluid rumen contents than with rumen fluid alone. It was greater with whole and chewed leaves from the bloat-causing legumes than with whole leaves from the bloat-safe legumes. However, when leaves were homogenized, volumes of gas from bloat-causing and bloat-safe legumes were similar. More gas was released from homogenized leaves than from the same weight of whole leaves. The amount of foam produced on chewed herbage and homogenized leaves of bloat-causing legumes was greater than on those of bloat-safe legumes. These results are consistent with the rate of disintegration and digestion of legumes by rumen bacteria being an important determinant in pasture bloat. Measurement of gas produced early in in vitro digestion may provide a useful bioassay for evaluating the bloat-causing potential of legumes in breeding selections if variability of the method can be reduced.

  7. Bicarbonate as tracer for plant assimilated C and homogeneity of 14C and 15N distribution in ryegrass and white clover tissue by alternative labeling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Kusliene, Gedrime; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2013-01-01

    that 15N also had a heterogeneous distribution (up to two orders of magnitude). Conclusion Bicarbonate can efficiently be used to introduce 14C or 13C into plant via the leaf-labeling method. Both 14C and 15N showed heterogeneous distribution in the plant, although the distribution of 15N was more even......Aims: Application of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes is an essential tool to study C and N flows in plant-soil-microorganisms systems. When targeting single plants in a community the tracers need to be added via e.g., leaf-labeling or stem-feeding approaches. In this study we: (i) investigated...... if bicarbonate can be used to introduce 14C (or 13C) into white clover and ryegrass, and (ii) compared the patterns of 14C and 15N allocation in white clover and ryegrass to evaluate the homogeneity of tracer distribution after two alternative labeling approaches. Methods Perennial ryegrass and white clover were...

  8. Interannual variation in nitrous oxide emissions from perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland used for dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchill, William; Li, Dejun; Lanigan, Gary J; Williams, Micheal; Humphreys, James

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions are subject to intra- and interannual variation due to changes in weather and management. This creates significant uncertainties when quantifying estimates of annual N2 O emissions from grazed grasslands. Despite these uncertainties, the majority of studies are short-term in nature (Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from fertilized and grazed perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland (WC) and from perennial ryegrass plots that were not grazed and did not receive N input (GB), over 4 years from 2008 to 2012 in Ireland (52°51'N, 08°21'W). The annual N2 O-N emissions (kg ha(-1); mean ± SE) ranged from 4.4 ± 0.2 to 34.4 ± 5.5 from WC and from 1.7 ± 0.8 to 6.3 ± 1.2 from GB. Interannual variation in N2 O emissions was attributed to differences in annual rainfall, monthly (December) soil temperatures and variation in N input. Such substantial interannual variation in N2 O emissions highlights the need for long-term studies of emissions from managed pastoral systems. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Wang Youshan; Chen Baodong

    2008-01-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 μm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  11. Translational genomics from model species Medicago truncatula to crop legume Trifolium pratense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang Chunting, Chunting

    2012-01-01

    The legume Trifolium pratense (red clover) is an important fodder crop and produces important secondary metabolites. This makes red clover an interesting species. In this thesis, the red clover genome is compared to the legume model species Medicago truncatula, of which the

  12. Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: A New Species of Annual Legumes for High Rainfall Areas of the Mediterranean Climate Zone of Chile Trébol Vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: Una Nueva Especie de Leguminosa Anual para Áreas de Alta Precipitación en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ovalle M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines the main attributes and agronomic characteristics of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and its incorporation into production systems in dryland areas of the Andean foothills of the humid Mediterranean climate zone of Chile. It is a new species of annual legume in Chile for light and medium textured soils. The root system can reach a depth of 1.5 m and its seeds have a high percentage of hardseedness (99.8%. It is an upright plant, with purplish-white flowers. The mature plant has large arrow-shaped leaves up to 50 mm long, often marked with a large white “V”. Dry matter and seed production in the Andean foothills is high (3.9-8.8 t DM ha-1 and 700-900 kg ha-1, respectively, surpassing the productivity of sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mount Barker and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.. However, DM production in the second year was lower, possibly because the high percentage of hardseedness inhibited plant emergence. The phenological records and productive performance suggest that arrowleaf clover could contribute to improving pastoral production in dryland areas with annual rainfall levels of more than 800 mm, such as the Andean foothills in the central-southern region of Chile.En la presente revisión se examinan los principales atributos y características agronómicas del trébol vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi y su eventual incorporación a sistemas de producción en la precordillera andina de la zona de clima mediterráneo húmedo de Chile. Se trata de una nueva especie de leguminosa forrajera anual para suelos de textura liviana y media. El sistema radical puede alcanzar 1,5 m de profundidad y las semillas tienen un alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99,8%. Es una planta de crecimiento erecto, flores de color blanco con una leve coloración púrpura. Las plantas adultas tienen grandes hojas con forma de flecha de más de 50 mm de largo, a menudo muestran una marca blanca en

  13. Effect of harvest time of red and white clover silage on chewing activity and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfelt, L F; Nørgaard, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the effects of harvest time of red and white clover silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in cows. The clover crops were harvested at two stages of growth and ensiled in bales. Red clover crops had 36% and 45% NDF in dry matter (DM) at early (ER) and late (LR) harvest, respectively, and the white clover crops had 19% and 29% NDF in DM at the early (EW) and late (LW) harvest, respectively. The silages were fed restrictively (80% of ad libitum intake) twice daily to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (588 ± 52 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Jaw movements (JM) were recorded for 96 h continuously. Swallowed boli, rumen mat, rumen fluid and faeces samples were collected, washed in nylon bags (0.01 mm pore size) and freeze-dried before dry sieving through 4.750, 2.360, 1.000, 0.500, 0.212 and 0.106 mm into seven fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) values of rumen and faeces particles within each fraction were measured by use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg DM intake; P rumen mat (P rumen fluid (P rumen mat and faeces, but only one peak (mode 1) for PL values. There was no difference in the mean and mode 1 PW and PL value in rumen mat between the four treatments. The mean PL, mode PL, mode 2 PW and mean PW in faeces were highest for LR (P rumen mat and faeces particles are most likely related to the leaves and the stems/petioles. In conclusion, the mean total chewing activity per kg DM was lowest for the white clover silage and increased for both silages due to later harvest time. The mean particle size in boli was smallest for LR, whereas the mean PL and PW in faeces were highest for the LR.

  14. Production and chemical composition of grasses and legumes cultivated in pure form, mixed or in consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Cortiana Tambara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the edible biomass and chemical composition of forages grown on pure form, as a grass mix, and in grass-legume consortia. The following species were tested: white oats (Avena sativa, black oats (Avena strigosa, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, white clover (Trifolium repens, and red clover (Trifolium pratense. The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments arranged in a completely randomized design. The parameters measured were total dry matter (PMST, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and crude protein (CP. No significant differences in PMST were found among the consortia (p > 0.05. Only the pure cultivated white clover (p > 0.05 was comparable to the consortia in terms of biomass production. The three legumes had the lowest average NDF values (p > 0.05, based on their contributions to the total NDF content of the consortia along the cuts. The ADF content increased for all treatments during the cuts. The results indicate that in pasture, legumes increase protein content, and forage consortia increase both the pasture production and the grazing period. Their chemical composition is adequate for boosting livestock production in pastures.

  15. DIMENSIONS OF CARCASS AND INTERNAL ORGANS IN YOUNG SHEEP, UNDER CONDITIONS OF GRAZING ON ASSOCIATIONS OF PERENNIAL GRAMINACEOUS AND LEGUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. DRAGOMIR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The temporary pastures’ floristic structure influences directly the growth and development of young sheep during grazing. The associations, beside the graminaceous and perennial legume species (white clover and birdsfoot trefoil, contribute mostly to the increase of carcass dimension and organ weight. The quality of the forage from such a pasture, better balanced in terms of energy and protein, influences all growth and development parameters in young sheep.

  16. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of wildland collections of western and Searls prairie clovers for rangeland revegetation in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai

    2010-01-01

    Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] is a perennial legume that occurs in the northern Great Basin, Snake River Basin, and southern Columbia Plateau, whereas Searls prairie clover [Dalea searlsiae (A. Gray) Barneby], also a perennial legume, occurs in the southern Great Basin and surrounding areas. Understanding the genetic and...

  17. Exogenous Application of GABA Improves PEG-Induced Drought Tolerance Positively Associated with GABA-Shunt, Polyamines, and Proline Metabolism in White Clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Bin; Xie, Huan; Li, Zhou; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Gang; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Lin-Kai; Yan, Yan-Hong; Peng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on drought tolerance in white clover (Trifolium repens), GABA shunt, polyamines (PAs), and proline (Pro) metabolism were examined after plants pretreated with or without GABA (8 mM) and then exposed to water or 15% PEG-induced drought stress in growth chamber. In this study, exogenous application of GABA effectively alleviated drought-induced damage in leaves, as reflected by significantly higher relative water content, lower electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and leaf wilt. Exogenous GABA further promoted drought-induced increases in GABA transaminase and alpha ketone glutarate dehydrogenase activities, but inhibited glutamate decarboxylase activity under both control and drought conditions, resulting in an increase in endogenous glutamate (Glu) and GABA content. Besides, exogenous GABA could well accelerated PAs synthesis and suppressed PAs catabolism, which lead to the extremely enhanced different types of PAs content (free Put and Spd, insoluble bound Spd and Spm, soluble conjugated Spd and Spm, and total Put, Spd and Spm) under drought stress. In addition, exogenous GABA application further activated drought-induced Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and proline dehydrogenase activities, but suppressed drought-facilitated ornithine -δ-amino transferase activities, leading to a higher Pro accumulation and metabolism in GABA-pretreated plants in the middle and last period of drought. The results suggested that increased endogenous GABA by exogenous GABA treatment could improve drought tolerance of white clover associated with a positive regulation in the GABA-shunt, PAs and Pro metabolism.

  18. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. STODDARD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important in world agriculture, providing biologically fixed nitrogen, breaking cereal disease cycles and contributing locally grown food and feed, including forage. Pea and faba bean were grown by early farmers in Finland, with remains dated to 500 BC. Landraces of pea and faba bean were gradually replaced by better adapted, higher quality materials for food use. While grain legumes have been restricted by their long growing seasons to the south of the country, red, white and alsike clovers are native throughout and have long been used in leys for grazing, hay and silage. Breeding programmes released many cultivars of these crops during the 1900s, particularly pea and red clover. A.I. Virtanen earned the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on both nitrogen fixation and silage preservation. Use of crop mixtures may appear modern, but farmers used them already in the early 1800s, when oat was used to support pea, and much effort has been devoted to improving the system and establishing its other benefits. Although international cultivars have been easily accessible since Finland’s 1995 entry into the European Union, the combination of feed quality and appropriate earliness is still needed, as < 1% of arable land is sown to grain legumes and an increase to 9–10% would allow replacement of imported protein feeds. Climate change will alter the stresses on legume crops, and investment in agronomy, physiology and breeding is needed so that farmers can gain from the many advantages of a legume-supported rotation.;

  20. Manganese toxicity in pasture legumes. II. Effects of pH and molybdenum levels in the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, N V; Andrew, C S; Wilson, G L

    1971-06-01

    The effects of pH and Mo levels in the growing media on Mn toxicity were investigated for white clover and five tropical pasture legume species. In solution culture, high Mo supply did not influence Mn toxicity. However, in two species, it caused Mo toxicity. High solution pH intensified Mn toxicity in white clover, probably by way of uptake. The effects of Ca and P on Mn toxicity reported in a previous paper, were not greatly influenced by solution pH. In the soil, Mo application greatly increased dry matter yield of white clover grown on soils high in exchangeable Mn. This effect was more easily attributed to an influence on N metabolism of the legume plant than on Mn toxicity. Measured soil pH was found to have little influence on the level of exchangeable Mn in the soil. However the larger pH changes in small soil pockets, resulting from non-uniform incorporation of chemicals in the soil, might have a more important effect on this fraction of soil Mn. 31 references, 7 tables.

  1. Evalution of the healthiness of winter wheat cultivated in conventional tillage, direct sowing and direct sowing with underplant crop of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Moszczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of the healthiness of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage system and rate of nitrogen fertilization were carried out in 1998-2001. The largest threat to the healthiness of plants was tan spot, which was caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, especially in cropping season 1999/2000. The soil tillage system diversified the intensification of occurence of this pathogen, only in two last years of research. The most infected by P. tritici-i was wheat, which was cultivated in the direct sowing. Application of underplant crop of white clover in the direct sowing contributed to the improvement of the plants healthiness. The highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (120 kg N.ha-1 in the highest degree favoured the damage of wheat by P. tritici-repentis, but only in two first years of research. The second pathogen Blumeria graminis, which caused powdery mildew of cereals, occured in small amount and didn't have any influence on the healthiness of winter wheat.

  2. Effects of species diversity on seasonal variation in herbage yield and nutritive value of seven binary grass-legume mixtures and pure grass under cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Intensively managed sown temperate grasslands are generally of low species diversity, although swards based on grass-legume mixtures may have superior productivity and herbage quality than grass-only swards. We conducted a cutting experiment over two years to test the effect of species composition...... and diversity on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne) was sown alone and with each of four forage legumes: red clover (RC, Trifolium pratense), lucerne (LU, Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (BT......, Lotus corniculatus) and white clover (WC, Trifolium repens); WC was also sown with hybrid ryegrass (HR, Lolium × boucheanum), meadow fescue (MF, Festuca pratensis) and timothy (TI, Phleum pratense). Herbage productivity was lowest in pure PR followed by PR/BT, and highest in PR/RC; this mixture had...

  3. Características morfofisiológicas associadas à tolerância à seca em sete genótipos da coleção nuclear de trevo branco Morphophysiological traits associated with drought tolerance in seven genotypes of the white clover core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bortolini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O trevo branco é uma leguminosa forrageira muito importante para utilização em pastagens temperadas no Rio Grande do Sul. Entretanto, ele é mais sensível ao déficit de água no solo do que as outras leguminosas perenes, apresentando problemas de persistência no verão. Com o objetivo de determinar características morfofisiológicas relacionadas à resposta ao déficit hídrico dessa espécie, foi realizado um experimento em casa-de-vegetação, o qual avaliou o efeito da disponibilidade hídrica (90 e 40% da umidade de capacidade de campo do solo sobre sete acessos pertencentes à Coleção Nuclear de Trevo Branco do Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos (USDA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, totalizando 56 vasos. Foram realizadas duas avaliações, aos 130 e aos 196 dias após a semeadura, ocasião em que foram avaliadas diversas características morfofisiológicas. A análise dos resultados indicou que o déficit hídrico teve um efeito marcante sobre a altura de plantas (EST, área foliar (AF, número de folhas vivas (NFV, comprimento de estolão (CES, produção de massa seca (MSPA, taxa fotossintética (A, condutância (g e eficiência do uso da água (EUA. Nas duas avaliações, em ambas as disponibilidades hídricas, verificaram-se correlações positivas e significativas (PThe white clover is a forage legume very important for use in temperate pastures in Rio Grande do Sul. However it is more sensitive to water deficit in the soil than other perennial legumes, presenting a lack of persistence in the summer. With the objective of determining morphophysiological traits related to the answer to the water deficit of this species, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse, which evaluated the effect of water availability (90 and 40% of the soil moisture field capacity on seven genotypes belonging to the white clover core collection from the United States

  4. Introduction of novel legume crops in Serbia: White lupin (Lupinus albus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewed interest in introducing white lupin in Serbia is its high crude protein content in grain dry matter of nearly 400 g kg-1, which makes it a potential supplement for soybean meal in animal feeding. The only collection of white and other lupins in Serbia is maintained at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, with about 200 accessions of 10 species, containing about 70 accessions of white lupin. The accessions with high tolerance to alkaline soil reaction of about pH=8 in a carbonated chernozem in Novi Sad regularly formed two orders of pods and grains and produced grain yields of more than 5 t ha-1, 45 t ha-1 of green forage and 8 t ha-1 of forage dry matter. The first Serbian white lupin breeding programme carried out at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad has resulted in developing cultivars Vesna and Panorama, registered in 2008. .

  5. PERSISTENCE ASSESSMENT OF RED CLOVER (Trifolium pratense L. IN TÂRGOVISTE PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DUNEA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the most important deficiency of forage stands is the inability to maintain adequate legume participation in mixture, it is the purpose of this paper to examine persistence in red clover in Târgoviste Plain eco-climatic conditions, together with the factors that affect it. Six red clover cultivars (Napoca-Tetra, Dacia Tetra, Vesna – tetraploids; Flora, Roxana, Start – diploids and one white clover diploid cultivar (Karina were used in pure culture and in mixture (50:50 with hybrid ryegrass (Zefir – tetraploid in a randomized block design with three replicates. Ground cover assessment in early spring was a suggestive indicator of the stand persistence to define the stability and sustainability boundaries of a reliable intensive system. In the beginning of the third year of cropping, ground cover was 54.33% for tetraploid cultivars (CV = 43.25%, and 67% for diploid cultivars (CV = 6.83% in pure stands. Same ground cover average of 27% was established both for tetraploid cultivars (CV = 36.47%, and for diploid cultivars (CV = 16.97% in mixtures with hybrid ryegrass.

  6. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of western prairie clover collections from the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai; B. Shaun Bushman; Douglas A. Johnson; John G. Carman

    2010-01-01

    Few North American legumes are available for rangeland revegetation in the semiarid western United States. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata [Douglas ex Hook.] Eaton & J. Wright) is a perennial legume with desirable forage characteristics and is distributed in the northern Great Basin, Snake River Basin, and southern Columbia Plateau. Understanding the...

  7. N transfer in three species grass-clover mixtures with chicory, ribwort plantain or caraway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aimsThere is substantial evidence that legume-derived Nitrogen (N) is transferred to neighboring non-legumes in grassland mixtures. However, there is sparse information about how deep rooted non-legume forage herbs (forbs) influence N transfer in multi-species grasslands. Methodology......Red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) was grown together with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one of three forb species: chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) or caraway (Carum carvi L.) in a field experiment. During the first year after the establishment, red...... clover leaves were labeled with 15N-urea to determine the N transfer from red clover to companion ryegrass and forbs. ResultsOn an annual basis, up to 15 % of red clover N was transferred to the companion ryegrass and forbs, but predominantly to the grass. The forb species did not differ in their ability...

  8. Ameliorating Effects of Biochar Derived from Poultry Manure and White Clover Residues on Soil Nutrient Status and Plant growth Promotion--Greenhouse Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Anwar, Ahsan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Biochar application to agricultural soils is rapidly emerging as a new management strategy for its potential role in carbon sequestration, soil quality improvements, and plant growth promotion. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of biochars derived from white clover residues and poultry manure on soil quality characteristics, growth and N accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in a loam soil under greenhouse conditions. Treatments comprised of: untreated control; mineral N fertilizer (urea N, UN) at the rate of 200, and 100 mg N kg(-1), white clover residues biochar (WCRB), poultry manure biochar (PMB) at 30 Mg ha(-1), and the possible combinations of WCRB+PMB (50:50), UN+WCRB (50:50), UN+PMB (50:50), and UN+WCRB+PMB (50:25:25). The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Results indicated a significant increase in the growth and biomass production of maize and wheat supplemented with biochars alone or mixed with N fertilizer. Biochars treatments showed varying impact on plant growth depended upon the type of the biochar, and in general plant growth under PMB was significantly higher than that recorded under WCRB. The growth characteristics in the combined treatments (half biochar+half N) were either higher or equivalent to that recorded under full fertilizer N treatment (N200). The biochar treatments WCRB, PMB, and WCRB+PMB (50:50) increased maize shoot N by 18, 26 and 21%, respectively compared to the control while wheat shoot N did not show positive response. The N-uptake by maize treated with WCRB, PMB, and WCRB+PMB (50:50) was 54, 116, and 90 mg g(-1) compared to the 33 mg g(-1) in the control while the N-uptake by wheat was 41, 60, and 53 mg g(-1) compared to 24 mg g(-1) in the control. The mixed treatments (half biochar+half N) increased N-uptake by 2.3 folds in maize and 1.7 to 2.5 folds in wheat compared to the N100 showing increasing effect of biochar on N

  9. Leaching of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen from legume-based grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Eriksen, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a considerable loss pathway in grassland soils. We investigated the white clover (Trifolium repens) contribution to N transport and temporal N dynamics under a pure stand of white clover and white clover...

  10. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  11. Sweet clover production and agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, B P

    1980-05-01

    Sweetclover has a notorious reputation for causing "sweetclover disease" when improperly cured. In spite of this, however, sweetclover remains a useful forage legume with valuable agronomic traits. It is drought-resistant and well adapted to Western Canada. Sweetclover is the highest yielding legume forage in this region and is valuable in soil improvement, silage, hay and pasture production and a prized crop for the honey producer. It is the most saline-tolerant of the legumes and is particularly useful on saline "white alkali" soils where cereals and other crops cannot grow. Special precautions are necessary to avoid spoilage and concomitant dicoumarol formation in preserving sweetclover hay and silage. Feeding recommendations are suggested for the safe utilization of spoiled forage. Low coumarin cultivars of sweetclover are completely safe and will not result in sweetclover disease despite spoilage. The breeding program at Saskatoon is expected to produce a new low coumarin (yellow flowered) sweetclover cultivar within the next two years.

  12. Modelling interactions in grass-clover mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassiri Mahallati, M.

    1998-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on a quantitative understanding of the complex interactions in binary mixtures of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under cutting. The first part of the study describes the dynamics of growth, production

  13. Linyphiid spider populations in sustainable wheat‐clover bi‐cropping compared to conventional wheat‐growing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard

    2008-01-01

    Linyphiid web densities in wheat-clover bi-crop systems where winter wheat was grown in an under-storey of white clover were compared with web densities estimated in conventional wheat-growing systems. The web densities in the wheat-clover bi-crop systems were on average between 200 and 250 webs ...

  14. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  15. Biochar application rate affects biological nitrogen fixation in red clover conditional on potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mia, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Oram, N.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.

    2014-01-01

    Increased biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by legumes has been reported following biochar application to soils, but the mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly elucidated. We investigated the effects of different biochar application rates on BNF in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Red

  16. Searls prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae) for rangeland revegetation: Phenotypic and genetic evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai; Shaun Bushman; Douglas A. Johnson; John G. Carman

    2011-01-01

    Few North American legumes are available for use in rangeland revegetation in the western USA, but Searls prairie clover [Dalea searlsiae (A. Gray) Barneby] is one that holds promise. Commercial-scale seed production of this species could address the issues of unreliable seed availability and high seed costs associated with its wildland seed collection. To evaluate its...

  17. Legume carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, S; Erdman, J W

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, the results of research studies have suggested a positive beneficial relationship between a vegetarian-based diet and low incidence of diseases, including coronary heart disease, cancer, obesity, dental caries, and osteoporosis. beta-Carotene has specifically been suggested as a nutrient with antitumorigenic properties. In this regard there is a need to evaluate the carotenoid content of foods. Legumes are one of the staple components of a vegetarian diet. This review specifically surveys the prevalence of carotenoids in food and forage legumes. In addition, the methods available for carotenoid analysis are discussed; factors affecting the determination of carotenoid content during maturation, germination, processing and storage are identified; research areas which have been inadequately explored are identified; and suggestions are made for future lines of investigation.

  18. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Hloucalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety “Amos”, alfalfa (variety “Holyně”, and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Higher levels ( p < 0.05 of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g −1 of dry weight and formononetin (4.315 mg·g −1 of dry weight were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter ( p < 0.05, representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest.

  19. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  20. Phyto-oestrogens in herbage and milk from cows grazing whiteclover, red clover, lucerne or chicory-rich pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C; Nielsen, T S; Purup, S

    2009-01-01

    A grazing experiment was carried out to study the concentration of phyto-oestrogens in herbage for cattle and in milk during two periods (May and June). Forty-eight Danish Holstein cows were divided into four groups with four treatment diets; white clover, red clover, lucerne and chicory-rich pas...

  1. Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.

  2. Breeding for traits supportive of nitrogen fixation in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herridge, David F.

    2001-01-01

    As the potential economic benefits of enhancing dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation of crop, pasture and forage legumes are substantial, the idea that legume breeding could play a role in enhancing N 2 fixation was advanced more than 50 years ago. Various programmes have sought to genetically improve a wide range of species, from pasture legumes such as red clover (Trifolium pratense) to the crop legumes like soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). In some the selection trait was yield, whilst in others it was high plant reliance on N 2 fixation (%Ndfa). A third strategy was to optimise legume nodulation through specific nodulation traits, e.g. mass, duration, promiscuous and selective nodulation. Plant genetic variation was sought from natural populations or created through mutagenesis. Although methods for assessing single plants and populations of plants for yield and %Ndfa varied over the years, it is now clear that measurements based on either 15 N or xylem solute analysis are the most reliable. Methodological issues as well as poor focus plagued many of the earlier programmes, since enhancing N 2 fixation essentially involves adapting legumes to fix more N when growing in N-poor soils. Programmes in which plant genotypes are inoculated with effective rhizobia and screened under conditions of low soil N maximise the symbiotic potential of the legume. (author)

  3. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  4. Intercropping of reed canary grass, phalaris arundinacea l., with legumes can cut costs for n-fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden, Umeaa (Sweden)), e-mail: eva.lindvall@njv.slu.se

    2010-07-15

    In a field experiment close to Oestersund in mid Sweden reed canary grass was intercropped with barley, Alsike clover, Trifolium hybridum L., red clover, T. pratense L., goats rue, Galega orientalis L. or a combination of red clover and goats rue. There were also three fertilization treatments: A: Recommended amounts of N, P and K. B: Recommended amounts of P and K and half amount of N. C: Sewage sludge application before sowing (establishment year) and recommended amounts of P and K and half amount of N. The biomass was lower where reed canary grass had been undersown in barley, and higher with full N-fertilization than with half N-fertilization. However there were no significant differences between legume intercrops with half N-fertilization and pure reed canary grass with full Nfertilization. Alsike clover was the most productive legume, followed by red clover. The amount of nitrogen fixed by the legumes was less with full N-fertilization (29 kg/ha as a mean) than with half N-fertilization (38 kg/ha). Intercropping with legumes could substitute half of the N in fertilization but similar experiments in other parts of Sweden has shown that there is a higher risk of weed problems

  5. The Occurrence, Biosynthesis, and Molecular Structure of Proanthocyanidins and Their Effects on Legume Forage Protein Precipitation, Digestion and Absorption in the Ruminant Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forages grown in temperate regions, such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and white clover (Trefolium repens L., typically have a high nutritional value when fed to ruminants. Their high protein content and degradation rate result, however, in poor utilization of protein from the forage resulting in excessive excretion of nitrogen into the environment by the animal. Proanthocyanindins (also known as condensed tannins found in some forage legumes such as birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., bind to dietary protein and can improve protein utilization in the animal. This review will focus on (1 the occurrence of proanthocyanidins; (2 biosynthesis and structure of proanthocyanidins; (3 effects of proanthocyanidins on protein metabolism; (4 protein precipitating capacity of proanthocyanidins and their effects on true intestinal protein adsorption by ruminants; and (5 effect on animal health, animal performance and environmental emissions.

  6. N2-fixation and residual N effect of four legume species and four companion grass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Søegaard, Karen; Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin

    2012-01-01

    and climatic conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a sandy soil at two nitrogen levels with seven two-species forage mixtures: alfalfa, bird's-foot trefoil, red clover, or white clover in mixture with perennial ryegrass, and white clover in mixture with meadow fescue, timothy, or hybrid ryegrass. We...... found high N2-fixation of more than 300 kg N ha-1 from both red clover and alfalfa even when the two mixtures received 300 kg total-N ha-1 in cattle slurry. The addition of cattle slurry N fertilizer lowered N2-fixation for white clover and red clover as expected, but for bird's-foot trefoil and alfalfa...... no changes in the proportion of N derived from N2-fixation was observed. We conclude that the competition for available soil N from perennial ryegrass in mixture was an important factor for the proportion of N in alfalfa, white clover, and bird's-foot trefoil obtained from N2-fixation. White clover had...

  7. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann; Bergkvist, Göran; Doltra, Jordi; Lopez-Bellido, Rafael J; Monti, Michele; Pappa, Valentini A; Reckling, Moritz; Topp, Cairistiona F E; Walker, Robin L; Rees, Robert M; Watson, Christine A; James, Euan K; Squire, Geoffrey R; Begg, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume-based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32 to 115 kg ha -1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc.) was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years). BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6-0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping systems in this range were dominated by mixtures of legume and non-legume forages to which inorganic N as fertilizer was normally applied. Forage (e.g., grass and clover), as opposed to grain crops in this range maintained high outputs of biomass and N. In conclusion, BNF through grain and forage legumes has the potential to generate major benefit in terms of reducing or dispensing with the need for mineral N without loss of total output.

  8. A comparative nitrogen balance and productivity analysis of legume and non-legume supported cropping systems: the potential role of biological nitrogen fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro P M Iannetta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF to provide sufficient N for production have encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertiliser, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimising the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimise production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new, legume–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g. grains, forages and intercrops across pedoclimatic regions of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32-115 kg ha-1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc. was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years. BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6-0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping systems in this range were dominated by mixtures of legume and non-legume forages to which inorganic N as fertiliser was normally applied. Forage (e.g. grass and clover, as opposed to grain crops in this range maintained high outputs of biomass and N. In conclusion, BNF through grain and forage legumes have the potential to generate major benefit in terms of reducing or dispensing with the need for mineral N without loss of total output.

  9. Honeybees tolerate cyanogenic glucosides from clover nectar and flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Green, Amelia Ann; Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover (Trifolium repens) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry...... indicates that plant secondary metabolites found in nectar may protect pollinators from disease or predators. In a laboratory survival study with chronic feeding of secondary metabolites, we show that honeybees can ingest the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and amygdalin at naturally occurring...

