WorldWideScience

Sample records for legume electronic resource

  1. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  2. Tree legumes: an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tree legumes are an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures. Perceived benefits of tree legumes include provisioning (browse/mast, timber, fuel, human food, natural medicines, and ornamentals, regulating (C sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, soil erosion control and riparian buffers, shade, windbreaks, and habitat for pollinators, supporting (biological N2-fixation, nutrient cycling, soil fertility and soil health, photosynthesis, and primary productivity, and cultural ecosystem services. Tree legumes, however, have not been assessed to the same extent as herbaceous legumes. Once tree legumes are established, they are often more persistent than most herbaceous legumes. There are limitations for extended research with tree legume silvopastures, but extensive research has been done in Africa and Australia and recent efforts have been reported in South America. Economic benefits must be demonstrated to land managers to increase adoption. These benefits are apparent in the research and successes already available, but more long-term research, including the livestock component is necessary. Other factors that reduce adoption include paucity of domesticated germplasm, lag in research/technology, challenges of multipurpose trees and management complexity, challenges to mechanization, dangers of invasive weeds, and social and cultural barriers. In the current scenario of climate change and the need to increase food security, tree legumes are a key component for the sustainable intensification of livestock systems in warm-climate regions.

  3. Legume genetic resources and transcriptome dynamics under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Burritt, David J; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2018-01-04

    Grain legumes are an important source of nutrition and income for billions of consumers and farmers around the world. However, the low productivity of new legume varieties, due to the limited genetic diversity available for legume breeding programmes and poor policymaker support, combined with an increasingly unpredictable global climate is resulting in a large gap between current yields and the increasing demand for legumes as food. Hence, there is a need for novel approaches to develop new high-yielding legume cultivars that are able to cope with a range of environmental stressors. Next-generation technologies are providing the tools that could enable the more rapid and cost-effective genomic and transcriptomic studies for most major crops, allowing the identification of key functional and regulatory genes involved in abiotic stress resistance. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent achievements regarding abiotic stress resistance in a wide range of legume crops and highlight the transcriptomic and miRNA approaches that have been used. In addition, we critically evaluate the availability and importance of legume genetic resources with desirable abiotic stress resistance traits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  5. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Cleary, Alan M; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E; Weeks, Nathan T; Wilkey, Andrew P; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-01-04

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  7. Soil nitrogen availability and bradyrhizobium spp. inoculation influence the utilization of nitrogen resources in legume-cereal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababio, R.C.; Kessel, C. van; Ennin, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed farming systems are practiced in low latitude localities where the land tenure is inflexible and the soil is usually marginal. Two experiments were designed to evaluate Nitrogen (N) resource utilization in such systems as practiced in moist savanna and forest-savanna transitional agroecologies of West Africa. Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and two maize (Zea mays) cultivars of peanut (Arachis hypogea) and Sorghum sp. were used in the other as monocropped and mixed cropped treatments. Plants were provided with fertilizer N treatment at the rates of 0, 5, 10 and 35 mg N kg 1 of soil as 15 N-labeled ammonium sulphate. Legume components of inoculated treatments received a mixture of three serologically-distinct strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. recommended for each legume species. Results showed that mixed cropped legumes responded to Bradyrhizobium inoculation and utilized significantly (P<0.05) higher amounts of nitrogen from the atmosphere when compared with monocropped legumes. The inoculation response was influenced by legume-cereal combination, plant cultivars, and soil available nitrogen. The results indicate that in soils of given N availability status, selection of appropriate legume-cereal cultivar combinations will be a useful management practice for enhancing BNF for the benefit of resource poor farmers (author)

  8. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  9. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D K; Abaidoo, Robert C; Giller, Ken E

    2017-11-01

    Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of soil fertility status on intercrop productivity is generally lacking in the Guinea savanna despite the wide variability in soil fertility status in farmers' fields, and the productivity of within-row spatial arrangement of intercrops relative to the distinct-row systems under on-farm conditions has not been studied in the region. We studied effects of maize-legume spatial intercropping patterns and soil fertility status on resource use efficiency, crop productivity and economic profitability under on-farm conditions in the Guinea savanna. Treatments consisted of maize-legume intercropped within-row, 1 row of maize alternated with one row of legume, 2 rows of maize alternated with 2 rows of legume, a sole maize crop and a sole legume crop. These were assessed in the southern Guinea savanna (SGS) and the northern Guinea savanna (NGS) of northern Ghana for two seasons using three fields differing in soil fertility in each agro-ecological zone. Each treatment received 25 kg P and 30 kg K ha -1 at sowing, while maize received 25 kg (intercrop) or 50 kg (sole) N ha -1 at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing. The experiment was conducted in a randomised complete block design with each block of treatments replicated four times per fertility level at each site. Better soil conditions and rainfall in the SGS resulted in 48, 38 and 9% more maize, soybean and groundnut grain yield, respectively produced than in the NGS, while 11% more cowpea grain yield was produced in the NGS. Sole crops of maize and legumes produced significantly more grain yield per unit area than the respective intercrops of maize and legumes. Land equivalent ratios (LERs) of all intercrop patterns were greater than

  10. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  11. Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varshney, Rajeev K.; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Yupeng

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume food crop grown primarily by smallholder farmers in many semi-arid tropical regions of the world. We used the Illumina next-generation sequencing platform to generate 237.2 Gb of sequence, which along with Sanger-based bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences...

  12. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  13. Updates to the Cool Season Food Legume Genome Database: Resources for pea, lentil, faba bean and chickpea genetics, genomics and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cool Season Food Legume Genome database (CSFL, www.coolseasonfoodlegume.org) is an online resource for genomics, genetics, and breeding research for chickpea, lentil,pea, and faba bean. The user-friendly and curated website allows for all publicly available map,marker,trait, gene,transcript, ger...

  14. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C.; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D.K.; Abaidoo, Robert C.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of

  15. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  16. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  17. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  18. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  19. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C.; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D.K.; Abaidoo, Robert C.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights • Productivity of different intercropping patterns was tested in Guinea savanna of northern Ghana. • Land Equivalent Ratios in intercropping systems are greater under low soil fertility conditions. • Competitive balance between intercrops in poor fields leads to greater Land Equivalent Ratios. • Within-row maize-legume intercropping is more productive than distinct row systems. • Radiation use efficiency is higher in intercrops than in sole crops.

  20. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out ... New approaches in acquisition, accessing, selection, preservation and choices on whether to operate digital, or combine traditional print and digital resources in the library have to be worked out and adopted.

  1. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electronic resources, electronic books, electronic learning, electronic journals, as well as electronic archive among others is intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and sectors of the society. Electronic information resources (EIRS) as reported by Meitz (2004), are "Library materials produced in electronic format.

  2. The calculating rating of electronic resources

    OpenAIRE

    MUMINOV BAHODIR.BOLTAYEICH

    2016-01-01

    The rating of electron resources is devoted to count by theories, directions in this work. The calculating model of rating of ER by entering and exiting directions on bases of used widely PageRank is produced for calculating the rating of web pages in Google searching system. The rating of ER is taken into account for calculating the ratings of entering direction and the calculating exiting direction is accomplished by equitable distribution of ER. And also the calculating rating ER among kin...

  3. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  4. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  5. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  6. Utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... printer, and audio-visuals are equally available. Student have unlimited accessibility in the utilization of electronic resources, students frequently utilized electronic information resources in Ramat Library. It is recommended, among others, that registered students should utilize and access electronic information resources ...

  7. Impact of electronic resources use on academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that use of electronic resources had a positive impact on students' academic performance. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that more emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of electronic resources so as to give room for wider and multiple access to information resources in order to ...

  8. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  9. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  10. The Evolution of Selection Activities for Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha L.

    1997-01-01

    Selection of electronic resources--CD-ROMs, dial access databases, electronic journals, and World Wide Web products--requires a more extensive set of criteria than do print resources. Discusses two factors influencing collection development of electronic products: technology options and licensing issues, and outlines how traditional selection…

  11. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  12. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, e-resources are not always accessible, lack of supporting structures (connection, downloading, printing limits) and too many resources.

  13. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  14. Unlocking the potential of orphan legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Christopher; Kunert, Karl J

    2017-04-01

    Orphan, or underutilized, legumes are domesticated legumes with useful properties, but with less importance than major world crops due to use and supply constraints. However, they play a significant role in many developing countries, providing food security and nutrition to consumers, as well as income to resource-poor farmers. They have been largely neglected by both researchers and industry due to their limited economic importance in the global market. Orphan legumes are better adapted than the major legume crops to extreme soil and climatic conditions, with high tolerance to abiotic environmental stresses such as drought. As a stress response they can also produce compounds with pharmaceutical value. Orphan legumes are therefore a likely source of important traits for introduction into major crops to aid in combating the stresses associated with global climate change. Modern large-scale genomics techniques are now being applied to many of these previously understudied crops, with the first successes reported in the genomics area. However, greater investment of resources and manpower are necessary if the potential of orphan legumes is to be unlocked and applied in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  16. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  17. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  18. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  19. Use of electronic resources by undergraduates in two selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to know the extent of use of electronic resources and identify the type of electronic resources used by undergraduates in universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The study population includes all undergraduate students in the faculty of engineering in Niger Delta ...

  20. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  1. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...

  2. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  3. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  4. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  5. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  6. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  7. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  8. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  9. USE OF VIDEO IN MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Denisenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread introduction of electronic educational resources in the educational process requires the development of a scientific basis for all aspects related to their creation and use. These modern means are designed not just to convey to learners the required course material, but also to create conditions for its most effective study. This is possible in conditions of reasonable approach to the presentation of educational material on the screen. The article is devoted to consideration of the problem of presenting educational material in electronic educational resources. Visuals are powerful didactic tool that enhances the perception and understanding of educational information. Particular attention is paid to the use of such a powerful medium like video. Investigated the role and importance of video in the learning process, their educational opportunities and benefits. Shows types of video and their use in electronic educational resources. Grounded requirements for training videos. The recommendations are given on the use of video in combination with other media in electronic educational resources. Adduced the example a real electronic multimedia educational resource and shows the possibility of using video.

  10. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  11. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  12. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  13. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  14. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugas, D.V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, C.E.; Jansen, R.K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, J.T.; Hajrah, N.H.; Alharbi, N.S.; Al-Malki, A.L.; Sabir, J.S.M.; Bailey, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily

  15. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  16. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  17. Electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the state of electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in Southern part of Nigeria, highlighting the prospects and the challenges. The study was an empirical research which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The questionnaire was used to collect data from the ...

  18. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, E- journals, CD-ROMs, AGORA, and ... to finance and geographical location. Furthermore, in developed countries like United Kingdom, students get access to .... databases, web sources and audio-video tapes. Furthermore, studies also ...

  19. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  20. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services in A.B.U & UNIBEN MTN Net Libraries. ... Lastly, management of the MTN Net Libraries should conduct user studies annually in order to have feedback from users on how well the library is meeting their information needs. The results of the survey should ...

  1. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  2. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an empirical study that examined the association between gender and the use of electronic information resources among postgraduate students at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in December 2005 and integrated both qualitative and quantitative research ...

  3. Use of electronic information resources among the undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at finding out the use of electronic information resources among undergraduate students in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The study is based on descriptive survey design method and the population consists of 16,962 undergraduate students across different schools at the Federal University ...

  4. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  5. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  6. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  7. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  8. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  9. Biological Nitrogen Fixation on Legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armiadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the major limiting factors for crop growth and is required in adequate amount, due to its function as protein and enzyme components. In general, plants need sufficient nitrogen supply at all levels of growth, especially at the beginning of growth phase. Therefore, the availability of less expensive N resources would reduce the production cost. The increasing use of chemical fertilizer would probably disturb soil microorganisms, reduce the physical and chemical characteristics of soil because not all of N based fertilizer applied can be absorbed by the plants. Approximately only 50% can be used by crops, while the rest will be altered by microorganism into unavailable N for crops or else dissappear in the form of gas. Leguminous crops have the capacity to immobilize N2 and convert into the available N if innoculated with Rhizobium. The amount of N2 fixed varies depending on legume species and their environment.

  10. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER) for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process), described the requirements to the participants...

  11. Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Infobuttons provide context-aware educational materials to both providers and patients and are becoming an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR) and patient health records (PHR). However, the content from different electronic resources (e-resource) as responses from infobutton manager has not been fully analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically analyzing responses from infobutton manager. A tool is implemented to retrieve and analyze responses from infobutton manager. To test the tool, we extracted and sampled common and uncommon concepts from EHR usage data in Intermountain Healthcare's enterprise data warehouse. From the output of the tool, we evaluate infobutton performance by multiple categories, including against the most and less common used concepts, grouped by different modules in patient portal, by different e-resources, and by type of access (standardized Health Level Seven (HL7) vs not). Based on the results of our evaluation, we provide suggestions for further enhancements of infobuttons to the current implementation, including suggesting accessing priorities of e-resources and encouraging the use of the HL7 standard.

  12. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  13. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  14. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes are large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy ...

  15. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case......-case scenario, only 47% of the total materials in RVCs are ultimately recycled. While this low material recovery is mainly due to the lower plastic recycling rate, other market realities and the complex material flows in the recycling chain also contribute to it. The study provides a robust methodological...... approach for assessing the EoL performance based on the knowledge of a product and its complex recycling chain. The lessons learned can be used to support both the design and EoL processing of products with similar features, which carry a high potential for resource recovery, especially at the initial...

  17. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  18. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  19. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  20. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  1. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  2. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process, described the requirements to the participants of EER expertise, grounded EER accordance to didactic and methodological requirements, described an algorithm of preparation for  the examination object to determine compliance with the requirements of didactic. It is established that the assessment is aimed to the receipt from the experts of corresponding data and acceptance on their basis of competent decisions about expedience of the use in general educational establishments.

  3. Potential of legume-based grassland–livestock systems in Europe: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-01-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil–plant–animal–atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30–50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland–livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future. PMID:26300574

  4. Potential of legume-based grassland-livestock systems in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-06-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil-plant-animal-atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30-50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland-livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future.

  5. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ..... and oil quality at UAS-D, while genotyping with 53 poly- morphic markers was generated at ...

  6. Manipulating legume/cereal mixtures to optimize the above and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of mixing legume and cereals in the cropping systems is to optimise the use of spatial, temporal, and physical resources both above- and below ground, by maximising positive interactions (facilitation) and minimising negative ones (competition) among the components. The complex interactions in ...

  7. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ... soil plant analytical development; SSR, simple sequence repeats; TAC, transcript assembly contig; TE, transpiration efficiency; TUS, tentative unique sequences.

  8. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and ...

  9. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  10. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  11. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  12. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  13. Legume integration as an agroecological intensification option for smallholders in uplands of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Von Yi

    that the initial performance of ricebean was affected by drought and grazing livestock. The results also demonstrated that the top-down Farming Systems Research & Extension intervention approach by the extension agents in promoting the innovation of legume integration into maize-based cropping systems without...... availability, the financial status of the household and access to extension services were the major factors influencing the decisions of resource-poor maize smallholders in legume adoption. The type of intervention approach by the extension agents needs to be considered to ensure sustained adoption of legume...... innovation. Since extreme weather events caused by climate change are becoming more common and unpredictable, it is imperative to find ways to reduce the risks that farmers may face upon integrating legumes under variable weather conditions. The assessment of the sustainability and resilience of legume...

  14. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  15. Legume promotion in counselling: an e-mail survey of dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, N; Brauer, P M

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about dietitians current practice in counselling clients about the use of legumes in a low fat, high fibre diet. An exploratory e-mail questionnaire was sent to members of Dietitians of Canada to assess: dietitian use and preferences for legumes, dietitian practice, opinions about clients attitudes and preferences, and resource needs. Counsellors (n=256) had high personal use of legumes (64% > or = 1 serving/week) and frequently recommended legumes in counselling. The legumes most preferred by respondents and their clients were: peanuts, kidney beans, split peas, chickpeas, and lentils. Respondents often recommended canned bean products (76%) and tofu (61%), but other legume grocery products were less often recommended. The most common client issues identified were: flatulence (87% agreed), lack of familiarity (85%), and knowledge of preparation (82%). Dietitians were not satisfied with current resources to support practice, especially those respondents providing primarily clinical counselling services. The most requested resources were: recipes (90%), pamphlets (82%), food demonstrations (75%) and Internet sites (63%). Client level research is now needed to confirm the importance of the issues identified and to develop and test strategies for legume promotion in counselling.

  16. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  17. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  18. Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Kuhlman, T.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Oudendag, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe (Legume Futures) is an international research project funded by the European Union through the Framework 7 Programme (FP7) under grant agreement number 245216 (FP7-KBBE-2009-3). The Legume Futures research consortium comprises 20 partners in 13 countries.

  19. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  20. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that the study group has regular access to the internet , and preferred using free online resources from Google and Wikipedia to institutionally subscribed academic online resources in databases such as HINARI, EBSCO Host, Questia , JSTOR and High Beam.This shows that technology alone cannot help ...

  1. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  2. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  3. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  4. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    reported using free Internet resources including the search engines, while only a small proportion uses scholarly databases. For example, 22% of researchers reported using the. African Journals Online (AJOL) while 7% use Gale databases (see Table 2 for details). Additionally, the frequency of use also varied significantly ...

  5. Challenges associated with cataloguing of electronic resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to identify challenges associated with the cataloguing of e resources in some selected university libraries in south –south Nigeria. The descriptive survey design involving the use of questionnaire as the research instrument was adopted. The population comprised of cataloguers in five selected ...

  6. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  7. Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

  8. MODELING OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING RESOURCES: THE INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Results on modeling of quality management system of electronic information resources on the basis of the analysis of its elements functioning with use of the integrated and differentiated approaches are presented. Application of such model is illustrated on an example of calculation and optimization of parameters of a quality management system at the organization of the co-ordinated work of services of monitoring, an estimation of quality and support of electronic learning resources.

  9. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  10. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  11. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  12. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients) of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors...

  13. NPR1 Protein Regulates Pathogenic and Symbiotic Interactions between Rhizobium and Legumes and Non-Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA)....

  14. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  15. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nacira; Liu, Ailin; Kan, Leo; Li, Man-Wah; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-02-04

    Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea) to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes.

  16. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  17. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen

    2014-10-01

    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  19. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  20. Legume proteomics: Progress, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  2. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of during management

  3. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpei Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of

  4. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  5. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  6. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air aud...

  7. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Comprehensive comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the legume genes controlling the nodulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g. Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max and Phaseolous vulgaris to identify key regulatory genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  9. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  10. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  11. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  13. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  14. Awareness and use of electronic resources at a university campus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looks into the use of electronic resources by the faculty members of College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Sixty-two copies of a questionnaire were sent to the entire faculty and 31 were returned which gave a response rate of 50%. The responses showed very ...

  15. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  16. Pollen structure and function in caesalpinioid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J

    2016-03-01

    A diverse range of pollen morphologies occurs within the large, paraphyletic legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae, especially among early-branching lineages. Previous studies have hypothesized an association between surface ornamentation and pollination syndrome or other aspects of pollen function such as desiccation tolerance and adaptations to accommodate volume changes. We reviewed caesalpinioid pollen morphology using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with a literature survey of pollination vectors. Pollen structural diversity is greatest in the early-branching tribes Cercideae and Detarieae, whereas Cassieae and Caesalpinieae are relatively low in pollen diversity. Functional structures to counter desiccation include opercula (lids) covering apertures and reduced aperture size. Structures preventing wall rupture during dehydration and rehydration include different forms of colpi (syncolpi, parasyncolpi, pseudocolpi), striate supratectal ornamentation, and columellate or granular wall structures that resist tensile or compressive forces respectively. Specialized aperture structures (Zwischenkörper) may be advantageous for efficient germination of the pollen tube. In Detarieae and Cercideae in particular, there is potential to utilize pollen characters to estimate pollination systems where these are unknown. Supratectal verrucae and gemmae have apparently evolved iteratively in Cercideae and Detarieae. At the species level, there is a potential correlation between striate/verrucate patterns and vertebrate pollination. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  18. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  19. Directions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science of students of a teacher training college

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Анатольева Баженова

    2009-01-01

    Article is devoted questions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science in a teacher training college, principles of pedagogical expediency of use of electronic resources at training are specified computer science and positive aspects of such use for different forms of work of the student and the teacher are allocated.

  20. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  1. Evaluating shade effects on crop productivity in sorghum-legume intercropping systems using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum-legume intercropping has the potential to improve forage productivity, resource use efficiency, and forage quality under irrigation in the Southern High Plains of the United States. Crop production is conversion of solar radiation into biomass and solar radiation is wasted early in the seaso...

