WorldWideScience

Sample records for legislation requiring physicians

  1. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  2. Physician Requirements-1990. For Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Joan K.

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in nephrology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for nephrology, a nephrology Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 34 conditions that are treated in the…

  3. Medicolegal file. Amendments to child protection legislation. New legal accountability for physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Tremayne-Lloyd, T.

    2000-01-01

    In Ontario's past and present child protection legislation, physicians are included in the list of professionals designated to protect children and report their beliefs, suspicions, or knowledge of child abuse and neglect. Ontario's recent legislative amendments broaden the definition of child abuse and thereby widen the scope of the duty to report.

  4. Counseling about firearms: proposed legislation is a threat to physicians and their patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Teret, Stephen P; Smith, Gary A; Webster, Daniel W

    2006-11-01

    In early 2006, 2 separate but virtually identical bills were introduced in the Virginia and West Virginia legislatures that would have profoundly affected the relationship between a physician and his or her patients. Each bill would have prohibited a physician from asking a patient if he or she owned firearms for the purpose of counseling that patient about ways to reduce risks associated with firearms. Penalties for violation of the bills included revocation of a physician's license to practice. The Virginia bill was initially approved by its state House of Delegates by a vote of 88 to 11. It was ultimately defeated in a Virginia Senate committee. The West Virginia bill did not receive a vote during the 2006 legislative session. Although neither bill became law this year, this type of bill is likely to reappear in future legislative sessions. The Virginia and West Virginia bills were contrary to the best-practices recommendations of medical societies, including the American Academy of Pediatrics. Anticipatory guidance regarding firearms can indeed reduce risks to patients. Yet, the bills would have preferred the judgment of legislators over physicians regarding this aspect of the practice of medicine. In addition, the 2 bills raise legal issues regarding both medical malpractice and the First Amendment protection of the freedom of speech. The Virginia and West Virginia bills would have treated risks associated with firearms differently from other hazards and interfered with a physician's ability to protect his or her patients. The Virginia bill was defeated, in part, through the efforts of physicians to educate legislators. However, physicians must remain prepared to respond to similar state legislative initiatives in the future.

  5. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  6. Sexual and reproductive rights in Argentina: New legislative trends and physician opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Nicolás Campana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If tracing the trajectory of right to health in Argentina over the last decade, we can see how the new legislation grants increasing importance to the voluntary will of patients. Argentine citizens are increasingly able to make decisions regarding everything related to the care of their own bodies and health. This undoubtedly causes a shift in the traditional role of physicians, who historically have made decisions regarding healthcare for the population. This article will focus on how sexual and reproductive rights have started to be regulated in the country, and then compare the current legislation with the opinion of doctors living in the city of Cordoba (Argentina, to see if healthcare professionals are in accordance with these new legislative trends.

  7. [THE INFLUENCE OF THE ISRAELI LEGISLATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICIANS AND PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanholtz-Gannot, Rachel; Yankellevich, Ariel; Nirel, Nurit

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical-companies raises many dilemmas. There are two types of solutions to these dilemmas: self-regulation and government regulation. Our goal was to review in what way legislative intervention and self-regulation standardize and affect the relationship. In addition, we examined the positions of relevant stakeholders regarding: 1. The relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies; 2. Future measures we should take to address the ethical dilemmas inherent in this relationship. 1. In-depth interviews with 42 senior representatives of all the relevant stakeholders, with emphasis on their organizational identity, since their points of view are influenced and shaped by organizational and professional positioning. We analyzed the interviews using the Narralizer program. 2. Analysis of three databases: The Ministry of Health, The Israel Medical Association and Pharma-Israel, regarding donations made to various parties in the health system. The influence of Israeli legislation on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies is almost imperceptible. However, in recent years, there have been changes in this relationship stemming from international self-regulation, which leads to: contractual relationships, decreases in hospitality and tighter internal control over this relationship. Regulation in Israel is not achieving its goal satisfactorily. Solutions to reduce the influence of this relationship exist. However, the first step is for the regulator to decide to what extent, if any, he wants to deal with this issue. If the regulator chooses to take the lead on this issue, we will soon face additional legislation that might limit the amount of money that the pharmaceutical companies can donate to healthcare organizations.

  8. 25 CFR 170.606 - How do legislation and procurement requirements affect the IRR Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do legislation and procurement requirements affect... Miscellaneous Provisions § 170.606 How do legislation and procurement requirements affect the IRR Program? Other legislation and procurement requirements apply to the IRR Program as shown in the following table. Legislation...

  9. Legislative, educational, policy and other interventions targeting physicians' interaction with pharmaceutical companies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaled, Lina; Kahale, Lara; Nass, Hala; Brax, Hneine; Fadlallah, Racha; Badr, Kamal; Akl, Elie A

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical company representatives likely influence the prescribing habits and professional behaviour of physicians. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of interventions targeting practising physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical companies. We included observational studies, non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) and RCTs evaluating legislative, educational, policy or other interventions targeting the interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical companies. The search strategy included an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Two reviewers performed duplicate and independent study selection, data abstraction and assessment of risk of bias. We assessed the risk of bias in each included study. We summarised the findings narratively because the nature of the data did not allow a meta-analysis to be conducted. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the GRADE methodology. Of 11 189 identified citations, one RCT and three observational studies met the eligibility criteria. All four studies specifically targeted one type of interaction with pharmaceutical companies, that is, interactions with drug representatives. The RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of a 'collaborative approach' between the pharmaceutical industry and a health authority. The three observational studies provided low quality evidence suggesting a positive effect of policies aiming to reduce interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical companies (by restricting free samples, promotional material, and meetings with pharmaceutical company representatives) on prescription behaviour. We identified too few studies to allow strong conclusions. Available evidence suggests a potential impact of policies aiming to reduce interaction between physicians and drug representatives on physicians' prescription behaviour. We found no evidence concerning interventions affecting other types of interaction with pharmaceutical

  10. Legislative Framework Required for Africa's M-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa......This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa...

  11. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2008-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  12. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2009-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  13. 28 CFR 51.15 - Enabling legislation and contingent or nonuniform requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enabling legislation and contingent or... Provisions § 51.15 Enabling legislation and contingent or nonuniform requirements. (a) With respect to legislation (1) that enables or permits the State or its political subunits to institute a voting change or (2...

  14. Physician support of HPV vaccination school-entry requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Sophia; Calo, William A; Weinberger, Morris; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-06-02

    School-entry requirements in the US have led to high coverage for several vaccines, but few states and jurisdictions have adopted these policies for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Because physicians play a key role in advocating for vaccination policies, we assessed physician support of requiring HPV vaccine for school entry and correlates of this support. Participants were a national sample of 775 physicians who provide primary care, including vaccines, to adolescents. Physicians completed an online survey in 2014 that assessed their support for school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination of 11 and 12 y olds. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess correlates of support for these requirements. The majority of physicians (74%) supported some form of school-entry requirements, with or without opt-out provisions. When opt-out provisions were not specified, 47% agreed that laws requiring HPV vaccination for school attendance were a "good idea." Physicians more often agreed with requirements, without opt-out provisions, if they: had more years in practice (OR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.04), gave higher quality HPV vaccine recommendations (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.45-2.93), believed that having requirements for Tdap, but not HPV, vaccination undermined its importance (OR=3.33; 95% CI: 2.26-4.9), and believed HPV vaccination was as or more important than other adolescent vaccinations (OR=2.30; 95% CI: 1.65-3.18). In conclusion, we found that many physicians supported school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination. More research is needed to investigate the extent to which opt-out provisions might weaken or strengthen physician support of HPV vaccination school-entry requirements.