  10. Goat’s rue (Galega orientalis Lam., a potential pasture legume for temperate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Varis

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a perennial legume Galega orientalis Lam. (goat’s rue, is presented. This unselected forage legume originating from regions with a Mediterranean climate, grows well in North-European conditions in Finland. It seems to be very persistent and produces yields that equal or even exceed those of red clover in quantity and quality. The trials on management practices and feeding carried out at the University of Helsinki are reported here. The research will be continued on mass selection for low alcaloid and fiber contents, seed production and use of grass-mixtures for making hay or silage.

  11. Fold distributions at clover, crystal and segment levels for segmented clover detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R; Bhattacharya, P

    2014-01-01

    Fold distributions at clover, crystal and segment levels have been extracted for an array of segmented clover detectors for various gamma energies. A simple analysis of the results based on a model independant approach has been presented. For the first time, the clover fold distribution of an array and associated array addback factor have been extracted. We have calculated the percentages of the number of crystals and segments that fire for a full energy peak event

  12. Nitrogen fertilization of grass/clover swards under cutting or grazing by dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    farms over a period of three years. Nitrogen was applied at four rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg N year-1) with cutting or grazing regime in Year 1 and Year 2, after establishment. A spring-only application of 150 kg N was compared with four applications during the season, which was the fertilization...... affected. The results indicate different possibilities for strategic fertilization both at farm and field level, and in swards with a high clover content it demonstrates how the clover content can be used as a buffer both for maximizing the N-response and for manipulating the production profile.......Intensively managed perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) swards receive relatively high levels of fertilizer N, and high N surpluses can subsequently be found. The N-fertilization effects on growth, yield, and herbage quality were therefore examined on three...

  13. Measurements on a prototype segmented Clover detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, S L; Cullen, D M; Appelbe, D E; Simpson, J; Gerl, J; Kaspar, M; Kleinböhl, A; Peter, I; Rejmund, M; Schaffner, H; Schlegel, C; France, G D

    1999-01-01

    The performance of a segmented Clover germanium detector has been measured. The segmented Clover detector is a composite germanium detector, consisting of four individual germanium crystals in the configuration of a four-leaf Clover, housed in a single cryostat. Each crystal is electrically segmented on its outer surface into four quadrants, with separate energy read-outs from nine crystal zones. Signals are also taken from the inner contact of each crystal. This effectively produces a detector with 16 active elements. One of the purposes of this segmentation is to improve the overall spectral resolution when detecting gamma radiation emitted following a nuclear reaction, by minimising Doppler broadening caused by the opening angle subtended by each detector element. Results of the tests with sources and in beam will be presented. The improved granularity of the detector also leads to an improved isolated hit probability compared with an unsegmented Clover detector. (author)

  14. Efeito de diferentes sistemas de pastejo sobre o desempenho de suínos mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. Effect of different grazing systems on the performance of pigs, in growing and finishing phases, kept on white clover (Trifolium repens L. pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denyse Maria Galvão Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo sobre as características de desempenho de suínos (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e espessura de toucinho nas fases de crescimento e terminação mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.. Foram realizadas também avaliações da disponibilidade e composição química da pastagem. Trinta e seis suínos machos foram distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos e três repetições, e doze foram mantidos em sistema de confinamento. Não foi observada influência significativa dos sistemas de pastejo sobre as características de desempenho dos animais e a disponibilidade de forragem. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na composição química da pastagem entre os sistemas de pastejo estudados. Os suínos em sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo consumiram de 13,41 a 15,92% a menos de ração e apresentaram menores ganhos de peso e espessura de toucinho que aqueles criados em confinamento. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar entre os suínos mantidos em confinamento e em pastagem.This trial was carried out to determine the effect of continuous, alternated or rotational grazing systems on the performance of pigs (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness, in the growing and finishing phases, as well as the forage availability and chemical composition of a white clover pasture (Trifolium repens L.. Thirty-six castrated pigs were allotted to a randomized complete-block experimental design with three treatments and three replications. Twelve feedlot pigs were kept on a rearing system. No significant differences were found between grazing systems on parameters of animal performance and forage on offer. However, significant differences were observed on the pasture chemical composition

  15. Biologically fixed N2 as a source for N2O production in a grass–clover mixture, measured by 15N2 (erratum i vol. 74 p. 203)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of biologically fixed dinitrogen (N-2) to the nitrous oxide (N2O) production in grasslands is unknown. To assess the contribution of recently fixed N-2 as a source of N2O and the transfer of fixed N from clover to companion grass, mixtures of white clover and perennial ryegrass...

  16. Forage production in mixed grazing systems of elephant grass with arrowleaf clover or forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristine Seibt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Most dairy production systems are pasture-based, usually consisting of sole grass species. This system facilitates pasture management, but results in high production costs, mainly because of nitrogen fertilizers. An alternative to making forage systems more sustainable is to introduce legumes into the pasture. Mixed pastures allow better forage distribution over time and reduce fertilization costs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate, throughout the year, three forage systems (FS: FS1 (control - elephant grass (EG, ryegrass (RG, and spontaneous species (SS; FS2 - EG + RG + SS + arrowleaf clover; and FS3 - EG + RG + SS + forage peanut. Elephant grass was planted in rows spaced 4 m apart. Ryegrass was sown between the EG lines, in the winter. Arrowleaf clover was sown according to the respective treatments and forage peanut was preserved. Evaluation was carried out using Holstein cows. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with three treatments (FS, and three repetitions (paddocks with repeated measurements (grazing cycles. Forage mass achieved 3.46, 3.80, and 3.91 t ha-1 for the treatments FS1, FS2 and FS3, respectively. The forage systems intercropped with legumes produced the best results.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grljušić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the forage species involved in program and comparison of conventional and molecular marker efficiency in variability evaluation. RAPDs were used (i to estimate availability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago falcata L. genetic variation and (ii to identify changes of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. variability after natural selection. SSRs were applied to evaluate diversity within and among field pea (Pisum sativum L. var. arvense and sativum groups/varieties. A total of 90 (alfalfa or 92 (red clover polymorphic bands was found by RAPDs. Total number of SSR alleles recorded was 118. The average Roger's distance per species/genus estimated was 0.29 (red clover, 0.33 (alfalfa and 0.51 (field pea. 2D PCo analysis of each species/genus separated materials into respective groups. A high degree of genetic variation within populations/varieties of each investigated species was found by AMOVA. The correspondence between pairs of matrices based on the morphological and molecular data was significant (p=0.95 only for red clover. RAPD and SSR data have given valuable information on genetic structure of materials and provided a description that determines heterogeneity. Further studies will be focused on identifying quantitative trait loci and marker assisted selection.

  18. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( forage legumes in the silage favored the accumulation of 18:3 -3 ( Forage legumes decreased the -11 18:1 to 30% of T in rumen digesta ( Forage legumes decreased the total concentration of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen digesta (on average, -28%; comparison with T. The dietary treatment tended to affect the proportion of MUFA ( = 0.081) and of PUFA ( = 0.079) in the i.m. fat of the LM, respectively, at the highest and lowest numerical value in the T group. The sum of -3 fatty acids was less in the T and T-SF groups compared with the mixture of legumes without T (SF-RC; comparison with lambs given T-RC, T-SF-RC, and SF-RC. Rumenic acid (-9 -11 CLA) was detected at a greater percentage in the LM from the animals fed the T silage compared with animals fed the T-SF-RC treatment ( = 0.004). Contrarily, -9 -12 -15 18:3 was found at a greater concentration in the muscle from lambs in the SF-RC treatment compared with lambs in the other treatments ( forage for growing lambs in terms of i.m. fatty acid composition.

  19. Modeling of clover detector in addback mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, R.

    2012-07-01

    Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for modeling the clover germanium detector in addback mode and to predict its response for high energy γ-rays. In the present formalism, the operation of a bare clover detector could be described in terms of three quantities only. Considering an additional parameter, the formalism could be extended for suppressed clover. Using experimental data on relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as input, the peak-to-total ratio has been calculated for three energies (Eγ = 3.401, 5.324 and 10.430 MeV) where direct measurement of peak-to-total ratio is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. The experimental validation and consistency of the formalism have been shown considering data for TIGRESS clover detector. In a recent work (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008), we showed that for a given γ-ray energy, the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of number of detector modules. In the present paper, we have shown that for a given composite detector (clover detector is considered here), the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of γ-ray energy.

  20. A first principle approach for clover detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, R.

    2012-08-01

    A simple model based on probability flow arguments has been presented for understanding the clover germanium detector. Using basic concepts of absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, the operation of the clover detector has been described in terms of six probability amplitudes and a parameter. Instead of using an empirical method or simulation, this work presents the first attempt to calculate the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the clover detector using experimental data of relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as an input. A unique feature of our approach is that these ratios could be calculated for energies where their direct measurement is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. Results for four gamma-ray energies (Eγ = 1.408, 3.907, 7.029 and 10.430 MeV) have been discussed. Agreement between experimental data and analysis results has been observed. The present approach could describe clover-type detectors as well. As an example, the nine element detector has been considered. We have demonstrated that our formalism can describe both finite and infinite interactions of γ-rays with the clover crystals. The work presented in this paper follows similar philosophy as presented in a recent paper (R. Kshetri, JInst 2012 7 P04008), which deals with modeling of encapsulated type composite detectors like miniball, cluster and SPI (Spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite).

  1. Modeling of clover detector in addback mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for modeling the clover germanium detector in addback mode and to predict its response for high energy γ-rays. In the present formalism, the operation of a bare clover detector could be described in terms of three quantities only. Considering an additional parameter, the formalism could be extended for suppressed clover. Using experimental data on relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as input, the peak-to-total ratio has been calculated for three energies (E γ = 3.401, 5.324 and 10.430 MeV) where direct measurement of peak-to-total ratio is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. The experimental validation and consistency of the formalism have been shown considering data for TIGRESS clover detector. In a recent work (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008), we showed that for a given γ-ray energy, the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of number of detector modules. In the present paper, we have shown that for a given composite detector (clover detector is considered here), the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of γ-ray energy.

  2. A first principle approach for clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A simple model based on probability flow arguments has been presented for understanding the clover germanium detector. Using basic concepts of absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, the operation of the clover detector has been described in terms of six probability amplitudes and a parameter. Instead of using an empirical method or simulation, this work presents the first attempt to calculate the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the clover detector using experimental data of relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as an input. A unique feature of our approach is that these ratios could be calculated for energies where their direct measurement is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. Results for four gamma-ray energies (E γ = 1.408, 3.907, 7.029 and 10.430 MeV) have been discussed. Agreement between experimental data and analysis results has been observed. The present approach could describe clover-type detectors as well. As an example, the nine element detector has been considered. We have demonstrated that our formalism can describe both finite and infinite interactions of γ-rays with the clover crystals. The work presented in this paper follows similar philosophy as presented in a recent paper (R. Kshetri, JInst 2012 7 P04008), which deals with modeling of encapsulated type composite detectors like miniball, cluster and SPI (Spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite).

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from clover in the Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iride Volpi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducing nitrogen N2-fixing crops into cereal-based crop rotations reduces N-fertiliser use and may mitigate soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O. However, the effect of the cultivation of N2-fixing crops on N2O emissions is still not well understood. N2O from N2-fixing crops can be emitted in two ways: during biological N2 fixation itself and when legume residues are returned to the soil. A field trial was carried out on clover (Trifolium squarrosum Savi to test the role of leguminous crops on N2O emissions in the Mediterranean environment. Monitoring was performed from December 2013 to September 2014. Cumulated N-N2O fluxes were calculated for the growing season (Phase 1 and the post-harvest period (Phase 2 in order to assess the importance of each phase. Our results did not show statistically significant differences between the two phases in term of contribution to the total cumulative N-N2O emissions, in fact Phase 1 and Phase 2 accounted respectively for 43 and 57% of the total.

  4. Optimizing legume cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlman, Tom; Helming, John; Linderhof, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The cultivation of legumes is low in Europe. Public policy incentives and/or regulations have a role to play in changing this. This chapter examines six such policies. The CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact) model, a partial equilibrium model for the agricultural sector, is used to

  5. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  6. Crystal Structure of Green Fluorescent Protein Clover and Design of Clover-Based Redox Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Benjamin C; Petsko, Gregory A; Liu, Ce Feng

    2018-02-06

    We have determined the crystal structure of Clover, one of the brightest fluorescent proteins, and found that its T203H/S65G mutations relative to wild-type GFP lock the critical E222 side chain in a fixed configuration that mimics the major conformer of that in EGFP. The resulting equilibrium shift to the predominantly deprotonated chromophore increases the extinction coefficient (EC), opposes photoactivation, and is responsible for the bathochromic shift. Clover's brightness can further be attributed to a π-π stacking interaction between H203 and the chromophore. Consistent with these observations, the Clover G65S mutant reversed the equilibrium shift, dramatically decreased the EC, and made Clover photoactivatable under conditions that activated photoactivatable GFP. Using the Clover structure, we rationally engineered a non-photoactivatable redox sensor, roClover1, and determined its structure as well as that of its parental template, roClover0.1. These high-resolution structures provide deeper insights into structure-function relationships in GFPs and may aid the development of excitation-improved ratiometric biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rendimento de milho em área de integração lavoura-pecuária sob o sistema plantio direto, em presença e ausência de trevo branco, pastejo e nitrogênio Corn yield on no tillage crop-pasture rotation in presence and absence of white clover, grazing and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Assmann

    2003-08-01

    system, in presence and absence of white clover and grazing animals. The experimental layout was a completely randomized block design with three replications. The treatments were arranged in split-plots. Four N rates (N-TI = 0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of N were previously applied on the main plots during the winter season, while the treatments of the sub-plots consisted in combinations of presence and absence of white clover and grazing (CT = with clover; ST = without clover; CP = with grazing, and SP = without grazing. During the summer each sub-plot that had been prepared during the winter was cultivated with corn which received five N rates (N-TV = 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 kg ha-1 of N top dressed. The maximum re-growth efficiency of winter culture plants occurred eighteen days after the animals had been removed from the plots, obtained with 231 kg ha-1 of N (N-TI. The areas CP/N-TI presented higher corn yields than the SP plots, although these differences were not statistically significant. The areas without N-TI produced most in the SP subplots. On plots that had received 300 kg ha-1 of N N-TI there was no response of corn to the N-TV, confirming the residual effect of N-TI. The conclusion was drawn that the interaction between grazing and N-TI contributes to nitrogen nutrition in maize.

  8. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  10. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  11. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  12. Application of various technological processes in red clover seed processing

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Marković, Jordan; Radivojević, Gordana; Anđelković, Bojan; Barać, Saša

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the processing of natural red clover seed on the processing equipment using different technological methods. Red clover seed, for the establishment and crop utilization, must be of high purity, germination, and high genetic values. These requirements are achieved by processing, or removing impurities and poor quality seeds. Red clover seed processing involves a number of operations, of which the most important are: cleaning, packaging, labeling and storage. ...

  13. Food legume production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  14. Determination of Mineral Contents of Some Legume and Cereal Forages Grown as Naturally in Pastures of Erzurum Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra GÜRSOY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the mineral substances such as macro and micro minerals of legume and cereal forages grown as naturally in the pastures of Erzurum province. In present study, clover, (Medicago sativa, mountain hispanic sainfoin (Hedysarum elegans, bird vetch (Vicia cracca, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, mountain vetch (Vicia alpestris, mountain clover (Trifolium montanum, caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum, the three-headed clover (Trifolium trichocephalum, tawny grass crown (Coronilla varia, the crown of the eastern horn of grass (Coronilla orientatis and yellow flowers gazelle (Lotus corniculatus from legume forages; cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, red fescue (Festuca rubra, sheep ball (Festuca ovina, tawny bromine (Bromus variegatus, blue split (Agropyron intermedium, kelp tail grass (Phleum pratense, meadow bluegrass (Poa pratensis from cereal forages were investigated. The obtained data were subjected to an analysis of variance by using SPSS 12.0 package program. Significant differences between means were tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Macro minerals such as Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg and Sulfur (S assigned for legume forages changed between 2.39- 3.30%, 1.16-1.28%, 0.70-2.69%, 0.56-1.61%, 0.11-0.51% and 0.16-0.27%, respectively. The amounts of micro mineral like Iron (Fe, Virgin (Cu, Zinc (Zn, Manganese (Mn and Boron (B of legume forages were determined to be 105.9-893.7 ppm, 2.22-12.36 ppm, 14.11-195 ppm, 18.18-66.58 ppm and 5.91-40.39 ppm, respectively. Instances of macro minerals of cereal forages were found for N 1.76-of 2.19%, P 1.10-1.19%, K 1.99-3.25%, Ca 0.09-1.15%, Mg 0.07-0.26% and S 0.22-0.36% in present study. Micro minerals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B determined for cereal forages changed between 74.90-630.6 ppm, 4-9.84 ppm, 31.49-335.6 ppm, 24.63-94.51 ppm and 0.35-26.64 ppm, respectively. In conclusion

  15. Climate Clever Clovers: New Paradigm to Reduce the Environmental Footprint of Ruminants by Breeding Low Methanogenic Forages Utilizing Haplotype Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwinder Kaur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitigating methane production by ruminants is a significant challenge to global livestock production. This research offers a new paradigm to reduce methane emissions from ruminants by breeding climate-clever clovers. We demonstrate wide genetic diversity for the trait methanogenic potential in Australia’s key pasture legume, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.. In a bi-parental population the broadsense heritability in methanogenic potential was moderate (H2 = 0.4 and allelic variation in a region of Chr 8 accounted for 7.8% of phenotypic variation. In a genome-wide association study we identified four loci controlling methanogenic potential assessed by an in vitro fermentation system. Significantly, the discovery of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on Chr 5 in a defined haplotype block with an upstream putative candidate gene from a plant peroxidase-like superfamily (TSub_g18548 and a downstream lectin receptor protein kinase (TSub_g18549 provides valuable candidates for an assay for this complex trait. In this way haplotype variation can be tracked to breed pastures with reduced methanogenic potential. Of the quantitative trait loci candidates, the DNA-damage-repair/toleration DRT100-like protein (TSub_g26967, linked to avoid the severity of DNA damage induced by secondary metabolites, is considered central to enteric methane production, as are disease resistance (TSub_g26971, TSub_g26972, and TSub_g18549 and ribonuclease proteins (TSub_g26974, TSub_g26975. These proteins are good pointers to elucidate the genetic basis of in vitro microbial fermentability and enteric methanogenic potential in subterranean clover. The genes identified allow the design of a suite of markers for marker-assisted selection to reduce rumen methane emission in selected pasture legumes. We demonstrate the feasibility of a plant breeding approach without compromising animal productivity to mitigate enteric methane emissions, which is one of the most

  16. forage systems mixed with forage legumes grazed by lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluates productivity, stocking and nutritional rates of three forage systems with Elephant Grass (EG + Italian Ryegrass (IR + Spontaneous Growth Species (SGS, without forage legumes; EG + IR + SGS + Forage Peanut (FP, mixed with FP; and EG + IR + SGS + Red Clover (RC, mixed with RC, in rotational grazing method by lactating cows. IR developed between rows of EG. FP was maintained, whilst RC was sow to respective forage systems. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and two replication, subdivided into parcels over time. Mean rate for forage yield and average stocking rate were 10.6, 11.6 and 14.4 t ha-1; 3.0, 2.8 and 3.1 animal unit ha-1 day-1, for the respective systems. Levels of crude protein and total digestible nutrients were 17.8, 18.7 and 17.5%; 66.5, 66.8 and 64.8%, for the respective forage systems. The presence of RC results in better and higher forage yield in the mixture, whilst FP results in greater control of SGS. The inclusion of forage legumes in pasture systems provides better nutritional rates.

  17. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  18. Yield and nutritive quality of forage legumes on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditsch, D.C.; Collins, M.

    1998-01-01

    Legumes are important in the long-term nitrogen economy of surface mined lands and for establishing and maintaining quality livestock forage. Little information is available to reclamation specialists for use in selection of forage legume species based on productivity potential, persistence and nutritive quality for livestock. A study was initiated at two sites in the Appalachian coal fields of Kentucky to evaluate monocultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) under management regimes suitable for livestock production. Legumes were harvested at the early bloom stage throughout the growing season for dry matter (DM) yield determination. Forage quality was determined by measuring crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). High DM yields were produced by all species during the first production season (range 6.2-9.2 Mg ha -1 ) but yields of all species declined rapidly by year three. Birdsfoot trefoil demonstrated slightly greater drought tolerance during mid-season (July/August) than alfalfa and red clover. With the exception of site number-sign 1 in 1992 (4 harvests), no more than 3 harvests were made during a single growing season. Crude protein concentration of these forage legumes was found to be within the range commonly measured on undisturbed lands. However, high NDF and ADF values were observed above those reported by others for the same species. These results indicate that it may be difficult to maintain a high level of productivity throughout the five-year bonding period under hay management. Management practices such as summer stockpiling may be necessary to compensate for the rapid and wide fluctuations in DM yield and quality due to low water-holding capacity of mine spoils. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  19. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  20. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  1. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and

  2. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  3. Produção de cordeiros em pastagem de azevém e trevo-branco sob diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem Lamb production in a mixture of italian ryegrass and white clover under different forage mass levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Weber do Canto

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Na presente pesquisa, objetivou-se analisar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem na produção de cordeiros. O experimento foi estabelecido em Tupanciretã, região do Planalto Médio do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em uma pastagem de azevém cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam + trevo-branco cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L., submetida a diferentes níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, estudando-se os níveis de RMS mantidos na pastagem de 1.119, 1.320, 1.477, 1.695, 2.146, 2.166, 2.410 e 2.483 kg de matéria seca por hectare (MS/ha. O período experimental foi de 30/09 a 08/12/1992 e os animais utilizados foram cordeiros cruza Ile de France x Corriedale desmamados aos 80 dias. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo/ha (GPV/ha, carga animal, animais dia/ha e a eficiência de conversão de MS em kg de peso vivo de cordeiros. Os resultados obtidos mostraram uma relação linear positiva entre o GMD e GPV/ha com o aumento nos níveis de RMS/ha, observando-se nos níveis de RMS superiores a 2.400 kg um GMD de 0,12 kg/cordeiro/dia e um GPV/ha médio de 497 kg. Não houve relação quanto à carga animal e animais.dia/ha; verificou-se uma relação linear negativa entre a eficiência de conversão de MS com os níveis de RMS estudados. Os resultados demonstram o efeito dos níveis de RMS na resposta animal.The objective of this research was to analyse the effects of different forage mass levels on lamb production. The experiment was conducted in Tupanciretã, Planalto Médio region at the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in a mixture of italian ryegrass cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam. + white clover cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L., under different forage mass (FM levels. The experimental design used was completely randommized, and the FM levels studied were: 1,119, 1,320, 1,477, 1,695, 2,146, 2,166, 2,410 and 2

  4. 7606 IMPROVEMENT OF DIABETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA BY LEGUMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotimi

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... Grain legumes are a valuable source of food proteins; hence, their exploitation is ... Diabetes is an endocrine-metabolic disease characterised by hyperglycemia associated ... The high level of dietary fibre in legumes has long.

  5. Soil properties and clover establishment six years after surface application of calcium-rich by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchey, K.D.; Belesky, D.P.; Halvorson, J.J. [USDA ARS, Beaver, WV (US). Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center

    2004-12-01

    Calcium-rich soil amendments can improve plant growth by supplying Ca and reducing detrimental effects of soil acidity, but solubility and neutralizing capacity of Ca sources vary. Our objectives were to evaluate effects of calcitic dolomite and several coal combustion by-products on soil properties at various depths 6 yr after surface application and their influence on grass-clover herbage accumulation. Calcium and Mg soil amendments were surface-applied to an acidic grassland in 1993, and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbyshire) were oversown in 1994. In 1998, amendment treatment plots were split to accommodate sod seeding with red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or white clover (T. repens L.) as well as a nonseeded control. No N fertilizer was applied after sod seeding. Six years after amendment application, reductions in soil Al and Mn and increases in Ca and pH from 4654 kg ha{sup -1} calcitic dolomite, 15 000 kg ha{sup -1} fluidized bed combustion residue, or 526 kg ha{sup -1} MgO amendment were greatest in the surface 2.5 cm while rates of gypsum as high as 32 000 kg ha{sup -1} left little residual effect except for decreases in Mg. Percentage clover in the sward tripled as pH increased from 4.3 to 5.0 while herbage mass increased 75% as clover percentage increased. Herbage mass was generally more closely correlated with properties of soil samples collected from the surface 2.5 cm than from deeper samples.

  6. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  7. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  8. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  9. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  10. Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems, two replicates (paddocks in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles. Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD. Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.

  11. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  12. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  13. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of legume based swards are affected by light intensity in a Mediterranean agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Giovanni Antonio; Piluzza, Giovanna; Sanna, Federico; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Sulas, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    In Mediterranean grazed woodlands, microclimate changes induced by trees influence the growth and development of the understory, but very little is known about its polyphenolic composition in relation to light intensity. We investigated the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of different legume-based swards and variations due to full sunlight and partial shade. The research was carried out in a cork oak agrosilvopastoral system in Sardinia. The highest values of DPPH reached 7 mmol TEAC 100 g -1 DW, total phenolics 67.1 g GAE kg -1 DW and total flavonoids 7.5 g CE kg -1 DW. Compared to full sunlight, partial shade reduced DPPH values by 29 and 42%, and the total phenolic content by 23 and 53% in 100% legume mixture and semi natural pasture. Twelve phenolic compounds were detected: chlorogenic acid in 80% legume mixture (partial shade) and verbascoside in pure sward of bladder clover (full sunlight) were the most abundant. Light intensity significantly affected antioxidant capacity, composition and levels of phenolic compounds. Our results provide new insights into the effects of light intensity on plant secondary metabolites from legume based swards, underlining the important functions provided by agroforestry systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement of Forage Quantity and Quality in Corn-Legumes Intercropping with Nitroxin Biofertilizer Application in Double Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Javanmard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Forage quantity and quality in simultaneous cropping of maize with vetch (Vicia villosa, grass pea (Lathyrus sativus, sainfoin (Onobrychis vicifolia, berseem clover (Trifolium alexanderinum L., studied by experiment as randomized complete block design (RCBD with 14 treatments and three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh during 2015. The treatments were monocultures of maize (SC 704, Vetch, Grass pea, Sainfoin, Berseem clover and intercropping maize with each legume in inoculated and non-inoculated with nitroxin biofertilizer. The results showed that the highest and lowest forage yield were obtained in maize (inoculation+ vetch intercropping and sainfoin monoculture, respectively. Also, the highest (277.5 g.kgDM-1 and the lowest (60.60 g.kgDM-1 crude protein were achieved in vetch and maize monoculture (without inoculation, respectively. In addition to, the highest acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF values were obtained in monoculture of maize (no -inoculation. The lowest ADF and NDF values were obtained in vetch monoculture and intercropping of maize (inoculation + vetch. The highest values of DMI, DDM, RFV, NEL and TDN was observed in vetch monocultures. Also, between intercropping patterns, the highest values of these indices were obtained in intercropping of maize (inoculation + vetch. Generally, the results of this study exhibited that the effects of vetch on the quality and quantity of forages was higher than other legumes in intercropping patterns.

  15. Nutritional value and acceptability of irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.A.; Rao, V.S.; Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Disinfestation of prepacked cereal products, legumes and pulses by low dose gamma irradiation is well documented. This study showed that irradiation of prepacked green gram (Mung), Bengal gram (Chick pea or Chole) and horse bean (Val) at 0.25 and 0.75 kGy dose did not alter the contents of macronutrients, functional qualities and sensory attributes of these legumes, compared to non-irradiated legumes. (author)

  16. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  17. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  18. Potential for yield in red clover (Trifolium pratense L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Red clover (Trifolium pratense L. is botanically a perennial, although it often behaves as a biennial. The crop usually lives 2 to 3 seasons in most clover-growing regions of the world and is generally conceded to be lacking in persistence. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the production potential and persistence of domestic and imported red clover varieties. Experiments were conducted at Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field during the period 2004-2006. The experimental materials were six varieties (K-17, Kolubara, Una, Viola, Start, Nike which were analyzed for the most important production characteristics: yield of green mass, dry matter yield and persistence. .

  19. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

  20. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirker, H.J. [Peace Country Agricultural Protection Association, AB (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta`s Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

  1. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  2. Estimating the content of clover and grass in the sward using a consumer camera and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Karstoft, Henrik; Søegaard, Karen

    the dry matter ratio of clover and grass in clover grass fields from sparse close up images. First, the light conditions is determined, which is used for selecting model parameters to estimate the coverage of both clover and grass. Next, the clover and grass coverage are transformed to give the dry matter...

  3. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover using a large insert BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover, a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3. Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate

  4. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  5. [Agricultural and nutritional importance of legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, J J

    1996-12-01

    The main ecophysiologic, agronomic and economic feature of legume plants is the development of tubercles and nodules in their apical system. Nodule formation occurs in most legume species provided a compatible type of Rhizobium bacteria is present in the soil. Nitrogen fixation in nodules renders these plants independent of nitrogen fertilizers, the most expensive of all goods in modern cereal agriculture. Considering that soils may get enriched in nitrogen through fixation in nodules and the decomposition of foliage when the aerial parts of legume plants are used as green fertilizers, only through the inclusion of legume crops within planned harvest schemes, it would be possible to achieve success in large scale production strategies. Legume crops are extensively produced in temperate climates areas in which, in addition to their use in animal nutrition, yields of 18 kg per person per year are obtained. In contrast, in the Third World countries located in tropical areas, legume production is scarce, with annual yields of 9 kg per person per year. Currently, it is proposed that the energy and protein intake should match that of the developed countries 40 years ago (i.e. 3000 Kcal and 70 g protein per day); for this, it would be necessary to have an average availability of 60 g of legume seeds per person per day. Therefore, the production of legume seeds should be increased. In addition, research aimed to study and exploit the agronomic potential of this rich botanical family should be strengthened through the formation of interdisciplinary groups.