  2. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  3. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  4. Emerging Genomic Tools for Legume Breeding: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K.; Roorkiwal, Manish; Singh, Vikas K.; Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Chitikineni, Anu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in ensuring global nutritional food security and improving soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Accelerated higher genetic gains is required to meet the demand of ever increasing global population. In recent years, speedy developments have been witnessed in legume genomics due to advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput genotyping technologies. Reference genome sequences for many legume crops have been reported in the last 5 years. The availability of the draft genome sequences and re-sequencing of elite genotypes for several important legume crops have made it possible to identify structural variations at large scale. Availability of large-scale genomic resources and low-cost and high-throughput genotyping technologies are enhancing the efficiency and resolution of genetic mapping and marker-trait association studies. Most importantly, deployment of molecular breeding approaches has resulted in development of improved lines in some legume crops such as chickpea and groundnut. In order to support genomics-driven crop improvement at a fast pace, the deployment of breeder-friendly genomics and decision support tools seems appear to be critical in breeding programs in developing countries. This review provides an overview of emerging genomics and informatics tools/approaches that will be the key driving force for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding and ultimately ensuring nutritional and food security in developing countries. PMID:27199998

  5. Perennial Grain Legume Domestication Phase I: Criteria for Candidate Species Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlautman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual cereal and legume grain production is dependent on inorganic nitrogen (N and other fertilizers inputs to resupply nutrients lost as harvested grain, via soil erosion/runoff, and by other natural or anthropogenic causes. Temperate-adapted perennial grain legumes, though currently non-existent, might be uniquely situated as crop plants able to provide relief from reliance on synthetic nitrogen while supplying stable yields of highly nutritious seeds in low-input agricultural ecosystems. As such, perennial grain legume breeding and domestication programs are being initiated at The Land Institute (Salina, KS, USA and elsewhere. This review aims to facilitate the development of those programs by providing criteria for evaluating potential species and in choosing candidates most likely to be domesticated and adopted as herbaceous, perennial, temperate-adapted grain legumes. We outline specific morphological and ecophysiological traits that may influence each candidate’s agronomic potential, the quality of its seeds and the ecosystem services it can provide. Finally, we suggest that perennial grain legume breeders and domesticators should consider how a candidate’s reproductive biology, genome structure and availability of genetic resources will determine its ease of breeding and its domestication timeline.

  6. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.A.; Hussain, N.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  7. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  8. Flowers of the early-branching papilionoid legume Petaladenium urceoliferum display unique morphological and ontogenetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Gerhard; Cardoso, Domingos; Zartman, Charles E; de Queiroz, Luciano P

    2015-11-01

    Floral development can help to shed light on puzzling features across flowering plants. The enigmatic Amazonian monospecific genus Petaladenium of the legume family (Leguminosae) had rarely been collected and only recently became available for ontogenetic studies. The fimbriate-glandular wing petals of P. urceoliferum are unique among the more than 19000 legume species. Ontogenetic data illuminate the systematic position of the genus and foster our understanding on floral evolution during the early diversification of the papilionoid legumes. Flower buds were collected in the field, fixed in 70% ethanol, and investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results were compared with existing material from early-diverging papilionoid legumes. Formation of sepals and petals shows bidirectional tendencies. Stamens arise in two whorls, and the single carpel arises concomitantly with the outer stamen whorl. Gland formation starts early on the edges of the wing petals. The carpel reopens for a short time when the initiation of ovules is visible. Stomata at the base of the hypanthium indicate that the flower functions like other standard flag blossoms. The floral ontogeny confirms the close affinity of P. urceoliferum with the florally heterogeneous, early-diverging papilionoid Amburaneae clade. The results strengthen the theory of a distinct experimental phase among early-branching papilionoid legumes during which a wider range of floral morphologies arose. Polysymmetry, monosymmetry, variable organ numbers, and a wide range of ontogenetic patterns laid the foundation for a successful canalization toward the more restricted but well-adapted dorsiventral papilionoid flag blossom. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  10. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  11. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  12. Grain legume protein quality: a hot subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes, also called pulses, play a key role in the nutritional improvement of food and feed. These legumes are important sources of protein as well as other nutritional compounds. Today, protein is one of the most sought after ingredients in the market and grain legumes represent one of the most sustainable protein sources. However, not all grain legume proteins are nutritionally equal. Their quality varies and depends on their amino acid composition and digestibility. In this article, we review concepts related to grain legume protein quality and discuss challenges regarding their genetic improvement. A comprehensive database of grain legume amino acid profiles and protein digestibility is needed to address the matter of protein quality in grain legume breeding. This database will be enhanced by quantitative information on digestibility-reducing bioactive compounds and the development of reliable screening tools. The achievement of higher protein quality grain legume varieties, better adjusted to animal and human requirements, will cut dietary protein content, associated costs and nitrogen excretion, thus reducing the environmental impact.Las leguminosas grano tienen un alto potencial en alimentación humana y animal siendo una importante fuente de proteínas así como de otros compuestos beneficiosos para la nutrición y salud. La proteína es uno de los ingredientes más demandados y las leguminosas grano son una delas fuentes más sostenible de proteína. Sin embargo, no todas las leguminosas grano son igual de nutritivas, variando la calidad con la composición de aminoácidos y su digestibilidad. En este artículo revisaremos los conceptos de calidad de la proteína y discutiremos las posibilidades de mejora genética. Para abordar con éxito la mejora de la calidad de la proteína será de gran ayuda disponer de bases de datos con los perfiles de aminoácidos y de digestibilidad, así como de información cuantitativa sobre los

  13. Identification of companion legumes for Midmar Italian ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a preliminary investigation seven legumes were planted alone and in combination with Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar. The pure stands of legumes were harvested at either four, five of six week cutting intervals, while the pure stands of Lolium multiflorum and the ryegrass/legume mixtures received in addition to the cutting ...

  14. legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aimed at assessing legume-derived nutrient use efficiencies (NUE) by maize and quantifying the importance of these legumes ... replacement indices (N-FRI and P-FRI) by legumes, which express their importance as source of N and P for maize relative to .... associated nutrient stocks were measured at the dry pod stage, ...

  15. Comparing Electronic Human Resource Management Systems Efficiency In Production Organization amp Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management EHRM. In fact as the competitive complexity increases the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topics literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

  16. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  17. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  18. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  19. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  20. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  1. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  2. 7606 IMPROVEMENT OF DIABETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA BY LEGUMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotimi

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... motor and sensory function occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus [19]. This may contribute to decrease in food intake and faecal output as well as eventual loss in weight. The findings from this study indicate that consumption of legume-based diets by diabetic rats resulted in increase in both food intake and ...

  3. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    They were fertilized with South African rock phosphate (EPL 86) and 20 mg of readily soluble phosphate (SP). KH,PO, was also used as starter fertilizer and its effect on utilization of the rock phosphate-P for growth by the legumes was investigated. Shoot dry weight of cowpea was unaffected by mycorrhiza only treatment but ...

  4. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  5. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  6. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-12-21

    Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  7. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  8. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Use of Electronic Resources by M.Sc. Chemistry Students at Arts Science and Commerce College Chopda Dist-Jalgaon

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Paithankar Rajeev; R., Mr.Kamble V.R.

    2017-01-01

    The libraries and information services has been changed due to the development of information and communication technology. Electronics resources role is very important as information repositories are use of information for various purposes like academic, research, teaching and learning process. E-resources gives solutions of the traditional libraries as like all data storage in digital format, users can access library without boundaries through internet so e-resources popularity is very cont...

  10. Making the Right Connections: Perceptions of Human Resource/Personnel Directors Concerning Electronic Job-Search Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joan C.; North, Alexa B.; Arjomand, H. Lari

    1997-01-01

    Examines methods used to search for entry-level managerial positions and assesses how human resource and personnel directors in Georgia perceive these methods. Findings indicate that few of the directors use electronic technology to fill such positions, but they view positively those applicants who use electronic job searching methods. (RJM)

  11. Effects of soil type and light on height growth, biomass partitioning, and nitrogen dynamics on 22 species of tropical dry forest tree seedlings: Comparisons between legumes and nonlegumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Martin, Christina M; Gei, Maria G; Bergstrom, Ellie; Becklund, Kristen K; Becknell, Justin M; Waring, Bonnie G; Werden, Leland K; Powers, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    The seedling stage is particularly vulnerable to resource limitation, with potential consequences for community composition. We investigated how light and soil variation affected early growth, biomass partitioning, morphology, and physiology of 22 tree species common in tropical dry forest, including eight legumes. Our hypothesis was that legume seedlings are better at taking advantage of increased resource availability, which contributes to their successful regeneration in tropical dry forests. We grew seedlings in a full-factorial design under two light levels in two soil types that differed in nutrient concentrations and soil moisture. We measured height biweekly and, at final harvest, biomass partitioning, internode segments, leaf carbon, nitrogen, δ 13 C, and δ 15 N. Legumes initially grew taller and maintained that height advantage over time under all experimental conditions. Legumes also had the highest final total biomass and water-use efficiency in the high-light and high-resource soil. For nitrogen-fixing legumes, the amount of nitrogen derived from fixation was highest in the richer soil. Although seed mass tended to be larger in legumes, seed size alone did not account for all the differences between legumes and nonlegumes. Both belowground and aboveground resources were limiting to early seedling growth and function. Legumes may have a different regeneration niche, in that they germinate rapidly and grow taller than other species immediately after germination, maximizing their performance when light and belowground resources are readily available, and potentially permitting them to take advantage of high light, nutrient, and water availability at the beginning of the wet season. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  12. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  13. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  14. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND USAGE OF THE ELECTRONIC VIDEO RESOURCES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav M. Hlynsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical foundation, the creation and implementation of the electronic educational video resources (EEVR in the example of the development and the usage of the collection of video tutorials in event-driven programming theme, which is studied in the framework of the subject "Informatics" by students of many specialties. It offers some development of the existing conceptual and categorical apparatus concerning EEVR development. It is alleged that the video tutorials allow you to automate the process of learning, redistribute instructional time for the benefit of students' independent work, to provide classroom release time for the teaching of the theoretical issues of the course that is aimed at improving the fundamental nature of training. Practical recommendations for the development of the effective EEVR, which may be useful for the authors of e-learning courses for students of different forms of training are proposed.

  16. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  17. Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-04-01

    A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

  18. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  19. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  20. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  1. THE FACTOR-CRITERIA MODEL OF ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL GAME RESOURCES IN MATHEMATICS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M. Melnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proves the need for a comprehensive assessment of electronic educational game resources in mathematics for the primary school students; gives the definition of “the factor-criteria model of the electronic educational game resources (EEGR”. It also describes the created model, which consists of requirements for the content, methodological and program parts of the electronic resources for primary school; identifies the factors and the criteria to each of them. It was proposed to assess the ratios within the group of factors and each group of criteria according to the arithmetic progression. The presented model can be a convenient tool both for primary school teachers and EEGR developers. It can also be a basis for a unified state comprehensive system of assessment of the EEGR.

  2. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  3. Innovations in agronomy for food legumes. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Kadambot; Johansen,; Turner, Neil; Jeuffroy,; Hashem,; Sakar,; Gan,; Alghamdi, Salem

    2012-01-01

    Although there is increasing awareness of the importance of food legumes in human, animal and soil health, adoption of improved production technologies for food legume crops is not proceeding at the same pace as for cereal crops. Over the previous decade, the only food legumes to have shown significant production increases have been chickpea, lentil and faba bean in North America, chickpea in Australia, and faba bean in Europe. In smallholder farming in developing countries, production trends...

  4. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  5. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-11-23

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms.

  6. Plant growth-promoting actinobacteria: a new strategy for enhancing sustainable production and protection of grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Grain legumes are a cost-effective alternative for the animal protein in improving the diets of the poor in South-East Asia and Africa. Legumes, through symbiotic nitrogen fixation, meet a major part of their own N demand and partially benefit the following crops of the system by enriching soil. In realization of this sustainability advantage and to promote pulse production, United Nations had declared 2016 as the "International Year of pulses". Grain legumes are frequently subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in severe yield losses. Global yields of legumes have been stagnant for the past five decades in spite of adopting various conventional and molecular breeding approaches. Furthermore, the increasing costs and negative effects of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production necessitate the use of biological options of crop production and protection. The use of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria for improving soil and plant health has become one of the attractive strategies for developing sustainable agricultural systems due to their eco-friendliness, low production cost and minimizing consumption of non-renewable resources. This review emphasizes on how the PGP actinobacteria and their metabolites can be used effectively in enhancing the yield and controlling the pests and pathogens of grain legumes.

  7. Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Peoples, Mark B.; Boddey, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    it is the high fossil energy use in the synthesis, transport, and application of N fertilizers that often negates much of the net C benefits of many other bioenergy sources. The use of legume biomass for biorefineries needs careful thought as there will be significant trade-offs with the current role of legumes...... of climate change by reducing fossil fuel use or by providing feedstock for the emerging biobased economies where fossil sources of energy and industrial raw materials are replaced in part by sustainable and renewable biomass resources. The aim of this review was to collate the current knowledge regarding...... for energy in the face of dwindling reserves of fossil energy and uncertainties about future reliability of supply. Legumes deliver several important services to societies. They provide important sources of oil, fiber, and protein-rich food and feed while supplying nitrogen (N) to agro-ecosystems via...

  8. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  9. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  10. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  11. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rotation effects of grain and herbaceous legumes on maize yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes and fallow has been known to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. This prompted an investigation into the effects of some legumes and fallow on some soil chemical properties and yield of maize. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 on an Alfisol to determine the effects of crop ...

  13. Assessing socio–economic factors influencing adoption of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the numerous benefits of legume-based multiple cropping systems in soil fertility management, most smallholder sorghum farmers have not adopted them. The aim of this study was to examine socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems among smallholder sorghum ...

  14. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial fertilizers are expensive for small-scale farmers who, as alternative, rely on legume crops for providing N for a subsequent maize crop. A legume-maize rotational experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Ferralsol at Mlingano Agricultural Research Institute in Muheza, Tanga, Tanzania, to evaluate the effects of ...

  15. Probing nod factor perception in legumes by fluorescence microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants of the family of legumes are capable of forming a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. These Gram-negative bacteria invade the root system of a host legume and fix nitrogen in a specialized organ, the so-called root nodule. In exchange for sugars, the bacteria convert atmospheric

  16. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic,

  17. Glycaemic responses of some legumes in Nigeria using non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is established that legumes generally have a low glycaemic index (GI) which means that they raise blood glucose levels very little. However, the glycaemic responses to normal subjects and the GI of these local legumes are not yet established. Objective: This work determined the postprandial glycaemic ...

  18. Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... Studies were conducted in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya with the aim of evaluating farmers' perception about the impact of legume cover crops (LCC) on soil ...

  19. Testing forage legume technologies with smallholder dairy farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    on-station research, suggest the possibility of incorporating forage legumes in farming systems that could solve feed shortages during the ... This paper presents benefits and constraints identified by farmers as a result of integrating forage legumes in farming systems and lessons ..... stock Research Institute. Vol. 5. pp.10-11.

  20. Systematics, diversity and forage value of indigenous legumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A map representing the collection intensity for the study area showed that the majority of legumes species were collected in the Fynbos, Savanna and Grassland Biome. It is concluded that indigenous South African legumes are extremely diverse and this denotes the importance of further investigating their forage potential ...

  1. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume

  2. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of legumes with residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes can help reduce the inorganic nitrogen fertilizer need of the following maize as a result of increased nitrogen availability in the soil. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value (NFRV) method was used to estimate the nitrogen contribution of grain legumes (soybean, cowpea) and an herbaceous ...

  3. Effect of Intercropping Finger Millet with two Indigenous Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In phase one, an indigenous edible legume (Crotalaria brevidens) and a fodder legume (Trifolium quartinianum) were intercropped with finger millet. Each plot was supplied with three nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 Kg N/ha) in the form of Urea (46% N) in a completely randomized block design with three replicates.

  4. Physiological responses of a fynbos legume, Aspalathus linearis to drought stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lotter, D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available of Botany Vol. 94 Physiological responses of a fynbos legume, Aspalathus linearis to drought stress Daleen Lotter a,d, Alexander J. Valentine b,⁎, Emma Archer Van Garderen c, Mark Tadross d,e a CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, P....O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa b Botany and Zoology Department, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa c CSIR Natural Resources & the Environment, Bldg 1, cnr Carlow & Rustenburg Roads, Emmarentia 2193...

  5. Crops, Nitrogen, Water: Are Legumes Friend, Foe, or Misunderstood Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark A; Buchmann, Nina; Sprent, Janet; Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L

    2018-03-17

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N. We propose that breeding grain legumes for reduced stomatal conductance can increase WUE without compromising production or BNF. Legume crops remain a better bet than relying on INF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  7. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  8. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  9. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  10. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre : a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Anisur

    2011-01-01

    Joint Master Degree in Digital Library Learning (DILL) The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis metho...

  11. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ørnfelt, Jane H.; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family. PMID:19129418

  12. The proteome of seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Ornfelt, Jane H; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Staerfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-03-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family.

  13. Comparative phylogenetic and expression analysis of small GTPases families in legume and non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ana Claudia; Via, Virginia Dalla; Savy, Virginia; Villagra, Ulises Mancini; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants. Phylogenetic analyses did not show clear differences in the organization of the different subfamilies of small GTPases between plants that engage or not in nodule symbiosis. Protein alignments revealed a strong conservation at the sequence level of small GTPases previously linked to nodulation by functional genetics. Interestingly, one Rab and three Rop proteins showed conserved amino acid substitutions in legumes, but these changes do not alter the predicted conformational structure of these proteins. Although the steady-state levels of most small GTPases do not change in response to rhizobia, we identified a subset of Rab, Rop and Arf genes whose transcript levels are modulated during the symbiotic interaction, including their spatial distribution along the indeterminate nodule. This study provides a comprehensive study of the small GTPase superfamily in several plant species. The genetic program associated to root nodule symbiosis includes small GTPases to fulfill specific functions during infection and formation of the symbiosomes. These GTPases seems to have been recruited from members that were already present in common ancestors with plants as distant as monocots

  14. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  15. Estimation of Nitrogenase Enzyme Activities and Plant Growth of Legume and Non-legume Inoculated with Diazotrophic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwani S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF process benefits the agriculture sector especially for reducing cost of nitrogenfertilizer. In the process, the diazotrophs convert N2 into ammonia (NH3 which is useable by plants. The BNF process iscatalysed by nitrogenase enzyme that involved protons and electrons together with evolution of H2 therefore, theassessment of N2 fixation is also available via H2 production and electron allocation analysis. Thus, the aims of thisexperiment were to estimate the nitrogenase enzyme activities and observe the influence of diazothrophs on growth oflegume (soybean and non legume (rice plants. Host plants were inoculated with respective inocula; Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum (strain 532C for soybean while Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7 and locally isolated diazotroph (isolate 5 forrice. At harvest, the plants were observed for plant growth parameters, H2 evolution, N2 fixation and electron allocationcoefficient (EAC values. The experiment recorded N2 fixation activities of inoculated soybean plants at 141.2 μmol N2 h-1g-1 dry weight nodule, and the evolution of H2 at 144.4 μmol H2 h-1 g-1 dry weight nodule. The electron allocationcoefficient (EAC of soybean was recorded at 0.982. For inoculated rice plants, none of the observations was successfully recorded. However, results for chlorophyll contents and plant dry weight of both plants inoculated with respective inocula were similar to the control treatments supplied with full nitrogen fertilization (+N. The experiment clearly showed that inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria could enhance growth of the host plants similar to plants treated with nitrogenous fertilizer due to efficient N2 fixation process

  16. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  17. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  18. Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Luke Mahler, D; Burns, Jean H; Weber, Marjorie G; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Sprent, Janet; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2018-02-01

    How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central - but also data-hungry - question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria that ameliorate nutrient stress by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. These symbioses are ecologically-important interactions, influencing community assembly, diversity, and succession, contributing ~100-290 million tons of N annually to natural ecosystems, and enhancing growth of agronomically-important forage and crop plants worldwide. In recent work attempting to determine whether mutualism with N-fixing bacteria led to increased diversification across legumes, we were unable to definitively resolve the relationship between diversification and nodulation. We did, however, succeed in compiling a very large searchable, analysis-ready database of nodulation data for 749 legume genera (98% of Leguminosae genera; LPWG 2017), which, along with associated phylogenetic information, will provide a valuable resource for future work addressing this question and others. For each legume genus, we provide information about the species richness, frequency of nodulation, subfamily association, and topological correspondence with an additional data set of 100 phylogenetic trees curated for database compatibility. We found 386 legume genera were confirmed nodulators (i.e., all species examined for nodulation nodulated), 116 were non-nodulating, four were variable (i.e., containing both confirmed nodulators and confirmed non-nodulators), and 243 had not been examined for nodulation in published studies. Interestingly

  19. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  20. Agronomic evaluation of herbaceous legumes in a subhumid zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , albeit their introduction into Uganda is recent. Keywords: agronomy; anthracnose; botany; evaluation; forage; herbage; legumes; Namulonge; reseeding; seed yield; Uganda African Journal of Range and Forage Science 1995, 12(2): 68–71 ...