  15. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part III--Passive euthanasia, comparison of international legislation, conclusions for medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The generic term "passive euthanasia" includes different issues dealing with the omission, discontinuation or termination of life-sustaining or life-prolonging medical treatments. The debate around passive euthanasia focuses on the constitutional right of self-determination of every human being on the one hand and the constitutional mandate of the State to protect human life on the other. Issues of passive euthanasia always require a differentiated approach. Essentially, it comes down to the following: In Germany, the human right of self-determination includes the right to prohibit the performance of life-sustaining treatments, even if this leads to the death of the patient. A physician who does not take life-sustaining treatment measures because this is the free will expressed by the patient is not subject to prosecution. On the other hand, if the physician treats the patient against his will, this can be deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The patient's will is decisive even if his concrete state of health does no longer allow him to freely express his will. In the Patient's Living Will Act of 2009, the German legislator clarified the juridical assessment of such constellations being of particular relevance in practice. A written living will of a person in which he requests to take or not to take certain medical treatment measures in case that he is no longer able to make the decision himself shall be binding for the people involved in the process of medical treatment. If there is no living will, the supposed will of the patient shall be relevant. In its judgment in the "Putz case", the German Federal Court of Justice ruled in 2010 that actions terminating a life-sustaining treatment that does not correspond to the patient's will must be limited to letting an already ongoing disease process run its course. In this context it is not important, however, whether treatment is discontinued by an active act or by omission. Under certain circumstances, the

  16. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  17. Specialty, political affiliation, and perceived social responsibility are associated with U.S. physician reactions to health care reform legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiel, Ryan M; James, Katherine M; Egginton, Jason S; Sheeler, Robert D; Liebow, Mark; Goold, Susan Dorr; Tilburt, Jon C

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about how U.S. physicians’ political affiliations, specialties, or sense of social responsibility relate to their reactions to health care reform legislation. To assess U.S. physicians’ impressions about the direction of U.S. health care under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), whether that legislation will make reimbursement more or less fair, and examine how those judgments relate to political affiliation and perceived social responsibility. A cross-sectional, mailed, self-reported survey. Simple random sample of 3,897 U.S.physicians. Views on the ACA in general, reimbursement under the ACA in particular, and perceived social responsibility. Among 2,556 physicians who responded (RR2: 65 %), approximately two out of five (41 %) believed that the ACA will turn U.S. health care in the right direction and make physician reimbursement less fair (44 %). Seventy-two percent of physicians endorsed a general professional obligation to address societal health policy issues, 65 % agreed that every physician is professionally obligated to care for the uninsured or underinsured, and half (55 %) were willing to accept limits on coverage for expensive drugs and procedures for the sake of expanding access to basic health care. In multivariable analyses, liberals and independents were both substantially more likely to endorse the ACA (OR 33.0 [95 % CI, 23.6–46.2]; OR 5.0 [95 % CI, 3.7–6.8], respectively), as were physicians reporting a salary (OR 1.7 [95 % CI, 1.2–2.5])or salary plus bonus (OR 1.4 [95 % CI, 1.1–1.9)compensation type. In the same multivariate models, those who agreed that addressing societal health policy issues are within the scope of their professional obligations (OR 1.5 [95 % CI, 1.0–2.0]), who believe physicians are professionally obligated to care for the uninsured / under-insured (OR 1.7 [95 % CI,1.3–2.4]), and who agreed with limiting coverage for expensive drugs and procedures to expand insurance coverage (OR 2.3 [95 % CI, 1.8

  18. Regulating the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies: a qualitative and descriptive analysis of the impact of Israeli legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanholtz-Gannot, Rachel; Yankellevich, Ariel

    2017-09-26

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law was amended in 2010 to require the disclosure of payments above 2500 NIS from pharmaceutical companies (PCs) to medical personnel and organizations. We examined if the law had an impact on the relationship between physicians in the Israeli health system and the pharmaceutical industry. We conducted 42 in-depth semi-structured interviews with representatives of relevant stakeholders regarding the effects and extent of the law and the interviewees' attitudes about regulating the relationship between physicians and PCs. In addition, we analyzed reports on payments from PCs to various components of the health system. The majority of interviewees agreed that transparency is important to the relationship between PCs and physicians and none of them opposed the disclosure of payments. Most interviewees reported to have witnessed a change in the regulatory climate of the relationship between PCs and physicians, prompted mostly by self-regulatory measures of the pharmaceutical industry. The most significant change in this relationship appeared to be the enactment of contractual relations between PCs and physicians. There was a pervasive feeling that self-regulation is more effective than state regulation. The impact of the law on the behavior of individual physicians was claimed to be limited at best. Suggested causes were lack of awareness of the law, particularly among physicians; ambiguous definition of "payments" and loopholes in the law that attract other forms of remuneration to physicians and lack of enforcement of the law. According to reports published by the Ministry of Health, Pharma Israel, and the Israeli Medical association, although there had been some disclosure of payments by both donors and beneficiaries, there were inconsistencies between the total payments disclosed by PCs and those disclosed by their beneficiaries. There is a broad agreement that transparency is important to the PCs-physicians relationship. In

  19. Legislative requirements for the identification and traceability of farm animals within the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendrup, S; Füssel, A E

    2001-08-01

    European Community (EC) legislation requires identification and registration of bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine animals. For intra-Community trade, bovine animals must be accompanied by a passport and the required health certificate, and identified by a tag on each ear. The principles of active identification of bovine animals (by ear tags) and of ovine, caprine and porcine animals (by ear tags or tattoos) are harmonised within the EC. International passports are issued and recognised only for registered Equidae. The life-number was introduced as an instrument to allow uninterrupted identification of Equidae using passports. The principles of issuing and recording such numbers have been outlined by the affected industries, but require official approval. Active identification of Equidae using electronic devices is not regulated by EC legislation, but research in livestock is underway.

  20. Self-reported evaluation of competencies and attitudes by physicians-in-training before and after a single day legislative advocacy experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advocacy is increasingly being recognized as a core element of medical professionalism and efforts are underway to incorporate advocacy training into graduate and undergraduate medical school curricula. While limited data exist to quantify physician attitudes toward advocacy, even less has been done to assess the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of future physicians. The purpose of this study was to assess students’ experiences and attitudes toward legislative advocacy, cutting out using a convience sample. Methods A paper survey based on previously validated surveys was administered to a convenience sample of premedical and medical student participants attending a National Advocacy Day in Washington, DC, in March 2011, both before and after their advocacy experiences. Responses were anonymous and either categorical ( or ordinal, using a 5-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed statistically to evaluate demographics and compare changes in pre- and post-experience attitude and skills. Results Data from 108 pre-advocacy and 50 post-advocacy surveys were analyzed yielding a response rate of 46.3%. Following a single advocacy experience, subjects felt they were more likely to contact their legislators about healthcare issues (p = 0.03), to meet in person with their legislators (p advocacy. Additionally, respondents indicated that they plan to engage in legislative advocacy activities in the future (p advocacy experience has a positive influence on students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards legislative advocacy. Practical experience is an important method of furthering medical education in advocacy and further research is necessary to assess its impact in a broader population. PMID:22726361

  1. Legislative framework and regulatory requirements for the introduction of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha-Vinh, Phuong

    1975-01-01

    The adoption of appropriate legislation is to be considered as a prerequisite to the introduction of nuclear power in view of the issues that need to be regulated. Preparatory steps should be started at the earliest stage in conjunction with the planning of nuclear power projects. The primary objectives of a licensing scheme are to ensure safety, public health and environmental protection as well as financial protection for third parties in case of nuclear incident. For licensing purposes, a legislative framework and regulatory determinations are required. Within such a framework and pursuant to such regulatory determinations, the elaboration of safety standards, rules, guides and enforcement procedures is to be considered of paramount importance. To this end a number of international recommendations and advisory material prepared by the IAEA provide useful guidance. A licensing process would normally be split into several stages relating to site approval, construction permit, pre-operational tests, and operating licence, each stage being subject to safety assessments and reviews as determined by regulations. Financial protection against nuclear damage has also to be insured. A special regime of nuclear liability has been established by international conventions, based on the principle of strict liability of the operator of a nuclear installation. As a result of such channelling of liability to him, his liability is limited in amount and time. This liability system has the dual purpose of ensuring appropriate protection for potential victims and of relieving the nuclear industry from unlimited liability risks, which would impede practical applications of atomic energy. For the elaboration of nuclear legislation and specialized regulations the Agency's advisory services have proved to be of help to countries embarking on a nuclear power programme. (author)