  6. Association of phytoplasmas and viruses with malformed clovers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Paltrinieri, S.; Botti, S.; Šimková, Marie; Bertaccini, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2004), s. 617-624 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5051014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : mycoplasma-like organismus * viruses * clovers * classification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  7. Salt tolerance in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) seedlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salt stress on germination of 28 red clover. (Trifolium pratense ... tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants (Zhu,. 2001) or soil .... The interaction of salinity and population in terms of PI ... in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated ...

  8. Genetic variations between two ecotypes of Egyptian clover by inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Four Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L) cultivars representing two ecotypes were used in the present study. Fahl cultivar is prevalent in whole Egypt and is good for single cut as it has poor regeneration ability, whereas Serw1, Giza6 and Gemmiza1 give 5-6 cuts of good fodder. Techniques based ...

  9. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N 2 -fixing legume shrubs and non-N 2 -fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N 2 -fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N 2 -fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N 2 -fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N 2 -fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N 2 -fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N 2 -fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N 2 -fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N 2 -fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N 2 -fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care

  10. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  11. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza Lespedeza striata (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by 'Bragg' soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl > DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  13. Biological Nitrogen Fixation on Legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armiadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the major limiting factors for crop growth and is required in adequate amount, due to its function as protein and enzyme components. In general, plants need sufficient nitrogen supply at all levels of growth, especially at the beginning of growth phase. Therefore, the availability of less expensive N resources would reduce the production cost. The increasing use of chemical fertilizer would probably disturb soil microorganisms, reduce the physical and chemical characteristics of soil because not all of N based fertilizer applied can be absorbed by the plants. Approximately only 50% can be used by crops, while the rest will be altered by microorganism into unavailable N for crops or else dissappear in the form of gas. Leguminous crops have the capacity to immobilize N2 and convert into the available N if innoculated with Rhizobium. The amount of N2 fixed varies depending on legume species and their environment.

  14. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR is required for interaction with clover, biofilm formation and adaptation to the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piersiak Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodules on roots of host plants Trifolium spp. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are crucial for establishment of a successful symbiosis with legumes that form indeterminate-type nodules, such as Trifolium, Pisum, Vicia, and Medicago spp. and aid the bacterium in withstanding osmotic and other environmental stresses. Recently, the R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii RosR regulatory protein which controls exopolysaccharide production has been identified and characterized. Results In this work, we extend our earlier studies to the characterization of rosR mutants which exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes. The mutants produce three times less exopolysaccharide than the wild type, and the low-molecular-weight fraction in that polymer is greatly reduced. Mutation in rosR also results in quantitative alterations in the polysaccharide constituent of lipopolysaccharide. The rosR mutants are more sensitive to surface-active detergents, antibiotics of the beta-lactam group and some osmolytes, indicating changes in the bacterial membranes. In addition, the rosR mutants exhibit significant decrease in motility and form a biofilm on plastic surfaces, which differs significantly in depth, architecture, and bacterial viability from that of the wild type. The most striking effect of rosR mutation is the considerably decreased attachment and colonization of root hairs, indicating that the mutation affects the first stage of the invasion process. Infection threads initiate at a drastically reduced rate and frequently abort before they reach the base of root hairs. Although these mutants form nodules on clover, they are unable to fix nitrogen and are outcompeted by the wild type in mixed inoculations, demonstrating that functional rosR is important for competitive nodulation. Conclusions This report demonstrates the significant role RosR regulatory protein plays in

  15. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of ...

  16. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Cleary, Alan M; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E; Weeks, Nathan T; Wilkey, Andrew P; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-01-04

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Kinetics and optimization of red clover pulp drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the drying process conducted with bagasse red clover on an experimental dry¬er superheated steam at atmospheric pressure in the active hydrodynamic regimes were study¬ing. The rational intervals of parameter changes were obtained. The problem of optimization, which allowed allocating the optimum range of variation of the input factors according to three criteria through compromise was solved.

  18. Rumen microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen efficiency as affected by tanniferous and non-tanniferous forage legumes incubated individually or together in Rumen Simulation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, Anja; Bee, Giuseppe; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Zeitz, Johanna O

    2018-03-01

    A limited availability of microbial protein can impair productivity in ruminants. Ruminal nitrogen efficiency might be optimised by combining high-quality forage legumes such as red clover (RC), which has unfavourably high ruminal protein degradability, with tanniferous legumes like sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT). Silages from SF and from BT cultivars [Bull (BB) and Polom (BP)] were incubated singly or in combination with RC using the Rumen Simulation Technique (n = 6). The tanniferous legumes, when compared to RC, changed the total short-chain fatty acid profile by increasing propionate proportions at the expense of butyrate. Silage from SF contained the most condensed tannins (CTs) (136 g CT kg -1 dry matter) and clearly differed in various traits from the BT and RC silages. The apparent nutrient degradability (small with SF), microbial protein synthesis, and calculated content of potentially utilisable crude protein (large with SF) indicated that SF had the greatest efficiency in ruminal protein synthesis. The effects of combining SF with RC were mostly linear. The potential of sainfoin to improve protein supply, demonstrated either individually or in combination with a high-performance forage legume, indicates its potential usefulness in complementing protein-deficient ruminant diets and high-quality forages rich in rumen-degradable protein. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  20. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass...... to fulfill the aim [1]http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm...

  1. Genetic control of flowering time in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Weller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering, and in particular the degree to which it is responsive to the environment, is a key factor in the adaptation of a given species to various eco-geographic locations and agricultural practices. Flowering time variation has been documented in many crop legumes, and selection for specific variants has permitted significant expansion and improvement in cultivation, from prehistoric times to the present day. Recent advances in legume genomics have accelerated the process of gene identification and functional analysis, and opened up new prospects for a molecular understanding of flowering time adaptation in this important crop group. Within the legumes, two species have been prominent in flowering time studies; the vernalization-responsive long-day species pea (Pisum sativum and the warm-season short-day plant soybean (Glycine max. Analysis of flowering in these species is now being complemented by reverse genetics capabilities in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, and the emergence of genome-scale resources in a range of other legumes. This review will outline the insights gained from detailed forward genetic analysis of flowering time in pea and soybean, highlighting the importance of light perception, the circadian clock and the FT family of flowering integrators. It discusses the current state of knowledge on genetic mechanisms for photoperiod and vernalization response, and concludes with a broader discussion of flowering time adaptation across legumes generally.

  2. Non-perturbative improvement of stout-smeared three flavour clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2009-01-15

    We discuss a 3-flavour lattice QCD action with clover improvement in which the fermion matrix has single level stout smearing for the hopping terms together with unsmeared links for the clover term. With the (tree-level) Symanzik improved gluon action this constitutes the Stout Link Non-perturbative Clover or SLiNC action. To cancel O(a) terms the clover term coefficient has to be tuned. We present here results of a non-perturbative determination of this coefficient using the Schroedinger functional and as a by-product a determination of the critical hopping parameter. Comparisons of the results are made with lowest order perturbation theory. (orig.)

  3. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and in soil N 2 O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N 2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N 2 O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N 2 O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N 2 as a source of N 2 O. 2: examining the link between N 2 O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N 2 O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N 2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N 2 O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m -2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor

  4. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    if a species with coloured roots can be used to examine the interaction in a legume-non-legume intercropping system; (ii) to verify the importance of initial root growth on the successive root development of mixture component plants; (iii) to test if the root interaction in the shallow layers has consequences...

  5. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  6. Cytogenetics of Legumes in the Phaseoloid Clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics played an essential role in studies of chromosome structure, behavior, and evolution in numerous plant species. The advent of molecular cytogenetics combined with recent development of genomic resources has ushered in a new era of chromosome studies that have greatly advanced our knowledge of karyotypic diversity, genome and chromosome organization, and chromosomal evolution in legumes. This review summarizes some of the achievements of cytogenetic studies in legumes in the Phaseoloid clade, which includes several important legume crops such as common bean ( L., cowpea [ (L. Walp.], soybean [ (L. Merr.], and pigeonpea [ (L. Huth]. In the Phaseoloid clade, karyotypes are mostly stable. There are, however, several species with extensive chromosomal changes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization has been useful to reveal chromosomal structure by physically mapping transposons, satellite repeats, ribosomal DNA genes, and bacterial artificial chromosome clones onto chromosomes. Polytene chromosomes, which are much longer than the mitotic chromosomes, have been successfully found and used in cytogenetic studies in some and species. Molecular cytogenetics will continue to be an important tool in legume genetics and genomics, and we discuss future applications of molecular cytogenetics to better understand chromosome and genome structure and evolution in legumes.

  7. Forage yield and nutritive value of Elephant grass, Italian ryegrass and spontaneous growing species mixed with forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schalemberg Diehl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate of three grazing systems (GS with elephant grass (EG, Italian ryegrass (IR + spontaneous growing species (SGS; EG + IR + SGS + forage peanut (FP; and EG + IR + SGS + red clover (RC, during the winter and summer periods in rotational grazing with dairy cattle. Experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments, two replicates with repeated measures. Lactating Holstein cows receiving 1% BW-daily feed supplement with concentrate were used in the evaluation. Eight grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period. The values of pre forage mass and stocking rate were 2.52, 2.60 and 2.99 t ha-1 and 2.64, 2.77 and 3.14 animal unit ha-1, respectively for GS. Samples of forage were collected by hand-plucking technique to analyze the crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD, in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD of forage present between rows of elephant grass, in the rows of elephant grass and the legumes. Higher value of CP, ISOMD and lower of NDF were observed for the grazing systems mixed with legumes forage.

  8. Effect of maturity and conservation of grass/clover on digestibility and rumen pH in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, A.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate effects of maturity and conservation of primary growth grass/clover on apparent digestibility and rumen pH. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay...... (EH), and late silage (LS) and hay (LH) had DM contents of 45, 84, 25 and 83%, and NDF contents of 32, 44, 42 and 50% of DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake......, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Potentially digestible NDF (DNDF) was determined after 288 h in situ. Apparent digestibility of OM and NDF was estimated using Cr3O2 as marker. Rumen fluid pH in the medial and ventral rumen was measured with 1 h intervals from 0730 to 1530 h. Data...

  9. Inclusion of caraway in the ryegrass-red clover mixture modifies soil microbial community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Wenfeng; Jing, Jingying; Søegaard, Karen

    -containing grass-clover mixtures may potentially affect soil microbial community structure, biomass and associated ecosystem functions, but it is yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that inclusion of plantain in the grass-clover mixture would enhance soil microbial biomas and functions through its high biomass...

  10. A New NPGS Special Collection: Norman L. Taylor University of Kentucky Clover Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Norman L. Taylor was a world renowned Professor and clover breeder in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at the University of Kentucky for 48 years. Following retirement in 2001, he continued working on clovers up until his death in 2010. Dr. Taylor’s entire career was devoted to enhancin...

  11. Effects of clover density on N2O emissions and plant-soil N transfers in a fertilised upland pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Katja; Bloor, Juliette M. G.; Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01

    regression analysis revealed that water-filled pore space (WFPS) and clover dry mass were the main factors driving cumulative N2O emissions in the high clover treatment, whereas variation in cumulated N2O emissions in the low clover treatment was best explained by WFPS and grass mass. We hypothesize...

  12. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    Although a soil-shale mixture was employed as the growth medium in this experiment, the results presentd are applicable to the proposed method of disposal mentioned earlier. Under field conditions, when covering the retorted shale with topsoil, some mixing of these materials might occur in the plant root region. In addition, it has been demonstrated that buried shale negatively affects enzyme activities in overburden surface soil. The occurrence of either of those events could affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation in a manner similar to that reported in this paper. Researchers conclude that due to the varied effects of retorted shale on the legumes tested, further evaluation of other legumes may be necessary. Additional research would be required to determine which legumes have potential use for reclamation of retorted shale.

  13. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... Staff Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile ...

  14. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  15. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cereal crop yield improvements following legume rotations ... effects of legumes rotation in meeting the N fertilizer requirements of maize. ... The effects of the rotations on increasing the maize yields were equivalent to application of 25, 19 and.

  16. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...

  17. Performances of legume-grass mixtures under different cutting managements in mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Annual forage crops have great importance for sustaining animal production in southern Italy. Knowledge of the performance of legume-grass associations under management similar to systems encountered in farm practice is essential for their effective exploitation of the available environmental resources. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the effects of five cutting managements on the productivity and botanical composition of ten annual fodder crop mixtures in two Mediterranean environments. Ten ternary combinations of one grass (Avena sativa L., oat and Lolium multiflorum Lam., Italian ryegrass, one clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L., berseem; Trifolium incarnatum L., crimson and Trifolium squarrosum L., squarrosum or burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. were compared in a field trial (split-plot design, 3 replicates in two locations (Cagliari and Foggia, Italy during the 2000-2001 growing season. The cutting treatments included a winter grazing simulation (G, a cutting only regime at early (EF or late flowering (F of legumes and a combination of treatments (GEF and GF. Plant density (no. m-2 prior to cutting, dry matter yield (g m-2 and botanical composition (% were evaluated. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable dry matter yields of mixtures among cutting treatments in both localities, with treatment F showing the higher values (787.1 and 415.7 g m-2 for Cagliari and Foggia, respectively. The forage species were able to compete and establish good growth during their initial phase in both localities. However, the botanical composition between the two sites differed considerably after the winter period. Particularly, at Foggia, grass dominance was a permanent feature of all treatments, and all the mixtures contained about 84% of grass. Italian ryegrass was the most representative species under all treatments in both sites. Mixtures with Italian ryegrass, crimson or berseem

  18. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González , Javier; Andrés , Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  19. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    organogenesis. Coordination of these two interdependent processes results in formation of nodules - bacterial accommodating structures where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin play important roles in nodulation. In some legumes the infection process...... of auxin transport inhibitors or cytokinin alone was shown to induce cortical cell divisions in the absence of rhizobia in certain legume species. While the roles of auxin and cytokinin in nodulation have been studied extensively, the precise timing, location and means of molecular crosstalk between...

  20. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  1. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  2. Harvesting Legume Genomes: Plant Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and high through-put phenotyping are ushering in a new era of accessing genetic diversity held in plant genetic resources, the cornerstone of both traditional and genomics-assisted breeding efforts of food legume crops. Acknowledged or not, yield plateaus must be broken given the daunting ...

  3. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  4. INFLUENCE OF LEGUME RESIDUE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    to search for more arable land with reduction in fallow period and decline in fertility ... The stalks are used as feed, fuel, thatch making and in roofing houses. ... soil nitrogen content can be a practicable alternative to reduce the use of chemical .... significance of legume in nitrogen fixation and its inclusion to cropping system.

  5. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  6. Does introduction of clover in an agricultural grassland affect the food base and functional diversity of Collembola?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Sechi, Valentina; Larsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    plots with either perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), whiteclover (Trifolium repens L.) or a mixture of both in a Danish agricultural grassland 6 and 14 months after establishing the leys (September and May, respectively). Diet preferences were investigated via stable isotope analyses (SIA...... in the white clover than ryegrass plots. Changes in taxa specific density and traits distribution as a response to the C:N ratio of plant material, suggest that plant material quality was the main factor affecting the collembolan community,especially when comparing the two sampling occasions. Functional...... richness decreased under conditions of low quality material. In contrast to our hypothesis, population densities did not increase under mixture treatment and functional richness decreased. Our results suggest that habitat changes, via different plant composition, can affect some functional groups, having...

  7. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  8. Reaction of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. in grass-clover mixture on N fertilization and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Andreata-Koren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Grazing is the most common way of using a hill and mountain areas because of their specific agro-ecological conditions. Cocksfoot is a grass with high productivity and quality, and it is very good for sowing in the sward for grazing. Because of its good adaptability to different growing conditions, especially in very dry and cold areas, it is excellent in relation to some other good grasses, which can not be raised in such areas. The aim of the experiment was to determine effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S, and their interaction on the cocksfoot sown in a mixture of smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L. in hill mountain areas. In a three-year average, the application of 150 kg ha-1 N had significant impact on cocksfoot population density (number of tillers m-2, and it was 51.4 % higher than the recorded one before grazing (P<0.05 and 42.2 % higher after grazing (P<0.01 in comparison to N0. The application of 150 kg ha-1 N resulted in significantly higher cocksfoot dry matter (DM yield for 38.6 % (P<0.01 and 15.3 % higher cocksfoot share in the total mixture in relation to N0 (P<0.01. Grazing management and grazing management interaction with N rate did not significantly affect the population density of individual years. However, in the three-year average, grazing management significantly affected cocksfoot DM (P<0.01 and its percentage in the total DM mixture (P<0.01. Cattle grazing resulted in 9.9 % higher cocksfoot DM yield and 15.2 % higher cocksfoot percentage in pasture. Interaction of grazing management and N-level had significant influence on the percentage of cocksfoot DM in grass-clover mixture. On cattle grazed areas fertilized with 150 kg ha-1 N, the percentage of cocksfoot DM was the highest (74. 07%, while the lowest percentage of cocksfoot DM was recorded on the sheep grazed areas without N (55.12%.

  9. Changes in the spore numbers of AM fungi and in AM colonisation of roots of clovers and grasses on a peat-muck soil with respect to mineral fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, T. K.; Kwiatkowaska, E.

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year plot experiment was conducted to determine the dynamics of changes in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and of the degree of endomycorrhizal colonisation of roots of clovers and meadow grasses on an organic peat-muck soil in a post-marshy habitat, taking into account the effect of mineral fertilisation (NPK). The experimental object comprised four plots that represented the fertilisation treatments, sown with white clover (Trifolium repens L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and a mix of grasses composed of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.). Analogous sowing was performed on control (non-fertilised) plots. It was found that spores of AMF occurred in 100 percent of the samples of the soil studied, and the average total number of AMF spores isolated from soil under the particular plant combinations was high and amounted to 1858 spores (range from 1392 to 2443) in 100 g of air-dried soil. The percentage share of the clover and grass roots colonised by indigenous endomycorrhizal fungi was very low and varied from 0 to 46 (average from 4.1 percent to 12.2 percent). No correlation was found between the spore numbers of AMF in the soil and the degree of mycorrhized roots of the clovers and grasses. Mineral fertilisation stimulated the sporulation of AM fungi but had no effect on root colonisation by these fungi. (author)

  10. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-156 radionuclides in clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachnov, V.; Valkovic, V.; Dekner, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison IAEA-156 on the determination of radionuclides in clover. Initially participants were requested to determine the levels of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr and invited to provide data for other radionuclides. The participants included 46 laboratories located in 25 countries, and statistical evaluation of their data yield recommended values for these four radionuclides. Additional radionuclides reported were 210 Pb, 239 Pu and 125 Sb; however, insufficient data exists to statistically determine recommended values for these radionuclides. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (reference date: 1 August 1986): 134 Cs 132.1 Bq/kg (126.4-137.7); 137 Cs 264 Bq/kg (254-274); 40 K 657 Bq/kg (637-676); 90 Sr 14.8 Bq/kg (13.4-16.3). Figs and tabs

  11. In vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and utilisable CP supply of sainfoin and birdsfoot trefoil silages and their mixtures with other legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Wyss, U; Arrigo, Y; Girard, M; Bee, G; Zeitz, J O; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2017-04-01

    The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) - sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) - were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined. The supply of duodenally utilisable CP (uCP) in the forages was emphasised. The legumes were each harvested from three field sites. After 24 h of wilting on the field, the legumes were ensiled in laboratory silos for 86 days. Proximate constituents, silage fermentation characteristics, CT content and CP fractions were determined. Subsequently, silage samples and 1 : 1 mixtures of the CT-containing and CT-free silages were incubated for 24 h in batch cultures using ruminal fluid and buffer (1 : 2, v/v). Each treatment was replicated six times in six runs. The effects on pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations, protozoal counts, and total gas and methane production were determined. uCP content was calculated by considering the CP in the silage and the ammonia in the incubation fluid from treatments and blanks. Statistical evaluation compared data from single plants alone and together with that from the mixtures. Among treatments, SF silage contained the least CP and the most CT. The non-protein nitrogen content was lower, favouring neutral detergent soluble and insoluble protein fractions, in the SF and RC silages. Absolute uCP content was lowest in SF and SF mixtures, although the ratio to total CP was the highest. In comparison with LU, the ammonia concentration of the incubation fluid was lower for SF, RC and BTB and for the mixture of SF with LU. The total gas and methane production was similar among the treatments, and the

  12. Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein of legume and grass species during the spring growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth. RESULTS The estimated extractable protein [g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests while, if the more cell wall attached fraction B3...... for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximise the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend...

  13. Relationship between nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-clover pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports on a work assessing the relationship between gross N transformations in grass-clover soils and emissions of nitrous oxide. By this manner, the source strength of the biogenic processes responsible for nitrous oxide production is evaluated.

  14. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16...... close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the timing of crop and soil damage as affected by wheel load and tire pressure. However, at specific times, there was a significant effect of wheel load and secondary by the tire pressure. At all...... measurement times, the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key words (for Electronic Reference Library) Traffic intensities, tire load/pressure, clover/grass, yield loss, ...

  15. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  16. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  17. Towards a new classification system for legumes: Progress report from the 6th International Legume Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes Coelho Borges, L.M.; Bruneau, A.; Cardoso, D.; Crisp, M.; Delgado-Salinas, A.; Doyle, J.J.; Egan, A.; Herendeen, P.S.; Hughes, C.; Kenicer, G.; Klitgaard, B.; Koenen, E.; Lavin, M.; Lewis, G.; Luckow, M.; Mackinder, B.; Malecot, V.; Miller, J.T.; Pennington, R.T.; Queiroz, de L.P.; Schrire, B.; Simon, M.F.; Steele, K.; Torke, B.; Wieringa, J.J.; Wojciechowski, M.F.; Boatwright, S.; Estrella, de la M.; Mansano, V.D.; Prado, D.E.; Stirton, C.; Wink, M.

    2013-01-01

    Legume systematists have been making great progress in understanding evolutionary relationships within the Leguminosae (Fabaceae), the third largest family of flowering plants. As the phylogenetic picture has become clearer, so too has the need for a revised classification of the family. The

  18. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...

  19. Elemental analysis and nutritional value of edible Trifolium (clover) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Thaveshan; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2018-04-30

    Trifolium species, commonly known as clover species, have a cosmopolitan distribution and, as such, are used in many different traditional systems of medicine and consumed by many communities all over the world. In this study, the elemental distribution and nutritional value of five edible Trifolium species, namely, Trifolium africanum, Trifolium burchellianum, Trifolium repens, Trifolium dubium and Trifolium pratense were investigated to evaluate the potential of these plant species to alleviate malnutrition, thereby contributing toward the fight against food insecurity. Trifolium species were found to be a rich alternate source of essential nutrients with concentrations of elements being in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Se > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Co > Cd > As and with adequate levels of lipids (4.2 to 8.6%), proteins (35.1 to 45.4%) and carbohydrates (26.7 to 47.0%). Trifolium species were found to be rich in Se (contributing greater than 516% toward its RDA) with T. dubium having a concentration of 0.53 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass, which is higher than Brazil nuts. T. pratense was found to be the most suitable species for human consumption due to it having low levels of toxic metals (As, Cd and Pb) while being rich in macro- and micro-elements, especially Fe (7.84 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass) and Se (0.36 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass).

  20. Comparison of breeding methods for forage yield in red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Jalůvka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three methods of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. breeding for forage yield in two harvest years on locations in Bredelokke (Denmark, Hladké Životice (Czech Republic and Les Alleuds (France were compared. Three types of 46 candivars1, developed by A recurrent selection in subsequent generations (37 candivars, divided into early and late group, B polycross progenies (4 candivars and C ge­no-phe­no­ty­pic selection (5 candivars were compared. The trials were sown in 2005 and cut three times in 2006 and 2007; their evaluation is based primarily on total yield of dry matter. The candivars developed by polycross and geno-phenotypic selections gave significantly higher yields than candivars from the recurrent selection. However, the candivars developed by the methods B and C did not differ significantly. The candivars developed by these progressive methods were suitable for higher yielding and drier environment in Hladké Životice (where was the highest yield level even if averaged annual precipitation were lower by 73 and 113 mm in comparison to other locations, respectively; here was ave­ra­ge yield higher by 19 and 13% for B and C in comparison to A method. Highly significant interaction of the candivars with locations was found. It can be concluded that varieties specifically aimed to different locations by the methods B and C should be bred; also the parental entries should be selected there.

  1. Assessment of nickel bioavailability through chemical extractants and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) in an amended soil: Related changes in various parameters of red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Ali Khan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Hussain, Sabir; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Application of immobilizing agents may efficiently reduce the bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in the soil. Here we report the effect of biochar (BC), gravel sludge (GS) and zeolite (ZE) as a sole treatment and their combinations on the bioavailability of Ni after their application into a Ni-polluted soil. The bioavailability of Ni after the application of immobilizing agents was assessed through an indicator plant (red clover) and chemical indicators of bioavailability like soil water extract (SWE), DTPA and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 extracts. Additionally, the effects of Ni bioavailability and immobilizing agents on the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of red clover were also observed. Application of ZE significantly reduced Ni concentrations in all chemical extracts compared to rest of the treatments. Similarly, the combined application of BC and ZE (BC+ ZE) significantly reduced Ni concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) whereas, significant enhancement in the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes along with an improvement in antioxidant defence machinery of red clover plant, compared to rest of the treatments, were observed. Furthermore, BC+ ZE treatment significantly reduced bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Ni in red clover, compared to rest of the treatments. The Ni concentrations in red clover leaves individually reflected a good correlation with Ni concentrations in the extracts (SWE at R 2 =0.79, DTPA extract at R 2 =0.84 and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 extracts at R 2 =0.86). Our results indicate that combined application of ZE and BC can significantly reduce the Ni bioavailability in the soil while in parallel improve the antioxidant defence mechanism in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Probing nod factor perception in legumes by fluorescence microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants of the family of legumes are capable of forming a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. These Gram-negative bacteria invade the root system of a host legume and fix nitrogen in a specialized organ, the so-called root nodule. In exchange for sugars, the bacteria convert atmospheric

  3. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial fertilizers are expensive for small-scale farmers who, as alternative, rely on legume crops for providing N for a subsequent maize crop. A legume-maize rotational experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Ferralsol at Mlingano Agricultural Research Institute in Muheza, Tanga, Tanzania, to evaluate the effects of ...

  4. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrade Lira Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein, climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior, and urbanization (and thus heavy metals. This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge.

  5. POLYPHENOLS IN CHOSEN SPECIES OF LEGUME - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available  Legumes belongs to the most important grain for human consumption. They have been cultivated for thousands of years, and have played an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world. The most legumes are widely consumed in fresh and processed forms. The traditional way of legume preparation includes soaking in water following by cooking and are usually consumed boiled as soup, occasionally as roasted grains too. Legume are widely known for their nutraceutical value, but there is relatively little information about their polyphenols content (with the exception of soya. Inspite of the fact that phenolics in general are not the substances with nutritious value, the interest in them is still persisting for their positive effects on human health. For these reasons this short review is focused on summary of legume polyphenols – identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins in raw or processed legumes and their role in these crops. Monitoring and surveying of the changes of polyphenolic compounds contents thus complete knowledge about bioactive substances content in legumes species. And seeing that legumes are considered an ideal complement to cereals in diets, they gain increasing attention as functional food items. doi:10.5219/81

  6. Symbiotic Performance of Herbaceous Legumes in Tropical Cover Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Ibewiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck and lablab (Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM than live mulch (LM systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed.

  7. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic,

  8. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume

  9. Glycaemic responses of some legumes in Nigeria using non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is established that legumes generally have a low glycaemic index (GI) which means that they raise blood glucose levels very little. However, the glycaemic responses to normal subjects and the GI of these local legumes are not yet established. Objective: This work determined the postprandial glycaemic ...

  10. Systematics, diversity and forage value of indigenous legumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A map representing the collection intensity for the study area showed that the majority of legumes species were collected in the Fynbos, Savanna and Grassland Biome. It is concluded that indigenous South African legumes are extremely diverse and this denotes the importance of further investigating their forage potential ...

  11. Transformation kinetics of corn and clover residues in mineral substrates of different composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinskii, D. L.; Maltseva, A. N.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Dmitrieva, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Mineralization kinetics of corn and clover residues in quartz sand, loam, sand + 15% bentonite, and sand + 30% kaolinite have been studied. A scheme has been proposed for the transformation of plant residues in mineral substrates. Kinetic parameters of mineralization have been calculated with the use of a first-order two-term exponential polynomial. It has been shown that the share of labile organic carbon pool in the clover biomass is higher (57-63%) than in the corn biomass (47-49%), which is related to the biochemical composition of plant residues. The mineralization constants of clover residues generally significantly exceed those of corn because of the stronger stabilization of the decomposition products of corn residues. The turnover time of the labile clover pool (4-9 days) in all substrates and that of the labile corn pool (8-10 days) in sands and substrates containing kaolinites and bentonite are typical for organic acids, amino acids, and simple sugars. In the loamy substrate, the turnover time of labile corn pool is about 46 days due to the stronger stabilization of components of the labile pool containing large amounts of organic acids. The turnover time of the stable clover pool (0.95 years) is significantly lower than that of the stable corn pool (1.60 years) and largely corresponds to the turnover time of plant biomass.