  1. Effect of legume foliage supplementary feeding to dairy cattle offered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pennisetum purpureum) is the main basal diet offered, and is supplemented with legume forages among others. Recent observations indicate reduction in fodder yields of P. purpureum although farmers are applying cattle manure to improve soil fertility ...

  2. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  3. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...... to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve...

  4. Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under three grazing regimes in southern Mozambique. JP Muir. Abstract. Leucaena leucocephala, Clitoria ternatea, Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Cassia rotundifolia cv. Wynn, Macrotyloma axillare cv. Archer, Stylosanthes guianensis var. guianensis cv.

  5. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  6. Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Singla, Ranju; Geetanjali

    2004-02-01

    A large amount of energy is utilized by legume nodules for the fixation of nitrogen and assimilation of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) into organic compounds. The source of energy is provided in the form of photosynthates by the host plant. Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme, which is responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, has also been found to play an important role in carbon metabolism in legume root nodule. PEPC-mediated CO2 fixation in nodules results in the synthesis of C4 dicarboxylic acids, viz. aspartate, malate, fumarate etc. which can be transported into bacteroids with the intervention of dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) protein. PEPC has been purified from the root nodules of few legume species. Information on the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism through PEPC in leguminous plants is scanty and incoherent. This review summarizes the various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in legume root nodules.

  7. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  8. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  9. Legume root symbioses: Natural history and prospects for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtark Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM, rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that 'first' rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single 'evolutionary plant-microbial continuum'. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.

  10. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  11. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J

    2017-10-01

    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  12. Immunosuppression during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Lu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobium infects host legumes to elicit new plant organs, nodules where dinitrogen is fixed as ammonia that can be directly utilized by plants. The nodulation factor (NF) produced by Rhizobium is one of the determinant signals for rhizobial infection and nodule development. Recently, it was found to suppress the innate immunity on host and nonhost plants as well as its analogs, chitins. Therefore, NF can be recognized as a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern (M/PAMP) like chitin to induce the M/PAMP triggered susceptibility (M/PTS) of host plants to rhizobia. Whether the NF signaling pathway is directly associated with the innate immunity is not clear till now. In fact, other MAMPs such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and cyclic-β-glucan, together with type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors are also required for rhizobial infection or survival in leguminous nodule cells. Interestingly, most of them play similarly negative roles in the innate immunity of host plants, though their signaling is not completely elucidated. Taken together, we believe that the local immunosuppression on host plants induced by Rhizobium is essential for the establishment of their symbiosis.

  13. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  14. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  15. Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

  16. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  17. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  18. Survey of the use of electronic information resources by students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For libraries to continue to lead in this industry generally and academic libraries in particular, deliberate effort must be made to bring the IT education to every potential user of the libraries. This however must be done based on available data. This is what this study sought to provide- a survey of the use of electronic ...

  19. Bringing Up Gopher: Access to Local & Remote Electronic Resources for University Library Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melvin Marlo; And Others

    Some of the administrative and organizational issues in creating a gopher, specifically a library gopher for university libraries, are discussed. In 1993 the Electronic Collections Task Force of the New Mexico State University library administration began to develop a library-based gopher system that would enable users to have unlimited access to…

  20. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  1. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ∼105 patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk PMID:23220717

  2. Resource-efficient conception of waste electrical and electronic equipment collection groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Nadja von; Wilts, Claas Henning

    2014-01-01

    Critical metals are in great demand by the electrical and electronics industry, so waste electrical and eletronic equipment represents a significant source of secondary raw materials. Owing to low recycling rates and the concomitant supply risks associated with critical metals, the closure of the material cycles is highly relevant to the German economy. Losses of these metals occur from collection until their material recovery, along the entire disposal chain of waste electrical and electroni...

  3. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  4. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  5. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  6. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  7. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  8. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M.E., E-mail: marney.isaac@utoronto.ca [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); University of Toronto, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Hinsinger, P. [INRA, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); Harmand, J.M. [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France)

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N{sub 2}-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N{sub 2}-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.E.; Hinsinger, P.; Harmand, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N 2 -fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N 2 -fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ 15 N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. -- Highlights

  11. Nitrogen contributions of legume roots to cabbage nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of roots are generally not considered in studies assessing crop responses to green manure. However, measuring such effects can contribute to a better understanding of crop rotation. In two experiments, we evaluated the content of legume-N in crop tissue and the fertilizer value of the roots and shoots of two legume species. Roots, shoots, or whole plants of the legumes sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea and jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis were cropped as green manure to supply nitrogen to cabbage crops (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The principle of the A-value technique was applied to estimate the fertilizer value of each plant part. In a pot experiment, both the content of legume-N in cabbage and the fertilizer value of the whole plant was higher than the shoots, which was in turn higher than that of the roots. In field condition, roots had a decreasing effect on the N content of cabbage plants. Growing cabbage on legume root residue resulted in an increased absorption of 15N-urea, resulting in negative values ​​for legume-N content: -13.59 g kg-1 and -3.51 g kg-1 for sunhemp and jack beans, respectively. Suggesting both low N supply by roots and N immobilization in soil organic matter or microbial biomass. Future research should focus on estimating the net N acquisition by plants from root residues under field conditions, where rooting patterns and biomass distribution differ from those in pot experiments, therefore giving a more realistic quantitative estimate.

  12. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...... to neighbouring plants differed among nitrogen donors and nitrogen receivers and may depend on root characteristics and regrowth strategies of plant species in the multi-species grassland.......Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...

  13. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  14. CARBON CYCLES, NITROGEN FIXATION AND THE LEGUME-RHIZOBIA SYMBIOSIS AS SOIL CONTAMINANT BIOTEST SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Werner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The major pools and turnover  rates of the global carbon (C cycles are presented and compared to the human production of CO2  from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. coal and oil and geothermal  fuels (natural  gases, both categorized as non-renewable energy resources which  in amount  reaches around  6.5 Gigatons C per year. These pools that serve as C-holding stallions  are in the atmosphere,  the land plant biomass, the organic soils carbon, the ocean carbon and the lithosphere. In another related case, the present focus in the area of nitrogen  fixation  is discussed with  data on world  production of grain  legumes  compared  to cereals production and nitrogen  fertilizer use. The focus to understand  the molecular  biology of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis as a major contributor to nitrogen  fixation  is in the areas of signal exchange between  host plants and rhizobia  in the rhizophere including  the nod factor signalling, the infection  and nodule compartmentation and the soils stress factors affecting the symbiosis. The use of the Legume-Rhizobia symbiosis as a biotest system for soil contaminants includes data for cadmium,  arsenate, atrazine,  lindane,  fluoranthene, phenantrene and acenaphthene and also results  on the mechanism,  why the symbiotic system is more sensitive  than test systems with plant growth  parameters.

  15. [LEGUME-RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS PROTEOMICS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Iu Iu; Mamenko, P M; Kots, S Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present review contains results of proteomic researches of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The technical difficulties associated with the methods of obtaining protein extracts from symbiotic structures and ways of overcoming them were discussed. The changes of protein synthesis under formation and functioning of symbiotic structures were shown. Special attention has been given to the importance of proteomic studies of plant-microbe structures in the formation of adaptation strategies under adverse environmental conditions. The technical and conceptual perspectives of legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics were shown.

  16. Effects of alternative legume seeds on Barbaresca lamb meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pennisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a renewed interest towards the use of local legume seeds in animal nutrition was raising in Mediterranean areas. Conventional feedstuffs such as maize and soybean and animal by-products, the former widely diffused as genetically modified organisms (GMO and the latter related to “mad cow disease” produced significative changes in public perceptions, justifying a dramatic increase of the use of alternative protein and energy sources such as legume seeds (peas, faba beans, chickpeas (Hanbury et al., 2000...

  17. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health sciences in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanu, Rmk; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Opare-Sem, O; Nkyekyer, K; Donkor, P; Lawson, A; Engleberg, N C

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether a group of Ghanaian students are able to easily use electronic learning material and whether they perceive this method of learning as acceptable. The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) and the School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty third year medical students at SMS and nineteen fifth year medical students at UGMS METHODS: Two e-learning materials were developed, one on the polymerase chain reaction and the other on total abdominal hysterectomy and these were distributed to selected medical students. Two weeks after the distribution of the programmes, a one-page, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target groups of students at the two institutions. Ninety three percent (139) of respondents at KNUST and 95% (18) at UG report having access to a computer for learning purposes. All of the UG students viewed the TAH programme; 82% (130) of the KNUST students viewed the PCR animations. All students who viewed the programmes at both institutions indicated that the e-learning pro-grammes were "more effective" in comparison to other methods of learning. Computer ownership or availability at both medical schools is sufficient to permit the distribution and viewing of e-learning materials by students and the medical students considered both programmes to be very helpful.

  18. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device function and longevity at autopsy: an underestimated resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sunil K; Crain, Barbara; Flickinger, Katie; Calkins, Hugh; Rickard, John; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald; Tomaselli, Gordon; Marine, Joseph E

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility and safety of postmortem cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED; pacemaker or defibrillator) retrieval for reuse has been shown. To date, studies indicate a low yield of reusable postmortem CIEDs (17%-30%). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a higher rate of reusable CIEDs would be identified upon postmortem retrieval when an institutional protocol for systematic and routine acquisition, interrogation, reprogramming, and manufacturer analysis was used. Over a 6-year period, all subjects referred for autopsy underwent concomitant CIED pulse generator retrieval and enrollment in the Johns Hopkins Post-Mortem CIED Registry. CIEDs were interrogated, reprogrammed, and submitted for manufacturer analysis. In total, 84 autopsies had CIEDs (37 pacemakers, 47 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators). CIEDs were implanted 2.84 ± 2.32 years before death, with 30% implanted 60% of pacemakers and >50% of defibrillators demonstrated normal functional status with projected longevities >7 years on average. Formation of a national hospital-based "CIED donor network" would facilitate larger scale charitable efforts in underserved countries. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of different cereal-legume blending ratios on nutritional quality and functional property of different blends. The legumes and steeped cereals were cleaned, minimally roasted, dehulled, milled and sifted separately. A single-factor experiment with three levels of the factor (cereal: legume ratio ...

  20. rotational effects of grain legumes on maize performance in the rift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-10-27

    Oct 27, 2000 ... The study has demonstrated that the use of grain legumes, particularly dolichos in rotation with maize, is a ... legume plant residues (Onim etal., 1990; Kwesiga and Coe, 1994; Wortmann et al., 1994; Peoples et ... It may be feasible to produce suitably adapted legumes during the shcrt rains to produce ...

  1. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  2. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... Seed characteristics of legume species used in this study. Species. Cultivar. Collect location. Seed mass (mg). T. repens. -. Jilin Province. 0.58±0.002 .... The effects of depth (D), light (L), species (S) and their interaction on germination characteristics, morphological ..... Early seedling growth of pine (Pinus.

  3. Assessment of Traditionally Produced Dakuwa (A Cereal/Legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dakuwa (a local legume/cereal snack) samples were collected from local producers cutting across seven local government areas in Niger State, central Nigeria and assessed on the basis of proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and mineral content, microbiological and sensory qualities. There were significant ...

  4. Progress with the legume bacteria in Rhodesia | HDL | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress during eight years of work in Rhodesia with Rhizobium is presented. 370 of the country's 507 known indigenous species of legumes have been examined for nodulation, and all but 13 found to form nodules. A collection of 573 isolates of Rhizobium, 221 of them from other countries, has been built up on a basis of ...

  5. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes (Trifolium repens L., Medicago falcata L., Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb, Medicago sativa L. and Lespedeza davurica Schindler) at five planting depths (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm) and two light levels (full light and shade) on the 21st day after ...

  6. Smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area under the crop, distance to local markets, knowledge of legume root nodules, education level, contacts with organisations promoting biological N fixation (BNF) technologies, group membership, soybean market and location of the farm based on agro-ecological zone were factors that determine the use of the ...

  7. Productivity and stability of various grass-legume mixtures with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were established at Cedara under dryland conditions to determine the production, persistence and value of Trifolium repens cv. Ladino, Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland red and Desmodium uncinatum cv. Silverleaf. These legumes were row-planted into Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu); Cynodon nlemfuensis ...

  8. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of macromineral concentration of Panicum/Stylosanthes mixtures was carried out at the Cattle Production Venture, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, in Southwest Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture grazed by the ...

  9. Qualitative nutrient requirements of selected legume species on two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three perennial legumes (Macroptilium atropurpureum, Rhynchosia totta and Rhynchosia minima) were evaluated in a glass-house under uncontrolled environmental conditions for herbage, root and nodule yield on two soils and on river sand under six fertilizer treatments. Keywords: qualitative analyses|nutrient ...

  10. Perennial legumes on dry lands in the western Highveld region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a great need for perennial pasture legumes which are adapted to dryland production in the western Highveld. ... Averaged over two years, three selections yielded more than two tonnes dry material per ha: namely, Desmodium uncinatum 2,78, Medicago sativa 2,74 and Macroptilium atropurpureum 2,10.

  11. evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    was found to be highest in N(1.10kg-1) and P(0.0597) than other legumes residues. Other essential nutrients like calcium, magnesium and potassium were also determined. Generally, crop residues and their ashes are ... to the integrated application of organic and inorganic fertilizer in tropical crop production. Despite the.

  12. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  13. Symbiotic specificity of tropical tree rhizobia for host legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The host range and specificity is reported of a genetically diverse group of rhizobia isolated from nodules of Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nodule number and nitrogen content was measured in seedlings of herbaceous and woody legume species

  14. Effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, in early 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients and performance of maize. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four levels of crop ...

  15. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  16. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  17. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  18. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  19. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  20. Annual legumes for improving soil fertility in the smallholder maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We need to screen new legumes for local adaptation to see if there are new species or accessions that do better on smallholder farms. Some green manures, especially ... More work with velvet beans is required on farms to establish the size and speed of yield gains for following maize crops. Also, more participatory work ...

  1. Legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentations included eight treatments in a RCB design (n=3): four herbaceous legume-maize successions and four continuous maize cropping with urea (U, 46% N, 50 kg ha-1), triple superphosphate (TSP, 45% P, 30 kg ha-1), urea+triple superphosphate (U+TSP) and a control. The NUE was estimated through ...

  2. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach. J. Sinja,ab*J. Karugia,b M. Waithakaac, D. Miano,c I. Baltenwecka; S. Franzeld ... informal methods of dissemination especially farmer-to-farmer extension. It is not known ... Results showed that farmers with positions in farmer groups, with.

  3. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    02001, African Crop Science Society. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF PIGEONPEA. IN SMALLHOLDER FARMING SYSTEMS OF ZIMBABWE. - P. MAPFUMO, B.M. CAMPBELL1, S. MPEPEREKI and P. MAFONGOYA2. Department of Soil Sclence and Agricultural Engineering, University of ...

  4. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soyabean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with 32 P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soyabean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding). (author)

  5. Profitability of sorghum-legume cropping practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    kilogram. Besides that, groundnut and sorghum-legume intercrops incurred the highest variable costs which could have negatively affected their gross margins. Corresponding gross margins from the different enterprises were generated as shown in table 2. Analysis of variance on the Gross margin of sorghum-cowpea ...

  6. Improvement of diabetic dyslipidemia by legumes in experimental rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain legumes are a valuable source of food proteins; hence, their exploitation is expected to grow in relation to a growing world's food needs. Apart from high level of dietary fibre, their protein composition makes them useful in managing diabetes. This paper reports a study conducted to evaluate the effects of four different ...

  7. Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors

  8. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... reduction in dietary protein intake of rabbits in the latter stages of growth where rabbits are raised up to 2.5-2.8 kg live weight. This study was designed therefore to evaluate the utilization of combinations of concentrate, grass and legume forages on performance and nutrient digestibility of grower rabbits.

  9. Phytoremediation of heavy and transition metals aided by legume-rhizobia symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, X.; Taghavi, S.; Xie, P.

    2014-01-01

    Legumes are important for nitrogen cycling in the environment and agriculture due to the ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. In this review, we introduce an important and potential role of legume-rhizobia symbiosis in aiding phytoremediation of some metal contaminated soils as various legumes...... nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, phytohormone synthesis, siderophore release, and production of ACC deaminase and the volatile compounds of acetoin and 2, 3-butanediol may facilitate legume growth while lessening metal toxicity. The benefits of using legumes inoculated with naturally resistant...

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p < 0.01). The release of histamine was decreased significantly when sensitized basophils were challenged with hydrolysates as compared to raw extracts. Significant reduction in the biopotency of hydrolysates was also observed in SPT where only 1/10 kidney bean-sensitive individuals, 2/6 black gram-sensitive individuals and 1/7 peanut-sensitive individuals were found positive to their respective hydrolysates. In conclusion, enzymatic hydrolysis is effective in attenuating allergenicity of legume proteins and may be employed for preparing hypoallergenic food extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  12. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Elana; Naudin, Christophe; Piva, Guillaume; Shirtliffe, Steven J; Fustec, Joëlle; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle

    2017-02-01

    Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N 2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N 2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N 2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N 2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  13. Contribution of legumes to the soil N pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustec, Joëlle; Malagoli, Philippe; Mahieu, Stéphanie

    2010-05-01

    Grain legumes can be used for nitrogen acquisition in different ways in sustainable agriculture (Fustec et al., 2009). They are seen as a tool to reduce mineral N fertilizers in cropping systems. However, estimates of biological N fixation, N balance and N benefit either for the following crop or in mixed crops, remain unclear. The contribution of legumes to the soil N pool is difficult to measure, especially N rhizodeposition, since it is a critical point for assessing N benefits for other crops and for soil biological activity, and for reducing water pollution (Mayer et al., 2003). We adapted and refined the cotton-wick 15N stem labeling method for measuring the amount of soil N derived from rhizodeposition by field peas (Mahieu et al., 2007, 2009). The method was tested in different conditions in the field and in the greenhouse with various pea varieties and isolines. In addition, we used the cotton-wick method for assessing N transfers from pea to neighbouring durum wheat. In the greenhouse, a positive relationship was found between the amount of N rhizodeposits and the legume N content. N rhizodeposition was about 15% of the plant N and 30% in the field. In field pea / durum wheat intercrops, plant-plant N transfers were quantified and found to be bidirectional. Such results should be taken into account when estimating N benefits from biological N fixation by a grain legume crop and for the prediction of N economies in legume-based cropping systems. More studies dealing with rhizodeposit compounds and soil biological activity would now be necessary. Fustec et al. 2009. Agron. Sustain. Dev., DOI 10.1051/agro/2009003, in press. Mahieu et al. 2007. Plant Soil 295, 193-205. Mahieu et al. 2009. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 2236-2243. Mayer et al. 2003. Soil Biol. Biochem. 35, 21-28.

  14. Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. STODDARD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important in world agriculture, providing biologically fixed nitrogen, breaking cereal disease cycles and contributing locally grown food and feed, including forage. Pea and faba bean were grown by early farmers in Finland, with remains dated to 500 BC. Landraces of pea and faba bean were gradually replaced by better adapted, higher quality materials for food use. While grain legumes have been restricted by their long growing seasons to the south of the country, red, white and alsike clovers are native throughout and have long been used in leys for grazing, hay and silage. Breeding programmes released many cultivars of these crops during the 1900s, particularly pea and red clover. A.I. Virtanen earned the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on both nitrogen fixation and silage preservation. Use of crop mixtures may appear modern, but farmers used them already in the early 1800s, when oat was used to support pea, and much effort has been devoted to improving the system and establishing its other benefits. Although international cultivars have been easily accessible since Finland’s 1995 entry into the European Union, the combination of feed quality and appropriate earliness is still needed, as < 1% of arable land is sown to grain legumes and an increase to 9–10% would allow replacement of imported protein feeds. Climate change will alter the stresses on legume crops, and investment in agronomy, physiology and breeding is needed so that farmers can gain from the many advantages of a legume-supported rotation.;

  15. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  16. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few...... studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume...