  2. [Ethics and occupational physicians: ethics and mission required for occupational physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    The ethics of occupational physicians are considered from the following three viewpoints: (1) their legal standing and ethics in job execution; (2) ethics in research in occupational medicine; and (3) ethics in the 21st century and fundamental issues. We discuss: in (1), the contract types of occupational physicians and their independency and neutrality, the protection of health information and privacy, and the use of authority and the security measures; in (2), ethical standards of medical research in Japanese and international organizations, the significance and role of ethics committees, and issues characteristic of occupational health research; and in (3), occupational physicians and politic ethics, the practical abilities and ethics necessary for occupational physicians, and the practice and philosophy of occupational medicine as an art. These considerations suggest that occupational physicians, who have a special status based on the governmental policy of the occupational physician system, should develop an ethical consciousness at the core of their duties and perform their mission with responsibility to employees and employers, all of whom are Japanese citizens. Finally, we propose that the ultimate mission of occupational physicians is "to practice occupational medicine as a branch of the humanities."

  3. Inconsistencies in data requirements of EU legislation involving tests on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kristina; Fach, Bettina; Kolar, Roman

    2012-01-01

    European Union (EU) legislation on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that alternative methods must be used instead of animal tests wherever they are available. Unfortunately, this provision is not implemented to its full extent when it comes to risk assessment of chemicals and new products prior to their authorization and placing on the market in the EU. In this study, we screened data requirements of relevant EU law regarding chemicals (REACH), biocides, pesticides, and food safety (Novel Food) and found that data requirements as part of the risk assessment do not always reflect state-of-the-art science and technology. Most of the data requirements we investigated still include testing on animals for many toxicological endpoints, even though more than 40 alternative testing methods accepted at the level of the EU or the OECD are available. This may be due to a multitude of reasons, including a shortage of both manpower to implement existing knowledge and expertise in the field of alternative methods, as well as unclear and misleading statements on the applicability and state of validation of alternative methods. In conclusion, we strongly suggest a homogeneous EU-wide approach for all areas involving risk assessment of substances with the goal of better implementing the 3Rs and complying with Directive 2010/63/EU. This also would streamline data requirements, save costs on various levels, and enhance product safety for consumers.

  4. Physician obligation to provide care during disasters: should physicians have been required to go to Fukushima?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabayashi, Akira; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Yoshinori

    2012-11-01

    On 11 March 2011, Japan experienced a major disaster brought about by a 9.0-magnitude earthquake and a massive tsunami that followed. This disaster caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant with the release of a large amount of radiation, leading to a crisis level 7 on the International Atomic Energy Agency scale. In this report, we discuss the obligations of physicians to provide care during the initial weeks after the disaster. We appeal to the obligation of general beneficence and argue that physicians should go to disaster zones only if there is no significant risk, cost or burden associated with doing so. We conclude that physicians were not obligated to go to Fukushima given the high risk of radiation exposure and physical and psychological harm. However, we must acknowledge that there were serious epistemic difficulties in accurately assessing the risks or benefits of travelling to Fukushima at the time. The discussion that follows is highly pertinent to all countries that rely on nuclear energy.

  5. Challenges Encountered by Connecticut Partner School Districts when Implementing Legislatively Required District Improvement Plans: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Meghan G.

    2010-01-01

    This research developed a survey that measures the degree to which challenges are experienced by school and district leaders, and teachers, when attempting to implement legislatively required District Improvement Plans (DIPs). The data indicate that there are certainly challenges when implementing DIPs and that teachers report experiencing a…

  6. Is there a foundation in South African legislation to require students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student involvement in patient care has been debated for many decades. There is an increasing body of literature calling for greater respect for patients' rights in a teaching environment. South African legislation already gives patients certain rights, including the right to non-medical information such as the costs of ...

  7. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985

  8. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985.

  9. Required competencies of occupational physicians: a Delphi survey of UK customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetoo, K N; Harrington, J M; Macdonald, E B

    2005-06-01

    Occupational physicians can contribute to good management in healthy enterprises. The requirement to take into account the needs of the customers when planning occupational health services is well established. To establish the priorities of UK employers, employees, and their representatives regarding the competencies they require from occupational physicians; to explore the reasons for variations of the priorities in different groups; and to make recommendations for occupational medicine training curricula in consideration of these findings. This study involved a Delphi survey of employers and employees from public and private organisations of varying business sizes, and health and safety specialists as well as trade union representatives throughout the UK. It was conducted in two rounds by a combination of computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) and postal survey techniques, using a questionnaire based on the list of competencies described by UK and European medical training bodies. There was broad consensus about the required competencies of occupational physicians among the respondent subgroups. All the competencies in which occupational physicians are trained were considered important by the customers. In the order of decreasing importance, the competencies were: Law and Ethics, Occupational Hazards, Disability and Fitness for Work, Communication, Environmental Exposures, Research Methods, Health Promotion, and Management. The priorities of customers differed from previously published occupational physicians' priorities. Existing training programmes for occupational physicians should be regularly reviewed and where necessary, modified to ensure that the emphasis of training meets customer requirements.

  10. [Comparative analysis of occupational health physician's duties based upon legislative decree 81/2008 art. 25 and upon the Ethics Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G; Mora, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Ethical behaviour consists ofindividual choices inspired by knowledge and professional experience derived from the universally acknowledged ethical principles of beneficience/nonmaleficience, autonomy and justice. However, in spite of the unanimous consent on their universal importance, such principles do not usually have the strength of a law. The recently introduced Italian law on the protection of workers' health represents a novelty because it gives the Ethics Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health legal strength. This paper aims at examining article 25 of legislative decree 81/2008 by comparing the points of the Ethics Code and the Deontology Code of the Italian medical profession. The relationships between the 12 points of paragraph 1 of article 25, the 26 points ofthe Code ofEthics and the 75 articles of the Deontology Code are described with regard to the occupational health physician's duties (i) of collaboration with other occupational health professionals, (ii) of organization and execution of health surveillance, (iii) of recording, securing, transmitting of medical files on workers' health and (iv) of employee and employer information on the importance and meaning of health surveillance.

  11. On professional and official requirements to physicians in radiation health by sectoral sanitary and epidemiological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usol'tsev, V.I.; Konkina, L.F.; Shishenina, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Professional and official requirements (POR) to sanitary physician, which deals with radiation hygiene at the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES), are considered. These requirements determine minimum of professional skills and abilities in the field of radiation hygiene. Physician should contribute to the improvement of radiation safety and health indices for personnel and population, and in this case, his activity should not impede the further usage of ionizing radiation sources in the national economy. Sanitary physician, dealing with a actain branch of industry, concerning the problems of radiation hygiene should know the principles of deontology, aims and functions of SES establishment and departments in the field of radiation hygiene, legal principles of radiation safety is basic tasks are as follows: 1) State sanitary inspection of sanitary-hygienic measures for the environmental protection and radiation protection of population; 2) organizational and methodological activity; 3) activity in medical civil defense

  12. 46 CFR 67.63 - Extent of title evidence required for captured, forfeited, special legislation, and wrecked vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., forfeited, special legislation, and wrecked vessels. 67.63 Section 67.63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF..., special legislation, and wrecked vessels. (a) In the case of a captured or forfeited vessel, the owner... case of a vessel which is the subject of special legislation or a wrecked vessel, the owner must...