  12. Crops, Nitrogen, Water: Are Legumes Friend, Foe, or Misunderstood Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark A; Buchmann, Nina; Sprent, Janet; Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L

    2018-06-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N. We propose that breeding grain legumes for reduced stomatal conductance can increase WUE without compromising production or BNF. Legume crops remain a better bet than relying on INF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress-induced memory alters growth of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Chrtek, Jindřich; Dobrev, Petre; Dumalasová, Veronika; Fehrer, Judith; Mráz, Patrik; Latzel, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 9 (2016), s. 1567-1574 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : asexual reproduction * DNA methylation * epigenetic variation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.050, year: 2016

  14. Contribution of orchardgrass and white clover roots to total soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding ecosystem carbon dioxide flux requires knowledge of component fluxes including photosynthetic uptake and respiratory loss. Experimental separation of soil respiration into its heterotrophic and autotrophic components has been difficult, complicating efforts to quantify management and e...

  15. Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de; Hordijk, Cornelis A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between ...

  16. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Daryanto

    Full Text Available Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and green gram (Vigna radiate. Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  17. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  18. Effects of field characteristics on abundance of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) and seed yield in red clover fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Kirsten Haugaard; Dupont, Yoko L.

    2010-01-01

    Red clover is a key floral ressource for bumblebees (Bombus spp.).We here investigate variation within and among red clover fields in species richness and abundance of Bombus spp. in addition to Apis mellifera. Bumblebee individuals were grouped into the following functional groups, based on castes...

  19. A survey of the invertebrates feeding on living clover roots (Trifolium repens L.) using 32P as a radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylis, J.P.; Cherrett, J.M.; Ford, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Clover roots were labelled in the field with 32 P and the radioactive soil fauna were detected by autoradiography. The animals which consumed labelled clover roots were, in order of importance, earthworms (Aporrectodea longa, A. caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus), weevil larvae, dipteran larvae (Bibio marci) and a few Collembola (family: Entomobryidae). (author)

  20. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country or...

  1. Analysis of the effects of pair production for the suppressed clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full energy peak, single escape peak and double escape peak areas have been extracted for an escape suppressed clover detector. Results have been obtained for the single crystal and addback modes of operation as well as the active and passive suppression cases at several gamma energies. We have compared the ratio of single escape peak areas in addback mode with that of single crystal mode to study if the single escape peak gains or loses counts due to addback mode. Detailed analysis has been performed for quantifying the advantages of using addback mode and active suppression. Comparison is made for different types of clover detectors with different volumes

  2. Effect of red clover on the microbial transformation of phenanthrene and octadecane in the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, A. V.; Shestakova, E. A.; Anan'yina, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.) plants on the decomposition of phenanthrene and octadecane in the soil has been studied. Effect of plant root mass on the abundance of hydrocarbondegrading bacteria, the composition of their communities, and the degradation of hydrocarbons in the soil has been revealed. Changes in the taxonomic composition of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria under the effect of red clover are characterized by an increase in the abundance of species from the genera Acinetobacter, Kaistia, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas. A positive effect of the studied microbial-plant association on the degradation of octadecane and especially phenanthrene in the soil has been revealed.

  3. Enchytraeids as indicator of soil quality in temporary organic grass-clover leys under contrasting management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Schmelz, Rüdiger; Larsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One objective in organic farming is to sustain the quality of the soil resource. Because enchytraeids are an important soil faunal component, they stand as bioindicators of soil quality. We tested this candidature in a field experiment on loamy sand soil with 1- and 4-year old grass-clover leys...... interactions among soil physical, chemical and biological properties suggest that enchytraeid abundance is not a feasible stand-alone indicator of management impacts on soil quality in temporary grass-clover leys but may candidate as one of several biological key parameters in more comprehensive soil quality...

  4. Preliminary research on amino acid composition and nutritional value of clover proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłyszejko-Stefanowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid composition and nutritional value of 5 clover varieties including 3 Polish ones ('Gloria', 'Hruszowska', 'Skrzeszowicka' and 2 of foreign origin ('Rotra' and 'Violetta' were investigated. No significant differences in the total protein content (19.2–20.0% of dry matter as well as in qualitative amino acid composition were found among the clover varieties under examination. EAA index (Essential amino acid index calculated according to Oser for 'Gloria' and 'Hruszowska' showed the highest nutritional value was – 40. The lowest value of EAA index was found for 'Violetta' cvar. – 32, intermediate values however for Rotra and Skrzeszowicka was 37 and 36.

  5. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  6. Biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl esters and amides in legume species

    Science.gov (United States)

    In forage crops, protein that is degraded following harvest is poorly utilized by ruminant animals, resulting in both economic and environmental consequences. In red clover, secondary reactions of quinones resulting from polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated oxidation of the caffeic acid derivatives pha...

  7. Comparative phylogenetic and expression analysis of small GTPases families in legume and non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ana Claudia; Via, Virginia Dalla; Savy, Virginia; Villagra, Ulises Mancini; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants. Phylogenetic analyses did not show clear differences in the organization of the different subfamilies of small GTPases between plants that engage or not in nodule symbiosis. Protein alignments revealed a strong conservation at the sequence level of small GTPases previously linked to nodulation by functional genetics. Interestingly, one Rab and three Rop proteins showed conserved amino acid substitutions in legumes, but these changes do not alter the predicted conformational structure of these proteins. Although the steady-state levels of most small GTPases do not change in response to rhizobia, we identified a subset of Rab, Rop and Arf genes whose transcript levels are modulated during the symbiotic interaction, including their spatial distribution along the indeterminate nodule. This study provides a comprehensive study of the small GTPase superfamily in several plant species. The genetic program associated to root nodule symbiosis includes small GTPases to fulfill specific functions during infection and formation of the symbiosomes. These GTPases seems to have been recruited from members that were already present in common ancestors with plants as distant as monocots

  8. Estimation of the Botanical Composition of Clover-Grass Leys from RGB Images Using Data Simulation and Fully Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Green, Ole; Karstoft, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Optimal fertilization of clover-grass fields relies on knowledge of the clover and grass fractions. This study shows how knowledge can be obtained by analyzing images collected in fields automatically. A fully convolutional neural network was trained to create a pixel-wise classification of clover, grass, and weeds in red, green, and blue (RGB) images of clover-grass mixtures. The estimated clover fractions of the dry matter from the images were found to be highly correlated with the real clover fractions of the dry matter, making this a cheap and non-destructive way of monitoring clover-grass fields. The network was trained solely on simulated top-down images of clover-grass fields. This enables the network to distinguish clover, grass, and weed pixels in real images. The use of simulated images for training reduces the manual labor to a few hours, as compared to more than 3000 h when all the real images are annotated for training. The network was tested on images with varied clover/grass ratios and achieved an overall pixel classification accuracy of 83.4%, while estimating the dry matter clover fraction with a standard deviation of 7.8%. PMID:29258215

  9. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    Out of 18 papers presented, 15 fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics covered were: mutagenic efficiency of ethylmethane sulphonate in soybean; induced mutations for rust resistance in soybean; and nitrogen fixation-potentials for improvement in legumes

  10. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  11. Testing forage legume technologies with smallholder dairy farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    documented on forage legumes and fodder trees in Uganda. However .... held to encourage interaction and collaborative learning between .... decision-making regarding income. ... the introduction of a milk-processing machine by Masaka.

  12. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  13. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... 3. Genomic resources for SAT legumes. In the past, for genetic diversity analysis, a range of ... DNA libraries, (b) sequencing and mining the BAC (bacterial ..... spiration efficiency, biomass, specific leaf area, pod weight,.

  14. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  15. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes .... mean seed mass (without seed coat) per species was used for W1 ...... Of light and length: regulation of hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis.

  16. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    health makes them a key rotation crop in the sustainable intensification and diversification of smallholder farming. This makes grain legumes a key food security crop. However, yields in developing countries are low as a result of such factors as the need for improved varieties of seed, poor seed......Grain legumes are widely cultivated, particularly for their dry seeds (known as pulses). Grain legumes are an important crop for a number of reasons. They are a rich source of protein and fibre, minerals and vitamins. In addition, their rapid growth and ability to fix nitrogen and improve soil...... distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...

  17. In situ carbon and nitrogen dynamics in ryegrass-clover mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.; Eriksen, J.; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2007-01-01

    =9). 15N-enriched compounds were not detected in percolating pore water, which may be caused by either dilution from irrigation or low availability of leachable N compounds. 14C was found solely as 14CO2 in the pore water indicating that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) did not originate from fresh......Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a third production year ryegrass–clover mixture were investigated in the field. Cylinders (diameter 29.7 cm) were installed to depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm and equipped with suction cups to collect percolating pore water. Ryegrass and clover leaves were cross......-labelled with 14C- and 15N-enriched urea and the fate of the two tracers was studied for 3 months during summer. Transfer of 14C occurred mainly from ryegrass to clover, whereas the largest transfer of 15N was in the opposite direction. The average transfer of N from clover was 40% (SE±3.1, n=9) of N in ryegrass...

  18. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  19. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on red clover and its rhizobial symbiont

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Van Der Heijden, Marcel G A; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two

  20. Forbs enhance productivity of unfertilised grass-clover leys and support low-carbon bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Wen-Feng; Jing, Jingying; Rasmussen, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Intensively managed grasslands are dominated by highly productive grass-clover mixtures. Increasing crop diversity by inclusion of competitive forbs may enhance biomass production and sustainable biofuel production. Here we examined if one or all of three forbs (chicory, Cichorium intybus L.; car...

  1. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  2. Sensory Evaluation of Cooked Sausages with Legumes Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ilze Gramatina; Jelena Zagorska; Evita Straumite; Svetlana Sarvi

    2012-01-01

    In the meat processing industry the substitution of meat with non-meat ingredients is considered an important strategy for reducing overall production costs. The main purpose of the current research was to evaluate differences in physical-chemical composition of cooked sausage with different legumes additions. Peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil (Lens culinaris) were used in preparation of sausages. The legumes at proportion of 20% of the total wei...

  3. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  4. Legume root symbioses: Natural history and prospects for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtark Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM, rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that 'first' rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single 'evolutionary plant-microbial continuum'. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.

  5. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF UNDERUTILIZED LEGUMES OF THE GENUS MUCUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Soris Tresina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in finding new food sources to alleviate malnutrition in developing countries due to lack of protein rich food. Protein supply can be broadened by exploration and exploitation of alternate legume sources. Even though copious wild legume landraces have been identified, their utilization is limited due to inadequate attention. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white coloured seed coat Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens and Mucuna deeringiana are underutilized legume species having the credibility to be a rich protein source. This study was designed to assess the proximate composition, mineral profiles, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acid, protein fractions, fatty acid profiles, amino acid profiles of total seed protein, in vitro protein digestibility and antinutritional potential of the above said Mucuna varieties/species. The major findings of the study were as follows: crude protein content ranged from 23.76-29.74%, crude lipid 8.24-9.26%, total dietary fibre, 6.54-8.76%, ash 4.78-5.30%, carbohydrates 56.56-63.88%, and calorific value1783.02-1791.60kJ100g-1DM.  The examined seed samples contained minerals such as Na, K, Ca, Mg and P in abundance. The fatty acid profiles reveal that, the seed lipids contained higher concentrations of linoleic and palmitic acid. The antinutritional fatty acid, behenic acid (1.87-3.04% was also detected.  The current investigation helps in understanding the nutritional and antinutritional versatility of the Mucuna varieties/species, thereby developing further tactics for optimum utilization.

  7. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Produtividade e valor nutritivo de pastos consorciados com diferentes espécies de leguminosas Productivity and nutritive value of mixed pastures with different legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM

  9. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Fresh forages are an important natural source of vitamins and fatty acids in ruminant diets, and their concentrations in forage species are important for the quality of animal-derived foods such as dairy and meat products. The aims of this study were to obtain novel information on vitamins...

  10. Effect of fertilizer type on cadmium and fluorine concentrations in clover herbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether changing phosphatic fertilizer type affects the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) in pasture herbage. North Carolina phosphate rock and partially acidulated fertilizers derived from this rock generally have higher Cd and F concentrations compared to single superphosphate currently manufactured in Australia. Clover herbage from sites of the National Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) trial was collected and analysed for concentrations of Cd (11 sites) and F (4 sites). A comparison was made between pastures fertilized with 4 rates of single superphosphate, North Carolina phosphate rock, and partially acidulated phosphate rock having Cd concentrations of 283, 481, and 420 mg Cd/kg P respectively, and 170, 271, and 274 g F/kg P respectively. One site used Hemrawein (Egypt) phosphate rock (HRP) having a Cd and F concentration of 78 mg Cd/kg P and 256 g F/kg P respectively. To help identify differences in herbage Cd concentrations between sites, unfertilised soils from each site were analyzed for total and extractable Cd contents. At one site Cd concentrations in bulk herbage (clover, grasses and weeds) were related to infestation of the pasture by capeweed (Arctotheca calendula L. Levyns). There were no significant differences between F in herbage from plots fertilized with single superphosphate, partially acidulated phosphate rock or North Carolina phosphate rock, or between sites. Concentrations of F in herbage were low, generally less than 10 mg F /kg. However, there were large differences in Cd concentrations in herbage between sites, while differences between fertilizer treatments were small in comparison. The site differences were only weakly related to total or extractable (0.01 mol/L CaCl 2 ) Cd concentrations in soil. Significant differences in Cd concentrations in clover due to fertilizer type were found at 5 sites. North Carolina phosphate rock treatments had significantly higher Cd concentrations in clover compared to

  11. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensit...

  12. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  13. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  14. LegumeDB1 bioinformatics resource: comparative genomic analysis and novel cross-genera marker identification in lupin and pasture legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolhuijzen, P; Cakir, M; Hunter, A; Schibeci, D; Macgregor, A; Smith, C; Francki, M; Jones, M G K; Appels, R; Bellgard, M

    2006-06-01

    The identification of markers in legume pasture crops, which can be associated with traits such as protein and lipid production, disease resistance, and reduced pod shattering, is generally accepted as an important strategy for improving the agronomic performance of these crops. It has been demonstrated that many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified in one species can be found in other plant species. Detailed legume comparative genomic analyses can characterize the genome organization between model legume species (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus) and economically important crops such as soybean (Glycine max), pea (Pisum sativum), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), thereby identifying candidate gene markers that can be used to track QTLs in lupin and pasture legume breeding. LegumeDB is a Web-based bioinformatics resource for legume researchers. LegumeDB analysis of Medicago truncatula expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has identified novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (16 tested), some of which have been putatively linked to symbiosome membrane proteins in root nodules and cell-wall proteins important in plant-pathogen defence mechanisms. These novel markers by preliminary PCR assays have been detected in Medicago truncatula and detected in at least one other legume species, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, Cicer arietinum, and (or) Lupinus angustifolius (15/16 tested). Ongoing research has validated some of these markers to map them in a range of legume species that can then be used to compile composite genetic and physical maps. In this paper, we outline the features and capabilities of LegumeDB as an interactive application that provides legume genetic and physical comparative maps, and the efficient feature identification and annotation of the vast tracks of model legume sequences for convenient data integration and visualization. LegumeDB has been used to identify potential novel cross-genera polymorphic legume

  15. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...... amount of 15-17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues...

  16. Determination of toxicity limiting values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for oat and red clover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodenberg, A V; Finck, A

    1975-01-01

    Toxicity limiting values of Zn, Cu and Pb are determined in order to investigate the causes of growth damages in certain fields. Since the true toxicity limit is difficult to estimate, a somewhat higher content is called the toxicity limiting value resulting after the subtraction of a significant yield difference. The pot experiments with increasing fertilization of Zn, Cu and Pb in soil cultures gave the following results. For Zn, the toxicity limit is 410 ppm in oats at the beginning of tilling. In red clover six weeks of age, it is only 290 ppm of Zn and therefore much lower. For Cu, the toxicity limit is 20 ppm in oats at the beginning of tilling and 18 ppm in six weeks old red clover. For Pb, a toxic effect could be observed above 50 ppm, but this does not seem to be the true limit because of disturbing salt effects.

  17. Nitrogen transfer via VA mycorrhiza hyphae link between roots of red clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junling; Li Xiaolin; Yang Zhifu

    1997-01-01

    Five compartments with a air gap was designed to examine underground N transfer via VAM hyphae link between roots of red clover. 15 N was injected into the root compartment for donor plant 4 weeks after planting. Plants were harvested 6 weeks afterwards. The experiment had four treatments: two N levels (receiver root compartment); mycorrhiza and non-mycorrhiza treatment (B compartment), and each with four replicates. It was demonstrated that there was no significant difference in 15 N abundance in receiver red clover regardless of the inoculation of mycorrhiza fungi and nitrogen fertilization. Both shoot and root dry weight of receiver plants were not affected too, however, plant P and N nutrient status got better under this condition

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of red clover necrotic mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Stanton L.; Guenther, Richard H.; Sit, Tim L.; Swartz, Paul D.; Meilleur, Flora; Lommel, Steven A.; Rose, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Virions of red clover necrotic mosaic virus have been purified and crystallized. The space group was determined to be I23, with unit-cell parameter a = 377.8 Å. The crystals diffracted to 4 Å resolution. Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a species that belongs to the Tombusviridae family of plant viruses with a T = 3 icosahedral capsid. RCNMV virions were purified and were crystallized for X-ray analysis using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Self-rotation functions and systematic absences identified the space group as I23, with two virions in the unit cell. The crystals diffracted to better than 4 Å resolution but were very radiation-sensitive, causing rapid decay of the high-resolution reflections. The data were processed to 6 Å in the analysis presented here

  19. Optimising biological N2 fixation by legumes in farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, Gudni; Atkins, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Whether grown as pulses for grain, as green manure, as pastures or as the tree components of agro-forestry systems, the value of leguminous crops lies in their ability to fix atmospheric N 2 , so reducing the use of expensive fertiliser N and enhancing soil fertility. N 2 fixing legumes provide the basis for developing sustainable farming systems that incorporate integrated nutrient management. By exploiting the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N, it has been possible to reliably measure rates of N 2 fixation in a wide range of agro-ecological field situations involving many leguminous species. The accumulated data demonstrate that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among legumes and their Rhizobium symbionts which can be used to enhance N 2 fixation. Practical agronomic and microbiological means to maximise N inputs by legumes have also been identified. (author)

  20. Performance comparison for modes of operation and suppression cases of the clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2014-01-01

    Peak-to-total ratios have been extracted for a segmented clover detector for various modes of operation and suppression cases. Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for quantifying the advantages of using addback mode and active suppression. Further investigations have been performed to find if the reduction of background counts is caused more by active suppression or by addback process

  1. Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, A.U.; Han, B.; Kermode, A.R.; Bendell-Young, L.I.; Plant, A.L. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2001-07-01

    The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to consider wetlands as part of their reclamation strategy. However, to ensure long-term viability of such wetlands, the response of the flora to the industrial effluent needed to be determined. To this end, apparent photosynthesis (APS), the level of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) large subunit, dehydrin-related polypeptides, and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were evaluated in cattail and alsike clover plants (Trifolium hybridum L.) exposed to the oil sands effluent. APS measured in plants impacted by oil sands effluent was significantly higher than that of plants in the non-impacted off-site location. Among the on-site locations, plants growing in the natural wetlands site had higher APS compared to all other sites. The level of RuBisCo was not increased in cattail or clover growing in effluent-contaminated sites indicating that enhanced photosynthesis was not due to greater levels of this enzyme. Dehydrin-related polypeptides were detected only in the roots of cattail and were absent in clover. The polypeptide profile was altered in cattail exposed to oil sands effluent indicating that they were responding to an osmotic stress. The level of PDI was unaffected in the leaves of cattail regardless of the nature of the effluent to which they were exposed. Overall, the data indicate that cattail and clover are adapted to the oil sands effluent, although further studies are needed to assess their long-term ability to survive in the presence of this anthropogenic stress. (Author)

  2. Inhibitory potential of pure isoflavonoids, red clover, and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hosseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin is complications of diabetes. Antioxidant system imbalance can result in the emergence of free radicals’ destructive effects in the long-term. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. contain isoflavonoids and have antioxidant activity. This experimental study evaluated the inhibitory activity of pure isoflavonoids (daidzein and genistein, red clover and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation. METHODS: This study was performed in Iran. Stock solution of hydroalcoholic extracts of red clover and alfalfa in concentrations of 1 and 10 g/100 ml and stock solution of daidzein and genistein in concentrations of 250 ng, 500 ng, 25 µg and 250 µg/100 ml were prepared as case groups. Control group was without hydroalcoholic extracts of plants and pure isoflavonoids. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Hemoglobin was prepared and antioxidant activities were investigated to estimate degree of nonenzymatic hemoglobin glycosylation. RESULTS: There was no significantly difference between used extracts (extract of red clover and alfalfa and control of the hemoglobin glycosylation but using daidzein (P = 0.046, 0.029 and 0.021, respectively and genistein (P = 0.034, 0.036 and 0.028 significantly inhibited (P < 0.050 this reaction in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations when compared to control. in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 ng and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations percentage of inhibition were 32, 80 and 74.5% respectively with used of daidzein and were 21, 83 and 76% respectively with consumption of genistein. CONCLUSION: According to decrease of glycation of hemoglobin with isoflavonoids, two used plant in this study containing isoflavonoid may be useful on diabetes.   

  3. Investigation of Amino Acids As Herbicides for Control of Orobanche minor Parasitism in Red Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Fernández-Aparicio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain amino acids induce inhibitory effects in plant growth due to feedback inhibition of metabolic pathways. The inhibition patterns depend on plant species and the plant developmental stage. Those amino acids with inhibitory action on specific weeds could be utilized as herbicides, however, their use for weed control has not been put into practice. Orobanche minor is a weed that parasitizes red clover. O. minor germination is stimulated by clover root exudates. The subsequent seedling is an obligated parasite that must attach quickly to the clover root to withdraw its nutrients. Early development of O. minor is vulnerable to amino acid inhibition and therefore, a series of in vitro, rhizotron, and field experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of amino acids to inhibit O. minor parasitism. In in vitro experiments it was found that among a collection of 20 protein amino acids, lysine, methionine and tryptophan strongly interfere with O. minor early development. Field research confirmed their inhibitory effect but revealed that methionine was more effective than lysine and tryptophan, and that two successive methionine applications at 308 and 543 growing degree days inhibited O. minor emergence in red clover up to 67%. We investigated additional effects with potential to influence the practical use of amino acids against broomrape weeds, whether the herbicidal effect may be reversible by other amino acids exuded by host plants or may be amplified by inducing host resistance barriers against O. minor penetration. This paper suggests that amino acids may have the potential to be integrated into biorational programs of broomrape management.

  4. Investigation of Amino Acids As Herbicides for Control of Orobanche minor Parasitism in Red Clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Bernard, Alexandre; Falchetto, Laurent; Marget, Pascal; Chauvel, Bruno; Steinberg, Christian; Morris, Cindy E; Gibot-Leclerc, Stephanie; Boari, Angela; Vurro, Maurizio; Bohan, David A; Sands, David C; Reboud, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Certain amino acids induce inhibitory effects in plant growth due to feedback inhibition of metabolic pathways. The inhibition patterns depend on plant species and the plant developmental stage. Those amino acids with inhibitory action on specific weeds could be utilized as herbicides, however, their use for weed control has not been put into practice. Orobanche minor is a weed that parasitizes red clover. O. minor germination is stimulated by clover root exudates. The subsequent seedling is an obligated parasite that must attach quickly to the clover root to withdraw its nutrients. Early development of O. minor is vulnerable to amino acid inhibition and therefore, a series of in vitro , rhizotron, and field experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of amino acids to inhibit O. minor parasitism. In in vitro experiments it was found that among a collection of 20 protein amino acids, lysine, methionine and tryptophan strongly interfere with O. minor early development. Field research confirmed their inhibitory effect but revealed that methionine was more effective than lysine and tryptophan, and that two successive methionine applications at 308 and 543 growing degree days inhibited O. minor emergence in red clover up to 67%. We investigated additional effects with potential to influence the practical use of amino acids against broomrape weeds, whether the herbicidal effect may be reversible by other amino acids exuded by host plants or may be amplified by inducing host resistance barriers against O. minor penetration. This paper suggests that amino acids may have the potential to be integrated into biorational programs of broomrape management.

  5. Cleaning the Soil from Zinc Using Red Clovers “Arimaičiai”

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Mikalajūnė; Giedrė Jasulaitytė

    2011-01-01

    Zinc as a nutrition element is required to plants in small quantities to maintain normal functions of metabolism mechanisms. Our work analyses the efficiency of red clovers “Arimaičiai” for cleaning zinc from the soil contaminated with zinc under laboratory conditions. Seeds were sown in three differently polluted soils: clean soil, once contaminated with zinc and periodically contaminated with zinc soil. Zinc concentration in one time contaminated soil was 45 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytore...

  6. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  7. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  8. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems.

  9. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Moll

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems.

  10. The "clover technique" as a novel approach for correction of post-traumatic tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, O; De Bonis, M; Lapenna, E; Agricola, E; Quarti, A; Maisano, F

    2003-07-01

    To describe a novel technique, named "clover," to correct complex post-traumatic tricuspid valve lesions. Five patients with severe post-traumatic tricuspid insufficiency underwent valve reconstruction with the clover technique, a new surgical approach that consists of stitching together the middle point of the free edges of the tricuspid leaflets, producing a clover-shaped valve. The mechanism of tricuspid regurgitation was complex in all patients, and right ventricular function was always moderately to severely depressed. An echocardiographic study was performed after cardiopulmonary bypass, at discharge, and at follow-up. Cardiopulmonary bypass time was 32 +/- 6.3 minutes and crossclamp time was 23 +/- 7.4. There was no hospital mortality or morbidity. Intraoperative transesophageal and predischarge transthoracic echocardiography showed perfect results in all patients. No late deaths occurred. At the latest follow-up, extending to 14.2 months (mean 11.3; median 12.4), all patients were asymptomatic (New York Heart Association class I) with trivial (2 patients) or no residual regurgitation (3 patients) on 2-dimensional echocardiogram. No transvalvular gradient was revealed in any patient. A significant reduction of the right ventricular end-diastolic dimensions was noted as well (from 54 +/- 7.1 mm to 40 +/- 7.5 mm, P tricuspid valve repair in case of severe traumatic tricuspid valve insufficiency, leading to very satisfactory mid-term results even in the presence of complex lesions or dilatation and deterioration of the right ventricle.

  11. Cleaning the Soil from Zinc Using Red Clovers “Arimaičiai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Mikalajūnė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc as a nutrition element is required to plants in small quantities to maintain normal functions of metabolism mechanisms. Our work analyses the efficiency of red clovers “Arimaičiai” for cleaning zinc from the soil contaminated with zinc under laboratory conditions. Seeds were sown in three differently polluted soils: clean soil, once contaminated with zinc and periodically contaminated with zinc soil. Zinc concentration in one time contaminated soil was 45 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytoremediation, the remained zinc concentration in the soil was 3 times lower comparing with the initial concentration. It was also determined that under such conditions, the uptake of red clovers made approximately 65% of zinc. Permanent soil contamination with zinc increased concentration before phytoremediation up to 80 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytoremediation, zinc concentration was determined to be 1.9 times lower. Otherwise, the soil was permanently contaminated with larger zinc quantities and after application of which reached 300 mg/kg. In this case, following half a year of phytoremediation, zinc concentration in the soil was 1.7 times lower comparing with the initial concentration after contamination. It was determined that the uptake of red clovers made approximately 17% of zinc.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...... in the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested manure had...

  13. Production of N{sub 2}O in grass-clover pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and in soil N{sub 2}O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N{sub 2}) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N{sub 2} lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N{sub 2}O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N{sub 2}O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N{sub 2} as a source of N{sub 2}O. 2: examining the link between N{sub 2}O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N{sub 2}O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 {+-} 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N{sub 2} was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N{sub 2}O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m{sup -2} was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised

  14. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, in early 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients and performance of maize. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four levels of crop ...

  16. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and ...

  17. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  18. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  19. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  20. Strategies For Sustainable Conservation And Use Of Legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies For Sustainable Conservation And Use Of Legume Genetic Resources In Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Science ... Strategic development of conservation technologies in plant genetic resources (PGR) is the backbone for agricultural development, food security and sustainable livelihood, now and for the future.

  1. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soyabean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with 32 P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soyabean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding). (author)

  2. Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2010-02-01

    Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body.

  3. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume-rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops.

  4. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, O P; Prasad, R; Subbiah, B V [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi. Nuclear Research Lab.

    1977-09-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soybean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with /sup 32/P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soybean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding).

  5. Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors

  6. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  7. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Abstract. Adoption studies on fodders legume technologies have shown that spread of the technology is ... A tobit model was used to analyse the data to get the magnitude of the effects of factors affecting .... level of education of the farmer, position of the farmer in the .... Assessing the early stages of adoption of fodder tree.

  8. Emergence of forage legume seedlings influenced by water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergence of forage legume seedlings influenced by water potential and soil strength. DMG Njarui, LM Bahnisch, B O'Hagan, B So. Abstract. No Abstract Available E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 2003 69(1), 29-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Rhizobia inoculant, a product of Kenya, and its profitability in smallholder farms. Data were collected from ... of the inoculants use and gross margin analysis to examine profitability. The area under the .... the effects of various factors on the extent of. BIOFIX® use. ..... little information, resulting in reduced adoption of legume ...