  17. SoyBase and the legume information system: accessing information about the soybean and other legume genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes two websites relevant for soybean research: SoyBase, and the Legume Information System (LIS). SoyBase and LIS have different objectives and areas of emphasis. SoyBase holds a wide range of specialized data in support of soybean breeding and research activities, with the primary...

  18. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  19. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  20. DAMPAK FASILITATIF TUMBUHAN LEGUM PENUTUP TANAH DAN TANAMAN BERMIKORIZA PADA SUKSESI PRIMER DI LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG KAPUR (Facilitative Impacts of Legume Cover-crop and Mycorrhizal-inoculated Plant on Primary Succession of Limestone Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Prayudyaningsih

    2015-11-01

    melalui peningkatkan kerapatan individu dan keanekaragaman jenis pada semua tingkatan habitus, meskipun untuk tingkat herba dan semak, kerapatan individu dan keanekaragaman jenis terendah pada areal pertanaman tanpa mikoriza. ABSTRACT Limestone mining using open pit mining method that involves vegetation removal and soil drilling and blasting in accessing limestone material has caused ecosystem damages. Natural recovery of such a harsh site is a slow process as the site condition in the successional process do not favor the natural vegetation development. Plants Establishment could facilitate other plants by ameliorating harsh environmental characteristics and/or increasing the availability of nutrient resources. Facilitation impact of legume cover crop (Centrosema pubescens and mycorrhizal-inoculated plantation (Vitex cofassus was studied on primary succession of TNS limestone mining quarry. The emergence of natural plants is measured using individual density, diversity and number of species by quadrat systematic plot method base on their habitus. Site conditions measured by litterfall thickness and biomass, soil organic matter content and soil organic carbon levels. The study was conducted in four types of areas on limestone postmining lands are open areas/natural conditions without planting, legume cover crop area, non mycorrhizal-inoculated plant area and mycorrhizal-inoculated plant area. The results indicated, establishment of legume cover crops and mycorrhizal-inoculated plants improved site conditions of limestone quarry. Legume cover crops establishment produced a large amount of litters with 1.08 cm of a thickness and 188.96 g/m2 of biomass, and it’s subsequent decomposition increased soil organic matter of 3.80% and the organic carbon content of 2.20%. Plantation formation gave similar impact as well, particulary those inoculated with Arbuscula Mycorrhizae Fungi (AMF produced amount of litters with 1.32 cm of a thickness and 220.48 g/m2 of biomass, with 3

  1. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  2. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caprio, Kimberley

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 5AB-0052, "Audit of the Management and Administration of Research Projects Funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency," will discuss the adequacy of the Defense Advanced Research...

  3. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  4. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  5. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  6. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  7. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...... as in Denmark using spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops. Intercropping involves simultaneously growing two or more crops in the same field for a significant period of time. The practice is ancient as early records from many human societies all over the world have shown. Intercropping systems...... are estimated to still provide as much as 15–20% of the world’s food supply. The practice was widespread in some European farming systems up until the 1950s – before the so-called fossilisation of agriculture. At that time as much as 50 % of all available nitrogen (N) may have originated from symbiotic N2...

  8. Rhizobium-legume symbioses: the crucial role of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, Benjamin; Berrabah, Fathi; Ratet, Pascal; Stacey, Gary

    2015-03-01

    New research results have significantly revised our understanding of the rhizobium-legume infection process. For example, Nod factors (NFs), previously thought to be absolutely essential for this symbiosis, were shown to be dispensable under particular conditions. Similarly, an NF receptor, previously considered to be solely involved in symbiosis, was shown to function during plant pathogen infections. Indeed, there is a growing realization that plant innate immunity is a crucial component in the establishment and maintenance of symbiosis. We review here the factors involved in the suppression of plant immunity during rhizobium-legume symbiosis, and we attempt to place this information into context with the most recent and sometimes surprising research results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil macrofauna in wooded pasture with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusimar Lamarte Gonzaga Galindo da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands afforestation aims at adding different soil uses in a way they become profitable for their owners. As such handling aims at minimizing impacts, the current study had as its goal the use of soil macrofauna in order to evaluate legume afforestation effects on the soil, regardless the depth. Thus, nitrogen fixing species were inserted onto grassland areas and the macrofauna collection was performed 6 years after their planting in the 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20.30cm layers, in winter and summer. Leguminous influence was different between depths and times of the year. It mostly favors communities under "Mimosa" Genus treetops. Besides, the effects from climatic seasonal variations on invertebrates were mitigated by the implementation of such legume trees

  10. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    OpenAIRE

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learnin...

  12. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grljušić; M. Tucak; T. Čupić; S. Popović

    2008-01-01

    The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the fora...

  14. Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source of nutrients on cereal grain yield and fodder dry matter yields. ... La disposition en lignes a produit un rendement élévé en fourrages secs (5%) et en grains des céréales que les céréales plantés aux hazard. La valeur nutritive (CP, NDF et degradabilité de ...

  15. Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulter, D.; Evans, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  16. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marciano Marra; Silvia Maria de Oliveira; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB) were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T). Four of the str...

  17. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    Leguminous plants engage into symbiotic relationships with soil bacteria, rhizobia, and develop root nodules. This process initiates with recognition of bacteria derived signalling molecules called nod factors. The subsequent events lead to symbiotic infection and, occurring in parallel, de novo...... was shown to require auxin signalling. Cytokinin, in contrast, exert a negative regulation of bacterial entry into the root. During organogenesis, auxin and cytokinin maxima are known to accompany nodule primordia development and together regulate progression through the cell cycle. Moreover, application...... the two hormones require further investigation. In order to improve understanding in these areas we aimed to develop and characterise hormone and cell division markers in Lotus japonicus. Using the extensive genetic resources available in L. japonicus, these markers may then be used to develop a more...

  18. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  19. Tropical forage legumes for environmental benefits: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schultze-Kraft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock production in the tropics, particularly when based on pastures, is frequently blamed for being detrimental to the environment, allegedly contributing to: (1 degradation and destruction of ecosystems, including degradation and loss of soil, water and biodiversity; and (2 climate change (global warming. In this paper we argue that, rather than being detrimental, tropical forage legumes can have a positive impact on the environment, mainly due to key attributes that characterize the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family: (1 symbiotic nitrogen fixation; (2 high nutritive value; (3 deep-reaching tap-root system; (4 wide taxonomic and genetic diversity; and (5 presence of particular secondary metabolites. Although there are also potential negative aspects, such as soil acidification and the risks of introduced legumes becoming invasive weeds, we submit that legumes have potential to contribute significantly to sustainable intensification of livestock production in the tropics, along with the provision of ecosystem services. To further assess, document and realize this potential, research for development needs in a range of areas are indicated.

  20. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  1. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marciano Marra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T. Four of the strains are used as inoculants for cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Bradyrhizobium sp. UFLA 03-84; Bradyrhizobium elkani INPA 03-11B and Bradyrhizobium japonicum BR3267 or for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris (Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Rhizobium etli UFLA 02-100 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 316C10a are also efficient nodulators of beans and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T nodulates on Mimosa pudica. Two experiments, with solid and liquid media, were performed to determine whether the strains were able to solubilise CaHPO4, Al(H2PO43 or FePO4.2H2O. On solid GELP medium none of the strains dissolved FePO4.2H2O, but LMG 1222, UFLA 03-84 and CIAT 899 solubilised CaHPO4 particularly well. These strains, along with LMG 19424 and BR 3267, were also able to increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. The strains CIAT 899 and UFLA 02-100 were the only legume nodulating bacteria able to solubilise the other phosphate sources in liquid media, dissolving both CaHPO4 and FePO4.2H2O. There was a negative correlation between the pH of the culture medium and the concentration of soluble phosphate when the phosphorus source was CaHPO4 or FePO4.2H2O. The contribution of these strains to increasing the phosphorus nutrition of legumes and non-legume plant species should be investigated further by in vivo experiments.

  2. Highly productive forage legume stands show no positive biodiversity effect on yield and N2-fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Eriksen, Jørgen; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims While N fixation in diversified grasslands including forage legumes and non-legumes has been widely studied, N fixation in swards containing only forage legumes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated N fixation in pure stands and mixtures of three forage legumes....... Methodology N fixation, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) yields were quantified in a field experiment for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) pure stands and mixtures using the isotope dilution method. Results All three forage legume species...... derived most (around 85%) of their N from atmospheric N fixation (%Ndfa). However, no positive effect of species diversity was found in any of the mixtures. Species composition of the forage legume mixtures affected the amount of N from N fixation by affecting DM production and N accumulation...

  3. ABI5 Is a Regulator of Seed Maturation and Longevity in Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsmeister, Julia; Lalanne, David; Terrasson, Emmanuel; Chatelain, Emilie; Vandecasteele, Céline; Vu, Benoit Ly; Dubois-Laurent, Cécile; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Signor, Christine Le; Dalmais, Marion; Gutbrod, Katharina; Dörmann, Peter; Gallardo, Karine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Buitink, Julia; Leprince, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    The preservation of our genetic resources and production of high-quality seeds depends on their ability to remain viable and vigorous during storage. In a quantitative trait locus analysis on seed longevity in Medicago truncatula, we identified the bZIP transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). Characterization of Mt-abi5 insertion mutant seeds revealed that both the acquisition of longevity and dormancy were severely impaired. Using transcriptomes of developing Mt-abi5 seeds, we created a gene coexpression network and revealed ABI5 as a regulator of gene modules with functions related to raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) metabolism, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs). Lower RFO contents in Mt-abi5 seeds were linked to the regulation of SEED IMBIBITION PROTEIN1 Proteomic analysis confirmed that a set of LEA polypeptides was reduced in mature Mt-abi5 seeds, whereas the absence of repression of PhANG in mature Mt-abi5 seeds was accompanied by chlorophyll and carotenoid retention. This resulted in a stress response in Mt-abi5 seeds, evident from an increase in α-tocopherol and upregulation of genes related to programmed cell death and protein folding. Characterization of abi5 mutants in a second legume species, pea (Pisum sativum), confirmed a role for ABI5 in the regulation of longevity, seed degreening, and RFO accumulation, identifying ABI5 as a prominent regulator of late seed maturation in legumes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. miR396 affects mycorrhization and root meristem activity in the legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Jérémie; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Sorin, Céline; Palatnik, Javier; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The root system is crucial for acquisition of resources from the soil. In legumes, the efficiency of mineral and water uptake by the roots may be reinforced due to establishment of symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi and interactions with soil rhizobia. Here, we investigated the role of miR396 in regulating the architecture of the root system and in symbiotic interactions in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Analyses with promoter-GUS fusions suggested that the mtr-miR396a and miR396b genes are highly expressed in root tips, preferentially in the transition zone, and display distinct expression profiles during lateral root and nodule development. Transgenic roots of composite plants that over-express the miR396b precursor showed lower expression of six growth-regulating factor genes (MtGRF) and two bHLH79-like target genes, as well as reduced growth and mycorrhizal associations. miR396 inactivation by mimicry caused contrasting tendencies, with increased target expression, higher root biomass and more efficient colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In contrast to MtbHLH79, repression of three GRF targets by RNA interference severely impaired root growth. Early activation of mtr-miR396b, concomitant with post-transcriptional repression of MtGRF5 expression, was also observed in response to exogenous brassinosteroids. Growth limitation in miR396 over-expressing roots correlated with a reduction in cell-cycle gene expression and the number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem. These results link the miR396 network to the regulation of root growth and mycorrhizal associations in plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characterization, evaluation, regeneration, multiplication, distribution, utilization and conservation, together with suggested solutions that would ensure the effective and efficient management of legume genetic resources in Ghana. Les resources génétiques de légumineuses jouent un rôle très significatif dans la provision ...

  6. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e. Medicago truncatula (Mt, Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv and Glycine max (Gm. Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the farthest distance between Mt and Pv in 6 legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reported some interesting observations e.g. no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

  7. Consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Caroline Diniz Brito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar o estado nutricional e os fatores associados ao consumo alimentar de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes atendidas em um serviço público de referência para assistência pré-natal. Métodos: Estudo transversal e analítico, com 73 gestantes adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, atendidas no Núcleo de Assistência ao Adolescente (NASA do Hospital Materno Infantil, em São Luís, Maranhão. Utilizou-se o Questionário de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar (QFCA, medidas antropométricas (peso, altura, índice de massa corporal - IMC - pré-gravídico e gravídico e questionário socioeconômico. As variáveis dependentes foram o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes, e as independentes foram escolaridade, estado civil, raça, renda, situação demográfica, dados gestacionais e antropométricos. Resultados: Observou-se que 39,7% apresentaram IMC pré-gestacional de desnutrição, 50,7% de eutrofia, e menos de 10% sobrepeso ou obesidade. Para o IMC gestacional, os valores se alteraram, com 27,4% das gestantes desnutridas, 57,5% eutróficas e 15,1% com sobrepeso. Observou-se que os maiores percentuais de adequação para o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foram em adolescentes casadas ou em união estável (65,4%, que não trabalhavam (92,3% e com renda familiar menor que 1 salário mínimo (84,62%. Entretanto, a única associação positiva encontrada com o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foi o início do pré-natal. Conclusão: A maior parte das gestantes avaliadas apresentou-se eutrófica, apesar de cerca de um quarto apresentar baixo peso durante a gestação. Além disso, elas não consumiam uma dieta balanceada, com uma ingestão abaixo do recomendado de FVL. Entre os fatores relacionados a um melhor consumo de FVL destaca-se o início do acompanhamento pré-natal no primeiro trimestre.

  8. [Genome editing technology and its application in forage legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Meng, Yingying; Niu, Lifang; Lin, Hao

    2017-10-25

    Genome editing is a novel targeted genome modification biotechnology, which could successfully mutate specific loci as well as generate gene replacement and insertion in various organisms. So far, genome editing technology has been widely applied in investigating gene function and developing valuable traits in both model plants and major crops. In this review, we briefly survey the historical development of genome editing technology, summarize recent progress using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for plant genome editing and explore the potential of the CRISPR/Cas technology in improving forage legumes.

  9. The electronic Trauma Health Record: design and usability of a novel tablet-based tool for trauma care and injury surveillance in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Eiman; Schuurman, Nadine; Nicol, Andrew J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Taulu, Tracey; Ricker, Britta; Garbutt Brown, David Ross; Navsaria, Pradeep; Hameed, S Morad

    2014-01-01

    Ninety percent of global trauma deaths occur in under-resourced or remote environments, with little or no capacity for injury surveillance. We hypothesized that emerging electronic and web-based technologies could enable design of a tablet-based application, the electronic Trauma Health Record (eTHR), used by front-line clinicians to inform trauma care and acquire injury surveillance data for injury control and health policy development. The study was conducted in 3 phases: 1. Design of an electronic application capable of supporting clinical care and injury surveillance; 2. Preliminary feasibility testing of eTHR in a low-resource, high-volume trauma center; and 3. Qualitative usability testing with 22 trauma clinicians from a spectrum of high- and low-resource and urban and remote settings including Vancouver General Hospital, Whitehorse General Hospital, British Columbia Mobile Medical Unit, and Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The eTHR was designed with 3 key sections (admission note, operative note, discharge summary), and 3 key capabilities (clinical checklist creation, injury severity scoring, wireless data transfer to electronic registries). Clinician-driven registry data collection proved to be feasible, with some limitations, in a busy South African trauma center. In pilot testing at a level I trauma center in Cape Town, use of eTHR as a clinical tool allowed for creation of a real-time, self-populating trauma database. Usability assessments with traumatologists in various settings revealed the need for unique eTHR adaptations according to environments of intended use. In all settings, eTHR was found to be user-friendly and have ready appeal for frontline clinicians. The eTHR has potential to be used as an electronic medical record, guiding clinical care while providing data for injury surveillance, without significantly hindering hospital workflow in various health-care settings. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published

  10. Distribution of native Legumes (Leguminoseae) in frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinaceae)-Wiregrass (Poaceae) ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Hainds; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Lindsay R. Boring; Dean H. Gjerstad

    1999-01-01

    Legume species distribution and abundance and selected environmental variables were quantified across a complex gradient (varying in both water-holding capacity and fertility) for frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Aristida stricta) ecosystems. Legumes were present in all months; however, abundance...

  11. Tropical pasture legumes in southern Africa: A review. | J.H. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clipping trials have indicated that the use of tropical legumes could possibly be extended into drier areas and areas experiencing extremes of temperature. More intensive plant introduction, breeding and evaluation programmes are needed if the full potential of tropical legumes is to be realised. Keywords: adaptation ...

  12. Effects of legume reinforcement of veld on the performance of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To measure the effect of legume reinforcement of veld on animal production, a 24 ha block of reverted granite sandveld dominated by Hyparrhenia filipendula was fenced into 8 equal-sized paddocks, 4 of which were seeded with legumes. Two paddocks were seeded in December 1971 with a mixture of Stylosanthes ...

  13. Some views on the potential for legume-based pastures in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of South Africa for legume-based pastures is discussed in the light of available information. It is concluded that the potential is considerable and that most of this potential can be exploited by legume species available at present. With regard to suitable species, it is considered that temperates warrant most ...

  14. Sucrose synthase and enolase expression in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa: comparison with legume nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghelue, van M.; Ribeiro, A.; Solheim, B.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Bisseling, T.; Pawlowski, K.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Two different types of nitrogen-fixing root nodules are known - actinorhizal nodules induced by Frankia and legume nodules induced by rhizobia. While legume nodules show a stem-like structure with peripheral vascular bundles, actinorhizal nodule lobes resemble modified lateral roots with a

  15. The effects of some raw tropical legume seeds on performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of some raw legumes (jack beans, bambara groundnut and benne seeds) on performance characteristics, serum metabolites and organ morphology of exotic adult cockerels of gold mine strain. Each of the raw legumes replaced full fat soybean meal at 25% and 50% ...

  16. Influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (11o38'N and 10o31'E) both in Bauchi state, during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 to determine the influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The treatments consist of two legumes (cowpea and soybean), nitrogen fertilizer applied at the rate ...

  17. Determination of N2 -fixation ability of legume trees using the 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemay, Johannis; Syaukat, Sriharti; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    A sequence field experiment has been conducted for determining the capability of N 2 -fixation by several legume trees. The experiment was designed using a randomize design with 4 replicates. Each replicate was planted with 100 legume trees and 100 non legume trees. The isotope plot, where 15 N was applied with 18 legume trees and 18 non legume trees. The planting distance was 1m x 1m. For the calculation of N 2 -fixation each legume and standard tree (Eucalypthus alba) was applied with 12.52g in the from of ammonium sulfate with 10.12% 15 N. The 15 N AS was applied in three splits 11 month earlier. Data obtained from this experiment showed that percentage of N derived from fixation (%N-dfF) of all legume trees was reasonable high. The legume trees used in this experiment were, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Caliandra tetragona, Flemengia congesta and Gliriciadia sepium with potential fixation from 62.31% to 90,68%. (author)

  18. Nonlegumes, legumes, and root nodules harbor different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Ridgway, K.P.; Young, J.P.W.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Legumes are an important plant functional group since they can form a tripartite symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, not much is known about AMF community composition in legumes and their root nodules. In this study,

  19. Harvesting management options for legumes intercropped in napier grass in the central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, D.M.; Cadisch, G.; Thorpe, W.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Ways of promoting integration of herbaceous forage legumes into a napier grass fodder system were evaluated with the aim of increasing forage quantity and quality on smallholder dairy farms in central Kenya. The herbaceous legumes Desmodium intortum cv. Greenleaf (ILRI 104), Macrotyloma axillare cv.

  20. Will Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Amplify the Benefits of Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence suggests there are three key features of the response of legumes to elevated [CO2]: (1) unlike other non-leguminous C3 plants, only legumes have the potential to maximize the benefit of elevated [CO2] by matching stimulated photosynthesis with increased N2 fixation; (2) this potenti...