  13. Surveys on minimum practical abilities required by nonspecialist occupational physicians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masako; Mori, Koji; Ishikawa, Asako; Nagata, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify the practical abilities required by nonspecialist occupational physicians and specify the priorities for training programs. Methods: A practical abilities list was developed through a focus group meeting of specialists. We created a survey questionnaire and asked three groups, namely, occupational physicians, occupational health nurses, and health officers, to rate the importance of each practical ability. Results: The mean scores for all 45 items were greater than 4, i.e., in the middle of the 7-point Likert scale, for all the three groups. The occupational physicians' responses had a correlation with the other groups' responses. However, there were differences with regard to some practical abilities between the three groups. Five practical abilities from the top quartile were marked "A" by all the three groups: "Submit opinions on fitness for duty and work accommodation on the basis of data from health examination," "Respect employee privacy," "Submit opinion on fitness for duty and work accommodation on the basis of data from face-to-face interviews with employees," "Submit opinions on fitness for duty and work accommodation on the basis of data from health surveillance," and "Implement face-to-face interviews for employees who have worked overtime and evaluate the subjects' conditions including mental and physical health status, degree of accumulated fatigue, and depression." Conclusions: This study resulted in a rank-ordered list of 45 practical abilities that are required by nonspecialist occupational physicians. This result may be useful to review and redesign the existing training program for nonspecialist occupational physicians. PMID:27108644

  14. Does community health care require different competencies from physicians and nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Zahra; Stevens, Fred J; Scherpbier, Albert J

    2014-01-06

    Recently competency approach in Health Professionals' Education (HPE) has become quite popular and for an effective competency based HPE, it is important to design the curriculum around the health care needs of the population to be served and on the expected roles of the health care providers. Unfortunately, in community settings roles of health providers tend to be described less clearly, particularly at the Primary Health Care (PHC) level where a multidisciplinary and appropriately prepared health team is generally lacking. Moreover, to tailor the education on community needs there is no substantial evidence on what specific requirements the providers must be prepared for. This study has explored specific tasks of physicians and nurses employed to work in primary or secondary health care units in a context where there is a structural scarcity of community health care providers. In-depth Interviews of 11 physicians and 06 nurses working in community settings of Pakistan were conducted along with review of their job descriptions. At all levels of health settings, physicians' were mostly engaged with diagnosing and prescribing medical illness of patients coming to health center and nurses depending on their employer were either providing preventive health care activities, assisting physicians or occupied in day to day management of health center. Geographical location or level of health facility did not have major effect on the roles being expected or performed, however the factors that determined the roles performed by health providers were employer expectations, preparation of health providers for providing community based care, role clarity and availability of resources including health team at health facilities. Exploration of specific tasks of physicians and nurses working in community settings provide a useful framework to map competencies, and can help educators revisit the curricula and instructional designs accordingly. Furthermore, in community settings

  15. Digital Image Display Station Performance Requirements Based on Physician Experience with a Prototype System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paul D.; Grover, Brent; Brauer, Gerhard W.; Ritchie, Gordon W.

    1989-05-01

    The authors report on observations of, and interviews with, physicians using a prototype digital image display and reporting station. While the users generally agree that image quality is clinically satisfactory they are unanimous in their opinion that improvements in the man-machine interface are required before case review by this mechanism is clinically acceptable in a production environment. A model image and information user interface is presented. It was developed in answer to the needs of radiologists and referring physicians operating in the imaging department of a community acute care facility. In such an environment images and related information must be communicated quickly and often simultaneously to different parts of the department and hospital. The user interface to the management system and the management system itself must address the varied functions and the needs of both the medical and clerical staff that perform them. Image enhancement processes, for example, must be restricted to those which quickly provide significantly more perceivable diagnostic information. Little used processes that may occupy significant portions of the display and the console's computing power must be trimmed or eliminated.

  16. A Health Equity Problem for Low Income Children: Diet Flexibility Requires Physician Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D

    2015-09-01

    USDA programs, such as the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and/or National School Lunch Program (NSLP), enable child care centers and schools to provide free and reduced price meals, daily, to millions of low income children. Despite intention to equalize opportunity for every child to have a healthy diet, USDA program rules may be contributing to child obesity disparities and health inequity. USDA program rules require child care centers and schools to provide meals that include a specified number of servings of particular types of foods and beverages. The rules are designed for the average, healthy weight child to maintain weight and growth. They are not designed for the underweight child to gain weight, obese child to normalize weight, or pre-diabetic child to avoid incident diabetes. The rules allow for only one meal pattern and volume, as opposed to a flexible spectrum of meal patterns and portion sizes. Parents of children who participate in the CACFP, SBP, and/or NSLP do not have control over the amount or composition of the subsidized meals. Parents of overweight, obese, or diabetic children who participate in the subsidized meal programs can request dietary change, special meals or accommodations to address their child's health status, but child care providers and schools are not required to comply with the request unless a licensed physician signs a "Medical statement to request special meals and/or accommodations". Although physicians are the only group authorized to change the foods, beverages, and portion sizes served daily to low income children, they are not doing so. Over the past three years, despite an overweight and obesity prevalence of 30% in San Francisco child care centers serving low income children, zero medical statements were filed to request special meals or accommodations to alter daily meals in order to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or prevent postprandial hyperglycemia. Low income children

  17. Changes in Canada pension plan disability rules hold implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, A

    1995-12-15

    Recent legislative changes to the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) have significantly altered eligibility requirements for disability pensions. A CPP medical adviser explains how the changes affect physicians and examines the federal government's definition of "disability."

  18. Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes 513 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from legislative information contained in the Legislative Data Base (LDB), a comprehensive interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The annotated citations alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Six indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale index, bill number index, title word index (permuted), sponsor index, transport restriction index (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode index (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword index. This report updates the information contained in Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period ending September 30, 1983, ORNL/TM-8860 (TTC-0485), published in June 1984

  19. Developing physician consensus on the reporting of patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia to transportation authorities in a region with mandatory reporting legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Mark J; Naglie, Gary; Herrmann, Nathan; Zucchero Sarracini, Carla; Mulsant, Benoit H; Frank, Christopher; Kiss, Alex; Seitz, Dallas; Vrkljan, Brenda; Masellis, Mario; Tang-Wai, David; Pimlott, Nicholas; Molnar, Frank

    2014-12-01

    To establish consensus among dementia experts about which patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia should be reported to transportation authorities. We conducted a literature review of predictors of driving safety in patients with dementia and combined these into 26 case scenarios. Using a modified Delphi technique, case scenarios were reviewed by 38 dementia experts (geriatric psychiatrists, geriatricians, cognitive neurologists and family physicians with expertise in elder care) who indicated whether or not they would report the patient in each scenario to regional transportation authorities and recommend a specialized on-road driving test. Scenarios were presented up to five times to achieve consensus, defined as 85% agreement, and discrepancies were discussed anonymously online. By the end of the fifth iteration, there was cumulative consensus on 18 scenarios (69%). The strongest predictors of decision to report were the combination of caregiver concern about the patient's driving and abnormal Clock Drawing Test, which accounted for 62% of the variance in decision to report at the same time as or without a road test (p developed to guide physician decision-making about reporting patients with MCI or mild dementia to transportation authorities. This study supports existing international guidelines that recommend specialized on-road testing when driving safety is uncertain for patients with MCI and emphasizes the importance of assessing executive dysfunction and caregiver concern about driving. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Notification of suspected and unexpected serious adverse reactions according to the Clinical Trials Directive - A descriptive analysis of the legislation and the requirements in a European context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Moseholm; Grarup, Jesper; Gey, Daniela Christine

    2010-01-01

    The European Clinical Trials Directive (CTD) came into force on May 1st 2004. The CTD provides the legal basis for monitoring the safety of clinical trials and covers the requirements for notification of SUSAR. Implementation of the CTD into national legislation in each Member State has resulted...... is of immediate practical use to especially non-commercial sponsors when conducting clinical trials in Europe....