  10. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  11. Joseph Clover and the cobra: a tale of snake envenomation and attempted resuscitation with bellows in London, 1852.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C

    2010-07-01

    The Industrial Revolution saw the creation of many new jobs, but probably none more curious than that of zookeeper. The London Zoological Gardens, established for members in 1828, was opened to the general public in 1847. In 1852 the "Head Keeper in the Serpent Room", Edward Horatio Girling, spent a night farewelling a friend departing for Australia. He arrived at work in an inebriated state and was bitten on the face by a cobra that he was handling in a less than sensible manner. He was taken by cab to University College Hospital where he was resuscitated by a number of doctors, including Joseph Clover then the resident medical officer to the hospital and later to become the leading anaesthetist in London. Clover recorded this event in his diary along with the resuscitation method used. The patient eventually died but his treatment created a flurry of correspondence in the medical and lay press. Interestingly, the attempted resuscitation was with bellows, which had been abandoned by the Royal Humane Society twenty years earlier Clover records other cases of resuscitation with bellows at University College Hospital during his time as a resident medical officer there (1848 to 1853). There is a casebook belonging to Joseph Clover in the Geoffrey Kaye Museum, in Melbourne. This story is one of the many interesting stories uncovered during a study of this book and Clover's other personal papers.

  12. The suitability of non-legume cover crops for inorganic soil nitrogen immobilisation in the transition period to an organic no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rühlemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate non-legume cover crops for growing no-till grain legumes in organic farming systems. Evaluated cover crops should be able to suppress weed growth, reduce plant available nitrogen in the soil and produce large amounts of biomass with slow N mineralisation. Six non-legume species; spring rye (Secale cereale L., black oat (Avena sativa L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., white mustard (Sinapis alba L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and hemp (Cannabis sativa L. were tested. Plots with organic fertiliser (50 kg N ha−1 and without fertiliser incorporation at three locations in south-east Germany were trialled and the cover crops’ ability to produce biomass and accumulate N in plant compartments was evaluated. The N mineralisation from stem and leaf material was simulated using the STICS model. The biomass production ranged from 0.95 to 7.73 Mg ha−1, with fertiliser increasing the total biomass at locations with low-N status. Sunflower consistently displayed large biomass and N accumulation at all locations and fertiliser variations, although not always significantly more than other species. Most N was stored in sunflower leaf material, which can be easily mineralised making it less suited as cover crop before no-till sown spring grain legumes. Rye, which produced slightly less biomass, but accumulated more N in the stem biomass, would be better suited than sunflower in this type of system. The N mineralisation simulation from rye biomass indicated long N immobilisation periods potentially improving weed suppression within no-till sown legume cash crops.

  13. Biological activity of clovers - free radical scavenging ability and antioxidant action of six Trifolium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Kowalska, Iwona; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Clovers were chosen on the basis of traditional medicine recommendations, agricultural value, or available information on their promising chemical profiles. This study evaluates and compares free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of six clover species: Trifolium alexandrinum L. (Leguminosae), Trifolium fragiferum L., Trifolium hybridum L., Trifolium incarnatum L., Trifolium resupinatum var. majus Boiss., and Trifolium resupinatum var. resupinatum L. Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts (1.5-50 µg/ml) was estimated by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (ABTS(•)) radicals. The Trifolium extract effects on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma were determined by the reduction of ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) radicals, as well as with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. The UPLC analysis of chemical profiles of the examined extracts showed the presence of three or four groups of phenolic substances, including phenolic acids, clovamides, isoflavones, and other flavonoids. The measurements of free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of the examined clover extracts revealed the strongest effect for T. alexandrinum. Furthermore, antioxidant activity assays in human plasma have shown protective effects of all extracts against peroxynitrite-induced reduction of total antioxidant capacity. Trifolium plants may be a rich source of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties. The examined extracts displayed free radical scavenging action and partly protected blood plasma against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress; however, the beneficial effects of T. alexandrinum and T. incarnatum seem to be slightly higher.

  14. Effect of aditive supplementation to ensiled red clover on voluntary intake, digestibility and N balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine effect of additive supplementation to red clover silage on ad libitum intake of fresh silage and dry matter (DM, in vivo digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM, OM in DM (D-value, crude protein (CP and nitrogen (N balance. Red clover was harvested at 60% bloom stage. It was ensiled into round bales without an additive (CD and with an additive supplementation (CDA in the amount of 2 L t-1 fresh material. Statistically lower (P<0.001 DM content was recorded in CD (405 g kg-1 fresh sample in comparison with CDA (665 g ST kg-1 fresh sample. Statistically higher CP content (P<0.001 was recorded in CD (127 g kg-1 ST in comparison with CDA (110 g SP kg-1 ST. CD had lower pH (P<0.001 (4.9 in comparison with CDA (5.2. No differences were recorded in NH3 between treatments. Ad libitum intake of fresh silage and silage DM was higher (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively in CD in comparison with CDA. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, D-value and N balance were not different between treatments. It was concluded that the positive effect of additive supplementation to red clover silage on chemical composition, ad libitum intake, digestibility and N balance was not recorded due to applied ensiling technology as additive can improve feeding value of roughage, but it is not a replacement for good management practices.

  15. The Study of Perennial Grasses and Legumes Mixtures in the Environmental Conditions Part 1: The Evolution of Mixtures Productivity from Someşelor Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin-Benone Pleşa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lately it is a high interest in the establishing of temporary grasslands, these being considered a valuable source of fodder from the quantitative and qualitative point of view. Temporary grasslands can be established instead of degraded permanent grasslands or in arable lands. In the paper are presented the results of the research which took place in 2010 and 2011, regarding the fodder evolution of a double factor experience; A factor – mixtures (8 complex mixtures of perennial grasses and legumes and one alfalfa pure crop, considered as a witness,B factor – levels of fertilization (0N0P2O5, 60N70P2O5,120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1. In 2010 the highest productions (13.16 SU t·ha-1 were obtained at all the cycles from the 5th mixture composed from red clover and 4 species of grasses Trifolium pratense L., Dactylis glomerata L., Festulolium Asch. & Graebn., Phleum pratense L., Lolium perenne L.. In 2011, mixture number 3, recognized as being recommended for the forest steppe area and composed from Lotus corniculatus L.,Onobrychis viciifolia Scop., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca pratensis Huds., Bromus inermis Leyss, presented the highest productions (4.82 t·ha-1 for the 60N70P2O5 and 120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1 levels of fertilization.

  16. Genotyping-by-Sequencing and Its Exploitation for Forage and Cool-Season Grain Legume Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Paolo; Nazzicari, Nelson; Wei, Yanling; Pecetti, Luciano; Brummer, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) may drastically reduce genotyping costs compared with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platforms. However, it may require optimization for specific crops to maximize the number of available markers. Exploiting GBS-generated markers may require optimization, too (e.g., to cope with missing data). This study aimed (i) to compare elements of GBS protocols on legume species that differ for genome size, ploidy, and breeding system, and (ii) to show successful applications and challenges of GBS data on legume species. Preliminary work on alfalfa and Medicago truncatula suggested the greater interest of ApeKI over PstI:MspI DNA digestion. We compared KAPA and NEB Taq polymerases in combination with primer extensions that were progressively more selective on restriction sites, and found greater number of polymorphic SNP loci in pea, white lupin and diploid alfalfa when adopting KAPA with a non-selective primer. This protocol displayed a slight advantage also for tetraploid alfalfa (where SNP calling requires higher read depth). KAPA offered the further advantage of more uniform amplification than NEB over fragment sizes and GC contents. The number of GBS-generated polymorphic markers exceeded 6,500 in two tetraploid alfalfa reference populations and a world collection of lupin genotypes, and 2,000 in different sets of pea or lupin recombinant inbred lines. The predictive ability of GBS-based genomic selection was influenced by the genotype missing data threshold and imputation, as well as by the genomic selection model, with the best model depending on traits and data sets. We devised a simple method for comparing phenotypic vs. genomic selection in terms of predicted yield gain per year for same evaluation costs, whose application to preliminary data for alfalfa and pea in a hypothetical selection scenario for each crop indicated a distinct advantage of genomic selection. PMID:28536584

  17. Genotyping-by-Sequencing and Its Exploitation for Forage and Cool-Season Grain Legume Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS may drastically reduce genotyping costs compared with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array platforms. However, it may require optimization for specific crops to maximize the number of available markers. Exploiting GBS-generated markers may require optimization, too (e.g., to cope with missing data. This study aimed (i to compare elements of GBS protocols on legume species that differ for genome size, ploidy, and breeding system, and (ii to show successful applications and challenges of GBS data on legume species. Preliminary work on alfalfa and Medicago truncatula suggested the greater interest of ApeKI over PstI:MspI DNA digestion. We compared KAPA and NEB Taq polymerases in combination with primer extensions that were progressively more selective on restriction sites, and found greater number of polymorphic SNP loci in pea, white lupin and diploid alfalfa when adopting KAPA with a non-selective primer. This protocol displayed a slight advantage also for tetraploid alfalfa (where SNP calling requires higher read depth. KAPA offered the further advantage of more uniform amplification than NEB over fragment sizes and GC contents. The number of GBS-generated polymorphic markers exceeded 6,500 in two tetraploid alfalfa reference populations and a world collection of lupin genotypes, and 2,000 in different sets of pea or lupin recombinant inbred lines. The predictive ability of GBS-based genomic selection was influenced by the genotype missing data threshold and imputation, as well as by the genomic selection model, with the best model depending on traits and data sets. We devised a simple method for comparing phenotypic vs. genomic selection in terms of predicted yield gain per year for same evaluation costs, whose application to preliminary data for alfalfa and pea in a hypothetical selection scenario for each crop indicated a distinct advantage of genomic selection.

  18. Characterisation of a Compton suppressed Clover detector for high energy gamma rays (=<11MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Sarkar, M.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Raut, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, A.; Sinha, Mandira; Ray, Maitreyi; Goswami, A.; Roy, Subinit; Basu, P.; Majumder, H.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectra of two (p,γ) resonances have been utilised for the characterisation of the Clover detector at energies beyond 5MeV. Apart from the efficiency and the resolution of the detector, the shapes of the full energy peaks as well as the nature of the escape peaks which are also very crucial at higher energies have been analysed with special attention. Proper gain matching in software have checked deterioration in the energy resolution and distortion in the peak shape due to addback. The addback factors show sharp increasing trend even at energies around 11MeV

  19. Characterisation of a Compton suppressed Clover detector for high energy gamma rays (=<11MeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha Sarkar, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)]. E-mail: maitrayee.sahasarkar@saha.ac.in; Kshetri, Ritesh [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Raut, Rajarshi [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Mukherjee, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Sinha, Mandira [Gurudas College, Narkeldanga, Kolkata-700054 (India); Ray, Maitreyi [Behala College, Parnashree, Kolkata-700060 (India); Goswami, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Basu, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Majumder, H. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Dasmahapatra, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectra of two (p,{gamma}) resonances have been utilised for the characterisation of the Clover detector at energies beyond 5MeV. Apart from the efficiency and the resolution of the detector, the shapes of the full energy peaks as well as the nature of the escape peaks which are also very crucial at higher energies have been analysed with special attention. Proper gain matching in software have checked deterioration in the energy resolution and distortion in the peak shape due to addback. The addback factors show sharp increasing trend even at energies around 11MeV.

  20. Nucleon form factors and structure functions from Nf=2 Clover fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.; Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.

    2010-12-01

    We give an update on our ongoing efforts to compute the nucleon's form factors and moments of structure functions using N f =2 flavours of non-perturbatively improved Clover fermions. We focus on new results obtained on gauge configurations where the pseudo-scalar meson mass is in the range of 170-270 MeV. We compare our results with various estimates obtained from chiral effective theories since we have some overlap with the quark mass region where results from such theories are believed to be applicable. (orig.)

  1. Short-term residual N unaffected by forbs in grass-clover mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Cong, Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    We determined the effect on residual nitrogen (N) of including forbs (chicory, ribwort plantain and caraway) in perennial ryegrass-red clover mixtures. Although soil N inputs during the grassland phase differed markedly between mixtures, in a pot experiment we found no differences...... in the potentially mineralizable N of the soil or in the dry matter production and N content of the spring barley test crop. The fertilizer value of the grassland mixtures corresponded to 10 g N/m2, irrespective of forb inclusion. Thus, the inclusion of nonlegume forbs did not negatively affect short-term residual N...

  2. Effects of field characteristics on abundance of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) and seed yield in red clover fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Kirsten Haugaard; Dupont, Yoko L.

    2010-01-01

    Red clover is a key floral ressource for bumblebees (Bombus spp.).We here investigate variation within and among red clover fields in species richness and abundance of Bombus spp. in addition to Apis mellifera. Bumblebee individuals were grouped into the following functional groups, based on castes...... and tongue length: (1) all queens, (2) all workers, (3) short-tongued workers and (4) long-tongued workers. In 14 study fields, no spatial or diurnal within-field differences were found in abundances of bee groups. However, seasonal differences were detected. On average 6.3±0.6 Bombus spp. were observed...

  3. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  4. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume......–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions...... the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years). BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6–0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping...

  5. Trade-offs between economic and environmental impacts of introducing legumes into cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eReckling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2 % of the arable land and more than 70 % of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 % and 33 % and N fertilizer use by 24 % and 38 % in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22 % in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers.

  6. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adapting legume crops to climate change using genomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Derazmahalleh, Mahsa; Bayer, Philipp E; Hane, James K; Babu, Valliyodan; Nguyen, Henry T; Nelson, Matthew N; Erskine, William; Varshney, Rajeev K; Papa, Roberto; Edwards, David

    2018-03-30

    Our agricultural system and hence food security is threatened by combination of events, such as increasing population, the impacts of climate change and the need to a more sustainable development. Evolutionary adaptation may help some species to overcome environmental changes through new selection pressures driven by climate change. However, success of evolutionary adaptation is dependent on various factors, one of which is the extent of genetic variation available within species. Genomic approaches provide an exceptional opportunity to identify genetic variation that can be employed in crop improvement programs. In this review, we illustrate some of the routinely used genomics-based methods as well as recent breakthroughs, which facilitate assessment of genetic variation and discovery of adaptive genes in legumes. While additional information is needed, the current utility of selection tools indicate a robust ability to utilize existing variation among legumes to address the challenges of climate uncertainty. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil macrofauna in wooded pasture with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusimar Lamarte Gonzaga Galindo da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands afforestation aims at adding different soil uses in a way they become profitable for their owners. As such handling aims at minimizing impacts, the current study had as its goal the use of soil macrofauna in order to evaluate legume afforestation effects on the soil, regardless the depth. Thus, nitrogen fixing species were inserted onto grassland areas and the macrofauna collection was performed 6 years after their planting in the 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20.30cm layers, in winter and summer. Leguminous influence was different between depths and times of the year. It mostly favors communities under "Mimosa" Genus treetops. Besides, the effects from climatic seasonal variations on invertebrates were mitigated by the implementation of such legume trees

  9. Potential rapd markers for population studies in tree legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.M.; Ramasubramanian, T.; Mohankumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    RAPDs were quite efficient in bringing out the diversity at DNA level among non-edible legumes viz., Acacia nilotica, Adenanthera pavonina, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecolobium dulce, Clitoria ternatea and Pongamia pinnata. The RAPD primer index reveals the information content of the RAPD primer per se. Of the 82 primers tested, OPE 8, OPI 6, OPL 2, OPL 16, OPI 18, OPI 13, OPI 14, OPP 1, OPE 20 and OPI 4 with comparatively higher primer index were more informative and can be used for further DNA finger printing and population studies in tree legumes. CTAB protocol was found to be superior in isolating genomic DNA of good quality. The 260/280 ratios varied between 1.70 and 2.09. Though the genomic DNA isolated by potassium acetate method was found to be intact in 0.8% agarose gel, the yield was significantly lower than the modified CTAB method. (author)

  10. Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigi, Philippe; Zhu, Jun; Young, J Peter W; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Varela, Alejandro; Guillamon, Eva; Cabellos, Blanca; Burbano, Carmen; Gomez-Fernandez, Jose; de Mercado, Eduardo; Gomez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Cuadrado, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive compo...

  12. Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulter, D.; Evans, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel legume-like lectin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A legume-type lectin (L-lectin) gene of the red algae Gracilaria fisheri (GFL) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of GFL was 1714 bp and contained a 1542 bp open reading frame encoding 513 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.5 kDa. Analysis of the putative ...

  14. Inactivation Methods of Trypsin Inhibitor in Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Gaxiola, Sara; Chuck-Hernández, Cristina; Serna Saldívar, Sergio O

    2018-01-01

    Seed legumes have played a major role as a crop worldwide, being cultivated on about 12% to 15% of Earth's arable land; nevertheless, their use is limited by, among other things, the presence of several antinutritional factors (ANFs - naturally occurring metabolites that the plant produces to protect itself from pest attacks.) Trypsin inhibitors (TIs) are one of the most relevant ANFs because they reduce digestion and absorption of dietary proteins. Several methods have been developed in order to inactivate TIs, and of these, thermal treatments are the most commonly used. They cause loss of nutrients, affect functional properties, and require high amounts of energy. Given the above, new processes have emerged to improve the nutritional quality of legumes while trying to solve the problems caused by the use of thermal treatments. This review examines and discusses the methods developed by researchers to inactivate TI present in legumes and their effects over nutritional and functional properties. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  16. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  17. A Proteomic View on the Role of Legume Symbiotic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Legume plants are key elements in sustainable agriculture and represent a significant source of plant-based protein for humans and animal feed worldwide. One specific feature of the family is the ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. Additionally, like most vascular flowering plants, legumes are able to form a mutualistic endosymbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. These beneficial associations can enhance the plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Understanding how symbiotic interactions influence and increase plant stress tolerance are relevant questions toward maintaining crop yield and food safety in the scope of climate change. Proteomics offers numerous tools for the identification of proteins involved in such responses, allowing the study of sub-cellular localization and turnover regulation, as well as the discovery of post-translational modifications (PTMs). The current work reviews the progress made during the last decades in the field of proteomics applied to the study of the legume-Rhizobium and -AM symbioses, and highlights their influence on the plant responses to pathogens and abiotic stresses. We further discuss future perspectives and new experimental approaches that are likely to have a significant impact on the field including peptidomics, mass spectrometric imaging, and quantitative proteomics. PMID:28769967

  18. Comparative metabolomics of drought acclimation in model and forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego H; Schwabe, Franziska; Erban, Alexander; Udvardi, Michael K; Kopka, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Water limitation has become a major concern for agriculture. Such constraints reinforce the urgent need to understand mechanisms by which plants cope with water deprivation. We used a non-targeted metabolomic approach to explore plastic systems responses to non-lethal drought in model and forage legume species of the Lotus genus. In the model legume Lotus. japonicus, increased water stress caused gradual increases of most of the soluble small molecules profiled, reflecting a global and progressive reprogramming of metabolic pathways. The comparative metabolomic approach between Lotus species revealed conserved and unique metabolic responses to drought stress. Importantly, only few drought-responsive metabolites were conserved among all species. Thus we highlight a potential impediment to translational approaches that aim to engineer traits linked to the accumulation of compatible solutes. Finally, a broad comparison of the metabolic changes elicited by drought and salt acclimation revealed partial conservation of these metabolic stress responses within each of the Lotus species, but only few salt- and drought-responsive metabolites were shared between all. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to the current insights into legume water stress physiology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Tropical forage legumes for environmental benefits: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schultze-Kraft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock production in the tropics, particularly when based on pastures, is frequently blamed for being detrimental to the environment, allegedly contributing to: (1 degradation and destruction of ecosystems, including degradation and loss of soil, water and biodiversity; and (2 climate change (global warming. In this paper we argue that, rather than being detrimental, tropical forage legumes can have a positive impact on the environment, mainly due to key attributes that characterize the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family: (1 symbiotic nitrogen fixation; (2 high nutritive value; (3 deep-reaching tap-root system; (4 wide taxonomic and genetic diversity; and (5 presence of particular secondary metabolites. Although there are also potential negative aspects, such as soil acidification and the risks of introduced legumes becoming invasive weeds, we submit that legumes have potential to contribute significantly to sustainable intensification of livestock production in the tropics, along with the provision of ecosystem services. To further assess, document and realize this potential, research for development needs in a range of areas are indicated.

  20. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  1. Geochemical Characterization of Copper Tailings after Legume Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Perry T. Domingo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the geochemistry of mine tailings is important in understanding the challenges in establishing vegetation cover on tailings dumps and mined out areas. In this study, the mineralogy and trace element composition of copper tailings were examined. Two legume species, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema molle, were utilized to investigate the possible effects of these plants in the geochemical development of mine tailings into soil-like material. The initial mineralogical and chemical analysis of the tailings samples indicated poor conditions for plant growth—minimal levels of major nutrients and organic matter as well as elevated copper concentrations. Despite these conditions, the two legume species exhibited good growth rates. Both legumes have likewise signif icantly reduced heavy metal concentrations in the tailings, indicating the possibility of metal hyperaccumulation in the plant tissue. The mineral composition has been retained even after revegetation; nevertheless, breakdown of primary minerals and subsequent formation of clay minerals were detected. These results provide insights on the transformation of toxic materials into habitable substrates for sustained plant growth.

  2. Effect of microgravity on stress ethylene and carbon dioxide production in sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Odom, William R.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The study of higher plant growth and development in the microgravity (micro-g) environment continues to be a challenge. This is in part a result of the available flight qualified hardware with restrictive closed gas environments. This point is underscored by considering that gas exchange of seedlings grown in microgravity may be further limited owing to a thicker layer of water wicked onto the roots and to the absence of convective mixing. We hypothesized that seedlings grown under such conditions will experience greater hypoxia in microgravity than at Earth gravity, and thus produce greater stress ethylene. We compared flight and ground samples of sweet clover seedlings grown in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) during STS-57 and found them to contain extremely high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and stress ethylene. There were time dependent increases for both gases, and seedling growth was greatly inhibited. We repeated these experiments aboard STS-60 using modified chambers which increased, by fifty fold, the air available to the developing seedlings. Sweet clover seed germination and subsequent seedling growth to eight days within the FPA modified with a gas permeable membrane is not compromised by the microgravity environment.

  3. NUTRITIVE VALUES OF SOME ANNUAL CLOVERS (Trifolium sp. AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A TEKELI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted between the years of 2001-2002 in the experimental area and laboratory of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty in Trakya University, Tekirdağ (Turkey. Five different clovers [Persian (Trifolium resupinatum L. var. majus Boiss., Mediterranean (T. spumosum L., narrow-leaved (T. angustifolium L., hedgehog (T. echinatum M. Bieb. and lappa (T. lappaceum L. clovers] were used. Each plot consisted of 8 rows with a length of 5 m. Row spacing of 30 cm and sowing rate of 10 kg ha-1 were used. Sowing times were on 2.25.2001 and on 2.28.2002. Plots were not irrigated and fertilized after sown and harvest. One cut was taken in both years at 4 growing stages such as pre-bud, pre-bloom, 50% bloom and full-bloom. The central 1 m-2 sections was cut at ground level for dry matter. Approximately 500g samples were dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and stored for one day at room temperature then found dry matter. Crude protein (% was determined by Kjeldahl method.

  4. Estimating impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R N; Green, Ole; Kristensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Steer and a 15 m3 Kimadan slurry tanker on two axels, was used to perform the simulated traffic treatment on the parcels. The different traffic intensities are combinations of different tire pressure (1,0 and 2,5 bar), tire load (3000 and 6000 kg), time of year and number of passes (variating from 0 to 8...... components must be determined.   The objective of this paper was to measure yield affects on clover-grass as a consequence of different traffic intensities. The experiments were carried out in the context of a full scale field trial. A 14 hectare full scale grass-clover field trial with 24 different traffic......). The harvesting procedure was preformed with a Haldrup plot harvester modified with RTK-GPS. This paper shows the initial results from measuring the yield affects References M.A. Hamza, M.A.; Anderson, W.K 2005. Soil compaction in cropping systems: A review of the nature, causes and possible solutionsRaper , R...

  5. Morphological traits and yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. genotypes with varying inflorescence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two red clover breeding strains with elongated flower heads, developed by one of the authors (H.Góral, were studied for forage and seed yield and compared to the standard cultivar 'Nike'. In addition, six morphological shoot traits were measured and their interrelations were computed. The leaf area index (LAI of successive cuts in two harvest years was determined on the basis of shoot density and leaf area of individual shoots. All three genotypes exhibited a high leaf area on shoots and a very high forage productivity. Among the morphological traits only shoot height could be a good selective criterion because it is easily measured, is significantly associated with shoot weight and shoot leaf area and its variation is low. Both strains, particularly the one with longer inflorescences belong to short-lived red clover forms giving satis factory forage and seed yields in the first harvest year. Depending on the strain the number of seeds per elongated inflorescence in the first harvest year was higher by 92 and 42% compared to that of a standard cultivar.

  6. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  7. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marciano Marra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T. Four of the strains are used as inoculants for cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Bradyrhizobium sp. UFLA 03-84; Bradyrhizobium elkani INPA 03-11B and Bradyrhizobium japonicum BR3267 or for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris (Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Rhizobium etli UFLA 02-100 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 316C10a are also efficient nodulators of beans and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T nodulates on Mimosa pudica. Two experiments, with solid and liquid media, were performed to determine whether the strains were able to solubilise CaHPO4, Al(H2PO43 or FePO4.2H2O. On solid GELP medium none of the strains dissolved FePO4.2H2O, but LMG 1222, UFLA 03-84 and CIAT 899 solubilised CaHPO4 particularly well. These strains, along with LMG 19424 and BR 3267, were also able to increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. The strains CIAT 899 and UFLA 02-100 were the only legume nodulating bacteria able to solubilise the other phosphate sources in liquid media, dissolving both CaHPO4 and FePO4.2H2O. There was a negative correlation between the pH of the culture medium and the concentration of soluble phosphate when the phosphorus source was CaHPO4 or FePO4.2H2O. The contribution of these strains to increasing the phosphorus nutrition of legumes and non-legume plant species should be investigated further by in vivo experiments.

  8. Study of the contamination of forages and legumes by lead and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcarte, E; Impens, R; Kirchmann, R; Nangniot, P; Fagniart, E

    1975-01-01

    A description of the methods used by the authors for their study of contamination of the environment and of the food chain by heavy metals is presented with particular reference to lead, cadmium and zinc. The first phase consists of taking samples, in industrial and urban areas and in the vicinity of highways, of soil and various common plants, including Plantago major L. (greater plantain), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Trifolium repens L. (white clover) and Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot). Concentrations of metal substances in these samples are measured by means of oscillopolarography at a set voltage. Risk areas are thus demarcated where fodder, vegetable and fruit samples are taken regularly throughout the vegetation period. A watch is kept on the progress and extent of Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co and Cu fall-out in vegetable gardens and orchards in the vicinity of smelters in the Meuse valley. The results are compared with those obtained in the suburbs of Brussels near highway intersections and in a control area, away from any source of pollution. These results reveal that there is a serious risk of chronic poisoning in human beings and animals which feed on contaminated plants. Parallel laboratory tests are being carried out on the absorption, retention and toxicity of these metal substances in plants. The results obtained using stable lead and /sup 210/lead in Zea mays L. (maize) are discussed. Finally, dairy cattle are being experimentally fed on fodder which has been artificially enriched with stable lead and /sup 210/lead. The aim is to calculate the rate of alimentary lead transfer to the milk, urine and feces.

  9. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    and D, respectively. TMR forage DM consisted of 2/3 of one of the respective grass-clover silages and 1/3 maize silage, and concentrate (soya meal and wheat) proportion of DM was 20% (low) or 50% (high). Methane emissions from the cows were measured 20-22 hours in one of four chambers working after...

  10. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of berseem clover plants subjected to water stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saia

    Full Text Available Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment.

  11. A study of the wet deposit and foliar uptake of iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1977-12-01

    Foliar uptake of iodine and strontium by rye-grass and clover was studied as a function of aspersion intensities. At the same time, the contribution of root sorption to foliar uptake was measured. The effective half-lives of radionuclides of standing and harvested grass were also determined together with their uptake under the action of demineralized water aspersion [fr

  12. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...

  13. Nitrate leaching in maize after cultivation of differently managed grass-clover leys on coarse sand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    When grass-clover leys have been ploughed nitrate leaching may increase. However, management of leys before or after ploughing may affect the leaching risk. We examined the effect of cultivating a six year ley, which the last two years had been treated differently (grazing only; spring cut follow...

  14. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of berseem clover plants subjected to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Amato, Gaetano; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore; Giambalvo, Dario; Ruisi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N) fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season) on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions) or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment.

  15. Uptake and Distribution of Added Selenite and Selenate by Barley and Red Clover as Influenced by Sulphur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1973-01-01

    The uptake of added Se from selenite and selenate by barley and red clover was investigated in a pot experiment. Much more of selenate than of selenite was taken up but the Se concentrations in the plants declined more with time when selenate was the source. Increasing sulphate addition to the soil...

  16. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100),...