  1. Subsoil Nitrogen Capture in Mixed Legume Stands as Assessed by Deep Nitrogen-15 Placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathumbi, S.M.; Cadisch, G.; Buresh, R.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation of crops with planted N2-fixing legumes (improved fallows) is a promising agroforestry innovation for replenishing soil fertility in the tropics. We postulated that woody and herbaceous legumes with different rooting and growth patterns could be mixed in improved fallows to maximize

  2. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the

  3. N2-fixing legumes are linked to enhanced mineral dissolution and microbiome modulations in Neotropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar; Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Saltonstall, Kristin; Hall, Jefferson; Leake, Jonathan; Beerling, David

    2017-04-01

    Legumes represent the dominant family of many tropical forests with estimates of 120 billion legume trees in the Amazon basin alone. Many rainforest legume trees form symbioses with N2-fixing bacteria. In the process of atmospheric N2-fixation large amounts of nitrogen-rich litter are generated, supplying half of all nitrogen required to support secondary rainforest succession. However, it is unclear how N2-fixers affect the biogeochemical cycling of other essential nutrients by affecting the rates of mineral dissolution and rock weathering. Here we show that N2-fixing legumes in young Panamanian rainforests promote acidification and enhance silicate rock weathering by a factor of 2 compared to non-fixing trees. We report that N2-fixers also associate with enhanced dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing secondary minerals native to tropical oxisols. In legume-rich neighbourhoods, non-fixers benefited from raised weathering rates relative to those of legume-free zones thus suggesting a positive community effect driven by N2-fixers. These changes in weathering potential were tracked by parallel functional and structural changes in the soil and rock microbiomes. Our findings support the view that N2-fixing legumes are central components of biogeochemical cycling, associated with enhanced release of Fe- and Al-bound P and primary mineral products (Mg, Mo). Rainforest legume services therefore bear important implications to short-term C cycling related to forest growth and the long-term C cycle related to marine carbonate deposition fuelled by silicate weathering.

  4. Characteristic elements of "Mediterranean Diet": the consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece (1950-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiou, K.Z.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Georgakopoulos, G.

    2012-01-01

    on).This paper describes the dietary consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece during the period 1950 to 2005. All dimensions of alimentary consumption patterns of vegetables and legumes are examined here with a specific focus on: a) their natural characteristics; b) technical features of the

  5. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  6. forage systems mixed with forage legumes grazed by lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluates productivity, stocking and nutritional rates of three forage systems with Elephant Grass (EG + Italian Ryegrass (IR + Spontaneous Growth Species (SGS, without forage legumes; EG + IR + SGS + Forage Peanut (FP, mixed with FP; and EG + IR + SGS + Red Clover (RC, mixed with RC, in rotational grazing method by lactating cows. IR developed between rows of EG. FP was maintained, whilst RC was sow to respective forage systems. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and two replication, subdivided into parcels over time. Mean rate for forage yield and average stocking rate were 10.6, 11.6 and 14.4 t ha-1; 3.0, 2.8 and 3.1 animal unit ha-1 day-1, for the respective systems. Levels of crude protein and total digestible nutrients were 17.8, 18.7 and 17.5%; 66.5, 66.8 and 64.8%, for the respective forage systems. The presence of RC results in better and higher forage yield in the mixture, whilst FP results in greater control of SGS. The inclusion of forage legumes in pasture systems provides better nutritional rates.

  7. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  8. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  9. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu Bahar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage. Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.47±3.84 kg/cm2 (no-tillage to 3.31±0.43 kg/cm2 (minimum tillage and 3.19±0.45 kg/cm2 (total tillage. Otherwise significant increasing on aeration porosity from 12.80±0.80% vol. (no-tillage to 21.70±0.95% vol. (minimum tillage and 20.70±0.35% vol. (total tillage. Total tillage gives increased dry matter yield. Also both total tillage and minimum tillage give yields with a higher percentage of legumes compared with no-tillage. It was concluded that total tillage and minimum tillage could be used for improving native grassland.

  10. TRUNCATULIX--a data warehouse for the legume community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, Kolja; Runte, Kai J; Bekel, Thomas; Dondrup, Michael; Jakobi, Tobias; Küster, Helge; Goesmann, Alexander

    2009-02-11

    Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database - hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  11. Signals exchanged between legumes and Rhizobium: agricultural uses and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, William J.; Perret, Xavier; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang Feng

    2001-01-01

    Legumes and rhizobia exchange at least three different, but sometimes complementary sets of signals. Amongst the variety of substances normally and continuously secreted into the rhizosphere by plants are phenolic compounds. Flavonoid components of these mixtures are especially active in inducing rhizobial nodulation genes. Many nodgenes exist. Some (e.g., nodD) serve as regulators of transcription, but most code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of a family of lipo-chito-oligosaccharides (LCOs) called Nod-factors. Nod-factors possess hormone-like properties, are key determinants in nodulation, and allow rhizobia to enter the plant. As Nod-factors also stimulate the synthesis and release of flavonoids from legume roots, the response to inoculation is amplified. Once the bacteria enter the plant, other sets of signals are exchanged between the symbionts. These include extra-cellular polysaccharides (EPSs) as well as proteins externalised via type-three secretion systems. These carbohydrates/proteins may be active in invasion of the root. At the time of writing, only flavonoids and Nodfactors have been chemically synthesised and of these only the former are available in large quantities. Field trials in North America show that seed application of flavonoids stimulates nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybeans grown at low soil temperatures. The biological basis to these responses is discussed. (author)

  12. Widespread fitness alignment in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Maren L

    2012-06-01

    Although 'cheaters' potentially destabilize the legume-rhizobium mutualism, we lack a comprehensive review of host-symbiont fitness correlations. Studies measuring rhizobium relative or absolute fitness and host benefit are surveyed. Mutant studies are tallied for evidence of pleiotropy; studies of natural strains are analyzed with meta-analysis. Of 80 rhizobium mutations, 19 decrease both partners' fitness, four increase both, two increase host fitness but decrease symbiont fitness and none increase symbiont fitness at the host's expense. The pooled correlation between rhizobium nodulation competitiveness and plant aboveground biomass is 0.65 across five experiments that compete natural strains against a reference, whereas, across 14 experiments that compete rhizobia against soil populations or each other, the pooled correlation is 0.24. Pooled correlations between aboveground biomass and nodule number and nodule biomass are 0.76 and 0.83. Positive correlations between legume and rhizobium fitness imply that most ineffective rhizobia are 'defective' rather than 'defectors'; this extends to natural variants, with only one significant fitness conflict. Most studies involve non-coevolved associations, indicating that fitness alignment is the default state. Rhizobium mutations that increase both host and symbiont fitness suggest that some plants maladaptively restrict symbiosis with novel strains. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Experimental evolution of a plant pathogen into a legume symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate alpha- and beta-proteobacteria that have achieved the environmentally essential function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. Ample evidence indicates that horizontal transfer of symbiotic plasmids/islands has played a crucial role in rhizobia evolution. However, adaptive mechanisms that allow the recipient genomes to express symbiotic traits are unknown. Here, we report on the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into Mimosa nodulating and infecting symbionts. Two types of adaptive mutations in the hrpG-controlled virulence pathway of R. solanacearum were identified that are crucial for the transition from pathogenicity towards mutualism. Inactivation of the hrcV structural gene of the type III secretion system allowed nodulation and early infection to take place, whereas inactivation of the master virulence regulator hrpG allowed intracellular infection of nodule cells. Our findings predict that natural selection of adaptive changes in the legume environment following horizontal transfer has been a major driving force in rhizobia evolution and diversification and show the potential of experimental evolution to decipher the mechanisms leading to symbiosis.

  14. Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Roe

    2004-02-27

    Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 Conference Report for the Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program provided $481,000 for the Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma. These funds were used to support our research that is aimed at determining the entire sequence of the gene rich regions of the genome of the legume, Medicago truncatula, by allowing us to obtain a greater degree of finished BAC sequences from the draft sequences we have already obtained through research funded by the Noble Foundation. During the funding period we increased the number of Medicago truncatula BACs with finished (Bermuda standard) sequences from 109 to 359, and the total number of BACs for which we collected sequence data from 584 to 842, 359 of which reached phase 2 (ordered and oriented contigs). We also sequenced a series of pooled BAC clones that cover additional euchromatic (gene rich) genomic regions. This work resulted in 6 refereed publications, see below. Genes whose sequence was determined during this study included multiple members of the plant disease resistance (R-gene) family as well as several genes involved in flavinoid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and plant-microbial symbosis. This work also served as a prelude to obtaining NSF funding for the international collaborative effort to complete the entire sequence of the Medicago truncatula genomic euchromatic regions using a BAC based approach.

  15. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  16. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    After an introduction on plant science research in Malaysia concerning crop breeding, 22 research reports are presented, 17 of which are analyzed individually and constitute separate INIS references. The remaining 5 were essentially concerned with only future applications of nuclear technology: a paper by V.L. Chopra (India) on mutation breeding for partial disease resistance of wheat; by H.H. Hoppe (Federal Republic of Germany) on mechanisms of resistance against Uromyces in Phaseolus vulgaris; by I.S. Santos (Philippines) on induction evaluation and utilization of beneficial mutations in the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), where gamma rays and fast neutrons will be used as well as other mutagens; by F. Saccardo (Italy) on breeding for disease resistance in peas and other vegetables (short communication only); and by E. Balazs and I. Sziraki (Hungary) on in vitro studies on virus resistance of legumes, including virus-host interaction studies involving gamma irradiation (short communication only). The conclusions and recommendations of the Regional Seminar on Induced Mutations for the Improvement of Grain Legumes in S.E. Asia 1975 (IAEA-203, 1977) were considered and generally endorsed, with some clarification. Conclusions and recommendations are given on p.121-126

  17. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  18. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Jacob; Paz, Ytzhak; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240–10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture. PMID:28542358

  19. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Vardi, Jacob; Paz, Ytzhak; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.

  20. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Caracuta

    Full Text Available New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean, V. ervilia (bitter vetch, V. narbonensis (narbon vetch, Lens sp. (lentil, Pisum sp. (pea, Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling. Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.

  1. Flower development of Goniorrhachis marginata reveals new insights into the evolution of the florally diverse detarioid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Gerhard; Cardoso, Domingos

    2017-02-01

    The study of floral morphology and ontogeny and the re-investigation of existing data help to uncover potential synapomorphic characters and foster our understanding of phylogenetic relationships that rely primarily on molecular analyses. Goniorrhachis marginata is a monotypic caesalpinioid legume (Leguminosae) that shows some interesting floral features, such as a long hypanthium and regular Rosaceae-like flowers. We studied the ontogeny and morphology of the flowers in detail and present our results in a broad phylogenetic context. Flower buds were collected in the field, fixed in 70 % ethanol and investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Older buds in spirit were carefully opened to investigate the direction of style bending. Characters of the style from 131 taxa from the main legume lineages were analysed and mapped on a Bayesian molecular phylogeny. The tetramerous calyx is the result of complete loss of one sepal. The formation of the radially symmetrical corolla starts in a typical caesalpinioid pattern with the adaxial petal innermost (ascending aestivation). The young style bends in the abaxial direction, which is a character found exclusively in all studied detarioid legumes and therefore a newly described synapomorphy for the clade. We show that investigation of unstudied taxa and reinvestigation of published data can uncover new, previously overlooked and important characters. Curvature of the style can be detected in young buds with a hand lens and therefore is an important character for field botanists. Our study reveals the importance of including poorly studied and/or phylogenetically enigmatic taxa in molecular phylogenies and in detailed morphological and ontogenetic analyses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC–UV–MS. The relationship between phytochemical

  3. Leveraging model legume information to find candidate genes for soybean sudden death syndrome using the legume information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Michael D; Gajendran, Kamal; Farmer, Andrew D; Archuleta, Eric; Beavis, William D

    2007-01-01

    Comparative genomics is an emerging and powerful approach to achieve crop improvement. Using comparative genomics, information from model plant species can accelerate the discovery of genes responsible for disease and pest resistance, tolerance to plant stresses such as drought, and enhanced nutritional value including production of anti-oxidants and anti-cancer compounds. We demonstrate here how to use the Legume Information System for a comparative genomics study, leveraging genomic information from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic), the model legume, to find candidate genes involved with sudden death syndrome (SDS) in Glycine max (soybean). Specifically, genetic maps, physical maps, and annotated tentative consensus and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from G. max and M. truncatula can be compared. In addition, the recently published M. truncatula genomic sequences can be used to identify M. truncatula candidate genes in a genomic region syntenic to a quantitative trait loci region for SDS in soybean. Genomic sequences of candidate genes from M. truncatula can then be used to identify ESTs with sequence similarities from soybean for primer design and cloning of potential soybean disease causing alleles.

  4. Transfer Comparison Study Nitrogen on the Intact and Decapitated Legumes by Using the 15N Labeling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjayanto, Didik W.

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was done in order to evaluate the N transfer from the intact and decapitated legumes by using the 15 N labeling technique. Seven days after final labeling the above ground biomass from labeled legume species was removed and the remaining stalks capped to prevent regrowth. Twenty days after final labeling (fourteen days after capping) the all treatments were sample and analyzed. The decapitated legumes appeared to transfer more percentage N than the intact legumes. Although both decapitated and intact legumes transferred, the transfer of N did not incur a dry matter and N yield benefit

  5. Study and analysis of the legume crop market in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukhanyan Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous and sub-mountainous zones of the Republic of Armenia farmers mainly grow beans, chickpeas, and peas. In addition there are very small crop areas (mainly homestead lands of faba bean, soybean, mung bean, and grass pea. The village population does not know much about the cultivation of these plants. The data show that in 2007-2009 the specific weight of legume in overall cropland was approximately 94%, and about the 96% of the gross harvest. Local production needs appropriate marketing strategy. The research of local market showed that more attention should be paid to the consumption of goods produced by the farmer households, as well as to offer them to various consumer groups.

  6. Isolation of Rhizobium Bacteria from Forage Legumes for the Development of Ruminant Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuskhah, E.; Purbajanti, E. D.; Anwar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The aimed of the study was to explore the presence of Rhizobium bacteria along the northern coast of Central Java, to develop a saline-resistant legumes. Rhizobium bacteria is a mutualistic bacterium capable of symbiosis with legumes so that legumes crop yields increase. The research begins with sampling of soil and root nodule of forage legumes along the Northern Coast of Central Java including Tegal, Pekalongan, Semarang, Demak, Pati. Soil samples were analysed for salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, and pH. Rhizobium bacteria were isolated from the acquired root nodule, then identified by biochemical test to ensure that the isolates obtained were Rhizobium bacteria. The results showed that the five districts/municipal sites sampled by the soil have very low salinity to very high levels. The highest level of soil salinity was found in Demak (Sayung) which has an electrical conductivity value (EC) of 17.77 mmhos/cm. The EC values of legumes overgrown soils showed a low salinity level while bare soils have high salinity levels. Feed crops legumes that could be found in the northern coast of Central Java were Centrosema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides, Leucaena leucocephala, and Sesbania grandiflora. The study obtained 6 kinds of isolates of rhizobium bacteria isolated from forage legumes, included 1) Centrosema pubescens isolated from Pekalongan, 2) Centrosema pubescens isolated from Tegal, 3) Calopogonium mucunoides isolated from Pekalongan, 4) Leucaenaleucocephala isolated from Tegal, 5) Leucaena leucocephala isolated from Semarang, 6) Sesbania grandiflora isolated from Tegal.

  7. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  8. INDEKS GLISEMIK KACANG-KACANGAN [Glycemic Index of Selected Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional management for diabetic patients based on selection of low available carbohydrate foods has been criticized because the same availability of carbohydrate in different foods may result in different degree of glycemic response. This management is now being corrected by additional aid in selecting foods with the glycemic index (GI of foods. GI is a measure of the glycemic response to the carbohydrate component within a food relative to the response to an equal carbohydrate portion of reference food (glucose or white bread. In Indonesia, data of the glycemic index of foods is still very limited. The objectives of the research are to provide GI of selected legumes, including red bean (Vigna umbellata, Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus, cow pea (Vigna sinensis ENDL, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan MILLSPAUGH, edible podded peas (Pisum sativum LINN and soy bean (Glycine max MERR. Eleventh health and normal volunteers (not diabetic were provided. The volunteers took an overnight fasting, blood were drawn in the morning and analyzed for serum glucose. Then they were given the test legumes containing total carbohydrates equivalent to 25-g glucose to be consumed. Blood samples were drawn for glucose measurement every 30 minutes until 120 min after meal. Serum glucose was determined enzymatically and the glucose responses were drawn graphically. The GI of the beans studied was lowest for red bean (26 and highest for mung bean (76, Edible podded pea and soy bean had similar value of GI i.e. 30 and 31; whereas pigeon and cow pea had a higher value i.e. 35 and 51, respectively.

  9. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  10. TRUNCATULIX – a data warehouse for the legume community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runte Kai J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database – hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. Results The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. Conclusion The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  11. Classical and molecular genetics of the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Gresshoff, P M

    1997-01-01

    The model legume Lotus japonicus was demonstrated to be amenable to classical and molecular genetic analysis, providing the basis for the genetic dissection of the plant processes underlying nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have developed an efficient method for the sexual hybridization of L. japonicus and obtained F1 progeny derived from a cross of L. japonicus B-129-S9 Gifu x B-581 Funakura. Over half of the cross-pollinations resulted in fertile hybrid seed, which were confirmed morphologically and by single arbitrary primer DNA amplification polymorphisms using the DAF technique. Molecular and morphological markers segregated in true Mendelian fashion in a F2 population of 100 plants. Several DAF loci were linked using the MAPMAKER software to create the first molecular linkage groups of this model legume. The mapping population was advanced to generate a set of immortal recombinant inbred lines (F6; RILs), useful for sharing plant material fixed genetically at most genomic regions. Morphological loci for waved stem shape (Ssh), dark leaf color (Lco), and short flowering period (Fpe) were inherited as single dominant Mendelian loci. DAF markers were dominant and were detected between Gifu and Funakura at about one per primer, suggesting that the parents are closely related. One polymorphism (270G generated by single octomer primer 8.6m) was linked to a morphological locus controlling leaf coloration. The results demonstrate that (i) Lotus japonicus is amenable to diploid genetic analysis, (ii) morphological and molecular markers segregate in true diploid fashion, (iii) molecular polymorphisms can be obtained at a reasonable frequency between the related Gifu and Funakura lines, and iv) the possibility exists for map-based cloning, marker assisted selection and mapping of symbiotic mutations through a genetic and molecular map.

  12. A generic individual-based model to simulate morphogenesis, C-N acquisition and population dynamics in contrasting forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Faverjon, Lucas

    2017-12-29

    Individual-based models (IBMs) are promising tools to disentangle plant interactions in multi-species grasslands and foster innovative species mixtures. This study describes an IBM dealing with the morphogenesis, growth and C-N acquisition of forage legumes that integrates plastic responses from functional-structural plant models. A generic model was developed to account for herbaceous legume species with contrasting above- and below-ground morphogenetic syndromes and to integrate the responses of plants to light, water and N. Through coupling with a radiative transfer model and a three-dimensional virtual soil, the model allows dynamic resolution of competition for multiple resources at individual plant level within a plant community. The behaviour of the model was assessed on a range of monospecific stands grown along gradients of light, water and N availability. The model proved able to capture the diversity of morphologies encountered among the forage legumes. The main density-dependent features known about even-age plant populations were correctly anticipated. The model predicted (1) the 'reciprocal yield' law relating average plant mass to density, (2) a self-thinning pattern close to that measured for herbaceous species and (3) consistent changes in the size structure of plant populations with time and pedo-climatic conditions. In addition, plastic changes in the partitioning of dry matter, the N acquisition mode and in the architecture of shoots and roots emerged from the integration of plant responses to their local environment. This resulted in taller plants and thinner roots when competition was dominated by light, and shorter plants with relatively more developed root systems when competition was dominated by soil resources. A population dynamic model considering growth and morphogenesis responses to multiple resources heterogeneously distributed in the environment was presented. It should allow scaling plant-plant interactions from individual to

  13. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  14. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  15. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  16. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  17. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 degreesC or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ N-15 stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...

  18. Comparisonof physicochemical properties of selected locally available legume varieties (mung bean, cowpea and soybean)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulasooriyage Tharuka Gunathilake; Theja Herath; Jagath Wansapala

    2016-01-01

    Grain legumes are widely used as high-protein contained crops that play a secondary role to cereal or root crops. In Sri Lanka various legume species are cultivated and often utilised in the whole grain boiled form. The objective of present study was to analyse and compare locally grown legumes varieties; Mung bean (MI 5, MI 6), Cowpea (Bombay, Waruni, Dhawal, MICP1, ANKCP1) and soybean (pb1, MISB1) for their morphological characteristics, proximate and mineral composition (Fe, Ca, Zn, K, P)....