  1. Decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin required for physician notification reduces the rate of blood transfusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson EA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric A Larson,1 Paul A Thompson,1,2 Zachary K Anderson,3 Keith A Anderson,4 Roxana A Lupu,1 Vicki Tigner,5 Wendell W Hoffman6,7 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Fairview Health Services, Edina, MN, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 5Medical Staff Services, 6Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford Health, Sanford USD Medical Center, 7Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, USAAbstract: Red blood cell transfusions have been cited as one of the most overused therapeutic interventions in the USA. Excessively aggressive transfusion practices may be driven by mandatory physician notification of critical hemoglobin values that do not generally require transfusion. We examined the effect of decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin from 8 to 7 g/dL at our institution. Along with this change, mandatory provider notification for readings between 7 and 8 g/dL was rescinded. Transfusion rates were compared retrospectively during paired 5-month periods for patients presenting in three key hemoglobin ranges (6.00–6.99, 7.00–7.99, and 8.00–8.99 g/dL. A change in transfusion practices was hypothesized in the 7–8 g/dL range, which was no longer labeled critical and for which mandated physician calls were rescinded. Transfusion rates showed a statistically significant 8% decrease (P≤0.0001 during the 5-month period post change in our transfusion practices. This decrease in the 7.00–7.99 g/dL range was significantly greater than the 2% decrease observed in either the 6–6.99 g/dL (P=0.0017 or 8–8.99 g/dL (P≤0.0001 range. Cost savings of up to $700,000/year were extrapolated from our results showing 491 fewer units of red blood cells transfused during the 5-month post change. These cost

  2. Fee-for-service will remain a feature of major payment reforms, requiring more changes in Medicare physician payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2012-09-01

    Many health policy analysts envision provider payment reforms currently under development as replacements for the traditional fee-for-service payment system. Reforms include per episode bundled payment and elements of capitation, such as global payments or accountable care organizations. But even if these approaches succeed and are widely adopted, the core method of payment to many physicians for the services they provide is likely to remain fee-for-service. It is therefore critical to address the current shortcomings in the Medicare physician fee schedule, because it will affect physician incentives and will continue to play an important role in determining the payment amounts under payment reform. This article reviews how the current payment system developed and is applied, and it highlights areas that require careful review and modification to ensure the success of broader payment reform.

  3. Notoriety for Profit Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    this study is a relatively new and important area in victimology known as "Notoriety For Profit Legislation". The study contains descrip- tions...in the area of victimology require further study. I BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bard, Morton, and Dawn Sangrey. The Crime Victims Book. New York: Basic Books

  4. A needs assessment of the number of comprehensive addiction care physicians required in a Canadian setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEachern, Jasmine

    2016-05-13

    Medical professionals adequately trained to prevent and treat substance use disorders are in short supply in most areas of the world. Whereas physician training in addiction medicine can improve patient and public health outcomes, the coverage estimates have not been established. We estimated the extent of the need for medical professionals skilled in addiction medicine in a Canadian setting.

  5. 42 CFR 422.208 - Physician incentive plans: requirements and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Relationships With... services furnished to any particular enrollee. Indirect payments may include offerings of monetary value (such as stock options or waivers of debt) measured in the present or future. (2) If the physician...

  6. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  7. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  8. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  9. A Needs Assessment of the Number of Comprehensive Addiction Care Physicians Required in a Canadian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Jasmine; Ahamad, Keith; Nolan, Seonaid; Mead, Annabel; Wood, Evan; Klimas, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Medical professionals adequately trained to prevent and treat substance use disorders are in short supply in most areas of the world. Whereas physician training in addiction medicine can improve patient and public health outcomes, the coverage estimates have not been established. We estimated the extent of the need for medical professionals skilled in addiction medicine in a Canadian setting. We used Monte-Carlo simulations to generate medians and 95% credibility intervals for the burden of alcohol and drug use harms, including morbidity and mortality, in British Columbia, by geographic health region. We obtained prevalence estimates for the models from the Medical Services Plan billing, the Discharge Abstract Database data, and the government surveillance data. We calculated a provider availability index (PAI), a ratio of the size of the labor force per 1000 affected individuals, for each geographic health region, using the number of American Board of Addiction Medicine certified physicians in each area. Depending on the data source used for population estimates, the availability of specialized addiction care providers varied across geographic health regions. For drug-related harms, we found the highest PAI of 23.72 certified physicians per 1000 affected individuals, when using the Medical Services Plan and Discharge Abstract Database data. Drawing on the surveillance data, the drug-related PAI dropped to 0.46. The alcohol-related PAI ranged between 0.10 and 86.96 providers, depending on data source used for population estimates. Our conservative estimates highlight the need to invest in healthcare provider training and to develop innovative approaches for more rural health regions.

  10. A Needs Assessment of the Number of Comprehensive Addiction Care Physicians Required in a Canadian Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Jasmine; Ahamad, Keith; Nolan, Seonaid; Mead, Annabel; Wood, Evan; Klimas, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Medical professionals adequately trained to prevent and treat substance use disorders are in short supply in most areas of the world. While physician training in addiction medicine can improve patient and public health outcomes, the coverage estimates have not been established. We estimated the extent of the need for medical professionals skilled in addiction medicine in a Canadian setting. Methods We used Monte Carlo simulations to generate medians and 95% credibility intervals for the burden of alcohol and drug use harms, including morbidity and mortality, in British Columbia, by geographic health region. We obtained prevalence estimates for the models from the Medical Services Plan (MSP) billing, the Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) data, and the government surveillance data. We calculated a provider availability index (PAI), a ratio of the size of the labour force per 1,000 affected individuals, for each geographic health region, using the number of American Board of Addiction Medicine certified physicians in each area. Results Depending on the data source used for population estimates, the availability of specialized addiction care providers varied across geographic health regions. For drug-related harms, we found the highest PAI of 23.72 certified physicians per 1,000 affected individuals, when using the MSP and DAD data. Drawing on the surveillance data, the drug-related PAI dropped to 0.46. The alcohol-related PAI ranged between 0.10 and 86.96 providers, depending on data source used for population estimates. Conclusions Our conservative estimates highlight the need to invest in health-care provider training and to develop innovative approaches for more rural health regions. PMID:27183295

  11. Radiological risk assessment of isotope laboratories according to the requirements of the radiation protection ordinance and the protective labour legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuerm, R.P.; Kuster, M.; Traub, K.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Swiss Radiation Safety Ordinance the supervising authority may require a safety report from the operator of a radioactive laboratory (Art.95) and establish the methodology of the risk analysis. Isotope laboratories of the chemical industry are supervised by Swiss accident insurance agency (SUVA). In that respect SUVA safeguards both radiation protection issues and general protection of the workers and established guide lines in order to assess conventional risks in industrial premises. In these conventional analysis the working process is analysed according to its possible detriment (death, severe invalidity, slight invalidity, injury with absence, injury without absence) and the probability of occurrence (frequent, seldom, rare, improbable, virtually impossible). According to this the risks are categorised in a matrix as 'high', 'medium' and 'low'. SUVA requested such a risk analysis for two isotope laboratories of B type in Basel in which on the one hand the hazard to the workers on the other hand to the public should be analysed and radiologically assessed. It was proposed to use a methodology established in workers safety and the insurance section. This required a comparison of risks of radiation doses in mSv to the consequences of conventional working accidents (death, invalidity) and the risk perception of the public and politicians. In this paper this risk matrix derived in discussions among the supervising body, the company management, the laboratory head and workers is described. In the opinion of the authors such a comparison between radiological and conventional risks has not been performed up to now and the results obtained here are open to discussion. (orig.) [de

  12. Check List for Legislators: Towards a Canadian Approach to End-of-Life Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeur, Gerald

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the author reviews Supreme Court of Canada and European Court of Human Rights case law to identify the factors the Parliament of Canada should take into account when it creates legislation regulating physician-assisted suicide. He also highlights the Criminal Code provisions that currently govern the provision of assistance in a suicide. The author concludes that the Charter of Rights and Freedoms requires a unique Canadian approach to the subject of physician-assisted suicide--an approach that provides adequate safeguards to protect the vulnerable, adequate oversight to ensure transparency, and adequate accommodation for the ethical and moral concerns of physicians to respect their human rights.