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Involvement of P3N-PIPO in Overcoming Recessive Resistance against Clover Yellow Vein Virus in Pea Carrying the cyv1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Hee; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Atsumi, Go; Shimada, Ryoko; Hisa, Yusuke; Naito, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In pea carrying cyv1, a recessive gene for resistance to Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), ClYVV isolate Cl-no30 was restricted to the initially infected cells, whereas isolate 90-1 Br2 overcame this resistance. We mapped the region responsible for breaking of cyv1-mediated resistance by examining infection of cyv1 pea with chimeric viruses constructed from parts of Cl-no30 and 90-1 Br2. The breaking of resistance was attributed to the P3 cistron, which is known to produce two proteins: P3, from the main open reading frame (ORF), and P3N-PIPO, which has the N-terminal part of P3 fused to amino acids encoded by a small open reading frame (ORF) called PIPO in the +2 reading frame. We introduced point mutations that were synonymous with respect to the P3 protein but nonsynonymous with respect to the P3N-PIPO protein, and vice versa, into the chimeric viruses. Infection of plants with these mutant viruses revealed that both P3 and P3N-PIPO were involved in overcoming cyv1-mediated resistance. Moreover, P3N-PIPO quantitatively affected the virulence of Cl-no30 in cyv1 pea. Additional expression in trans of the P3N-PIPO derived from Cl-no30, using White clover mosaic virus as a vector, enabled Cl-no30 to move to systemic leaves in cyv1 pea. Susceptible pea plants infected with chimeric ClYVV possessing the P3 cistron of 90-1 Br2, and which were therefore virulent toward cyv1 pea, accumulated more P3N-PIPO than did those infected with Cl-no30, suggesting that the higher level of P3N-PIPO in infected cells contributed to the breaking of resistance by 90-1 Br2. This is the first report showing that P3N-PIPO is a virulence determinant in plants resistant to a potyvirus. PMID:23616656

  18. Preferential flow, nitrogen transformations and 15N balance under urine-affected areas of irrigated and non-irrigated clover-based pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakro, Naser; Dillon, Peter

    1995-12-01

    Urine-affected areas can lead to considerable losses of N by leaching, ammonia volatilisation and denitrification from dairy pastures in the southeast of South Australia. Potable groundwater supplies are considered to have become contaminated by nitrate as a result of leaching from these leguminous pastures. Dairy cow urine, labelled with 15N urea, was applied to micro-plots and mini-lysimeters installed in two adjacent irrigated (white clover-rye grass) and non-irrigated (subterranean clover-annual grasses) paddocks of a dairy farm on four occasions representing different seasonal conditions. These experiments allowed measurement of nitrogen transformations, recovery of 15N in the pasture and soil, and leaching below various depths. Gaseous losses were calculated from the nitrogen balance. The results of the four experiments showed that within a day of urine application up to 40% of the applied urinary-N was leached below a depth of 150 mm as a result of macropore flow in the irrigated paddock, and up to 24% in the non-irrigated one. After application to the irrigated paddock 17% of the urinary-N moved immediately below 300 mm but only 2% below the 450-mm depth. The urinary-N remaining in the soil was converted from urea to ammonium within a day regardless of season. Within the first 7 days of application six times more nitrate was produced in summer than in winter. This has obvious implications for leaching potential. Leaching of 15N from the top 150 mm of soil, following urine applications in all seasons, was between 41% and 62% of the applied 15N in the irrigated paddock and 25-51% in the non-irrigated paddock. However, leaching losses measured at depths of 300 or 450 mm were smaller by a factor of 2-4. The leaching loss of 15N applied in spring in both paddocks was 41% below 150 mm and 12% below 450 mm. Recovery of 15N from the soil-plant system in the 450-nm deep lysimeters was ˜60% of that applied. Estimated ammonia was ˜9% of applied 15N with no paddock

  19. The role of transgenerational effects in adaptation of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens) to drought and herbivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Dumalasová, Veronika; Rosenthal, J.; Skuhrovec, J.; Latzel, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2017), s. 345-361 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : jasmonic acid * epigenetics * plant behaviour Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  20. Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer or other hormone-sensitive cancers. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  1. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e. Medicago truncatula (Mt, Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv and Glycine max (Gm. Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the farthest distance between Mt and Pv in 6 legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reported some interesting observations e.g. no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

  2. Intercropping Maize With Legumes for Sustainable Highland Maize Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirek Punyalue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residue burning to prepare soil for maize growing deprives the soil of both protective cover and organic matter, and it exacerbates environmental issues such as Southeast Asia's haze problem. This paper reports on a study that evaluated the effectiveness of maize/legume intercropping as an alternative to maize cultivation with residue burning. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, mung bean (V. radiata, rice bean (V. umbellata, and lablab (Lablab purpureus were sown into a standing maize crop 30 days before harvest, and the results were compared with a maize crop grown using residue burning as the method for land preparation at Pang Da Agricultural Station in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in a replicated trial conducted over 3 growing seasons from 2012 to 2014. Intercropping increased maize grain yield by 31–53% and left 70–170% more residue containing 113–230% more nitrogen than the maize sown after residue burning, depending on the legume, and decreased weed dry weight by two-thirds after 2 seasons. Soil biodiversity was enriched by the intercrops, with a doubling in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root-zone soil and increased abundance, diversity (Shannon index, and richness of the soil macrofauna. The abundance of soil animals increased with crop residue dry weight (r = 0.90, P < 0.05 and nitrogen content (r = 0.98, P < 0.01. The effect of intercropping on maize grain yield and accumulation of residue and nitrogen were then confirmed in a participatory experiment involving farmers in 2 highland villages in the Phrao and Chiang Dao districts of Chiang Mai Province with maize and rice bean in 2015. The effects of maize/legume intercropping—increased nitrogen accumulation and crop residue, enhanced soil biodiversity, suppression of weeds, and protection of the soil surface, which enabled the maize to be sown without land clearing with fire—should all contribute to sustainable highland maize production.

  3. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Measured and simulated performance of Compton-suppressed TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Maharaj, R.; Morton, A. C.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Tests of the performance of a 32-fold segmented HPGe clover detector coupled to a 20-fold segmented Compton-suppression shield, which form a prototype element of the TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS), have been made. Peak-to-total ratios and relative efficiencies have been measured for a variety of γ-ray energies. These measurements were used to validate a GEANT4 simulation of the TIGRESS detectors, which was then used to create a simulation of the full 12-detector array. Predictions of the expected performance of TIGRESS are presented. These predictions indicate that TIGRESS will be capable, for single 1 MeV γ rays, of absolute detection efficiencies of 17% and 9.4%, and peak-to-total ratios of 54% and 61% for the "high-efficiency" and "optimized peak-to-total" configurations of the array, respectively.

  5. Response of irradiated Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) to water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamideldin, N; Hussein, O.S

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is one of the main leguminous forage crops in Egypt. Gamma rays represent one of the important physical activators for growth and productivity. The seed were irradiated using three doses of gamma radiation (100,200 and 300 Gy) and two levels of irrigation (10 and 20 days) after germination. Gamma radiation treatments stimulated growth criteria in normal irrigation treatment, while drought irrigation treatment stunted these criteria. The most significant dose was 100 Gy, which stimulated growth criteria, chlorophylls a , b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids in both irrigation treatments used and growth hormones under drought condition. Drought stress and gamma irradiation increase amino acid content and caused change in band concentration of esterase and peroxidase isozyme .Also, 13 protein bands appeared only in treated plant with 100 Gy under drought condition. It could be concluded that the low dose (100 Gy) of gamma irradiation release the effect of drought stress.

  6. New uses of clover-grass mixtures in the structure of fodder crops on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Sláma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clover-grasses in the structure of fodder crops grown on arable soil, especially those with intergeneric hybrids as the main component part, could avert the negative current trend, i.e. further decreasing the area of perennial fodder plants or fodder crops as a whole on arable soil. They have an irreplaceable role in crop sequences and in preserving the cultural character of the countryside, above all due to the fact that they improve soil fertility and microbial life in the soil and that they have an excellent pre-produce value, and, at the same time, they are applied in various farming systems (both conventional and ecological and in various climatic conditions, and agricultural businesses are well equipped for growing, harvesting and storing them. In the Czech Republic, the area of fodder crops grown on arable soil was decreased from 1,019.9 thousand hectares to mere 396.7 thousand hectares between 1980 and 2009, which is 15.6 % of the total area of arable soil whereas perennial fodder plants only take up 8.5 %. Fodder from clover crops and clover-grass growths on arable soil are one of the main resources of voluminous fodder for dairy cows. Most of this fodder is preserved through a fermentation process (silages, hay storage; a smaller part is fed as fresh fodder, or serves for production of hay. Silages made with perennial fodder plants are the most important source of both proteins and other nutrients for ruminants, especially for high-yielding milch cows. The basis of fodder production systems are the conservative elements of the landscape area (geomorphology in combination with the progressive elements (weather conditions, plants and human labour and relict ones, the representative of which is the soil. The fodder production systems in Europe are divided into five main fodder production zones. From this point of view, the areas where short-term clover-grass mixtures are grown on arable soil could be classed with Zone 4, i

  7. Sexual polyploidization in red clover Poliploidização sexual em trevo vermelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Simioni

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Because sexual polyploidization broadens genetic basis and supply plant breeders with more variability for the selection process, it can be useful in red clover breeding. This paper reports results of three crossing cycles, starting from a parental generation of tetraploid red clover plants (female parent, and diploids from the Quiñiqueli cultivar, selected for production of more than 1% of giant pollen grains (male parent aiming to obtain tetraploid plants to be used in red clover breeding programs. Crosses in the next generations were performed by mutual cross-pollinations. Chromosome number chimerism and high pollen sterility were detected in F1, F2 and F3, but there was a trend towards increasing seed production and seed viability along the generations, probably due to successful competition between fertile and sterile gametes. The identification of fertile triploids, as well as their recurrent formation along the generations, indicates that triploid block is not complete in red clover, and that triploids may be successfully used as a bridge for the production of sexual polyploids.Porque a poliploidização sexual amplia a base genética e proporciona aos melhoristas maior variabilidade para o processo de seleção, ela pode ser uma ferramenta útil ao melhoramento de trevo vermelho. Com o objetivo de obter plantas tetraplóides que possam ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento de trevo vermelho, este trabalho relata resultados de três ciclos de cruzamentos, partindo de uma população parental de plantas tetraplóides de trevo vermelho, como genitores femininos, e de diplóides da cultivar Quiñiqueli, selecionados para produção de mais de 1% de grãos de pólen gigantes, como genitores masculinos. Nas outras gerações, os cruzamentos foram realizados por polinizações cruzadas mútuas. Quimerismo para número cromossômico e alta esterilidade de pólen foram detectados em F1 , F2 e F3, mas houve uma tendência para aumento da

  8. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  9. Consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Caroline Diniz Brito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar o estado nutricional e os fatores associados ao consumo alimentar de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes atendidas em um serviço público de referência para assistência pré-natal. Métodos: Estudo transversal e analítico, com 73 gestantes adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, atendidas no Núcleo de Assistência ao Adolescente (NASA do Hospital Materno Infantil, em São Luís, Maranhão. Utilizou-se o Questionário de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar (QFCA, medidas antropométricas (peso, altura, índice de massa corporal - IMC - pré-gravídico e gravídico e questionário socioeconômico. As variáveis dependentes foram o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes, e as independentes foram escolaridade, estado civil, raça, renda, situação demográfica, dados gestacionais e antropométricos. Resultados: Observou-se que 39,7% apresentaram IMC pré-gestacional de desnutrição, 50,7% de eutrofia, e menos de 10% sobrepeso ou obesidade. Para o IMC gestacional, os valores se alteraram, com 27,4% das gestantes desnutridas, 57,5% eutróficas e 15,1% com sobrepeso. Observou-se que os maiores percentuais de adequação para o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foram em adolescentes casadas ou em união estável (65,4%, que não trabalhavam (92,3% e com renda familiar menor que 1 salário mínimo (84,62%. Entretanto, a única associação positiva encontrada com o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foi o início do pré-natal. Conclusão: A maior parte das gestantes avaliadas apresentou-se eutrófica, apesar de cerca de um quarto apresentar baixo peso durante a gestação. Além disso, elas não consumiam uma dieta balanceada, com uma ingestão abaixo do recomendado de FVL. Entre os fatores relacionados a um melhor consumo de FVL destaca-se o início do acompanhamento pré-natal no primeiro trimestre.

  10. Quantitative historical change in bumblebee (Bombus spp. assemblages of red clover fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko L Dupont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flower visiting insects provide a vitally important pollination service for many crops and wild plants. Recent decline of pollinating insects due to anthropogenic modification of habitats and climate, in particular from 1950's onwards, is a major and widespread concern. However, few studies document the extent of declines in species diversity, and no studies have previously quantified local abundance declines. We here make a quantitative assessment of recent historical changes in bumblebee assemblages by comparing contemporary and historical survey data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We take advantage of detailed, quantitative historical survey data from the 1930's on bumblebee (Bombus spp. abundances and species composition in red clover (Trifolium pratense fields, an important floral resource and an attractant of all bumblebee species. We used the historical survey data as a pre-industrialization baseline, and repeated the same sampling protocol at nearly the same localities at present, hence setting up a historical experiment. We detected historical changes in abundances (bees/m(2 of both workers (the "pollinatory units" and queens (effective population size, in addition to species composition. In particular, long-tongued bumblebee species showed consistent and dramatic declines in species richness and abundances throughout the flowering season of red clover, while short-tongued species were largely unaffected. Of 12 Bombus species observed in the 1930's, five species were not observed at present. The latter were all long-tongued, late-emerging species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because bumblebees are important pollinators, historical changes in local bumblebee assemblages are expected to severely affect plant reproduction, in particular long-tubed species, which are pollinated by long-tongued bumblebees.

  11. Bioavailability of Fe and Zn in selected legumes, cereals, meat and milk products consumed in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Prasad, Surendra; Aalbersberg, William

    2016-09-15

    The present study reports contents and the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from 25 selected raw and cooked food samples. The results showed highest variation of Fe content in raw food samples ranging from 2.19 ± 0.04 to 0.93 ± 0.03 mg/100g in legumes. The raw black eye bean, cheese and fish showed high Zn content up to 8.85 ± 0.01, 12.93 ± 0.26 and 172.03 ± 5.09 mg/100g, respectively. Pulses and cereals showed high level of ionizable Fe. Zn bioavailability was quite low in cereals as compared to pulses; 4.02% in yellow split to 17.40% in Bengal gram. Zn bioavailability of 17.40% is in cheese. Fe bioavailability is high in cooked rice 160.60%, white bread 428.30% and milk powder 241.67% showing that Fe bioavailability increased after cooking whereas the lowest in fish 0.84%. The multivariate and cluster analysis categorized studied foods into two main groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  13. N2-fixing legumes are linked to enhanced mineral dissolution and microbiome modulations in Neotropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar; Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Saltonstall, Kristin; Hall, Jefferson; Leake, Jonathan; Beerling, David

    2017-04-01

    Legumes represent the dominant family of many tropical forests with estimates of 120 billion legume trees in the Amazon basin alone. Many rainforest legume trees form symbioses with N2-fixing bacteria. In the process of atmospheric N2-fixation large amounts of nitrogen-rich litter are generated, supplying half of all nitrogen required to support secondary rainforest succession. However, it is unclear how N2-fixers affect the biogeochemical cycling of other essential nutrients by affecting the rates of mineral dissolution and rock weathering. Here we show that N2-fixing legumes in young Panamanian rainforests promote acidification and enhance silicate rock weathering by a factor of 2 compared to non-fixing trees. We report that N2-fixers also associate with enhanced dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing secondary minerals native to tropical oxisols. In legume-rich neighbourhoods, non-fixers benefited from raised weathering rates relative to those of legume-free zones thus suggesting a positive community effect driven by N2-fixers. These changes in weathering potential were tracked by parallel functional and structural changes in the soil and rock microbiomes. Our findings support the view that N2-fixing legumes are central components of biogeochemical cycling, associated with enhanced release of Fe- and Al-bound P and primary mineral products (Mg, Mo). Rainforest legume services therefore bear important implications to short-term C cycling related to forest growth and the long-term C cycle related to marine carbonate deposition fuelled by silicate weathering.

  14. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the

  15. Tropical pasture legumes in southern Africa: A review. | J.H. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clipping trials have indicated that the use of tropical legumes could possibly be extended into drier areas and areas experiencing extremes of temperature. More intensive plant introduction, breeding and evaluation programmes are needed if the full potential of tropical legumes is to be realised. Keywords: adaptation ...

  16. Limestone amendments and the establishment of legumes on pyritic colliery spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferies, R A

    1981-11-01

    This paper examines the effect of high liming, using two commercially available limestone grades of different particle size distributions, on the establishment of six contrasting legume species, in order to determine whether other legume species are more tolerant of the conditions imposed by high liming, and whether the effect can be avoided. 13 refs.

  17. Nonlegumes, legumes, and root nodules harbor different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Ridgway, K.P.; Young, J.P.W.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Legumes are an important plant functional group since they can form a tripartite symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, not much is known about AMF community composition in legumes and their root nodules. In this study,

  18. Characteristic elements of "Mediterranean Diet": the consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece (1950-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiou, K.Z.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Georgakopoulos, G.

    2012-01-01

    on).This paper describes the dietary consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece during the period 1950 to 2005. All dimensions of alimentary consumption patterns of vegetables and legumes are examined here with a specific focus on: a) their natural characteristics; b) technical features of the

  19. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  20. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  1. Signals exchanged between legumes and Rhizobium: agricultural uses and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, William J.; Perret, Xavier; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang Feng

    2001-01-01

    Legumes and rhizobia exchange at least three different, but sometimes complementary sets of signals. Amongst the variety of substances normally and continuously secreted into the rhizosphere by plants are phenolic compounds. Flavonoid components of these mixtures are especially active in inducing rhizobial nodulation genes. Many nodgenes exist. Some (e.g., nodD) serve as regulators of transcription, but most code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of a family of lipo-chito-oligosaccharides (LCOs) called Nod-factors. Nod-factors possess hormone-like properties, are key determinants in nodulation, and allow rhizobia to enter the plant. As Nod-factors also stimulate the synthesis and release of flavonoids from legume roots, the response to inoculation is amplified. Once the bacteria enter the plant, other sets of signals are exchanged between the symbionts. These include extra-cellular polysaccharides (EPSs) as well as proteins externalised via type-three secretion systems. These carbohydrates/proteins may be active in invasion of the root. At the time of writing, only flavonoids and Nodfactors have been chemically synthesised and of these only the former are available in large quantities. Field trials in North America show that seed application of flavonoids stimulates nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybeans grown at low soil temperatures. The biological basis to these responses is discussed. (author)

  2. TRUNCATULIX--a data warehouse for the legume community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, Kolja; Runte, Kai J; Bekel, Thomas; Dondrup, Michael; Jakobi, Tobias; Küster, Helge; Goesmann, Alexander

    2009-02-11

    Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database - hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  3. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  4. Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Rosa, Eduardo; Carnide, Valdemar

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea is a grain legume native from Africa and is a primary source of protein for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. The main important characteristics of this crop include a good protein quality with a high nutritional value, its nitrogen-fixing ability, and an ability to be more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives. In a research perspective, studies of cowpea are relatively scarce, despite its relevance to agriculture in the developing world and its resilience to stress. The present review provides an overview of different aspects of cowpea, with a special emphasis on the molecular markers for assessing genetic diversity, as well as on biochemical and transcriptomic data with respect to evaluating cowpea drought stress tolerance. The integration of both datasets will be useful for the improvement of cowpea because research on drought stress tolerance is of major interest for this crop in a challenging environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  6. Using Gamma Rays to Improve Nutritional Value of Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    World is suffering from food shortages and rising prices of animal food, in particular. Therefore, attention turned to fill the shortfall by increasing the production and consumption of pulses. Beans are the most important types of legumes consumed in the countries of the Middle East. But there are some factors that reduce the expansion in the consumption of beans and some factors discourage feeding the trypsin inhibitor,phytic acid, causes of gases and allergens in some people, which negatively affect the bioavailability to absorb the vital minerals and proteins in addition to the length of time needed for cooking beans. There have been attempts to use gamma rays to improve strength and Leakage and cooking recipes for legumes, and reached results in other studies to reduce the efficiency of trypsin inhibitor in beans treated at a dose of 10 kGy as well as achieving the highest percentage reduction in phytic acid content of the same seed above. Also it was found that gamma rays affect negatively on the causes of gases in the beans, radiation works to break down some of the Oligosaccharides and turn it into simple sugars, as well as to break down some of the compounds which are responsible of disease in beans.

  7. Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Roe

    2004-02-27

    Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 Conference Report for the Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program provided $481,000 for the Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma. These funds were used to support our research that is aimed at determining the entire sequence of the gene rich regions of the genome of the legume, Medicago truncatula, by allowing us to obtain a greater degree of finished BAC sequences from the draft sequences we have already obtained through research funded by the Noble Foundation. During the funding period we increased the number of Medicago truncatula BACs with finished (Bermuda standard) sequences from 109 to 359, and the total number of BACs for which we collected sequence data from 584 to 842, 359 of which reached phase 2 (ordered and oriented contigs). We also sequenced a series of pooled BAC clones that cover additional euchromatic (gene rich) genomic regions. This work resulted in 6 refereed publications, see below. Genes whose sequence was determined during this study included multiple members of the plant disease resistance (R-gene) family as well as several genes involved in flavinoid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and plant-microbial symbosis. This work also served as a prelude to obtaining NSF funding for the international collaborative effort to complete the entire sequence of the Medicago truncatula genomic euchromatic regions using a BAC based approach.

  8. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    After an introduction on plant science research in Malaysia concerning crop breeding, 22 research reports are presented, 17 of which are analyzed individually and constitute separate INIS references. The remaining 5 were essentially concerned with only future applications of nuclear technology: a paper by V.L. Chopra (India) on mutation breeding for partial disease resistance of wheat; by H.H. Hoppe (Federal Republic of Germany) on mechanisms of resistance against Uromyces in Phaseolus vulgaris; by I.S. Santos (Philippines) on induction evaluation and utilization of beneficial mutations in the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), where gamma rays and fast neutrons will be used as well as other mutagens; by F. Saccardo (Italy) on breeding for disease resistance in peas and other vegetables (short communication only); and by E. Balazs and I. Sziraki (Hungary) on in vitro studies on virus resistance of legumes, including virus-host interaction studies involving gamma irradiation (short communication only). The conclusions and recommendations of the Regional Seminar on Induced Mutations for the Improvement of Grain Legumes in S.E. Asia 1975 (IAEA-203, 1977) were considered and generally endorsed, with some clarification. Conclusions and recommendations are given on p.121-126

  9. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu Bahar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage. Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.47±3.84 kg/cm2 (no-tillage to 3.31±0.43 kg/cm2 (minimum tillage and 3.19±0.45 kg/cm2 (total tillage. Otherwise significant increasing on aeration porosity from 12.80±0.80% vol. (no-tillage to 21.70±0.95% vol. (minimum tillage and 20.70±0.35% vol. (total tillage. Total tillage gives increased dry matter yield. Also both total tillage and minimum tillage give yields with a higher percentage of legumes compared with no-tillage. It was concluded that total tillage and minimum tillage could be used for improving native grassland.

  10. Characterisation of a compton suppressed clover detector for high energy gamma rays (5 MeV ≤ E ≤ 11 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Sarkar, M.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Raut, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, A.; Goswami, A.; Ray, S.; Basu, P.; Majumder, H.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Sinha, Mandira; Ray, Maitreyee

    2004-01-01

    The Clover detectors in their add back mode have been seen to be excellent tools for detecting high energy gamma rays (≥ 2 MeV). Recently studies were carried out on the characteristics of a Compton suppressed Clover germanium detector up to 5 MeV using a radioactive 66 Ga (T 1/2 =9.41 h) source for the first time

  11. Effects of feeding level and NDF content of grass-clover silages on chewing activity, fecal particle size and NDF digestibility in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2014-01-01

    intake (PRumination time per kg DM intake (Pcontents (Prumination with greater...... NDF content (Prumination time increased with greater NDF content (Pcontent (P...The objective of this study was to assess effects of feed intake and NDF content of highly digestible grass-clover silage on chewing behavior, fecal particle size distribution and apparent digestibility in restrictively fed heifers. Four grass-clover silages (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense...

  12. Mineral concentrations of forage legumes and grasses grown in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West

    2003-07-01

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, especially on acidic soils. Glasshouse studies were conducted to determine shoot concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dacrylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) grown in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult) amended with various levels of three FGDs and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4}. Shoot concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and B generally increased as levels of soil applied FGD increased. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu were lower in shoots, especially when soil pH was high ({gt}7). Shoot concentrations of the trace elements Mo, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb were not above those reported as normal for foliage. Overall concentrations of most minerals remained near normal for shoots when plants were grown in FGD amended acidic soil.

  13. Mineral content of insect infested stored legumes treated with edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modgil, R

    2000-12-01

    Mineral content of three insect (pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L.) infested legumes viz. chick pea, mung pea and pigeon pea stored for six months and treated with three edible oils viz. groundnut, mustard and coconut oil has been studied. With increase in storage period significant increase in calcium, phosphorus and iron content of untreated legumes was observed. After three months of storage slight increase in three minerals was observed in the legumes treated with coconut oil which continued till the end of sixth months as compared to other two oil treated counterparts. The storage period was associated with insect infestation which in turn influenced the mineral content of legumes. Ground nut and mustard oils were able to protect legumes for six months against insect infestation when applied in small amounts (0.5%). Whereas coconut oil had protective effect against insect infestation for four months only.

  14. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signaling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Djordjevic, Michael A; Imin, Nijat

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  15. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC–UV–MS. The relationship between phytochemical

  16. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  17. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  18. Effects of soil properties and P fertilizers on trace element uptake of red clover in a pot experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osztoics, E.; Bujtas, K.

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of superphosphate and Algerian phosphate rock and their various application rates on soil pH and on the availability of trace elements by red clover were studied in a pot experiment on several types of acidic soils from the Carpathian basin. The differences among the soils' original pH and texture, and those differences in soil pH, which resulted from the application of different P forms and rotes were reflected in the Mn, Ni, Al, Co, Sr, Cd and Cr contents of red clover. Plant concentrations of those elements were smaller on the slightly acidic than on the strongly and extremely strongly acidic soils. Elemental concentrations were generally higher when there was less time between two cuts, and decreased in the later cuts. Refs. 11 (author)

  19. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators "Emistym C" and "Agrostymulin" was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide "Strobi" and natural growth regulator "Emistym C" demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  20. Optimization of a protocol for direct organogenesis of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. meristems for breeding purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C CARRILLO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments were carried out in order to optimize a protocol for the direct organogenesis of Chilean red clover germplasm. A range of cultivars were used to analyze the effect of explant source (crown or stem meristems of vegetative plants, culture media and plant growth regulators. Our findings showed that stem meristems were easier to obtain, presented lower levels of contamination and a better development than crown meristems. The L2 medium showed better results than B5 and MS media for the cultivars and experimental lines studied. L2 medium supplemented with 0.003 mg/l of 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid and 1.0 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine gave consistently better results and will be applied in our breeding program to propagate, maintain and eliminate viruses from elite red clover clones.

  1. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and pyoverdine on the phytoextraction of cesium by red clover in soil pots and hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazotte, Alice; Péron, Olivier; Gaudin, Pierre; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Lebeau, Thierry

    2018-05-12

    With the aim of improving the phytoextraction rate of cesium (Cs), the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 and its siderophore pyoverdine (PVD) on the uptake of Cs by red clover was studied in soil pots. This work also provides a mechanistic understanding of the Cs-bacteria (or PVD)-illite-plant interactions by using a simplified experimental design, i.e., hydroponics with either Cs in solution or Cs-spiked illite in suspension. For soil spiked with 11.2 mmol kg -1 (1480 mg kg -1 ) of Cs, 0.43% of total Cs was taken up by red clover in 12 days (119 μmol g -1 (16 mg g -1 ) of Cs dry matter in roots and 40 μmol g -1 (5 mg g -1 ) in shoots). In hydroponics with Cs in solution (0.1 mmol L -1 or 13 mg L -1 ), 75% of Cs was taken up vs. only 0.86% with Cs-spiked illite suspension. P. fluorescens and PVD did not increase Cs concentrations in aboveground parts and roots of red clover and even decreased them. The damaging effect of PVD on red clover growth was demonstrated with the biomass yielding 66% of the control in soil pots (and 100% mortality after 12 days of exposition) and only 56% in hydroponics (78% with illite in suspension). Nonetheless, PVD and, to a lesser extent, P. fluorescens increased the translocation factor up to a factor of 2.8. This study clearly showed a direct damaging effect of PVD and to a lower extent the retention of Cs by biofilm covering both the roots and illite, both resulting in the lower phytoextraction efficiency.

  2. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  3. Transfer Comparison Study Nitrogen on the Intact and Decapitated Legumes by Using the 15N Labeling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjayanto, Didik W.

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was done in order to evaluate the N transfer from the intact and decapitated legumes by using the 15 N labeling technique. Seven days after final labeling the above ground biomass from labeled legume species was removed and the remaining stalks capped to prevent regrowth. Twenty days after final labeling (fourteen days after capping) the all treatments were sample and analyzed. The decapitated legumes appeared to transfer more percentage N than the intact legumes. Although both decapitated and intact legumes transferred, the transfer of N did not incur a dry matter and N yield benefit

  4. DLLME-spectrophotometric determination of glyphosate residue in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Emine; Şahan, Serkan; Ülgen, Ahmet; Şahin, Uğur

    2017-09-01

    A new separation and pre-concentration method for spectrophotometric determination of glyphosate herbicide was developed. Glyphosate was converted into dithiocarbamic acid with CS 2 , followed by copper in the presence of ammonia to promote complex formation. This complex was collected in a CH 2 Cl 2 organic drop and absorbance measured at 435nm. The analytical parameters, such as the amount of NH 3 , Cu(II) and CS 2 , type of extraction solutions, and the ratio of dispersive and organic liquids were optimized. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.5-10mgl -1 . The limits of detection and quantification were calculated from 3s to 10s criterions as 0.21mgl -1 and 0.70mgl -1 , respectively. The developed method was applied to legume samples with the satisfactory recovery values of 98±4-102±3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study and analysis of the legume crop market in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukhanyan Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous and sub-mountainous zones of the Republic of Armenia farmers mainly grow beans, chickpeas, and peas. In addition there are very small crop areas (mainly homestead lands of faba bean, soybean, mung bean, and grass pea. The village population does not know much about the cultivation of these plants. The data show that in 2007-2009 the specific weight of legume in overall cropland was approximately 94%, and about the 96% of the gross harvest. Local production needs appropriate marketing strategy. The research of local market showed that more attention should be paid to the consumption of goods produced by the farmer households, as well as to offer them to various consumer groups.