  19. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    3] Recently, the emergence of the novel 2009 influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus and the SARS coronavirus have demonstrated how rapidly pathogens can spread...standards in both minimum data sets for disease surveillance and routine diagnosis and care. Analysis & Visualization. As previously discussed, the...g002 SAGES Electronic Disease Surveillance PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 May 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 5 | e19750 for pandemic influenza as well as

  20. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  1. Performances of legume-grass mixtures under different cutting managements in mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Annual forage crops have great importance for sustaining animal production in southern Italy. Knowledge of the performance of legume-grass associations under management similar to systems encountered in farm practice is essential for their effective exploitation of the available environmental resources. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the effects of five cutting managements on the productivity and botanical composition of ten annual fodder crop mixtures in two Mediterranean environments. Ten ternary combinations of one grass (Avena sativa L., oat and Lolium multiflorum Lam., Italian ryegrass, one clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L., berseem; Trifolium incarnatum L., crimson and Trifolium squarrosum L., squarrosum or burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. were compared in a field trial (split-plot design, 3 replicates in two locations (Cagliari and Foggia, Italy during the 2000-2001 growing season. The cutting treatments included a winter grazing simulation (G, a cutting only regime at early (EF or late flowering (F of legumes and a combination of treatments (GEF and GF. Plant density (no. m-2 prior to cutting, dry matter yield (g m-2 and botanical composition (% were evaluated. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable dry matter yields of mixtures among cutting treatments in both localities, with treatment F showing the higher values (787.1 and 415.7 g m-2 for Cagliari and Foggia, respectively. The forage species were able to compete and establish good growth during their initial phase in both localities. However, the botanical composition between the two sites differed considerably after the winter period. Particularly, at Foggia, grass dominance was a permanent feature of all treatments, and all the mixtures contained about 84% of grass. Italian ryegrass was the most representative species under all treatments in both sites. Mixtures with Italian ryegrass, crimson or berseem

  2. Nodule development on the tropical legume Sesbania virgata under flooded and non-flooded conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfeti, C A; Ferreira, P A A; Carvalho, T S; De Rycke, R; Moreira, F M S; Goormachtig, S; Holsters, M

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between the Brazilian pioneer legume Sesbania virgata and its microsymbiont Azorhizobium doebereinerae leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots that grow either in well-aerated soils or in wetlands. We studied the initiation and development of nodules under these alternative conditions. To this end, light and fluorescence microscopy were used to follow the bacterial colonisation and invasion into the host and, by means of transmission electron microscopy, we could observe the intracellular entry. Under hydroponic conditions, intercellular invasion took place at lateral root bases and mature nodules were round and determinate. However, on roots grown in vermiculite that allows aerated growth, bacteria also entered via root hair invasion and nodules were both of the determinate and indeterminate type. Such versatility in entry and developmental plasticity, as previously described in Sesbania rostrata, enables efficient nodulation in both dry and wet environments and are an important adaptive feature of this group of semi-tropical plants that grow in temporarily flooded habitats. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  4. GeMprospector--online design of cross-species genetic marker candidates in legumes and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Madsen, Lene H; Hougaard, Birgit K; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Bertioli, David; Schauser, Leif

    2006-07-01

    The web program GeMprospector (URL: http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/GeMprospector/main) allows users to automatically design large sets of cross-species genetic marker candidates targeting either legumes or grasses. The user uploads a collection of ESTs from one or more legume or grass species, and they are compared with a database of clusters of homologous EST and genomic sequences from other legumes or grasses, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments between submitted ESTs and their homologues in the appropriate database form the basis of automated PCR primer design in conserved exons such that each primer set amplifies an intron. The only user input is a collection of ESTs, not necessarily from more than one species, and GeMprospector can boost the potential of such an EST collection by combining it with a large database to produce cross-species genetic marker candidates for legumes or grasses.

  5. Phylogeny and Phylogeography of Rhizobial Symbionts Nodulating Legumes of the Tribe Genisteae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stępkowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The legume tribe Genisteae comprises 618, predominantly temperate species, showing an amphi-Atlantic distribution that was caused by several long-distance dispersal events. Seven out of the 16 authenticated rhizobial genera can nodulate particular Genisteae species. Bradyrhizobium predominates among rhizobia nodulating Genisteae legumes. Bradyrhizobium strains that infect Genisteae species belong to both the Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii superclades. In symbiotic gene phylogenies, Genisteae bradyrhizobia are scattered among several distinct clades, comprising strains that originate from phylogenetically distant legumes. This indicates that the capacity for nodulation of Genisteae spp. has evolved independently in various symbiotic gene clades, and that it has not been a long-multi-step process. The exception is Bradyrhizobium Clade II, which unlike other clades comprises strains that are specialized in nodulation of Genisteae, but also Loteae spp. Presumably, Clade II represents an example of long-lasting co-evolution of bradyrhizobial symbionts with their legume hosts.

  6. Deciphering composition and function of the root microbiome of a legume plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Kyle; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Roussely-Provent, Valexia; Walser, Jean-Claude; Schlaeppi, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including

  7. Heating and Soaking Influence in Vitro Hindgut Fermentation of Tropical Legume Grains in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Julieta; Muñoz, Luz S; Peters, Michael; Montoya, Carlos A

    2018-01-17

    The effects of different thermal (raw versus autoclaving or boiling for 5 and 20 min) and soaking (with or without) treatments on the in vitro hindgut fermentation in pigs of undigested residue collected after in vitro foregut digestion of tropical legumes' grains (Canavalia brasiliensis; Lablab purpureus; pink, red and white Vigna unguiculata) were investigated. The undigested residue was fermented with a pig fecal inoculum to determine fermentability, gas, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) productions. Soaked raw legumes increased the production of SCFAs (e.g., butyric acid) and fermentability, while autoclaving reduced them. The productions of butyric acid and energy derived from SCFAs differed between legumes, with canavalia and lablab having the lowest and highest values, respectively. SCFAs and energy productions were highly related to the predicted nutrients entering the hindgut. In conclusion, different heating and soaking treatments can be applied to legumes to modulate the production of target SCFAs.

  8. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  9. Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium (collectively referred to as rhizobia) grow in the soil as free-living organisms but can also live as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodule cells of legume plants. The interactions between several rhizobial species and their host plants have become models for this type of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Temperate legumes such as alfalfa, pea, and vetch form indeterminate nodules that a...

  10. Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

    2000-01-01

    Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen

  11. Legume breeding for rust resistance: Lessons to learn from the model Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales, Diego; Castillejo Sánchez, M. Ángeles; Madrid, Eva; Barilli, Eleonora; Rispail, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Rusts are major biotic constraints of legumes worldwide. Breeding for rust resistance is regarded as the most cost efficient method for rust control. However, in contrast to common bean for which complete monogenic resistance exists and is efficiently used, most of the rust resistance reactions described so far in cool season food legumes are incomplete and of complex inheritance. Incomplete resistance has been described in faba bean, pea, chickpea and lentil and several of their associated Q...

  12. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, M.F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed

  13. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  14. A partnership model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited primary care settings: experiences from two nurse-managed health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Patricia; White, Mary P; Hamilton, Andrew; Pohl, Joanne M; Tanner, Clare; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Zheng, Kai

    2011-01-01

    To present a partnership-based and community-oriented approach designed to ease provider anxiety and facilitate the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in resource-limited primary care settings. The approach, referred to as partnership model, was developed and iteratively refined through the research team's previous work on implementing health information technology (HIT) in over 30 safety net practices. This paper uses two case studies to illustrate how the model was applied to help two nurse-managed health centers (NMHC), a particularly vulnerable primary care setting, implement EHR and get prepared to meet the meaningful use criteria. The strong focus of the model on continuous quality improvement led to eventual implementation success at both sites, despite difficulties encountered during the initial stages of the project. There has been a lack of research, particularly in resource-limited primary care settings, on strategies for abating provider anxiety and preparing them to manage complex changes associated with EHR uptake. The partnership model described in this paper may provide useful insights into the work shepherded by HIT regional extension centers dedicated to supporting resource-limited communities disproportionally affected by EHR adoption barriers. NMHC, similar to other primary care settings, are often poorly resourced, understaffed, and lack the necessary expertise to deploy EHR and integrate its use into their day-to-day practice. This study demonstrates that implementation of EHR, a prerequisite to meaningful use, can be successfully achieved in this setting, and partnership efforts extending far beyond the initial software deployment stage may be the key.

  15. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  16. Physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of premature-processed and matured green legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sila; Malleshi, N G

    2012-08-01

    Premature green legumes are good sources of nutraceuticals and antioxidants and are consumed as snacks as well as vegetables. They are seasonal and have limited shelf-life. Efforts are provided to prepare shelf-stable green legumes to extend their availability throughout the year. Green legumes from chick pea or Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) and field bean (Dolichos lablab) have been processed to enhance their shelf-life, and determined their nutritional, physico-chemical and nutraceutical qualities. The shelf stable green legumes (SSGL) show higher water absorption capacity compared to matured dry legumes (MDL). The total colour change in the processed/dried SSGL and MDL samples increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the freshly harvested green samples. The carotenoid content of Bengal gram and field bean SSGLs are 8.0 and 3.2 mg/100 g, and chlorophyll contents are 12.5 and 0.5 mg/100 g, respectively, which are in negligible quantities in matured legumes; the corresponding polyphenol contents are 197.8 and 153.1 mg/100 g. These results indicate that SSGLs possess potential antioxidant activity.

  17. Health benefits of legumes and pulses with a focus on Australian sweet lupins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The 68th United Nations General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses. Therefore it is timely to review the current evidence of the benefits of legumes for human health with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library were searched to identify cross-sectional/epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. The strongest evidence appears to be for links between eating legumes and reduced risk of colorectal cancer as well as eating soy foods and reduced LDL cholesterol. However, epidemiological studies and RCTs suggest that replacing several meat-based meals a week with legumes can have a positive impact on longevity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and weight management, potentially via favourable effects on the gut microbiome. Sweet lupins are unique among legumes with one of the highest combined amounts of digestible plant protein (38%) and dietary fibre (30%). Unlike other legumes, their low amount of anti-nutritional factors negates the need for soaking/cooking and they can therefore be eaten uncooked. Sweet lupins may lower blood pressure, improve blood lipids and insulin sensitivity and favourably alter the gut microbiome. There is growing interest in pulses, especially sweet lupins, as ingredients to improve the nutritional value of baked goods (particularly gluten free) and to create novel products to replace meat. Legumes form part of most traditional diets. They, including sweet lupins, can play a useful role in health maintenance.

  18. Legume intake and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Mao, Qi-Qi

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies regarding the relationship between legume intake and risk of prostate cancer have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize evidence on this association. A systematic literature search of articles published through June 2016 was performed using PubMed and Web of Science databases. The combined relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest intake of legumes was calculated with a random-effects model. Dose-response meta-analysis was also performed for the studies that provided at least three levels of legume consumption. Ten articles (eight cohorts) reporting 281,034 individuals and 10,234 incident cases were identified. The individuals with high consumption of legumes compared with the reference group experienced a significantly reduced risk for developing prostate cancer (RR: 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.96], P = 0.010). Moderate heterogeneity of RRs was observed across these studies (P = 0.064 for heterogeneity, I2 = 45.8 %). Dose-response meta-analysis indicated that the risk of prostate cancer reduced by 3.7% (95% CI 1.5%-5.8%) for each 20 grams per day increment of legume intake. In conclusion, the results from this meta-analysis suggest that a high intake of legumes is associated with a low incidence of prostate cancer.

  19. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew S; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity.

  20. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  1. Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Verstraete

    Full Text Available Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria not only occur in root nodules of legumes but are also found in leaves of certain Rubiaceae. The discovery of bacteria in plants formerly not implicated in endosymbiosis suggests a wider occurrence of plant-microbe interactions. Several ß-proteobacteria of the genus Burkholderia are detected in close association with tropical plants. This interaction has occurred three times independently, which suggest a recent and open plant-bacteria association. The presence or absence of Burkholderia endophytes is consistent on genus level and therefore implies a predictive value for the discovery of bacteria. Only a single Burkholderia species is found in association with a given plant species. However, the endophyte species are promiscuous and can be found in association with several plant species. Most of the endophytes are part of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental group, but others are closely related to B. glathei. This soil bacteria, together with related nodulating and non-nodulating endophytes, is therefore transferred to a newly defined and larger PBE group within the genus Burkholderia.

  2. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-α-Rhap(1→6)-β-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Galp or O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production and transcriptional regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Wei, Li; Sun, Zhanmin; Gao, Lihua; Meng, Yu; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2015-05-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA), also known as condensed tannins, contribute to important forage legumes traits including disease resistance and forage quality. PA in forage plants has both positive and negative effects on feed digestibility and animal performance. The analytical methods and their applicability in measuring the contents of PA in forage plants are essential to studies on their nutritional effects. In spite of important breakthroughs in our understanding of the PA biosynthesis, important questions still remain to be answered such as the PA polymerization and transport. Recent advances in the understanding of transcription factor-mediated gene regulation mechanisms in anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic pathway in model plants suggest new approaches for the metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. The present review will attempt to present the state-of-the-art of research in these areas and provide an update on the production and metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. We hope that this will contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which PA production to manipulate the content of PA for beneficial effects in forage plants.

  4. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  5. Phenolphthalein false-positive reactions from legume root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Daniel; Kovacs, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Presumptive tests for blood play a critical role in the examination of physical evidence and in the determination of subsequent analysis. The catalytic power of hemoglobin allows colorimetric reactions employing phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer test) to indicate "whether" blood is present. Consequently, DNA profiles extracted from phenolphthalein-positive stains are presumed to be from blood on the evidentiary item and can lead to the identification of "whose" blood is present. Crushed nodules from a variety of legumes yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactions that were indistinguishable from true bloodstains both in color quality and in developmental time frame. Clothing and other materials stained by nodules also yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactivity for several years after nodule exposure. Nodules from leguminous plants contain a protein (leghemoglobin) which is structurally and functionally similar to hemoglobin. Testing of purified leghemoglobin confirmed this protein as a source of phenolphthalein reactivity. A scenario is presented showing how the presence of leghemoglobin from nodule staining can mislead investigators. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  7. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  8. Influence of legume crops on content of organic carbon in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajduk Edmund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 3-year field experiment designed to evaluate the content of organic carbon in brown soil (Haplic Cambisol Dystric developed from a light loamy sand under legumes cultivation. Experimental factors were: species of legume crop (colorful-blooming pea (Pisum sativum, chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus, narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, methods of legumes tillage (legumes in pure culture and in mixture with naked oats and mineral N fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N·ha−1. Cultivation of legumes on sandy soil did not result in an increase of organic carbon content in the soil after harvest as compared to the initial situation, i.e. 7.39 vs. 7.76 g·kg−1 dry matter (DM, on average, respectively. However, there was the beneficial effect of this group of plants on soil abundance in organic matter, the manifestation of which was higher content of organic carbon in soils after legume harvest as compared to soils with oats grown (7.21 g·kg−1 DM, on average. Among experimental crops, cultivation of pea exerted the most positive action to organic carbon content (7.58 g·kg−1, after harvest, on average, whereas narrow-leaved lupin had the least effect on organic carbon content (7.23 g·kg−1, on average. Pure culture and greater intensity of legume cultivation associated with the use of higher doses of mineral nitrogen caused less reduction in organic carbon content in soils after harvest.

  9. The Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Legume Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation treatment, at room temperature, on the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millerd reaction products, MRPs) generated in soybeans, broad beans and dried peas seeds at dose levels of 10, 30 and 60 kGy and their effects on the chemical constituents, soluble protein, available lysine and in vitro protein digestibility. The formation of MRPs in the studied legumes was assayed by monitoring the formation of brown pigments (browning intensity) by spectrophotometric method. The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated legumes showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one. A dose dependent decrease in soluble proteins and available lysine in the three legumes were observed. The non-enzymatic browning reaction was significantly increased with increasing the radiation dose, which was proved by changes in browning index tests. At the same time, the in vitro protein digestibility was increased after irradiation up to 60 kGy. Irradiation of dried peas with 60 kGy produced higher browning index than the other legumes. A positive correlation was observed between the radiation dose and the browning index for soybeans (R2= 0.96), broad beans (R2 = 0.81) and dried peas (R2 = 0.97) which means that 96%, 81% and 97 of the variation in the incidence of non-enzymatic browning reaction in soybean, broad bean and dried peas, respectively, are due to the effect of irradiation treatments. The present study suggests that the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction did not impair the nutritional quality of legumes, therefore, the process of irradiation was helpful in increasing the in vitro protein digestibility of studied legumes. These results clearly indicated that gamma irradiation processing at the studied doses can add valuable effects to the studied legumes

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  11. RNA interference-based resistance against a legume mastrevirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Shahid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a homology-dependant gene silencing mechanism and has been widely used to engineer resistance in plants against RNA viruses. However, its usefulness in delivering resistance against plant DNA viruses belonging to family Geminiviridae is still being debated. Although the RNAi approach has been shown, using a transient assay, to be useful in countering monocotyledonous plant-infecting geminiviruses of the genus Mastrevirus, it has yet to be investigated as a means of delivering resistance to dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus (CpCDPKV is a legume-infecting mastrevirus that affects chickpea and other leguminous crops in Pakistan. Results Here a hairpin (hpRNAi construct containing sequences encompassing part of replication-associated protein gene, intergenic region and part of the movement protein gene of CpCDPKV under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter has been produced and stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Plants harboring the hairpin construct were challenged with CpCDPKV. All non-transgenic N. benthamiana plants developed symptoms of CpCDPKV infection within two weeks post-inoculation. In contrast, none of the inoculated transgenic plants showed symptoms of infection and no viral DNA could be detected by Southern hybridization. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis identified very low-level accumulation of viral DNA in the inoculated transgenic plants. Conclusions The results presented show that the RNAi-based resistance strategy is useful in protecting plants from a dicot-infecting mastrevirus. The very low levels of virus detected in plant tissue of transgenic plants distal to the inoculation site suggest that virus movement and/or viral replication was impaired leading to plants that showed no discernible signs of virus infection.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grljušić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the forage species involved in program and comparison of conventional and molecular marker efficiency in variability evaluation. RAPDs were used (i to estimate availability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago falcata L. genetic variation and (ii to identify changes of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. variability after natural selection. SSRs were applied to evaluate diversity within and among field pea (Pisum sativum L. var. arvense and sativum groups/varieties. A total of 90 (alfalfa or 92 (red clover polymorphic bands was found by RAPDs. Total number of SSR alleles recorded was 118. The average Roger's distance per species/genus estimated was 0.29 (red clover, 0.33 (alfalfa and 0.51 (field pea. 2D PCo analysis of each species/genus separated materials into respective groups. A high degree of genetic variation within populations/varieties of each investigated species was found by AMOVA. The correspondence between pairs of matrices based on the morphological and molecular data was significant (p=0.95 only for red clover. RAPD and SSR data have given valuable information on genetic structure of materials and provided a description that determines heterogeneity. Further studies will be focused on identifying quantitative trait loci and marker assisted selection.