  13. 10 CFR 51.88 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposals for legislation. 51.88 Section 51.88 Energy...) Legislative Environmental Impact Statements-Proposals for Legislation § 51.88 Proposals for legislation. The... proposals for legislation. final environmental impact statements—general requirements ...

  14. A Call for Action to Improve Occupational Health and Safety in Ghana and a Critical Look at the Existing Legal Requirement and Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Joe-Steve; Addai, Emmanuel K; Tulashie, Samuel K

    2015-06-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a broad field of professional practice, which involves specialists from different disciplines including but not limited to engineers, occupational health physicians, physical and biological scientists, economists, and statisticians. The preventive systems required to ensure workers are protected from injuries and illnesses dwell heavily on engineers; however, the extent to which the engineer can go regarding planning and implementing preventive measures is dependent on specific legal requirements, leadership commitment from the company, organization, and nation. The objective of this paper is to identify the areas of opportunities for improvements in OHS management in Ghana with regard to the nation's legal requirements, commitment of the Ghana government, and Ghanaian leadership as well as appropriate structuring of Ghanaian institutions responsible for monitoring and managing OHS in Ghana. This paper identified Ghana's fragmented legal requirements concerning OHS, which are under different jurisdictions with unclear responsibilities and accountabilities. The paper also highlights the training needs of Ghanaian academic institutions regarding OHS. Among other recommendations made including structuring of Ghanaian institutions to manage OHS in line with the ILO-OSH 2001, this paper aligns the recommendations with the articles and elements of International Labour Organization convention number 155 and OHSAS 18001 elements.

  15. A Call for Action to Improve Occupational Health and Safety in Ghana and a Critical Look at the Existing Legal Requirement and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe-Steve Annan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health and safety (OHS is a broad field of professional practice, which involves specialists from different disciplines including but not limited to engineers, occupational health physicians, physical and biological scientists, economists, and statisticians. The preventive systems required to ensure workers are protected from injuries and illnesses dwell heavily on engineers; however, the extent to which the engineer can go regarding planning and implementing preventive measures is dependent on specific legal requirements, leadership commitment from the company, organization, and nation. The objective of this paper is to identify the areas of opportunities for improvements in OHS management in Ghana with regard to the nation's legal requirements, commitment of the Ghana government, and Ghanaian leadership as well as appropriate structuring of Ghanaian institutions responsible for monitoring and managing OHS in Ghana. This paper identified Ghana's fragmented legal requirements concerning OHS, which are under different jurisdictions with unclear responsibilities and accountabilities. The paper also highlights the training needs of Ghanaian academic institutions regarding OHS. Among other recommendations made including structuring of Ghanaian institutions to manage OHS in line with the ILO-OSH 2001, this paper aligns the recommendations with the articles and elements of International Labour Organization convention number 155 and OHSAS 18001 elements.

  16. [Attitudes of Polish occupational medicine physicians towards a proposal of requirements for occupational medicine training in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Boczkowski, A; Mikulski, M

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine key competences required of occupational medicine specialists, common throughout Europe, a questionnaire has been developed and distributed among several European countries. The questionnaire contained 115 subjects related to 8 fields of activities carried out by occupational medicine physicians (occupational hazards to health, assessment of disability and fitness for work, communications, research methods, management, environmental medicine, occupational health law and ethics, and health promotion). In each of these fields, competences were classified into three following categories: knowledge, experience and skills. Respondents were asked to allocate a score from 0 to 5 for each subject, where 0 = not necessary; 1 = of minimum importance, and 5 = most important or essential. In Poland the questionnaire was distributed among two groups of specialists: group I--experienced specialists in occupational medicine (leading representatives of occupational health care management), and group II--relatively younger and less experienced occupational medicine physicians, participating in the specialist training, organised by The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine. A comprehensive analysis of the completed questionnaires was carried out in two dimensions: substantive (the importance of individual competences as perceived by Polish specialists in occupational medicine), and comparative (evaluation and interpretation of similarities and differences between two groups of respondents). A hierarchy of requirements, occupational medicine training in Poland is to satisfy, was reconstructed with two sets of competences, one recognised by respondents as needless and the other recognised as useful with different grades of importance. Some characteristic differences in opinions between two groups studies were highlighted.

  17. Associations between statewide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) requirement and physician patterns of prescribing opioid analgesics for patients with non-cancer chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Wang, Zhi; Boyd, Carol; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Buu, Anne

    2018-01-01

    State-level prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have been implemented in most states. PDMPs enable registered prescribers to obtain real-time information on patients' prescription history to reduce non-medical use of controlled drugs. This study examined whether PDMP implementation and different levels of PDMP requirements were associated with physicians' patterns of prescribing opioid analgesics for patients with non-cancer chronic pain. This is a secondary analysis study using cross-sectional national data. Patients with non-cancer chronic pain from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were included (weighted N=81,018,131; unweighted N=3295). Heckman two-step selection procedure employing two logistic regressions was used to explore the associations between PDMP requirements and physicians' prescribing behaviors, controlling for physician characteristics, patient characteristics, physician-healthcare system interaction, and physician-patient relationship, guided by the Eisenberg's model of physician decision making. State PDMP implementation status and requirement levels were not associated with physician opioid prescribing for non-cancer chronic pain treatment (p's ranged 0.30-0.32). Patients with Medicare coverage were more likely to be prescribed opioid analgesics than those with private health insurance (OR=1.55, pprescription opioids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physician medical malpractice

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasurier, Jean

    1985-01-01

    Malpractice insurance premiums for physicians have increased at an average rate of over 30 percent per year. This rate is significantly higher than health care cost inflation and the increase in physician costs. Trends indicate that malpractice related costs, both liability insurance and defensive medicine costs, will continue to increase for the near future. Pressures to limit physician costs under Medicare raise a concern about how malpractice costs can be controlled. This paper presents an overview of the problem, reviews options that are available to policymakers, and discusses State and legislative efforts to address the issue. PMID:10311396

  19. 2011 SREB Legislative Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Gale F., Comp.

    2011-01-01

    The "2011 Legislative Briefing" is a topical summary of state budget and legislative actions that affect elementary, secondary and higher education across the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region. It outlines actions in areas such as tax and spending legislation, assistance to local districts, tuition and fees, student…

  20. VD: is society willing to meet the price of realistic legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovsky, L E

    1972-12-23

    A significant question at this time is whether there is any rationale for venereal disease (VD) legislation and legislation for all communicable diseases. VD legislation, to be effective, needs to reflect the causes of the spread of the disease. The causes would appear to rest on an increase in sexual activity and indiscriminate sexual activity among vast numbers of people throughout the world rather than an increase in the activity of the disease itself. Causes include increased population mobility and migration, urbanization, higher birthrates increasing the youthful and most sexually active part of the population, the discarding of traditional values, the removal of the fear of pregnancy by modern contraceptives, and a lack of knowledge concerning the nature of VD. Early legislation tried to control at least 1 cause of the spread of VD, i.e., prostitution. Legislation was also directed against homosexuality. 1 method of attacking indiscriminate sexual activity was to legislate against advertisements for curing VD. Legislation has also attempted to control individuals infected by making it an offense to communicate VD. The Criminal Code of Canada and VD regulations throughout the world are illustrative of such efforts. There has been no success in gaining convictions. Clearly, private activities cannot be controlled by law, but a legislative requirement for a premarital examination for VD is realistic since marriage is a public act. To combat the majority of cases, most jurisdictions have chosen compulsory reporting, tracing of contact, and control--all by force of law. Legislation varies from country to country as to what information is reported, to whom and under what conditions, but the basic system in those countries which employ a compulsory contract tracing system is the same in that to a large degree it depends for its success on the private physician. Legislation fails because it has tried to force the private physician to be a public officer. Unrealistic

  1. e-ready legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line; Baaner, Lasse

    In general, digital society challenges traditional modes of legislation and rulings. Dissimilar compositions of the legislation and non-comparable spatial representations of the legal content makes traditional legislation unfit for e-Government. Lacking attention may lead to the undermining...... of the trustworthiness of administration systems. On the other hand, a successful adaption of legislation to a digital setup could help promote good service towards citizens and businesses, and according to land administration theories maybe even promote societal sustainability in large. Based on studies on Denmark......, different challenges within digital land administration solutions are demonstrated. This paper discusses how legislation needs to change in order to be ‘e-Ready’....