  6. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  7. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  8. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  9. TRUNCATULIX – a data warehouse for the legume community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runte Kai J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database – hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. Results The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. Conclusion The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  10. Comparative nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and biomass production potentials of some grain legumes species grown in the field in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Fosu, M.; Tibo, I.; Sumaila, I.

    2007-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted in the experimental field of Savannah Agricultural Research Institute at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana to assess the nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and biomass production potentials of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), devil-bean (Crotalaria retusa), Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white types) and Canavalia ensiformis with maize (Dorke SR) as the reference crop using the total nitrogen difference (TND) method. Plants were fertilized with 40 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha at 2 weeks after planting and grown for 55 days after which they were harvested. The harvested biomass (separated into roots, stems and leaves) of each crop was oven-dried at 70 0 C for 48 h to a constant weight. Cowpea and devil-bean produced approximately 5 and 6 t/ha biomass whereas Mucuna and Canavalia yielded about 2 t/ha biomass each. Although cowpea had the least number of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) spores in its rhizosphere, its roots were the most heavily colonized (34%) and M. pruriens recording below 5% colonization. Apart from C. ensiformis, the test legumes derived over 50% of their total accumulated N from the atmosphere with cowpea being the most efficient (90% Ndfa). Both N and P accumulations were significantly higher in cowpea than the other legumes due to increased N concentration and dry matter accumulation, respectively. In all the legumes, there was a direct positive correlation between the extent of mycorrhiza formation, biological N fixation and total N uptake. It could, therefore, be concluded that the extensive mycorrhiza formation in cowpea and its high N 2 -fixing potential resulted in a high shoot N and P uptake leading to a comparatively better growth enhancement. Cowpea could, therefore, be the grain legume for consideration in the selection of a suitable legume pre-crop to cereals for the amelioration of the low fertility of the degraded soils of the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana, and also as

  11. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  12. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  13. Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L. Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Jasicka-Misiak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54% and in the application of SPE (13.04%. In addition, lumichrome (1.85% was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+-catechine (39.7% and gallic acid (up to 30%, which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition.

  14. Proportional crosstalk correction for the segmented clover at iThemba LABS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, T D; Noncolela, S P; Lawrie, E A; Dinoko, T R S; Easton, J L; Erasmus, N; Lawrie, J J; Mthembu, S H; Mtshali, W X; Shirinda, O; Orce, J N

    2017-01-01

    Reaching new depths in nuclear structure investigations requires new experimental equipment and new techniques of data analysis. The modern γ -ray spectrometers, like AGATA and GRETINA are now built of new-generation segmented germanium detectors. These most advanced detectors are able to reconstruct the trajectory of a γ -ray inside the detector. These are powerful detectors, but they need careful characterization, since their output signals are more complex. For instance for each γ -ray interaction that occurs in a segment of such a detector additional output signals (called proportional crosstalk), falsely appearing as an independent (often negative) energy depositions, are registered on the non-interacting segments. A failure to implement crosstalk correction results in incorrectly measured energies on the segments for two- and higher-fold events. It affects all experiments which rely on the recorded segment energies. Furthermore incorrectly recorded energies on the segments cause a failure to reconstruct the γ -ray trajectories using Compton scattering analysis. The proportional crosstalk for the iThemba LABS segmented clover was measured and a crosstalk correction was successfully implemented. The measured crosstalk-corrected energies show good agreement with the true γ -ray energies independent on the number of hit segments and an improved energy resolution for the segment sum energy was obtained. (paper)

  15. Effects of Seeding Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Productivity of Egyptian Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan G. Rafaat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to show the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg urea/ha, and two seeding rates 15 and 30 kg/ha. The study was conducted at Bakrajo research field during the winter season 2011-2012 to some growth characteristics of Egyptian clover, such as plant height, dry leaf weight percent, dry stem weight percent, leave stem ratio, fresh yield t/ha, dry yield t/ha and dry matter percent. The experiment was designed as (R.C.B.D. The results can be summarized as follow; significant differences were observed between all three cuts, and the third cut was superior in almost characters especially in the forage yield. The application of 40 and 60 kg urea gave maximum yield. Using 15 kg seeds/ha showed superior value due to fresh yield in compare to 30 kg for all cutting, while the dry yield responded non-significantly to seeding rates.

  16. Effect of forage supplements on the incidence of bloat in dairy cows grazing high clover pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J; James, N L; Murray-Evans, J P

    1996-08-17

    The effect of offering forage supplements of different compositions was examined in two experiments with cows grazing high clover swards. In the first experiment strawmix supplements of high or low energy content (11 and 9 MJ metabolisable energy/kg dry matter [DM]) and high or low crude protein content (17 and 4 g/kg DM) were offered for periods of three weeks. The energy and protein contents were varied by the content of molasses and soyabean meal, respectively. The high energy, high protein supplement increased the incidence of bloat, and the low energy, high protein supplement reduced it, compared with grazing alone. Bloat was most evident in the first two weeks of each feeding period, suggesting that the cows partially adapted to the diets within three weeks. In the second experiment silage supplements reduced the incidence of bloat among cows grazing both tall and short swards. The most suitable forages to feed when there is a risk of bloat are those that are slowly fermented in the rumen but are eaten in sufficient quantity to reduce periods of rapid herbage intake.

  17. Fecal microbiota of lambs fed purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianqian; Holman, Devin B; Alexander, Trevor; Hu, Tianming; Jin, Long; Xu, Zhongjun; McAllister, Tim A; Acharya, Surya; Zhao, Guoqi; Wang, Yuxi

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of purple prairie clover (PPC) and PPC condensed tannins (CT) on the fecal microbiota of lambs using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 18 individual lambs were randomly divided into three groups and fed either green chop alfalfa (Alf), a 40:60 (DM basis; Mix) mixture of Alf and PPC, or Mix supplemented with polyethylene glycol (Mix-P) for 18 days. Fecal samples were collected on days 13 through 18 using digital rectal retrieval. The DNA of fecal samples was extracted and the microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Regardless of diet, the bacterial community was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes with many sequences unclassified at the genus level. Forage type and CT had no effect on the fecal microbial composition at the phylum level or on α-diversity. Compared to the Alf diet, the Mix diet reduced the relative abundance of Akkermansia (P = 0.03) and Asteroleplasma (P = 0.05). Fecal microbial populations in Alf and Mix-P clustered separately from each other when assessed using unweighted UniFrac (P < 0.05). These results indicate that PPC CT up to 36 g/kg DM in the diet had no major effect on fecal microbial flora at the phyla level and exerted only minor effects on the genera composition of fecal microbiota in lambs.

  18. Genetic variability of isoflavones in the USDA red clover core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele P. Ramos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Red clover is one of the most utilized forage in agriculture and contains many of the isoflavones known for their human health benefits. The objectives of this study were: i to quantify, using HPLC analysis, isoflavones in 77 accessions from the USDA core collection and a Brazilian line; ii to verify possible relationships depending on their origin, improvement status or maturity type and; iii to verify the seasonal variation. The isoflavone mean contents were 29.27 µg g-1 of dry material for daidzein, 163.69 µg g-1 for genistein, 11353.29 µg g-1 for formononetin and 6568.8 µg g-1 for biochanin A. Clustering was mainly influenced by the total amount of isoflavones and partially due to maturity type, improvement status and geographic origin. The seasonal evaluation demonstrated an increase of concentration during winter, and decrease during spring. These results highlighted accessions that can be used to develop new varieties with low or high isoflavones concentration.

  19. A study of the red clover extract trinovin by ESR HPLC/MS and UVS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.; Hutton, D.; Hunter, C.; Hewitt, D.; Mulinacci, N.; Romani, A.; Pinelli, P.; Mancini, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Trinovin is an extract of red clover, recently released on the dietary supplement market. It is recommended for 'Men's Health', because it contains the phenolics (isoflavones) genistein, biochanin, daidzein and formononetin, said to act as 'phytoestrogens', and is therefore a possible help in prostate gland problems. An Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) study (∼9.1Ghz, room temperature) revealed at least 3 different free radical lines, one with hyperfine structure, consistent with the listed molecules. Accordingly, HPLC/DAD (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Diode Array Detector) and HPLC/Mass Spectroscopy analyses were performed in order to evaluate the quali-quantitative contents of flavonoidic compounds. The HPLC profile shows two main isoflavones and another three compounds, one of them being a quercetin glycoside. The quercetin glycosides are flavonoidic derivatives abundant in plant materials and present in wine. We can therefore say: even if the phytoestrogen properties claimed for Trinovin turn out to be less than hoped for, the antioxidants contained are very powerful, and so possibly helpful in protection against many diseases, including cancers, atherosclerosis, diabetic retinal bleeding, and non-alcoholic dementia

  20. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  1. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  2. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  3. Phytoremediation of heavy and transition metals aided by legume-rhizobia symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, X.; Taghavi, S.; Xie, P.

    2014-01-01

    Legumes are important for nitrogen cycling in the environment and agriculture due to the ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. In this review, we introduce an important and potential role of legume-rhizobia symbiosis in aiding phytoremediation of some metal contaminated soils as various legumes...... have been found to be the dominant plant species in metal contaminated areas. Resistant rhizobia used for phytoremediation could act on metals directly by chelation, precipitation, transformation, biosorption and accumulation. Moreover, the plant growth promoting (PGP) traits of rhizobia including...... is not clear. Therefore, to obtain the maximum benefits from legumes assisted by rhizobia for phytoremediation of metals, it is critical to have a good understanding of interactions between PGP traits, the symbiotic plant-rhizobia relationship and metals....

  4. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nacira; Liu, Ailin; Kan, Leo; Li, Man-Wah; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea) to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes. PMID:28165413

  5. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  6. GeMprospector--online design of cross-species genetic marker candidates in legumes and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Madsen, Lene H; Hougaard, Birgit K; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Bertioli, David; Schauser, Leif

    2006-07-01

    The web program GeMprospector (URL: http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/GeMprospector/main) allows users to automatically design large sets of cross-species genetic marker candidates targeting either legumes or grasses. The user uploads a collection of ESTs from one or more legume or grass species, and they are compared with a database of clusters of homologous EST and genomic sequences from other legumes or grasses, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments between submitted ESTs and their homologues in the appropriate database form the basis of automated PCR primer design in conserved exons such that each primer set amplifies an intron. The only user input is a collection of ESTs, not necessarily from more than one species, and GeMprospector can boost the potential of such an EST collection by combining it with a large database to produce cross-species genetic marker candidates for legumes or grasses.

  7. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional quality and functional property of complementary food. ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  8. Deciphering composition and function of the root microbiome of a legume plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Kyle; van der Heijden, Marcel G A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240923901; Roussely-Provent, Valexia; Walser, Jean-Claude; Schlaeppi, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including

  9. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacira Muñoz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes.

  10. Positive effects of plant species diversity on productivity in the absence of legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of species richness on productivity in randomly assembled grassland communities without legumes. Aboveground biomass increased with increasing species richness and different measures of complementarity showed strong increases with plant species richness. Increasing

  11. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional quality and functional ... The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS ... Mean separation result showed that protein, fat, energy, crude fibre and ash ...

  12. Effect of forage type, harvesting time and exogenous enzyme application on degradation characteristics measured using in vitro technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharrery, Ali; Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    Five forage species cut at different harvest times were studied for their degradation characteristics using in vitro digestibility technique. The forage species were two grasses and three legumes growing in two seasons (spring growth and second re-growth). Grass and legume forages were harvested...... at three harvesting times being early (E), middle (M) and late (L), both during the spring growth and the second re-growth. The grasses included perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and festulolium (XFestulolium), and the legumes included white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (Trifolium pratense......) and neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) degradation profiles were fitted to an exponential equation. The fractional rate of degradation (c) of DM or aNDFom did vary among the forage species and was highest for the legumes. The potential degradability ranged from 580 to 870 g/kg for DM and from 380 to 900 g...

  13. Composition of legume soaking water and emulsifying properties in gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, San; Liu, Yuling; Zhang, Weihan; Dale, Kylie J; Liu, Silu; Zhu, Jingnan; Serventi, Luca

    2018-04-01

    Soaking of legumes results in the loss of macronutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals. Fibre, protein and phytochemicals found in legumes exert emulsifying activity that may improve the structure and texture of gluten-free bread. The legume soaking water of haricot beans, garbanzo chickpeas, whole green lentils, split yellow peas and yellow soybeans were tested in this study for functional properties and use as food ingredients. Composition, physicochemical properties and effect on the quality of gluten-free bread were determined for each legume soaking water. Haricot beans and split yellow peas released the highest amount of solids in the legume soaking water: 1.89 and 2.38 g/100 g, respectively. Insoluble fibre was the main constituent of haricot beans legume soaking water, while water-soluble carbohydrates and protein were the major fraction of split yellow peas. High quantities of phenolics (∼400 µg/g) and saponins (∼3 mg/g) were found in the legume soaking water of haricot beans, whole green lentils and split yellow peas. High emulsifying activity (46 and 50%) was found for the legume soaking water of garbanzo chickpeas and split yellow peas, probably due to their protein content and high ratio of water-soluble carbohydrates to dry matter. Such activity resulted in softer texture of the gluten-free bread. A homogeneous structure of crumb pores was found for split yellow peas, opposing that of whole green lentils. A balance between the contents of yeast nutrients and antinutrients was the likely basis of the different appearances.

  14. Legume breeding for rust resistance: Lessons to learn from the model Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales, Diego; Castillejo Sánchez, M. Ángeles; Madrid, Eva; Barilli, Eleonora; Rispail, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Rusts are major biotic constraints of legumes worldwide. Breeding for rust resistance is regarded as the most cost efficient method for rust control. However, in contrast to common bean for which complete monogenic resistance exists and is efficiently used, most of the rust resistance reactions described so far in cool season food legumes are incomplete and of complex inheritance. Incomplete resistance has been described in faba bean, pea, chickpea and lentil and several of their associated Q...

  15. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (pheterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (pArtocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba

  16. Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seresinhe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP, dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL (Trt 1, C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS (Trt 2, Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3, A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4, Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5, C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6, Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7, A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8. The condensed tannin (CT content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium. Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p0.05 NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8 mixture which may be attributed with it’s highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05 was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6 followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8 and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus

  17. N2-fixing tropical legume evolution: a contributor to enhanced weathering through the Cenozoic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar Z; Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; Leake, Jonathan R; Smith, Lisa M; Beerling, David J

    2017-08-16

    Fossil and phylogenetic evidence indicates legume-rich modern tropical forests replaced Late Cretaceous palm-dominated tropical forests across four continents during the early Cenozoic (58-42 Ma). Tropical legume trees can transform ecosystems via their ability to fix dinitrogen (N 2 ) and higher leaf N compared with non-legumes (35-65%), but it is unclear how their evolutionary rise contributed to silicate weathering, the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Here we hypothesize that the increasing abundance of N 2 -fixing legumes in tropical forests amplified silicate weathering rates by increased input of fixed nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems via interrelated mechanisms including increasing microbial respiration and soil acidification, and stimulating forest net primary productivity. We suggest the high CO 2 early Cenozoic atmosphere further amplified legume weathering. Evolution of legumes with high weathering rates was probably driven by their high demand for phosphorus and micronutrients required for N 2 -fixation and nodule formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of grain legume seeds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2017-11-01

    Legumes are a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds which play significant roles in many physiological as well as metabolic processes. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and condensed tannins are the primary phenolic compounds that are present in legume seeds. Majority of the phenolic compounds are present in the legume seed coats. The seed coat of legume seeds primarily contains phenolic acids and flavonoids (mainly catechins and procyanidins). Gallic and protocatechuic acids are common in kidney bean and mung bean. Catechins and procyanidins represent almost 70% of total phenolic compounds in lentils and cranberry beans (seed coat). The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is in direct relation with their chemical structures such as number as well as position of the hydroxyl groups. Processing mostly leads to the reduction of phenolic compounds in legumes owing to chemical rearrangements. Phenolic content also decreases due to leaching of water-soluble phenolic compounds into the cooking water. The health benefits of phenolic compounds include acting as anticarcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-ulcer, anti-artherogenic, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunemodulating, anti-microbial, cardioprotective and analgesic agents. This review provides comprehensive information of phenolic compounds identified in grain legume seeds along with discussing their antioxidant and health promoting activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  1. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  2. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  3. Performance and gastroinstestinal nematode control when meat-goat kids grazed chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pasutures

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most pasture-based meat-goat production systems, a major management challenge is control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Use of legumes and forbs that contain plant secondary compounds may reduce fecal egg count (FEC) and/or improve the overall protein nutrition to help animals better toler...

  4. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A

    2011-07-01

    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is

  5. The clover technique for the treatment of complex tricuspid valve insufficiency: midterm clinical and echocardiographic results in 66 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, Elisabetta; De Bonis, Michele; Verzini, Alessandro; La Canna, Giovanni; Ferrara, David; Calabrese, Maria Chiara; Taramasso, Maurizio; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2010-06-01

    This study assesses the results of the 'clover technique' (suturing together the middle point of the free edges of the tricuspid leaflets) for the treatment of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) due to severe prolapse or tethering. From 2001, 66 patients with severe TR due to prolapsing or tethered leaflets underwent 'clover repair'. Annuloplasty was associated in 64 patients (97%). The aetiology of TR was degenerative in 52 cases (79%), post-traumatic in eight (12%) and secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in six (9%). The main mechanism of TR was prolapse/flail of one leaflet in 15 patients (23%), of two leaflets in 31 (47%) and of all three leaflets in 14 (21%). The remaining six patients (9%) presented with severe leaflets' tethering. Four deaths (6%) occurred during hospitalisation and one patient died 3.6 years after surgery. Survival was 91 + or - 4.1% at 5 years. Follow-up of the 62 hospital survivors was 100% complete (mean length 3.5 + or - 1.6 years, range 13 months-7.1 years). At the last echocardiogram, no or mild TR was detected in 55 (88.7%) patients, moderate (2+/4+) in six (9.6%) and severe (4+/4+) in one patient (1.6%). Mean tricuspid valve area and gradient were 4.3 + or - 0.6 cm(2) and 2.8 + or -1.4 mmHg. In six patients, stress echocardiography was performed and no signs of tricuspid stenosis were detected. At the multivariable analysis, the degree of TR at hospital discharge was identified as the only predictor of TR > or = 2+ at follow-up. Midterm clinical and echocardiographic results confirm the role of the 'clover technique' in the surgical treatment of TR due to lesions, which are unlikely to be effectively treatable by annuloplasty alone. Copyright 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Ensiled Berseem Clover and Citrus Pulp Mixture on Performance of Zel Fattened Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maedeh feyz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed contributes about 75% of the total cost of animal production, therefore utilizing of by-products such as Berseem clover and citrus pulp, as nutritive and low cost components of rations would decrease the production cost. In north of Iran over autumn and winter, utilizing of these by-products in making of silage as feed for ruminants provides good feed ingredient especially in feedlot operations, also eliminates pathogens, and reduces the effect of drugs and pesticides that are used locally without a serious control or discipline. However, little information available on utilizing silage made from these local by-products. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effects of ensiled Berseem clover and orange peels mixture on intake, digestibility, chewing behavior and performance of Zel fattening lambs. Materials and methods Twenty male Zel lambs fed with five experimental rations containing basal concentrate and 35% Berseem clover silage as: 1 without additives, 2 supplemented with 40% dried orange peels, 3 supplemented with 40% dried tangerine peel, 4 supplemented with 35% dried tangerine peel and 5% ground barley and 5 supplemented with 35% dried orange peels and 5% ground barley. Lambs were housed in individual box and fed ad libitum, twice daily at 09:00 and 21:00 h with total mixed rations as experimental treatments, allowing for at least 10% residuals (as-fed basis. Water and mineralized salt stone were available throughout the experiment. Feed particle size distribution, geometric mean and the standard deviation of geometric mean were determined by dry sieving in four replicates, using two set of Penn State particle separator. Feed, feces and orts were analyzed for dry matter, Kjeldahl N, ether extract, organic matter and ash at 605°C, neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF when α-amylase being added for concentrates during NDF extraction; sodium sulfite was not added. Neutral detergent fiber was

  7. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  8. Coevolutionary genetic variation in the legume-rhizobium transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Katy D; Burke, Patricia V; Stinchcombe, John R

    2012-10-01

    Coevolutionary change requires reciprocal selection between interacting species, where the partner genotypes that are favoured in one species depend on the genetic composition of the interacting species. Coevolutionary genetic variation is manifested as genotype × genotype (G × G) interactions for fitness in interspecific interactions. Although quantitative genetic approaches have revealed abundant evidence for G × G interactions in symbioses, the molecular basis of this variation remains unclear. Here we study the molecular basis of G × G interactions in a model legume-rhizobium mutualism using gene expression microarrays. We find that, like quantitative traits such as fitness, variation in the symbiotic transcriptome may be partitioned into additive and interactive genetic components. Our results suggest that plant genetic variation had the largest influence on nodule gene expression and that plant genotype and the plant genotype × rhizobium genotype interaction determine global shifts in rhizobium gene expression that in turn feedback to influence plant fitness benefits. Moreover, the transcriptomic variation we uncover implicates regulatory changes in both species as drivers of symbiotic gene expression variation. Our study is the first to partition genetic variation in a symbiotic transcriptome and illuminates potential molecular routes of coevolutionary change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Hydrographs Showing Groundwater Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and Vicinity, Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, G.B.; Julich, R.; Payne, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Selected groundwater level hydrographs for the Chambers-Clover Creek watershed (CCCW) and vicinity, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate changes in groundwater levels in and near the CCCW on a monthly and seasonal basis. Hydrographs are linked to points corresponding to the well location on an interactive map of the study area. Groundwater level data and well information from Federal, State, and local agencies were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site Inventory (GWSI) System.

  10. Distribution of radionuclides in leaf-stem biomass of lupine and clover under production of protein concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Yu.F.; Lobach, G.A.; Buzenko, T.A.; Zaretskaya, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The basic regularities of radionuclide distribution between the obtained products have been studied using the fractionation of lupine and clover phytomass as an example. The content of radionuclides in protein concentrates has been shown to be strongly related to the crop species. A scheme and a regime of the fractionation of leaf-stem lupine biomass contaminated with cesium radioisotopes and strontium-90 which ensured the minimizing of their residual content in protein-vitaminic and protein concentrates have been selected with due accout of experimental data

  11. Perturbative determination of c{sub sw} for plaquette and Symanzik gauge action and stout link clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division, Dept. of Mathematical Sicences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Using plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge action and stout link clover fermions we determine the improvement coefficient c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory from the off-shell quark-quark-gluon three-point function. In addition, we compute the coefficients needed for the most general form of quark field improvement and present the one-loop result for the critical hopping parameter {kappa}{sub c}. We discuss mean field improvement for c{sub SW} and {kappa}{sub c} and the choice of the mean field coupling for the actions we have considered. (orig.)

  12. Design and fabrication of 4π Clover Detector Array Assembly for gamma-spectroscopy studies using thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Kamble, S.R.; Chaudhari, A.T.; Sabharwal, T.P.; Pathak, Kavindra; Prasad, N.K.; Kinage, L.A.; Biswas, D.C.; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy has been studied earlier from the measurement of prompt gamma rays produced in reactions with thermal neutrons from CIRUS reactor. For studying the prompt γ-spectroscopy using thermal neutrons from Dhruva Reactor, BARC, the development of a dedicated beam line (R-3001) is in progress. In this beam line a detector assembly consisting of Clover Ge detectors will be used. This experimental setup will be utilized to investigate nuclear structure using prompt (n,γ) reactions and also to study the spectroscopy of neutron-rich fission-fragment nuclei

  13. Effect of Plant Density on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Hassanzadeh Aval

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate intercropping of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2004 growing season. Treatments were sole cropping of Persian clover (eight rows, double-row intercropping of Persian clover and summer savory with 27, 40 and 80 plants.m-2 (eight rows and sole cropping of summer savory with 27, 40 and 80 plants m-2 (eight rows. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 4 replications was used. Shoot and stem percentage of summer savory in sole crop treatments were significantly higher than in intercrop. In sole crop treatments, these parameters decreased by increasing plant density, in contrast to the intercrop. Leaf percentage and leaf and flower to stem ratio of summer savory in sole crop treatments were significantly lower than in intercrop. In sole crop treatments, these parameters were increased by increasing plant density, in contrast to intercrop. Effect of different treatments on essential oil percentage of summer savory was not significant. In sole cropping of Persian clover treatment, dry weight of vegetative organs and stem percentage of Persian clover in the first harvest, was lower than other treatments. By decreasing plant density these parameters were decreased in intercropping. In the second and third harvests a reversed pattern was observed. The highest Area Time Equivalent Ratio was obtained in intercropping of persian clover and summer savory with 27 plants.m-2. Keywords: Intercropping, Plant density, Satureja hortensis, Trifolium resupinatum, Essential oil percentage, Area Time Equivalent Ratio

  14. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriche...

  15. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolrasoul Safaeiyan; Bahram Pourghassem-Gargari; Rasoul Zarrin; Javid Fereidooni; Mohammad Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enric...

  16. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  17. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August...

  18. The Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Legume Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation treatment, at room temperature, on the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millerd reaction products, MRPs) generated in soybeans, broad beans and dried peas seeds at dose levels of 10, 30 and 60 kGy and their effects on the chemical constituents, soluble protein, available lysine and in vitro protein digestibility. The formation of MRPs in the studied legumes was assayed by monitoring the formation of brown pigments (browning intensity) by spectrophotometric method. The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated legumes showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one. A dose dependent decrease in soluble proteins and available lysine in the three legumes were observed. The non-enzymatic browning reaction was significantly increased with increasing the radiation dose, which was proved by changes in browning index tests. At the same time, the in vitro protein digestibility was increased after irradiation up to 60 kGy. Irradiation of dried peas with 60 kGy produced higher browning index than the other legumes. A positive correlation was observed between the radiation dose and the browning index for soybeans (R2= 0.96), broad beans (R2 = 0.81) and dried peas (R2 = 0.97) which means that 96%, 81% and 97 of the variation in the incidence of non-enzymatic browning reaction in soybean, broad bean and dried peas, respectively, are due to the effect of irradiation treatments. The present study suggests that the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction did not impair the nutritional quality of legumes, therefore, the process of irradiation was helpful in increasing the in vitro protein digestibility of studied legumes. These results clearly indicated that gamma irradiation processing at the studied doses can add valuable effects to the studied legumes

  19. Relationship between legumes consumption and metabolic syndrome: Findings of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sajjadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse association between dietary fiber and metabolic syndrome (MetS. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between MetS and consumption of legumes in adults in Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 2027 individuals who were a subsample of the 3rd phase of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP. Basic characteristics information such as age, sex, smoking status, and physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. A validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary behaviors. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC, glucose, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured, and MetS was defined based on Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multiple logistic regression models examined associations of frequency consumption of legumes with MetS occurrence and its components. RESULTS: All MetS components were less prevalent among subjects with regular legume intake (P < 0.01. Legume intake was inversely associated with the risk of MetS, after adjustment for confounding factors in women. Life style adjusted odds ratio of Mets between highest and lowest tertile and no consumption (as reference category of legume intake were 0.31 (0.13, 0.70, 0.38 (0.17, 0.87, respectively, in women (P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: This study showed that age has a crucial role in MetS incidence; therefore, after further age adjustment to lifestyle adjusted model there was no significant difference in lower and higher tertile of legume intake and MetS.   Keywords: Legumes, Metabolic Syndrome, Iran 

  20. The relationship of heavy metals contents in soils to their content in legume seeds used in famous traditional food in kurdistan region-iraq

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    Dalaram Sullaiman Ismael

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the level of risk heavy metals contents in Cowpea seeds comparison with heavy metal content in soil was studied. For the experiment three cowpea cultivars (brown, red, white were used. Cowpeas were harvested at full ripeness in Kalak location in Erbil city. The flame AAS (AAS Varian AA Spectr. DUO 240 FS/240Z/UltrAA was used for the determination of heavy metal contents in soil and plant materials. The soil which cultivated Cowpea, characterized neutral to slit alkali, with a typical content of cations K, Mg and P. Beans and the seeds of faba bean, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, traditionly used heavy sweets such as knafa. Ful, which is fava beans cooked with chickpeas (garbanzo beans or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad after boiled. Cowpea grain legumes occupy an important place in human nutrition, especially in the dietary pattern of low income groups of people in developing countries. The level risk heavy metal contents in the soil determined was only Cd content was on the level of limit value given for the soil extract by aqua regia as well as Co content was higher than the limit value given for the relationship between soil and plant. All of determined values were lower than critical value extracted by NH4NO3 only the maximal available soil content of mobile Pb forms was exceeded but cowpea accumulated seeds in amounts the risky elements contents, with the exception of Ni, did not exceed limit for the maximum levels of chosen risk elements in studied legume. The content of the metals studied with the exception of cadmium, not exceed the maximum permissible value in legumes, as defined in the Codex Alimentarius. The aim of this research, to study or determine the content of risky heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cd in the soil and their relationship in selected varieties cowpea seeds cultivar. Faba

  1. Biochemical studies on weaning foods based legumes and carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabag, Fatima Omer

    1997-01-01

    Attempts were made to utilize available food sources in formulation of weaning foods. Common legumes (chick pea and pigeon pea ) were used as protein source. While dehydrated carrots powder were used as a vitamin A source. Addition of 25% chick pea increased the protein content of the weaning foods to 16.7% and 14.4%,respectively ,while Cerelac and Riri gave protein content of 15.3% and 7.3%,respectively. In corporation of carrots at 10% level gave a vitamin A content of 564 RE/100 g material. Weaning food containing chick pea recorded higher preference among panelists and significantly better (p≤0.05)than samples containing pigeon pea. The bulk density of newly developed based formulae CP 3 , PP 3 (0.7 g/ml, 0.8 g/ml, respectively ) was higher than the market weaning food Cerelac and Riri (0.6 g/ml and 0.5 g/ml,respectively )The formula CP 3 recorded lower hot paste viscosity (3500 cp.) than both values obtained for Cerelac (4500 cp.) and Riri (extremely viscous). The lysine content of CP 3 (3.9 g/100 g protein) was higher than respective values in market foods and for better when calculated per weaning material (0.65 g/100 g material) compared to the other products (0.57; 0.28 g/100 material of Cerelac and Riri, respectively). Chick pea-based formula (CP 3 ) was also found to possess higher in vitro protein didestibility (95.2%) compared to Cerelac (94.2%) and Riri (88.5%). The calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of CP 3 (1.7) was higher than that of Riri (1.6) and lower than that of cerelac (2.7). (Author)

  2. Biochemical studies on weaning foods based legumes and carrots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabag, Fatima Omer [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-12-31

    Attempts were made to utilize available food sources in formulation of weaning foods. Common legumes (chick pea and pigeon pea ) were used as protein source. While dehydrated carrots powder were used as a vitamin A source. Addition of 25% chick pea increased the protein content of the weaning foods to 16.7% and 14.4%,respectively ,while Cerelac and Riri gave protein content of 15.3% and 7.3%,respectively. In corporation of carrots at 10% level gave a vitamin A content of 564 RE/100 g material. Weaning food containing chick pea recorded higher preference among panelists and significantly better (p{<=}0.05)than samples containing pigeon pea. The bulk density of newly developed based formulae CP{sup 3}, PP{sup 3} (0.7 g/ml, 0.8 g/ml, respectively ) was higher than the market weaning food Cerelac and Riri (0.6 g/ml and 0.5 g/ml,respectively )The formula CP{sup 3} recorded lower hot paste viscosity (3500 cp.) than both values obtained for Cerelac (4500 cp.) and Riri (extremely viscous). The lysine content of CP{sup 3} (3.9 g/100 g protein) was higher than respective values in market foods and for better when calculated per weaning material (0.65 g/100 g material) compared to the other products (0.57; 0.28 g/100 material of Cerelac and Riri, respectively). Chick pea-based formula (CP{sup 3}) was also found to possess higher in vitro protein didestibility (95.2%) compared to Cerelac (94.2%) and Riri (88.5%). The calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of CP{sup 3} (1.7) was higher than that of Riri (1.6) and lower than that of cerelac (2.7). (Author) 76 refs. , 17 tabs. , 4 figs.