  13. Biochemical studies on weaning foods based legumes and carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabag, Fatima Omer

    1997-01-01

    Attempts were made to utilize available food sources in formulation of weaning foods. Common legumes (chick pea and pigeon pea ) were used as protein source. While dehydrated carrots powder were used as a vitamin A source. Addition of 25% chick pea increased the protein content of the weaning foods to 16.7% and 14.4%,respectively ,while Cerelac and Riri gave protein content of 15.3% and 7.3%,respectively. In corporation of carrots at 10% level gave a vitamin A content of 564 RE/100 g material. Weaning food containing chick pea recorded higher preference among panelists and significantly better (p≤0.05)than samples containing pigeon pea. The bulk density of newly developed based formulae CP 3 , PP 3 (0.7 g/ml, 0.8 g/ml, respectively ) was higher than the market weaning food Cerelac and Riri (0.6 g/ml and 0.5 g/ml,respectively )The formula CP 3 recorded lower hot paste viscosity (3500 cp.) than both values obtained for Cerelac (4500 cp.) and Riri (extremely viscous). The lysine content of CP 3 (3.9 g/100 g protein) was higher than respective values in market foods and for better when calculated per weaning material (0.65 g/100 g material) compared to the other products (0.57; 0.28 g/100 material of Cerelac and Riri, respectively). Chick pea-based formula (CP 3 ) was also found to possess higher in vitro protein didestibility (95.2%) compared to Cerelac (94.2%) and Riri (88.5%). The calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of CP 3 (1.7) was higher than that of Riri (1.6) and lower than that of cerelac (2.7). (Author)

  14. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya — Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sennhenn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and lablab [Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM. The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index. While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha−1. An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and

  15. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya - Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn, Anne; Njarui, Donald M G; Maass, Brigitte L; Whitbread, Anthony M

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and lablab [ Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE) was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index). While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha -1 . An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and dry matter

  16. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eBustos-Sanmamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small non coding RNAs (smRNA participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA that are cleaved into 20- to 24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL. One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179 and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence databases. In addition, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legumes. Functional significance of these variant isoforms may reflect peculiarities of smRNA biogenesis in

  17. Multiple use of legumes as green manure in rotation with corn and hay for milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Castro Rincón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry tropical livestock systems go through dramatic decrease in milk production during the dry season. This can be mitigated by including legumes as green manure in forage crops as silage and hay to feed cows. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate 1 the contribution of legumes to milk production in cows supplemented with Canavalia brasiliensis as hay and 2 the effect of the removal of legume (5 levels between 0-100 % on corn production as forage. A direct relationship between the level of legume biomass removal and reduced maize yield (r = 0.85 was observed. When levels of removal of C. brasiliensis were below 50 %, the forage yield of corn was not affected (MS 11,283 kg ha-1 compared to non-removal treatment (12,601 kg MS ha-1(p > 0.05. At the time of corn harvest, the total nitrogen decreased (15-20 %; NO3 varied between 8 and 26 mg/kg, with lower levels contained in the removal of 75 to 100 %; and 15 % organic C increased with the removal of 0, 25 and 50 % legume. Regarding the second experiment, it was found that cows supplemented with hay C. brasiliensis, increased their milk production by 17 % with supplementation of 1.5 % LW/day. The compositional quality of milk did not change due to the treatment of hay supplementation of C. brasiliensis

  18. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signalling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiatul Akmal Mohd-Radzman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  19. The Concentration of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se in Fiber Fractions of Legumes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitayani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate concentration of micro minerals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber/NDF and acid detergent fiber/ADF in West Sumatra during dry and rainy seasons. Four species of common legume namely Leucaena leucocephala, Centrocema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides and Acacia mangium were collected at native pasture during rainy and dry seasons. The results showed that micro minerals concentration of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction varied among species and season. In general, concentration of micro minerals was slightly higher in rainy season compared to dry season either in legumes forages. Data on legume forages showed that 75% of legumes were deficient in Zn and Mn, 62.5 % deficient in Cu and 50 % deficient in Se. There was no species of legume deficient in Fe. Distribution of micro minerals in NDF and ADF were also significantly affected by species and season and depends on the kinds of element measured. Generally, micro minerals were associated in fiber fractions and it yield much higher during dry season compared to rainy season. Iron (Fe and selenium (Se in forages were the highest elements associated in NDF and ADF, while the lowest was found in Copper (Cu. (Animal Production 12(2: 105-110 (2010Keywords: Seasons, forages, micro mineral distribution, fiber fraction

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-12

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  1. Effect of industrial dehydration on the soluble carbohydrates and dietary fiber fractions in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; Benítez, Vanesa; Molla, Esperanza; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Esteban, Rosa M

    2006-10-04

    The effects of soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration treatments on soluble carbohydrates, including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and also on total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and soluble (SDF) dietary fiber fractions were studied in legumes (lentil and chickpea). Ciceritol and stachyose were the main alpha-galactosides for chickpea and lentil, respectively. The processing involved a drastic reduction of soluble carbohydrates of these legumes, 85% in the case of lentil and 57% in the case of chickpea. The processed legume flours presented low residual levels of alpha-galactosides, which are advisable for people with digestive problems. Processing of legumes involved changes in dietary fiber fractions. A general increase of IDF (27-36%) due to the increase of glucose and Klason lignin was observed. However, a different behavior of SDF was exhibited during thermal dehydration, this fraction increasing in the case of chickpea (32%) and decreasing in the case of lentil (27%). This is probably caused by the different structures and compositions of the cell wall networks of the legumes.

  2. Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Sushama A; Rajalakshmi, V; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Sharma, Arun

    2011-09-01

    Legumes are rich source of proteins, dietary fiber, micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. Thirty different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India, were screened for phenolic content and antioxidant activity using, radical scavenging [(1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, (ABTS·⁺], Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and metal ion (Fe²⁺) chelation assays. Legumes varied largely in their antioxidant activity. Horse gram, common beans, cowpea (brown and red) and fenugreek showed high DPPH· radical scavenging activity (>400 units/g), while lablab bean (cream and white), chickpea (cream and green), butter bean and pea (white and green) showed low antioxidant activity (pea, lentils, cowpea (white) and common bean (maroon) showed intermediate activity. Similar trend was observed when the activity was assessed with ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays. Thus most of the varieties having light color seed coat, except soybean exhibited low antioxidant activity. While legumes having dark color seed coat did not always possessed high antioxidant activity (e.g. moth bean, black pea, black gram, lentils). Antioxidant activity showed positive correlation (r²>0.95) with phenolic contents, in DPPH·, ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays, whereas poor correlation (r²=0.297) was observed between Fe²⁺ chelating activity of the legumes and phenolic contents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

    頁次:89-93

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  5. Biogenic synthesis and spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in the legume mungbean plant (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Singh, Jay Shankar; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the in vivo synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the legume Vigna radiata. The level of plant metabolites such as total phenolics, lipid, terpenoids, alkaloids and amino acid increased by 65%, 133%, 19%, 67% and 35%, respectively, in AgNO 3 (100 mg L -1 ) treated plants compared to control. Whereas protein and sugar contents in the treated plants were reduced by 38% and 27%, respectively. FTIR analysis of AgNO 3 (20-100 mg L -1 ) treated plants exhibited changes in the IR regions between 3297 and 3363 cm -1 , 1635-1619 cm -1 , 1249-1266 cm -1 and that corresponded to alterations in OH groups of carbohydrates, OH and NH groups of amide I and II regions of protein, when compared with the control. Transmission electron micrographs showed the spatial distribution of AgNPs in the chloroplast, cytoplasmic spaces, vacuolar and nucleolar plant regions. Metal quantification in different tissues of plants exposed to 20-100 mg L -1 AgNO 3 showed about a 22 fold accumulation of Ag in roots as compared to shoots. The phytotoxic parameters such as percent seed germination and shoot elongation remained almost unaltered at low AgNO 3 doses (20-50 mg L -1 ). However, at higher levels of exposure (100 mg L -1 ), the percent seed germination as well as root and shoot elongation exhibited concentration dependent decline. In conclusion, synthesis of AgNPs in V. radiata particularly at lower doses of AgNO 3 , could be used as a sustainable and environmentally safe technology for large scale production of metal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  7. Transfer of biologically fixed nitrogen to the non-legume component of mixed pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haystead, A.

    1983-01-01

    Pasture ecosystems are extremely diverse, as are the management procedures imposed upon them by the pastoralist. In low input pasture enterprises in marginal areas, legume nitrogen fixation is frequently (but not invariably) crucial to continued productivity. Legumes usually do not dominate a pasture and their role in transferring fixed nitrogen to a non-legume, frequently graminaceous, species is important. Methods for measuring this transfer are critically assessed in terms of their usefulness in realistic pasture environments. Existing techniques all have serious disadvantages in this respect. Isotopic studies of individual processes within the transfer system are described and some new lines of investigation are proposed. The value of isotopic studies in improving pasture management is discussed. (author)

  8. A qualitative study of the nodulating ability of legumes of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis accumulates substantial amounts of mineralizable nitrogen which help in ecological rehabilitation of degraded soils and increase the soil fertility in agricultural ecosystem. Nodulation was studied in 72 legume species from various parts of Pakistan. All the species of Papilionoideae and Mimosoideae were nodulated whereas all the species examined in Caesalpinioideae were non-nodulated. Attempts to elicit nodulation in Caesalpinioid species by rhizobial inoculation were not successful and they were accepted as lacking nodulating ability. Nodulation is reported for the first time in 6 species within 3 genera of Mimosoideae and 9 species within 5 genera of Papilionoideae. Majority of the species were abundantly nodulated under natural soil conditions or when grown in uninoculated garden soil indicating distribution of wide range of naturalized rhizobia. The study shows that the wild legumes hold great promise for inclusion in revegetation of denuded and derelict ecosystems.

  9. PGPRs and nitrogen-fixing legumes: a perfect team for efficient Cd phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, biologically non-essential and highly mobile metal that has become an increasingly important environmental hazard to both wildlife and humans. In contrast to conventional remediation technologies, phytoremediation based on legume-rhizobia symbiosis has emerged as an inexpensive decontamination alternative which also revitalize contaminated soils due to the role of legumes in nitrogen cycling. In recent years, there is a growing interest in understanding symbiotic legume-rhizobia relationship and its interactions with Cd. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the main effects of Cd in N2-fixing leguminous plants and the benefits of exploiting this symbiosis together with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to boost an efficient reclamation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  10. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  11. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965......Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate...

  12. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  13. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  14. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  15. An analysis of the nutritive value of heat processed legume seeds for animal production using the DVE/OEB model : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, P.; Goelema, J.O.; Leury, B.J.; Tamminga, S.; Egan, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recently obtained information on structural and compositional effects of processing of legume seeds is reviewed, in relation to legume seed characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization. The emphasis is on (1) manipulation of digestive behavior by heat processing methods,

  16. Responses of legumes to rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A meta-analysis of potential photosynthate limitation of symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.; Alberton, O.; Hungria, M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Legumes are prized for their seed protein and lipid mass fractions. Since legumes spend up to 4–16% of photosynthesis on each of the rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal symbioses, it might be expected that positive responses in yield due to rhizobial and AM symbioses are accompanied by

  17. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  18. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  19. Productivity and residual benefits of grain legumes to sorghum under semi-arid conditions in southwestern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.; Twomlow, S.J.; Wijk, van M.T.; Dimes, J.P.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The productivity and residual benefits of four grain legumes to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grown in rotation were measured under semi-arid conditions over three cropping seasons. Two varieties of each of the grain legumes; cowpea (Vigna unguiculata); groundnut (Arachis hypogaea); pigeon pea (Cajanus

  20. Protease inhibitors from processed legumes effectively inhibit superoxide generation in response to TPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavelow, J; Gidlund, M; Troll, W

    1982-01-01

    Crude extracts containing protease inhibitors from edible legumes (canned chick-peas, canned kidney beans and bean curd) were capable of blocking the superoxide response to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes produced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Protease inhibitors purified from crude extracts more effectively blocked the superoxide response produced by TPA. Bowman-Birk soybean inhibitor was more effective in blocking this effect of the tumor promoter than Kunitz soybean inhibitor. The significance of protease inhibitors in edible legumes and the possible role of free oxygen radicals in tumor promotion are discussed.

  1. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  2. Kidney bean: a major sensitizer among legumes in asthma and rhinitis patients from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrashan Kasera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of IgE mediated food allergies has increased over the last two decades. Food allergy has been reported to be fatal in highly sensitive individuals. Legumes are important food allergens but their prevalence may vary among different populations. The present study identifies sensitization to common legumes among Indian population, characterizes allergens of kidney bean and establishes its cross reactivity with other legumes. METHODOLOGY: Patients (n = 355 with history of legume allergy were skin prick tested (SPT with 10 legumes. Specific IgE (sIgE and total IgE were estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Characterization of kidney bean allergens and their cross reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of major allergens of kidney bean was carried out by mass spectrometry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kidney bean exhibited sensitization in 78 (22.0% patients followed by chickpea 65 (18.0% and peanut 53 (15%. SPT positive patients depicted significantly elevated sIgE levels against different legumes (r = 0.85, p<0.0001. Sera from 30 kidney bean sensitive individuals exhibited basophil histamine release (16-54% which significantly correlated with their SPT (r = 0.83, p<0.0001 and sIgE (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Kidney bean showed eight major allergens of 58, 50, 45, 42, 40, 37, 34 and 18 kDa on immunoblot and required 67.3±2.51 ng of homologous protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Inhibition assays revealed extensive cross reactivity among kidney bean, peanut, black gram and pigeon pea. nLC-MS/MS analysis identified four allergens of kidney bean showing significant matches with known proteins namely lectin (phytohemagglutinin, phaseolin, alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor and group 3 late embryogenesis abundant protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Among legumes, kidney bean followed by chick pea and peanut are the major allergic triggers in asthma and rhinitis patients in India

  3. Changes in nutritive value and herbage yield during extended growth intervals in grass-legume mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2018-01-01

    . Perennial ryegrass was sown with each of four legumes: red clover, white clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil, and white clover was sown with hybrid ryegrass, meadow fescue and timothy. Effects of species composition on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF......There is a lack of information on the effects of companion species in grass–legume mixtures on herbage yield and quality changes during prolonged growth. Such information is relevant for harvest planning and estimation of consequences for feeding value of conserved feed when harvesting is delayed...

  4. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerreman; Pedersen, Mona H; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    protein extracts of seeds and sprouts (comprising cotelydons and hypocotyls/epicotyls) of peanut, soybean, green pea, blue lupine, mung bean, alfalfa, broad bean, and azuki bean were prepared. The reactivity of sera from 10 peanut-allergic patients to these extracts was analysed by indirect histamine......BACKGROUND: Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to identify immunoreactivity to seeds and sprouts of legumes other than peanut in sera from peanut-allergic patients. METHODS: Crude...

  5. Political Unrest and Educational Electronic Resource Usage in a Conflict Zone, Kashmir (Indian Administered Kashmir): Log Analysis as Politico Analytical Tool=Hindistan Tarafından Yönetilen Keşmir Anlaşmazlık Bölgesi’nde Siyasi Karışıklık ve Eğitimle İlgili Elektronik Kaynakların Kullanımı: Siyasi Analiz Aracı Olarak Log Analizleri

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeer Gul; Samrin Nabi; Samina Mushtaq; Tariq Ahmad Shah; Suhail Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Electronic resource usage has proved as one of the best decision making tools in the library setups. Electronic resource usage in relation to the political disturbance can act as one of the tools to highlight the impact of political disturbance on educational setups in general and the electronic resource usage in particular. The study takes a serious look in the electronic resource usage in Kashmir and the impact of unrest on it. The paper highlights a relational platform between educat...

  6. Isoflavone rumen metabolites: A missing link in the benefits of legumes on grazing animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clovers are widely used to add protein to ruminant diets. Clovers and other legumes also produce a class of small molecules called isoflavones. Isoflavones have estrogenic properties, which can interfere with reproduction in grazing ruminants, but they also have benefits. We identified potential b...

  7. Self-reseeding annual legumes for cover cropping in rainfed managed olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ângelo Rodrigues, M.; Ferreira, I. Q.; Freitas, S.L.; Pires, J.M.; Arrobas, M.P.

    2015-07-01

    Given the environmental impact of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer manufacture and use, the sustainable management of agro-systems should be sought by growing N-fixing legumes. In this work, eleven self-reseeding annual legumes were grown in pure stands as mulching cover crops in a rainfed olive orchard managed without grazing animals. Dry matter yield, N content in above-ground biomass, groundcover percentage and persistence of the sown species were assessed during four growing seasons. All covers provided enough soil protection over the year, with living plants during the autumn/winter period and a mulch of dead residues during the summer. The legumes overcame a false break observed in the third year recovering the dominance of the covers in the fourth growing season. This means that the seed bank established in previous seasons ensured the persistence of the sown legume even when a gap in seed production occurred. The early-maturing cultivars produced less biomass and fixed less N (approx. 50 kg N/ha/yr present in the above-ground biomass) than the late-maturing ones, but would compete less for water since the growing cycle finished earlier in the spring. They seem best suited to being grown in dry farmed olive orchards with low N demand in drought prone regions. (Author)

  8. Exploring socio-ecological niches for legumes in western Kenya smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojiem, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: adaptability, agro-ecosystems, biophysical and socio-economic heterogeneity, economic benefits, N2-fixation, productivity.This thesis explores the potential of using herbaceous and grain legume species to improve soil fertility and farm productivity in the heterogeneous

  9. N2 Fixation by Grain Legume Varieties as Affected By Rhizobia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Rhizobium – legume symbiotic association contributes considerable amount of N in tropical soils. However, low rainfall and high temperature in Sudano-Sahelian region of Northeastern. Nigeria may affect the Rhizobial population in the soil. Therefore, the influence of Rhizobia inoculation on N2 fixation by ...

  10. Plastid Genome Evolution in the Early-Diverging Legume Subfamily Cercidoideae (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Huan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Cercidoideae is an early-branching legume lineage, which consists of 13 genera distributed in the tropical and warm temperate Northern Hemisphere. A previous study detected two plastid genomic variations in this subfamily, but the limited taxon sampling left the overall plastid genome (plastome diversification across the subfamily unaddressed, and phylogenetic relationships within this clade remained unresolved. Here, we assembled eight plastomes from seven Cercidoideae genera and conducted phylogenomic-comparative analyses in a broad evolutionary framework across legumes. The plastomes of Cercidoideae all exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with a conserved gene content typical of most angiosperm plastomes. Plastome size ranged from 151,705 to 165,416 bp, mainly due to the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat (IR regions. The order of genes varied due to the occurrence of several inversions. In Tylosema species, a plastome with a 29-bp IR-mediated inversion was found to coexist with a canonical-type plastome, and the abundance of the two arrangements of isomeric molecules differed between individuals. Complete plastome data were much more efficient at resolving intergeneric relationships of Cercidoideae than the previously used selection of only a few plastid or nuclear loci. In sum, our study revealed novel insights into the structural diversification of plastomes in an early-branching legume lineage, and, thus, into the evolutionary trajectories of legume plastomes in general.

  11. The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on mild yield and composition in lactating. BZ Mugweni, M titterton, BV Maasdorp, JF Mupangwa, F Gandiya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Mutation breeding of food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present mission were to assist and advise mutation breeders on the induction, selection, utilization and maintenance of useful mutants in grain legumes, especially in soybean, mungbean, red kidney bean, sugar pea, cowpea and yard-long bean, and to provide consultation to plant breeders

  13. Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the Sudan savannah zone Kano state, Nigeria. ... Results of the study indicated that Sorghum almum-Lablab purpureus mixture recorded numerically higher dry matter yield (7806 kg dm/hectare) compared to other mixtures, similarly leaf area for grass (46.4) ...

  14. Superparamagnetic adsorbents for high-gradient magnetic fishing of lectins out of legume extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Dalkiær, M.; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    culinaris agglutinin (greater than or equal to 250 mg g(-1)) with dissociation constants in the micromolar range, though neither of these systems showed any selectivity for lectins in leguminous extracts. When the affinity supports were applied to carbohydrate containing legume extracts only the dextran...

  15. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All results were statistically evaluated. The highest content of Cys, Glu, Asp, Leu, Lys and Arg was determined in seeds of G. max; only the content of Cys and His was lower than 10 g kg-1. The greatest total content of essential amino acids (EAA was discovered in soybeans, almost 128 g kg-1. The majority (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, trace (Fe, Zn, and Cr and toxic elements (Pb, Cd were determined. Legumes were rich in Mg and Ca-mainly G. max and Ph. vulgaris. The content of Mg was 2.1 g/1000g in soybeans and 1.6 g/1000g in common beans. Also in these two legumes the greatest concentration of toxic Pb was found. Values obtained during the determination of the chemical composition in samples of legumes and buckwheat products can be influenced by many factors, e.g. climatic conditions, location etc.

  16. Processing of legume seeds : effects on digestive behaviour in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goelema, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, effects of toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in situ rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of legume seeds are described. Toasting decreases protein degradability of peas, lupins, faba beans and soybeans and starch degradability of peas and faba beans,

  17. Tree legumes in medium-term fallows: Nz fixation, nitrate recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legume effects on the fixation of atmospheric N and nitrate recovery were determined in a sub-humid, bi-modal rainfall system. Fallows improved with sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and tephrosia (Tephrosia vogellii) produced more biomass and fixed more N than those fallows improved with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) or ...

  18. The potential of legume pods as supplements to low quality roughages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of legume pods as supplements to low quality roughages. A.T. Ngwa, I.V. Nsahlai, M.L.K. Bonsi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 107-108). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Studies on legume root hair development : correlations with the infection process by Rhizobium bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylona, P.

    1996-01-01


    Rhizobia-legume interaction leading to the formation of specific organs, namely root nodules, starts at the epidermis of the root. Bacteria interfere with the develomental programme of the epidermal cells by inducing a number of responses, as new root hair growth, root hair deformation

  20. Soil chemical properties and legume-cereal rotation benefits in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted at the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. The objective was to evaluate the effects of edible grain legumes (cowpea and soybean) and velvet-bean/maize rotations on soil chemical properties and the contribution ...