  2. Model Legislation on Student Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education in the States, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Because of the radical variance in residency requirements from state to state and sometimes from institution to institution, and because of several court cases involving this issue, the Education Commission of the States appointed a Committee to develop (1) a statement of principles for consideration in drafting legislation in connection with…

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  4. Chapter No.2. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    UJD as the central body of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the field of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' the preparation of rest regulations has continued. Following drafts of 5 were prepared regulations in 2001 and then they were sent for comments to various ministries by UJD: (a) Regulation on safety requirements for design of nuclear installations; (b) Regulation on safety requirements for commissioning and operation of nuclear installations; (c) Regulation on safety documentation; (d) Regulation on periodic safety assessment; (e) Regulation on safety requirements for siting of nuclear installations. Two following UJD safety guides were published in 2001 as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations': (a) BNS I. 11.2/1999 'Requirements for performance of safety analyses for ATWS' (b) BNS II.3.1/2000 'Evaluation of acceptability of faults detected during the operation inspection of nuclear installation selected equipment'. As UJD is responsible for performance of such reviews according to law No. 264/1999 Coll. on conformance assessment of products about 10 drafts of technical standards were reviewed. UJD provided documentation to the Slovak Republic position document related to Chapter 14 - Energy which was submitted to the European Union (EU). The set of recommendations related to nuclear safety was elaborated by the special working group on atomic question which was established by the EU Council. Their implementation is required as a prerequisite to close negotiations on Chapter 14 - Energy. The schedule of necessary safety related measures was agreed in co-operation with the SE a.s. and the Ministry of Economy and submitted as additional information for negotiations to the EC. The negotiations on Chapter 14 - Energy were successfully closed in October 2001. The activities in the area of Chapter 22 - Environment were concentrated on submission of necessary data

  5. Dense Breast Legislation in the United States: State of the States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordy, Soudabeh Fazeli; Carlos, Ruth C

    2016-11-01

    Limitations of screening mammography in patients with dense breasts combined with the significant increased risk for breast cancer have made the issue of dense breasts a matter of great concern in recent years, leading to advocacy for policy change and legislation. Dense breast notification legislation requires direct patient notification of mammographic results indicating the presence of dense breast tissue. The aim of this study was to summarize the state of dense breast notification legislation across the country. The general intent of dense breast notification legislation is to increase awareness of dense breasts and encourage patients to discuss the clinical issues with their physicians. It was first enacted in Connecticut in 2009, and since then, 27 other states have passed, rejected, or considered dense breast notification legislation. At the federal level, a bill was introduced in October 2011, but it was not enacted. There are significant differences in the language of the laws from state to state that complicate implementation. Furthermore, legislated recommendations for possible additional testing are often unaccompanied by legal provisions for insurance coverage, which potentially results in unequal access. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Digital Privacy Legislation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Foulds; Magda Huisman; Gunther R. Drevin

    2013-01-01

    Privacy is regarded as a fundamental human right and it is clear that the study of digital privacy is an important field. Digital privacy is influenced by new and constantly evolving technologies and this continuous change makes it hard to create legislation to protect people's privacy from being exploited by misuse of these technologies. This study aims to benefit digital privacy legislation efforts by evaluating the awareness and perceived importance of digital privacy legislation among...

  7. 43 CFR 26.4 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislation. 26.4 Section 26.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUTH CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.4 Legislation. State programs must meet all of the requirements of section 4...

  8. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  9. The 2007 Legislative Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey; Gaines, Gale F., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    "The 2007 Legislative Briefing" is a topical summary of actions during the 2006 legislative sessions that affect education in the 16 SREB states. Topics include state budgets and the economy, tax and revenue, school finance, teacher compensation, licensure, certification and evaluation of teachers, strengthening elementary and secondary…

  10. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  11. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  12. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  13. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  14. 40 CFR 1506.8 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposals for legislation. 1506.8 Section 1506.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.8 Proposals for legislation. (a) The NEPA process for proposals for legislation (§ 1508.17...

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  16. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  17. Chapter 3. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) as the central authority of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the field of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' a preparation of remaining 8 decrees have continued. In 2000 the following decrees were issued by UJD: (1) Decree No. 31/2000 Coll on events at nuclear installations. It came into force on 15 February 2000. (2) Decree No. 190/2000 Coll by which details of radioactive waste management and spent fuel management are regulated. It came into force on 1-st July 2000. The following six decrees are at the process of preparation: (a) Decree on quality assurance of nuclear installations, (b) Decree on safety requirements for design of nuclear installations, (c) Decree on safety requirements for commissioning and operation of nuclear installations, (d) Decree on safety documentation, (e) Decree on periodic safety assessment, (f) Decree on safety requirements for siting of nuclear installations. Following five UJD safety guides were published in 2000 as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations': (1) BNS I.9.1/1999 Safety of nuclear facilities during decommissioning (issued in April 2000). (2) BNS III.4.1/2000 Requirements on UJD SR permit issue for fuel use in WWER 440 reactors (issued in September 2000). (3) BNS III.4.3/2000 Requirements on assessment of fuel loading for WWER 440 reactors (issued in September 2000). (4) BNS I.2.6/2000 UJD SR requirements on chapter 4 of Safety analysis report 'Core design' (issued in September 2000). (5) NS I.4.2/1996 Use of PSA methodology in the process of regulation by regulatory authority (issued in September 2000). About thirty-five drafts of technical standards were reviewed as UJD is responsible for performance such review according to the law No. 264/1999 Coll. on conformance assessment of products. UJD provided necessary documentation for negotiation positions of the

  18. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  19. [History of occupational health physician and industrial safety and health law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Seichi

    2013-10-01

    In Japan, an employer of a workplace with 50 or more employees is legally required to assign an occupational health physician. The assignment rate in 2010 was reported as 87.0%. This policy started with the provision of "factory physician"in the Factory Law in 1938, then the Labour Standard Law stipulated "physician hygienist" in 1947, and finally the Industrial Safety and Health Law defined "occupational health physician" in 1972. In 1996, a revision of the law then required those physicians to complete training courses in occupational medicine, as designated by an ordinance. Historically, an on-site physician was expected to cure injuries and to prevent communicable diseases of factory workers. The means of occupational hygienic management by working environment measurements, etc., and of health management by health examinations, etc., were developed. Localized exhaust ventilation and personal protection equipment became widely utilized. Qualification systems for non-medical experts in occupational hygiene were structured, and relationships between employers and occupational health physicians were stipulated in the legislative documents. Currently, the Japan Medical Association and the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan educate and train occupational health physicians, and the Japan Society for Occupational Health maintains a specialized board certification system for these physicians. In the future, additional efforts should be made to strengthen the expertise of occupational health physicians, to define and recognize the roles of non-medical experts in occupational hygiene, to incorporate occupational health services in small enterprises, to promote occupational health risk assessment in the workplace, and to reorganize the current legislation, amended repeatedly over the decades.