  3. RNA interference-based resistance against a legume mastrevirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Shahid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a homology-dependant gene silencing mechanism and has been widely used to engineer resistance in plants against RNA viruses. However, its usefulness in delivering resistance against plant DNA viruses belonging to family Geminiviridae is still being debated. Although the RNAi approach has been shown, using a transient assay, to be useful in countering monocotyledonous plant-infecting geminiviruses of the genus Mastrevirus, it has yet to be investigated as a means of delivering resistance to dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus (CpCDPKV is a legume-infecting mastrevirus that affects chickpea and other leguminous crops in Pakistan. Results Here a hairpin (hpRNAi construct containing sequences encompassing part of replication-associated protein gene, intergenic region and part of the movement protein gene of CpCDPKV under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter has been produced and stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Plants harboring the hairpin construct were challenged with CpCDPKV. All non-transgenic N. benthamiana plants developed symptoms of CpCDPKV infection within two weeks post-inoculation. In contrast, none of the inoculated transgenic plants showed symptoms of infection and no viral DNA could be detected by Southern hybridization. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis identified very low-level accumulation of viral DNA in the inoculated transgenic plants. Conclusions The results presented show that the RNAi-based resistance strategy is useful in protecting plants from a dicot-infecting mastrevirus. The very low levels of virus detected in plant tissue of transgenic plants distal to the inoculation site suggest that virus movement and/or viral replication was impaired leading to plants that showed no discernible signs of virus infection.

  4. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trifluralin Herbicide on Emergence, Growth and Root Colonization of Clover (Trifolium repens L.

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    Hassan Shahgholi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbicides, despite of their control of weeds, have the potential to affect sensitive crops in rotation and also beneficial non-targeted soil microbes including vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM fungi (6. AM fungi can increase the growth of crops through increasing uptake of phosphorus and insoluble micronutrients, and indirectly by improving soil quality parameters (30. However, several authors have reported different effects of herbicides on VAM symbiosis, which ranges from no adverse effects to slightly or highly toxic effects (6. Pesticides have also been reported to stimulate colonization of plant roots by AM fungi (27. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of mycorrhizal fungi and Trifluralin herbicide on the growth and root colonization of clover. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood during 2012. Treatments were included three levels of mycorrhiza inoculation, M1: non mycorrhiza (control, M2: Glommus mosseae and M3: Glommus intraradices and herbicide treatments were included four levels of Trifluralin(T1: 0, T2: 1000, T3: 1500 and T4: 2000 ml ha-1. In mycorrhizal treatments, 20 g inoculums were thoroughly mixed with soil. Seeds of clover (Trifolium repens L. were sown in the pots maintained near the field in order to provide normal environmental conditions. Seedlings were thinned to two plants per pot at three leaf stages. At the time of harvesting, the emergence and growth characteristics of clover and root colonization was also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 calculated by LSD test. Results and Discussion: The results showed that emergence, uniformity (EU values decreased and time to 10% (D10 and 90% (D90 of

  5. The Growth Rate and Efficiency of Rumen Microbial Protein Digestion of Red Clover Silage (Trifolium pratense cv. Sabatron)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asih Kurniawati

    2004-01-01

    (Trifolium pratense cv. Sabatron). Red clover silage supplemented with different level of carbohydrates has been examined using the in-vitro gas production technique. Cumulative gas production, hydro.gen sulfite production, and ammonia was followed and used as indicators of microbial growth rate and extent of protein degradation. Microbial nitrogen production, VFA, and efficiency microbial production was used as indicator of nitrogen use efficiency. 15 N was used as a microbial marker to estimate the amount of nitrogen incorporation into microbial protein. Supplementation of Red clover with increasing 5 levels; 0 g; 0.625 g; 0.15 g; 0.225 g and 0.3 g of maize starch led to graded increase in microbial growth and protein degradation. This was reflected in the increasing gas production and the accumulation of hydrogen sulfite. Diurnal change in ammonia production reflected the microbial utilization of ammonia for protein synthesis. Protein microbe (P<0.001) as VFA (P<0.001) increased due to carbohydrate addition as well as utilization of nitrogen (P<0.001). There was also the efficiency of nitrogen utilization which increased significantly. This result suggested that energy supply can increased efficiency of nitrogen use in the rumen and may reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. (author)

  6. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eBustos-Sanmamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small non coding RNAs (smRNA participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA that are cleaved into 20- to 24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL. One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179 and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence databases. In addition, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legumes. Functional significance of these variant isoforms may reflect peculiarities of smRNA biogenesis in

  7. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Warren M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White clover (Trifolium repens is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime, along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a

  8. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warren M; Ellison, Nicholas W; Ansari, Helal A; Verry, Isabelle M; Hussain, S Wajid

    2012-04-24

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range.

  9. Emerging Genomic Tools for Legume Breeding: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K.; Roorkiwal, Manish; Singh, Vikas K.; Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Chitikineni, Anu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in ensuring global nutritional food security and improving soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Accelerated higher genetic gains is required to meet the demand of ever increasing global population. In recent years, speedy developments have been witnessed in legume genomics due to advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput genotyping technologies. Reference genome sequences for many legume crops have been reported in the last 5 years. The availability of the draft genome sequences and re-sequencing of elite genotypes for several important legume crops have made it possible to identify structural variations at large scale. Availability of large-scale genomic resources and low-cost and high-throughput genotyping technologies are enhancing the efficiency and resolution of genetic mapping and marker-trait association studies. Most importantly, deployment of molecular breeding approaches has resulted in development of improved lines in some legume crops such as chickpea and groundnut. In order to support genomics-driven crop improvement at a fast pace, the deployment of breeder-friendly genomics and decision support tools seems appear to be critical in breeding programs in developing countries. This review provides an overview of emerging genomics and informatics tools/approaches that will be the key driving force for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding and ultimately ensuring nutritional and food security in developing countries. PMID:27199998

  10. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.A.; Hussain, N.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  11. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signalling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiatul Akmal Mohd-Radzman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  12. Symbiotic N fixation and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in legume-cereal intercropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, D.; Misra, C.

    1990-01-01

    On a lateritic soil at Bhubaneswar short duration rice, finger millet, maize, groundnut, pigeon pea, black gram were grown alone or as intercrop in microplots (1mx1m). Thirty days after germination, 15 N tagged urea (3% a.e.) solutions was applied to all the treatments so as to provide 40 kg N ha -1 for the cereals, 10 kg n ha -1 for the legumes and 20 kg N ha -1 for cereal plus legumes. The results show the fertilizer efficiency values to be nearly 62 to 69 per cent for rice, 53 per cent for maize and 22 percent for finger millet. These values were 12 to 17 per cent for pigeon pea, 18 percent for black gram and 23 percent for groundnut. Averaged over the cropping system and fertilizer doses, the nitrogen fixed by legumes, viz,pigeon-pea, black gram and groundnut were 16.3, 15.5 and 17.5 kg ha -1 , respectively, within 60 days of crop growth. Horse gram grown as a sequence crop during the dry season (after the harvest of wet season crops) using the residual soil water and nutrients appears to utilize the residual 15 N better when it follows the non-legumes compared with that when it follows the legumes. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2018-05-24

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  15. Evolutionary signals of symbiotic persistence in the legume-rhizobia mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Cornwell, William K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    Understanding the origins and evolutionary trajectories of symbiotic partnerships remains a major challenge. Why are some symbioses lost over evolutionary time whereas others become crucial for survival? Here, we use a quantitative trait reconstruction method to characterize different evolutionary stages in the ancient symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, asking how labile is symbiosis across different host clades. We find that more than half of the 1,195 extant nodulating legumes analyzed have a high likelihood (>95%) of being in a state of high symbiotic persistence, meaning that they show a continued capacity to form the symbiosis over evolutionary time, even though the partnership has remained facultative and is not obligate. To explore patterns associated with the likelihood of loss and retention of the N2-fixing symbiosis, we tested for correlations between symbiotic persistence and legume distribution, climate, soil and trait data. We found a strong latitudinal effect and demonstrated that low mean annual temperatures are associated with high symbiotic persistence in legumes. Although no significant correlations between soil variables and symbiotic persistence were found, nitrogen and phosphorus leaf contents were positively correlated with legumes in a state of high symbiotic persistence. This pattern suggests that highly demanding nutrient lifestyles are associated with more stable partnerships, potentially because they "lock" the hosts into symbiotic dependency. Quantitative reconstruction methods are emerging as a powerful comparative tool to study broad patterns of symbiont loss and retention across diverse partnerships.

  16. Estimation of Nitrogenase Enzyme Activities and Plant Growth of Legume and Non-legume Inoculated with Diazotrophic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwani S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF process benefits the agriculture sector especially for reducing cost of nitrogenfertilizer. In the process, the diazotrophs convert N2 into ammonia (NH3 which is useable by plants. The BNF process iscatalysed by nitrogenase enzyme that involved protons and electrons together with evolution of H2 therefore, theassessment of N2 fixation is also available via H2 production and electron allocation analysis. Thus, the aims of thisexperiment were to estimate the nitrogenase enzyme activities and observe the influence of diazothrophs on growth oflegume (soybean and non legume (rice plants. Host plants were inoculated with respective inocula; Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum (strain 532C for soybean while Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7 and locally isolated diazotroph (isolate 5 forrice. At harvest, the plants were observed for plant growth parameters, H2 evolution, N2 fixation and electron allocationcoefficient (EAC values. The experiment recorded N2 fixation activities of inoculated soybean plants at 141.2 μmol N2 h-1g-1 dry weight nodule, and the evolution of H2 at 144.4 μmol H2 h-1 g-1 dry weight nodule. The electron allocationcoefficient (EAC of soybean was recorded at 0.982. For inoculated rice plants, none of the observations was successfully recorded. However, results for chlorophyll contents and plant dry weight of both plants inoculated with respective inocula were similar to the control treatments supplied with full nitrogen fertilization (+N. The experiment clearly showed that inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria could enhance growth of the host plants similar to plants treated with nitrogenous fertilizer due to efficient N2 fixation process

  17. Breeding biologies, pollinators and seed beetles of two prairie-clovers, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae (Fabaceae: Amorpheae), from the Intermountain West USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two prairie-clovers, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae, are perennial forbs that flower during early summer throughout the Colombia Plateau and Great Basin of the western USA, respectively. Their seed is desirable for use in rangeland restoration. We experimentally characterized the breeding biologies ...

  18. Effects of forest management on running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. Ex A. Eaton) distribution and abundance in the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Q. Burkhart; J.R. Rentch; T.M. Schuler

    2013-01-01

    Identifying habitat preferences of species of concern is fundamental to the practice of conservation, but disturbances and other environmental processes can substantially affect suitability. Trifolium stoloniferum, or running buffalo clover, is a federally endangered plant species that occurs on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia....

  19. The combined effect of fertiliser nitrogen and phosphorus on herbage yield and change in soil nutrients of a grass/clover and grass-only sward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effect of reduced nitrogen ( N ) and phosphorus ( P ) application on the production of grass- only and grass/ clover swards was studied in a five- year cutting experiment on a marine clay soil, established on newly sown swards. Furthermore, changes in soil N, P and carbon ( C ) were

  20. Disconnected quark loop contributions to nucleon observables using Nf=2 twisted clover fermions at the physical value of the light quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis

    2015-11-01

    We compute the disconnected quark loops contributions entering the determination of nucleon observables, by using a N f =2 ensemble of twisted mass fermions with a clover term at a pion mass m π =133 MeV. We employ exact deflation and implement all calculations in GPUs, enabling us to achieve large statistics and a good signal.

  1. Disconnected quark loop contributions to nucleon observables using N{sub f}=2 twisted clover fermions at the physical value of the light quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis [Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Cyprus Univ. (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Aviles-Casco, Alejandro Vaquero [INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    We compute the disconnected quark loops contributions entering the determination of nucleon observables, by using a N{sub f}=2 ensemble of twisted mass fermions with a clover term at a pion mass m{sub π}=133 MeV. We employ exact deflation and implement all calculations in GPUs, enabling us to achieve large statistics and a good signal.

  2. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  3. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  4. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...

  5. Biochanin A (an isoflavone produced by red clover) promotes weight gain of steers grazed in mixed grass pastures and fed dried-distillers grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochanin A (BCA) is an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifloium pratense L.) that can inhibit hyper-ammonia producing bacteria (HAB) to reduce deamination in the rumen and increase the feed amino acids available for gastric digestion. An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect...

  6. The effect of additives in silages of pure timothy and timothy mixed with red clover on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetta, M.; Cone, J.W.; Gustavsson, A.M.; Martinsson, K.

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of additives on direct cut silages of pure timothy and timothy mixed with tetraploid red clover. First and second growth cuts were ensiled during three consecutive years, 1994, 1995 and 1996, either without any additive or with the addition of formic acid, or

  7. Interrelations between Herbage Yield, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, Lutein, Protein, and Fiber in Non-Leguminous Forbs, Forage Legumes, and a Grass−Clover Mixture as Affected by Harvest Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    , protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago...

  8. PGPRs and nitrogen-fixing legumes: a perfect team for efficient Cd phytoremediation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa eGómez-Sagasti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a toxic, biologically non-essential and highly mobile metal that has become an increasingly important environmental hazard to both wildlife and humans. In contrast to conventional remediation technologies, phytoremediation based on rhizobia-legume symbiosis has emerged as an inexpensive decontamination alternative which also revitalize contaminated soils due to the role of legumes in nitrogen cycling. In recent years, there is growing interest in understanding symbiotic rhizobia-legume relationship and its interactions with Cd. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the main effects of Cd in N2-fixing leguminous plants and the benefits of exploiting this symbiosis together with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs to boost an efficient reclamation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  9. Evaluation of nodulation and nitrogen fixing potentials of some herbaceous legumes in inland valley soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayorbor, T. B.; Addai, I. K.; Lawson, I. Y. D.; Dogbe, W.; Djagbletey, D.

    2006-01-01

    A screening experiment was conducted to evaluate the nodulation, nitrogen fixation and biomass production of eleven herbaceous legumes in three soil series mainly used for rice production in the Guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana. This study was carried out with a view to fully exploiting the potential of N-fixating legumes as a supplement to inorganic N-fertilizers in rice-based cropping systems. The treatment combinations were laid out in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Plant samples were harvested at flowering for nodule count, biomass production and N-fixation. The study revealed that the mucuna and crotalaria species were the best nitrogen fixers and biomass producers. For increased yields of rice in the study area, these legumes require more intensive field study for their integration into the rice-based cropping systems. (au)

  10. Transfer of biologically fixed nitrogen to the non-legume component of mixed pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haystead, A.

    1983-01-01

    Pasture ecosystems are extremely diverse, as are the management procedures imposed upon them by the pastoralist. In low input pasture enterprises in marginal areas, legume nitrogen fixation is frequently (but not invariably) crucial to continued productivity. Legumes usually do not dominate a pasture and their role in transferring fixed nitrogen to a non-legume, frequently graminaceous, species is important. Methods for measuring this transfer are critically assessed in terms of their usefulness in realistic pasture environments. Existing techniques all have serious disadvantages in this respect. Isotopic studies of individual processes within the transfer system are described and some new lines of investigation are proposed. The value of isotopic studies in improving pasture management is discussed. (author)

  11. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965...... and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate...

  12. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  13. Functional Genomics Approaches to Studying Symbioses between Legumes and Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardi, Martina; Pessi, Gabriella

    2018-05-18

    Biological nitrogen fixation gives legumes a pronounced growth advantage in nitrogen-deprived soils and is of considerable ecological and economic interest. In exchange for reduced atmospheric nitrogen, typically given to the plant in the form of amides or ureides, the legume provides nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with nutrients and highly specialised root structures called nodules. To elucidate the molecular basis underlying physiological adaptations on a genome-wide scale, functional genomics approaches, such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been used. This review presents an overview of the different functional genomics approaches that have been performed on rhizobial symbiosis, with a focus on studies investigating the molecular mechanisms used by the bacterial partner to interact with the legume. While rhizobia belonging to the alpha-proteobacterial group (alpha-rhizobia) have been well studied, few studies to date have investigated this process in beta-proteobacteria (beta-rhizobia).

  14. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  15. Digestion site of starch from cereals and legumes in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2009-01-01

    The effect of grinding and rolling (i.e. processing) of cereals and legumes (i.e. source) on site of starch digestion in lactating dairy cows was tested according to a 2×2 factorial design using a dataset derived from an overall dataset compiled from four experiments conducted at our laboratory...... digestibility of starch was decreased by rolling for legumes, whereas the three other source by processing combinations did not differ. The duodenal flow of microbial starch was estimated to 276 g/d as the intercept in the regression analysis. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of starch seemed to underestimate...... true ruminal digestibility in rations with low starch intake due to a relatively higher contribution of microbial starch to total duodenal starch flow compared to rumen escape feed starch. The small intestinal and total tract digestibility of legume starch was lower compared with starch from cereals...

  16. An analysis of the nutritive value of heat processed legume seeds for animal production using the DVE/OEB model : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, P.; Goelema, J.O.; Leury, B.J.; Tamminga, S.; Egan, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recently obtained information on structural and compositional effects of processing of legume seeds is reviewed, in relation to legume seed characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization. The emphasis is on (1) manipulation of digestive behavior by heat processing methods,

  17. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  18. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-12-15

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  19. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  20. Responses of legumes to rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A meta-analysis of potential photosynthate limitation of symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.; Alberton, O.; Hungria, M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Legumes are prized for their seed protein and lipid mass fractions. Since legumes spend up to 4–16% of photosynthesis on each of the rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal symbioses, it might be expected that positive responses in yield due to rhizobial and AM symbioses are accompanied by

  1. Using an energetic and exergetic life cycle analysis to assess the best applications of legumes within a biobased economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In symbiosis with bacteria, legumes are able to biologically fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and therefore require less artificial nitrogen fertilizer. As the manufacturing of nitrogen fertilizers demands a lot of process energy, growing legumes may give large overall energy savings. The reduction

  2. Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of northwest Tanzania: the potential role of herbaceous legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijukya, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Land use changes; Herbaceous legumes; Adoptability; N 2 -fixation; Residual effect; Legume management; Exploration of options, Nutrient depleted soils.The banana-based farming system in

  3. Physicochemical and micro-structural properties of flours, starch and proteins from two varieties of legumes: bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptso, Kuaté Giscard; Njintang, Yanou Nicolas; Nguemtchouin, Mbouga Marie Goletti; Scher, Joël; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2015-08-01

    This work is part of a large study aimed to evaluate the potential of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) flour as starting raw material for the preparation of a widely cherished legume-based food product known as koki. Towards this objective, the flours from two varieties of bambara groundnut along with their respective starch and protein isolates were analyzed for some physicochemical and microstructural properties. It was observed that bambara flour contained appreciable amount of proteins (24.0-25.5 g/100 g), carbohydrates (57.9-61.7 g/100 g), fiber (3.45-3.68 g/100 g) and ash (3.65-3.85 g/100 g) with marginal differences between both varieties. The properties of starch and proteins isolated from the flours were different from one variety to another. In particular the starch granules of the white variety were larger (size range 10-35 μm) and polygonal while those from the black variety were smaller (size range 6-15 μm) and spherical in shape. In addition, the peak of gelatinization temperature was higher for white variety (81.7 °C) than for black variety (77.5 °C). The gelatinization temperature and the enthalpy of gelatinization of starch in the flours were systematically lower than for the starch isolates, suggesting an interaction of starch with other components on the gelatinization process.

  4. Kidney bean: a major sensitizer among legumes in asthma and rhinitis patients from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrashan Kasera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of IgE mediated food allergies has increased over the last two decades. Food allergy has been reported to be fatal in highly sensitive individuals. Legumes are important food allergens but their prevalence may vary among different populations. The present study identifies sensitization to common legumes among Indian population, characterizes allergens of kidney bean and establishes its cross reactivity with other legumes. METHODOLOGY: Patients (n = 355 with history of legume allergy were skin prick tested (SPT with 10 legumes. Specific IgE (sIgE and total IgE were estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Characterization of kidney bean allergens and their cross reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of major allergens of kidney bean was carried out by mass spectrometry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kidney bean exhibited sensitization in 78 (22.0% patients followed by chickpea 65 (18.0% and peanut 53 (15%. SPT positive patients depicted significantly elevated sIgE levels against different legumes (r = 0.85, p<0.0001. Sera from 30 kidney bean sensitive individuals exhibited basophil histamine release (16-54% which significantly correlated with their SPT (r = 0.83, p<0.0001 and sIgE (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Kidney bean showed eight major allergens of 58, 50, 45, 42, 40, 37, 34 and 18 kDa on immunoblot and required 67.3±2.51 ng of homologous protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Inhibition assays revealed extensive cross reactivity among kidney bean, peanut, black gram and pigeon pea. nLC-MS/MS analysis identified four allergens of kidney bean showing significant matches with known proteins namely lectin (phytohemagglutinin, phaseolin, alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor and group 3 late embryogenesis abundant protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Among legumes, kidney bean followed by chick pea and peanut are the major allergic triggers in asthma and rhinitis patients in India

  5. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2009-01-01

    balances. A 2½-year lysimeter experiment was carried out on a temperate sandy loam soil. Crops were not fertilized in the experimental period and the natural 15N abundance technique was used to determine grain legume N2 fixation. Faba bean total aboveground DM production was significantly higher (1,300 g m...... on the subsequent spring wheat or winter triticale DM production. Nitrate leaching following grain legumes was significantly reduced with catch crops compared to without catch crops during autumn and winter before sowing subsequent spring wheat. Soil N balances were calculated from monitored N leaching from...

  6. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  7. Microbial protein synthesis, digestion and lactation responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover silage diet supplemented with barley or oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. VANHATALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass and grain supplement (oats vs. barley on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk production. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four 28-d experimental periods and 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments. Using red clover-containing (40% silage rather than pure grass silage had minor effects on rumen fermentation or diet digestion but increased non-ammonia nitrogen (N flow in terms of increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering to the small intestine. This was reflected as a reduced ruminal N degradability on grass-red clover diets. Furthermore, grass-red clover diets in comparison to grass silage diets increased milk lactose concentration and yields of milk, protein and lactose. Feeding oats in replacement for barley had minor effects on rumen fermentation or post-ruminal non-ammonia N flows but reduced digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre in the diet. Using oats rather than barley increased yields of milk and lactose but reduced milk protein concentration. Oats also increased proportions of C18:0 and C18:1 in milk fat and reduced those of C10:0 to C16:0. It is concluded that inclusion of red clover and replacement of barley with oats in grass silage based diets have beneficial effects in dairy cow production.;

  8. Utilization of protein in red clover and alfalfa silages by lactating dairy cows and growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A

    2018-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein. Thirty-two multiparous (4 ruminally cannulated) plus 16 primiparous Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk and fed diets as total mixed rations in an incomplete 8 × 8 Latin square trial with four 28-d periods. Production data (over the last 14 d of each period) and digestibility and excretion data (at the end of each period) were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Although DM intake was 1.2 kg/d greater on AS than RCS, milk yield and body weight gain were not different. However, yields of fat and energy-corrected milk as well as milk content of fat, true protein, and solids-not-fat were greater on AS. Relative to AS, feeding RCS increased milk and energy-corrected milk yield per unit of DM intake, milk lactose content, and apparent N efficiency and reduced milk urea. Relative to AS, apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF, and acid detergent fiber were greater on RCS, whereas apparent and estimated true N digestibility were lower. Urinary N excretion and ruminal concentrations of ammonia, total AA, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids were reduced on RCS, indicating reduced ruminal protein degradation. Supplementation of RPM increased intake, milk true protein, and solids-not-fat content and tended to increase milk fat content. There were no silage × RPM interactions, suggesting that RPM was equally limiting on both AS and RCS. Supplementation of RPL did not

  9. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...... of 315, 436, 414 and 503 g/kg DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided equally across two daily meals offered at 0800 and 1530 h. Chewing activity was estimated...... from recorded jaw movements (JM) oscillations continuously logged for 96 h and summarized per 24 h as mean effective rumination time and eating time. Eating behavior was further observed during four 20-min test meals. Weight proportion of large feces particles (>1.0 mm) and geometric mean fecal...

  10. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    -term mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-yr-old grass-clover sward in south Denmark. Three treatments were as follows grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm......Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long...... depth using ceramic suction cups. Because of considerable variation in measured nitrate concentrations, the 32 installed suction cups per treatment were insufficient to reveal differences between treatments. However, weighted nitrate leaching estimations for G, CG and CGC showed estimated mean nitrate N...

  11. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  12. Legume receptors perceive the rhizobial lipochitin oligosaccharide signal molecules by direct binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broghammer, Angelique; Krusell, Lene; Blaise, Mickael

    2012-01-01

    Lipochitin oligosaccharides called Nod factors function as primary rhizobial signal molecules triggering legumes to develop new plant organs: root nodules that host the bacteria as nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus Nod factor receptor 5 (NFR5) and Nod factor recep...

  13. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  14. Parallel loss of symbiosis genes in relatives of nitrogen-fixing non-legume Parasponia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van R.; Holmer, R.; Bu, F.; Rutten, L.J.J.; Zeijl, van A.L.; Liu, W.; Santuari, L.; Cao, Q.; Sharma, Trupti; Shen, D.; Purwana Roswanjaya, Yuda; Wardhani, T.; Seifi Kalhor, M.; Jansen, Joelle; Hoogen, van den D.J.; Gungor, Berivan; Hartog, M.V.; Hontelez, J.; Verver, J.W.G.; Yang, W.C.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Repin, Rimi; Schilthuizen, M.; Schranz, M.E.; Heidstra, R.; Miyata, Kana; Fedorova, E.; Kohlen, W.; Bisseling, A.H.J.; Smit, S.; Geurts, R.

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobium nitrogen-fixing nodules are a well-known trait of legumes, but nodules also occur in other plant lineages either with rhizobium or the actinomycete Frankia as microsymbiont. The widely accepted hypothesis is that nodulation evolved independently multiple times, with only a few losses.

  15. Exploring socio-ecological niches for legumes in western Kenya smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojiem, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: adaptability, agro-ecosystems, biophysical and socio-economic heterogeneity, economic benefits, N2-fixation, productivity.This thesis explores the potential of using herbaceous and grain legume species to improve soil fertility and farm productivity in the heterogeneous

  16. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  17. Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of nano-TiO2 on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO2 did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-...

  18. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant–Pollinator Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso, María J.; Bebeli, Penelope J.; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A. A.; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant–pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the “pest control service” and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System. PMID:27047514

  19. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  20. Condensed tannins in some forage legumes: their role in the prevention of ruminant pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1992-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the focus in our laboratory has been on finding the causes of ruminant pasture bloat and eventually breeding a bloat-safe alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); i.e., with bloat potential reduced to the economic threshold. In the mid-seventies, the mechanisms of bloat were explored and found to be more physical than chemical. Characteristic of all bloating legumes after ingestion was a very rapid initial rate of ingestion by rumen microbes. Through the study of bloating and non-bloating legumes, factors were elucidated in the plant that would slow this process. One of these factors was the presence of condensed tannins in the herbage. Some of the non-bloating legumes contained these secondary metabolites, but no condensed tannins were found in any of the bloating legumes. Therefore, species containing an appreciable amount of condensed tannins in their leaves and stems are considered to be non-bloating. Conventional breeding methods have not been successful in producing an alfalfa with condensed tannins in its herbage. New approaches using tissue culture techniques are being attempted, but genetic engineering has the greatest potential for success.