  1. Exploratory trials on reinforcement of veld with legumes in the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all, 17 legumes were involved, including the genera Coronilla, Desmodium, Glycine, Lespedeza, Lotus, Macroptillium, Medicago, Neotononia, Trifolium and Vigna. Only Coronilla varia (crownvetch) showed a satisfactory degree of persistence. However, crownvetch is slow to establish, is intolerant of waterlogging and has ...

  2. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  3. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes for extending the grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss how clovers and warm-season legumes, such as alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil, in mixture with grasses can enhance the overall nutritive value of the overall forage, increase dry matter yield, and contribute nitrogen to the soil via the nitrogen fixing Rhizobia bacteria ...

  4. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  5. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This

  6. Estimation of extractable protein in botanical fractions of legume and grass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    With a globally strong interest in bio-based products such as fuels and chemicals, a feasible source of protein for the industry with positive economic impacts could be from leaves. However, more knowledge is needed on how to improve the content of extractable protein. Grasses and legumes have a ...

  7. Mineral composition of legumes forages cultivated under different levels of shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos de Carvalho Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of calcium, phosphorus and potassium, and the leaf: stem ratio of four tropical forage legumes: Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo, Pueraria phaseoloides (puero, Macrotyloma axillare (archer and Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean, under different levels of artificial shade (0, 30, 50 and 70% in the summer and autumn seasons of 2006 and 2007, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial 4x4 design with four replications. Was used SNK test at 5% probability to evaluate the effect of the legume species and regression analysis to test the effect of the level of shading. There was a trend of increase in the concentration of 3 independent minerals examined the season. In contrast, there was a reduction in the leaf: stem ratio and a slight increase in specific leaf area archer, perennial soybean and puero (R2 ? 40%, which suggests small effect of shading on the morphology of leaves of 3 forage legumes, which in turn have little effect concentrating minerals, besides these finding is confirmed the annual calopo behavior, which prevents their use as legume forage for the autumn season.

  8. Nodulation of tree legumes and the ecology of their native rhizobial populations in tropical soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Murphy, P.J.; Osunde, A.O.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    A legume introduced into a new area will only form nodules and fix nitrogen if compatible rhizobia are present in the soil. Using 25 (60 in the case of Sesbania sesban) soils sampled from tropical areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America, we examined the nodulation of four agroforestry tree species

  9. Condensed tannins in some forage legumes: their role in the prevention of ruminant pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1992-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the focus in our laboratory has been on finding the causes of ruminant pasture bloat and eventually breeding a bloat-safe alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); i.e., with bloat potential reduced to the economic threshold. In the mid-seventies, the mechanisms of bloat were explored and found to be more physical than chemical. Characteristic of all bloating legumes after ingestion was a very rapid initial rate of ingestion by rumen microbes. Through the study of bloating and non-bloating legumes, factors were elucidated in the plant that would slow this process. One of these factors was the presence of condensed tannins in the herbage. Some of the non-bloating legumes contained these secondary metabolites, but no condensed tannins were found in any of the bloating legumes. Therefore, species containing an appreciable amount of condensed tannins in their leaves and stems are considered to be non-bloating. Conventional breeding methods have not been successful in producing an alfalfa with condensed tannins in its herbage. New approaches using tissue culture techniques are being attempted, but genetic engineering has the greatest potential for success.

  10. Grain legume impacts on soil biological processes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain legumes occupy about 20 million hectares in Africa. The major crops are cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), which is grown on about 11 million hectares mostly in west Africa, and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), grown on about 5 million hectares mostly in eastern and southern Africa. These grain le...

  11. The Role of Micro-Ribonucleic Acids in Legumes with a Focus on Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Mantri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are special group of N-fixing plants that are an essential component of cropping system and important source of food and feed for human and animal consumption. Like other crops, the productivity of legumes is threatened by environmental stresses caused due to global climate change. Abiotic stress tolerance is complex trait involving a suite of genes, the expression of which is controlled by transcription factors including gene and/or polypeptide sequences. Recently, micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs have been increasingly recognized for their role in regulating the synthesis of polypeptides from different messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs including those that act as transcription factors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of different miRNAs in response to main abiotic stresses in legumes. We found consistent as well as conflicting results within and between different legume species. This highlights that we have barely scratched the surface and very comprehensive and targeted experiments will be required in future to underpin the role of miRNAs in controlling the expression of important genes associated with abiotic stress tolerances.

  12. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  13. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  14. THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CACTI (Opuntia ficus indica)-LEGUME MIXED SILAGE

    OpenAIRE

    J. GUSHA; S. KATSANDE; P.I. ZVINOROVA; S. NCUBE

    2013-01-01

    The potential of making silage using dry browse legume hay (Acacia angustissima, Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra callothrysus and Macroptilium Atropurpureum) mixed with fresh cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) for winter supplementation of veld grass was evaluated using the proximate, tannins and the pH analyses. Chemical analysis revealed that N values were significantly increased (P

  15. Evolution of a symbiotic receptor through gene duplications in the legume-rhizobium mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mita, De S.; Streng, A.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2014-01-01

    •The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia co-opted pre-existing endomycorrhizal features. In particular, both symbionts release lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) that are recognized by LysM-type receptor kinases. We investigated the evolutionary history of rhizobial LCO receptor

  16. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  17. Selection and breeding of grain legumes in Australia for enhanced nodulation and N2 fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herridge, D.F.; Holland, J.F.; Rose, I.A.; Redden, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    During the period 1980-87, the areas sown to grain legumes in Australia increased dramatically, from 0.25 Mha to 1.65 Mha. These increases occurred in the western and southern cereal belts, but not in the north which N continued to be supplied by the mineralization of soil organic matter. Therefore, there was a need to promote the use of N 2 -fixing legumes in the cereal-dominated northern cropping belt. Certain problems had to be addressed before farmers would accept legumes and change established patterns of cropping. Here we describe our efforts to improve N 2 fixation by soybean, common bean and pigeon pea. Selection and breeding for enhanced N 2 fixation of soybean commenced at Tamworth in 1980 after surveys of commercial crops indicated that nodulation was sometimes inadequate, particularly on new land, and that the levels of fixed-N inputs were variable and often low. Similar programmes were established in 1985 (common bean) and 1988 (pigeon bean). Progress was made in increasing N 2 fixation by these legumes towards obtaining economic yields without fertilizer N and contributing organic N for the benefit of subsequent cereal crops

  18. Highly productive forage legume stands show no positive biodiversity effect on yield and N2-fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Eriksen, Jørgen; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    . Methodology N fixation, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) yields were quantified in a field experiment for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) pure stands and mixtures using the isotope dilution method. Results All three forage legume species...

  19. Legume Protein Isolates for Stable Acidic Emulsions Prepared by Premix Membrane Emulsification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladjal Ettoumi, Yakoub; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Chibane, Mohamed; Schroën, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Proteins originating from dry legumes are not that much used in food formulations, yet, they are interesting components from a sustainability point of view, and could have interesting functional properties, e.g. for emulsion preparation. Therefore, this work focuses on the potential of the water

  20. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil S. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%–1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%–62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  1. Method Development to Increase Protein Enrichment During Dry Fractionation of Starch-Rich Legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was developed to establish milling settings that optimally separate starch granules from protein bodies and cell wall fibres for starch-rich legumes. Optimal separation was obtained for pea, bean, lentil and chickpea when the particle size distribution curve of flour and isolated

  2. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant–Pollinator Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso, María J.; Bebeli, Penelope J.; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A. A.; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant–pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the “pest control service” and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System. PMID:27047514

  3. Legumes as suppliers of nitrogen to pasture. | B.W. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen losses ranging between 0, 16 and 0, 26 kg/ha/day may occur direct from the soil of grazed legume pastures while removal of animal products from the system represents a major loss of N from the system in the form of protein. On a global basis it has been estimated that annully 200 million tons of N are fixed ...

  4. Enhancing legume ecosystem services through an understanding of plant-pollinator interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose eSuso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant-pollinator interplay (PPI, in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: 1 optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and 2 biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the pest control service and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: a Farming with Alternative Pollinators (FAP and b Crop Design System (CDS.

  5. The pulvinus endodermal cells and their relation to leaf movement in legumes of the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T M; Machado, S R

    2007-07-01

    Legume pulvini have a clearly delimited endodermis, whose variable content has been associated with the velocity and type of leaf movement: pulvini in leaves with fast nastic movement contain starch grains; pulvini in leaves with slow nastic movements have calcium oxalate crystals as well as starch grains in the endodermis. However, the studies carried out to date have involved few legume species. This study therefore purported to examine the consistency of this hypothesis in other legumes. Thus, the structure and content of the pulvinus endodermal cells of nine legumes of the Brazilian cerrado, with different types and velocities of leaf movement, were investigated: slow nyctinastic and heliotropic movements ( BAUHINIA RUFA, COPAIFERA LANGSDORFFII, SENNA RUGOSA - Caesalpinioideae; ANDIRA HUMILIS and DALBERGIA MISCOLOBIUM - Faboideae; STRYPHNODENDRON POLYPHYLLUM - Mimosoideae), slow heliotropic movement ( ZORNIA DIPHYLLA - Faboideae), and fast seismonastic and slow nyctinastic and heliotropic movements ( MIMOSA RIXOSA and MIMOSA FLEXUOSA - Mimosoideae). Samples were prepared following standard plant anatomy and ultrastructure techniques. The endodermis of all the species contains starch grains. In the species displaying only slow movements, calcium oxalate prismatic crystals were observed in addition to starch grains, except in ZORNIA DIPHYLLA. In conclusion, oxalate crystals occur only in endodermal cells of pulvini that display slow movements, while starch grains are always present in pulvinus endodermal cells of plants with any kind of movement.

  6. Alterations in biochemical and physiological characters in radiation-induced mutants of grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    Selected examples from different grain legumes are studied. The biochemically and physiologically detectable alterations in distintc characters as caused by the action of mutant genes are presented comparatively. The interactions between different mutant genes in order to evaluated the influence of the genotypic constitution on the expression of mutated genes are emphasized. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Common bean-Rhizobium symbiosis: functional genomics of legume response to abiotic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the world's most important grain legume for direct human consumption and a main source of proteins in Latin America and Africa. Environmental factors such as nutrient deficiency, soil acidity, and metal toxicity are important constraints for bean symbiotic nitroge...

  8. A comparison of a number of annual cool season legumes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen annual cool season legumes were compared under dryland conditions on two sites in the Dohne Sourveld. These sites were Dohne, with a mild but dry winter and an average rainfall of 743 mm per year, and Grasslands, a colder, wetter site. Vicia spp were among the highest-yielding cultivars at both sites. At Dohne ...

  9. A comparison of the dry matter yields of perennial legumes in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , in the Dohne Sourveld. These sites were Dohne, which has a mild, but dry winter and an average of 743 mm of rainfall per year, and Grasslands, which is a colder site with an average rainfall of 866 mm per year. The legumes were compared ...

  10. Comparisonof physicochemical properties of selected locally available legume varieties (mung bean, cowpea and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulasooriyage Tharuka Gunathilake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes are widely used as high-protein contained crops that play a secondary role to cereal or root crops. In Sri Lanka various legume species are cultivated and often utilised in the whole grain boiled form. The objective of present study was to analyse and compare locally grown legumes varieties; Mung bean (MI 5, MI 6, Cowpea (Bombay, Waruni, Dhawal, MICP1, ANKCP1 and soybean (pb1, MISB1 for their morphological characteristics, proximate and mineral composition (Fe, Ca, Zn, K, P. Seed shape, seed coat texture and colour, seed size and 100 seed weight (g were observed morphological characteristics in present study. Most of the characteristics of mung bean and soybean were similar within their species whereas characteristics of cowpea varieties largely differed. Values of 100 seed weight among the varieties of mung bean, soybean and cowpea were ranged from 5.8 - 6.5 g, 13.5 - 14.1 g and 13.4 - 17.2 g, respectively. The moisture content of all legume seeds ranged from 6.81% to 11.99%. Results were shown that the protein content significantly higher in soybean (36.56 - 39.70% followed by mung bean (26.56 - 25.99% and cowpea (25.22 - 22.84% respectively. Range of total carbohydrate, crude fat, crude fibre and total ash contents of nine legume varieties varied from 15.29 - 62.97%, 1.25 - 22.02%, 3.04 - 7.93% and 3.43 - 6.35 respectively. potassium (K, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn ranged from 1000 - 1900, 360 - 669, 15.0 - 192.3, 2.26 - 11.6 and 1.67 - 4.26 mg.100g-1 respectively in all the species of studied legume varieties. The wide variation in the chemical and physical properties of observed nine legume varieties, suggesting possible applications for various end-use products. 

  11. Legume consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Christopher; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Schroder, Helmut; Fitó, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sorli, Jose V; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2018-01-09

    Limited prospective studies have examined the association between legumes consumption and mortality, whereas scarce, if at all, previous studies have evaluated such associations taking into consideration specific grain legumes. We aimed to investigate the association between total legumes consumption and grain legumes species (dry beans, chickpeas, lentils, and fresh peas) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and other-cause mortality among elderly Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk. We prospectively assessed 7216 participants from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and yearly during follow-up by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a median follow-up of 6.0 years, 425 total deaths, 103 CVD deaths, 169 cancer deaths and 153 due to other-causes deaths occurred. Hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of CVD mortality were 1.52 (1.02-2.89) (P-trend = 0.034) and 2.23 (1.32-3.78) (P-trend = 0.002) for the 3rd tertile of total legumes and dry beans consumption, respectively, compared with the 1st tertile. When comparing extreme tertiles, higher total legumes and lentils consumption was associated with 49% (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84; P-trend = 0.009) and 37% (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.40-0.98; P-trend = 0.049) lower risk of cancer mortality. Similar associations were observed for CVD death in males and for cancer death in males, obese and diabetic participants. These findings support the benefits of legumes consumption for cancer mortality prevention which may be counterbalanced by their higher risk for CVD mortality. The trial is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN35739639). Registration date: 5th October 2005. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Italian legumes: effect of sourdough fermentation on lunasin-like polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; Curiel, José Antonio; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-10-22

    There is an increasing interest toward the use of legumes in food industry, mainly due to the quality of their protein fraction. Many legumes are cultivated and consumed around the world, but few data is available regarding the chemical or technological characteristics, and especially on their suitability to be fermented. Nevertheless, sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria has been recognized as the most efficient tool to improve some nutritional and functional properties. This study investigated the presence of lunasin-like polypeptides in nineteen traditional Italian legumes, exploiting the potential of the fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the native concentration. An integrated approach based on chemical, immunological and ex vivo (human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell cultures) analyses was used to show the physiological potential of the lunasin-like polypeptides. Italian legume varieties, belonging to Phaseulus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum species, were milled and flours were chemically characterized and subjected to sourdough fermentation with selected Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7, expressing different peptidase activities. Extracts from legume doughs (unfermented) and sourdoughs were subjected to western blot analysis, using an anti-lunasin primary antibody. Despite the absence of lunasin, different immunoreactive polypeptide bands were found. The number and the intensity of lunasin-like polypeptides increased during sourdough fermentation, as the consequence of the proteolysis of the native proteins carried out by the selected lactic acid bacteria. A marked inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was observed using extracts from legume sourdoughs. In particular, sourdoughs from Fagiolo di Lamon, Cece dell'Alta Valle di Misa, and Pisello riccio di Sannicola flours were the most active, showing a decrease

  13. Biogeography of a Novel Ensifer meliloti Clade Associated with the Australian Legume Trigonella suavissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardly, Bertrand; Elia, Patrick; Brockwell, John; Golemboski, Daniel; van Berkum, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Here, we describe a novel clade within Ensifer meliloti and consider how geographic and ecological isolation contributed to the limited distribution of this group. Members of the genus Ensifer are best known for their ability to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with forage legumes of three related genera, Medicago L., Melilotus Mill., and Trigonella L., which are members of the tribe Trifolieae. These legumes have a natural distribution extending from the Mediterranean Basin through western Asia, where there is an unsurpassed number of species belonging to these genera. Trigonella suavissima L. is unusual in that it is the only species in the tribe Trifolieae that is native to Australia. We compared the genetic diversity and taxonomic placement of rhizobia nodulating T. suavissima with those of members of an Ensifer reference collection. Our goal was to determine if the T. suavissima rhizobial strains, like their plant host, are naturally limited to the Australian continent. We used multilocus sequence analysis to estimate the genetic relatedness of 56 T. suavissima symbionts to 28 Ensifer reference strains. Sequence data were partitioned according to the replicons in which the loci are located. The results were used to construct replicon-specific phylogenetic trees. In both the chromosomal and chromid trees, the Australian strains formed a distinct clade within E. meliloti The strains also shared few alleles with Ensifer reference strains from other continents. Carbon source utilization assays revealed that the strains are also unusual in their ability to utilize 2-oxoglutarate as a sole carbon source. A strategy was outlined for locating similar strains elsewhere. IMPORTANCE In this study, we employed a biogeographical approach to investigate the origins of a symbiotic relationship between an Australian legume and its nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The question of the ancestral origins of these symbionts is based on the observation that the legume host is not closely

  14. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  15. Biological and physiological changes in raw and radiation-processed legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakeil, F.A.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Farag, M. Diaa El-Din H.; Mahrous, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Body weight of rats fed on raw kidney beans, soybeans, broad beans, chick peas and lupines suffered from poor growth due to some antinutritional factors. When the studied legumes were exposed to 10 kGy, the rats gained more weight than those kept on raw legumes. When extracts of raw legumes were intraperitoneally injected, the LD 50 were found to be 125, 300 and 1800 mg/kg, for raw kidney beans, raw soybeans, and raw broad beans respectively. However, injecting extracts of raw chick peas and raw lupines did not kill the rats even at higher concentration levels of 3000 mg/kg. Similar results were obtained with irradiated chick peas and lupines (10 kGy). Meanwhile, after irradiation treatment of kidney beans, soybeans and broad beans, the LD 50 were found to be 250, 400 and 2000 mg/kg for the above pulses respectively. Both raw and irradiated kidney beans and raw soybeans were most active in stimulating pancreas and liver growth and reducing spleen weight. Irradiated soybeans showed a moderate but significant increase in liver weight only. However, rats fed on both raw and irradiated broad beans, chick peas and lupines in their diets did not suffer any pancreatic and liver hypertrophy or spleen atrophy. The haematological parameters investigated showed that there was no significant differences between rat groups fed on either raw or irradiated legumes. It could be concluded that irradiation offers a good treatment for legumes as it has a beneficial effect to correct the poor growth for rats fed on raw beans during experimental period without any deleterious physiological effects. (author)

  16. Does legume nitrogen fixation underpin host quality for the hemiparasitic plant Rhinanthus minor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Jeschke, W Dieter; Hartung, Wolfram; Cameron, Duncan D

    2008-01-01

    The high quality of leguminous hosts for the parasitic plant Rhinanthus minor (in terms of growth and fecundity), compared with forbs (non-leguminous dicots) has long been assumed to be a function of the legume's ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) from the air and the potential for direct transfer of compatible amino compounds to the parasite. Using associations between Rhinanthus minor and Vicia faba (Fabaceae) that receive N either exclusively via symbiotic associations with rhizobia supplying organic N fixed from N(2) or exclusively through the supply of inorganic nitrate to the substrate, the underlying reasons for the quality of legumes as hosts for this parasite are unravelled. It is shown that sole dependence of the host, V. faba, on N fixation results in lower growth of the attached parasite than when the host is grown in a substrate supplied exclusively with inorganic N. In contrast, the host plants themselves achieved a similar biomass irrespective of their N source. The physiological basis for this is investigated in terms of N and abscisic acid (ABA) partitioning, haustorial penetration, and xylem sap amino acid profiles. It is concluded that legume N fixation does not underpin the quality of legumes as hosts for Rhinanthus but rather the well-developed haustorium formed by the parasite, coupled with the lack of defensive response of the host tissues to the invading haustorium and the presence of sufficient nitrogenous compounds in the xylem sap accessible to the parasite haustoria, would appear to be the primary factors influencing host quality of the legumes.

  17. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  18. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiangli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. Description The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. Conclusion MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  19. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premaratne, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Mutualism and Adaptive Divergence: Co-Invasion of a Heterogeneous Grassland by an Exotic Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie S.; Stanton, Maureen L.; Rice, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion. PMID:22174755