  20. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  1. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or “Right‐to‐Try” Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Jelena P.; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E.; Adamo, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and “Right‐to‐Try” legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. Methods FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. Results The FDA EA program includes Single Patient‐Investigational New Drug (SP‐IND), Emergency SP‐IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. “Right‐to‐Try” legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. Conclusion The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP‐IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. PMID:25588691

  2. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or "Right-to-Try" Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, M E Blair; Berglund, Jelena P; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E; Adamo, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and "Right-to-Try" legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. The FDA EA program includes Single Patient-Investigational New Drug (SP-IND), Emergency SP-IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. "Right-to-Try" legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP-IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Technological resources and personnel costs required to implement an automated alert system for ambulatory physicians when patients are discharged from hospitals to home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry S Field

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background With the adoption of electronic medical records by medical group practices, there are opportunities to improve the quality of care for patients discharged from hospitals. However, there is little guidance for medical groups outside integrated hospital systems to automate the flow of patient information during transitions in care.Objective To describe the technological resources, expertise and time needed to develop an automated system providing information to ambulatory physicians when their patients are discharged from hospitals to home.Development Within a medical group practice, we developed an automated alert system that provides notification of discharges, reminders of the need for follow-up visits, drugs added during inpatient stays, and recommendations for laboratory monitoring of high-risk drugs. We tracked components of the information system required and the time spent by team members. We used USA national averages of hourly wages to estimate personnel costs.Application Critical components of the information system are notifications of hospital discharges through an admission, discharge and transfer registration (ADT interface, linkage to the group’s scheduling system, access to information on pharmacy dispensing and lab tests, and an interface engine. Total personnel cost was $76,314. Nearly half (47% was for 614 hours by physicians who developed content, provided overall project management, and reviewed alerts to ensure that only ‘actionable’ alerts would be sent.Conclusion Implementing a system to provide information about hospital discharges requires strong internal informatics expertise, cooperation between facilities and ambulatory providers, development of electronic linkages, and extensive commitment of physician time.

  4. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  5. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  6. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  7. Physician-Owned Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 6001 of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 amended section 1877 of the Social Security Act to impose additional requirements for physician-owned hospitals to...

  8. Financial viability of perinatal centers in the longer term, taking legislative requirements into account. An examination of the cost-revenue structure of a Level I perinatal center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Michael P; Kraml, Florian; Wagner, Stefanie; Hack, Carolin C; Schulze, Christine; Faschingbauer, Florian; Winkler, Mathias; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Debate is currently taking place over minimum case numbers for the care of premature infants and neonates in Germany. As a result of the Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesauschuss, G-BA) guidelines for the quality of structures, processes, and results, requiring high levels of staffing resources, Level I perinatal centers are increasingly becoming the focus for health-economics questions, specifically, debating whether Level I structures are financially viable. Using a multistep contribution margin analysis, the operating results for the Obstetrics Section at the University Perinatal Center of Franconia (Universitäts-Perinatalzentrum Franken) were calculated for the year 2009. Costs arising per diagnosis-related group (DRG) (separated into variable costs and fixed costs) and the corresponding revenue generated were compared for 4,194 in-patients and neonates, as well as for 3,126 patients in the outpatient ultrasound and pregnancy clinics. With a positive operating result of € 374,874.81, a Level I perinatal center on the whole initially appears to be financially viable, from the obstetrics point of view (excluding neonatology), with a high bed occupancy rate and a profitable case mix. By contrast, the costs of prenatal diagnostics, with a negative contribution margin II of € 50,313, cannot be covered. A total of 79.4% of DRG case numbers were distributed to five DRGs, all of which were associated with pregnancies and neonates with the lowest risk profiles. A Level I perinatal center is currently capable of covering its costs. However, the cost-revenue ratio is fragile due to the high requirements for staffing resources and numerous economic, social, and regional influencing factors.

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  10. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  11. Clinical communication skills and professionalism education are required from the beginning of medical training - a point of view of family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Camila Ament Giuliani Dos Santos; Franco, Renato Soleiman; Lopes, José Mauro Ceratti; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2018-03-20

    The Brazilian undergraduate medical course is six years long. As in other countries, a medical residency is not obligatory to practice as a doctor. In this context, this paper aims to clarify what and when competencies in communication and professionalism should be addressed, shedding light on the role of university, residency and post-residency programmes. Brazilian family physicians with diverse levels of medical training answered a questionnaire designed to seek a consensus on the competencies that should be taught (key competencies) and when students should achieve them during their medical training. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and correlation tests. A total of seventy-four physicians participated; nearly all participants suggested that the students should achieve communication and professionalism competencies during undergraduate study (twenty out of thirty competencies - 66.7%) or during residency (seven out of thirty competencies - 23.33%). When competencies were analysed in domains, the results were that clinical communication skills and professionalism competencies should be achieved during undergraduate medical education, and interpersonal communication and leadership skills should be reached during postgraduate study. The authors propose that attainment of clinical communication skills and professionalism competencies should be required for undergraduate students. The foundation for Leadership and Interpersonal Abilities should be particularly formed at an undergraduate level and, furthermore, mastered by immersion in the future workplace and medical responsibilities in residency.

  12. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  13. Specific legislation on biobanks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Merino, Isabel Ma; Consuegra, Irene; Jiménez, José Luís; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2015-06-01

    Spain has enacted specific legislation concerning biobanks. This legislation regulates how biobanks should be set up, how they should operate, and the requirements they need to comply with. The main objective of this legislation is to keep a good balance between scientific progress and respect for the rights and freedom of individuals participating in research. Therefore, this legislation lays down a series of basic principles, for instance, the principle to inform donors accurately i) on the deposit of samples in terms of the objectives and implications of their donation and on the need to obtain written consents; ii) on the obligation to establish consistent procedures to guarantee the confidentiality of personal data associated with and obtained from biological samples; iii) on the concept of free sample donation either by donors or by biobanks; iv) on the need for consistent procedures to deposit samples and data in biobanks; and v) for acts of donation and data for research projects to be performed correctly. Although this Spanish legislation fulfills its objectives, it has some drawbacks; mainly it overprotects research participants. This issue should be analyzed in future revisions of the legislation.

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  15. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  16. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  17. Legislating interprofessional collaboration: A policy analysis of health professions regulatory legislation in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; Orchard, Carole; Khalili, Hossein; Brunton, Laura; Leslie, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Changes to Ontario's health professions regulatory system were initiated through various legislative amendments. These amendments introduced a legislative obligation for health regulatory colleges to support interprofessional collaboration (IPC), collaborate where they share controlled acts, and incorporate IPC into their quality assurance programs. The purpose of this policy analysis was to identify activities, strategies, and collaborations taking place within health professions regulatory colleges pertaining to legislative changes related to IPC. A qualitative content analysis of (1) college documents pertaining to IPC (n = 355) and (2) interviews with representatives from 14 colleges. Three themes were identified: ideal versus reality; barriers to the ideal; and legislating IPC. Commitment to the ideal of IPC was evident in college documents and interviews. Colleges expressed concern about the lack of clarity regarding the intent of legislation. In addition, barriers stemming from long-standing issues in practice including scope of practice protection, conflicting legislation, and lack of knowledge about the roles of other health professionals impede IPC. Government legislation and health professional regulation have important roles in supporting IPC; however, broader collaboration may be required to achieve policy objectives.

  18. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  19. Buffalo City learners' knowledge of abortion legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP) Act legalised abortion on request in South Africa until up to 12 weeks of gestation and thereafter under specified conditions. Within the context of liberal legislation, accurate information is a necessary (although not sufficient) requirement for women to exercise ...

  20. Physician advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lober, C W

    1993-04-01

    Practically nonexistent until the late 1970s, advertising by physicians has become commonplace. Although informational and educational advertising may contain information that potential patients may find to be useful, laudatory and predatory advertising are unethical and may be patently illegal. There is a conflict between the obligations of a physician to his patients and the intentions of advertising. The role of the Federal Trade Commission and state regulations are discussed.

  1. Managing margins through physician engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas J

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals should take the following steps as they seek to engage physicians in an enterprisewide effort to effectively manage margins: Consider physicians' daily professional practice requirements and demands for time in balancing patient care and administrative duties. Share detailed transactional supply data with physicians to give them a behind-the-scenes look at the cost of products used for procedures. Institute physician-led management and monitoring of protocol compliance and shifts in utilization to promote clinical support for change. Select a physician champion to provide the framework for managing initiatives with targeted, efficient communication.

  2. Governance, veterinary legislation and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, M

    2012-08-01

    This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.

  3. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  4. 29 CFR 780.902 - Legislative history of exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(16) Introductory § 780.902 Legislative history of exemption. Since the language of section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislative history of exemption. 780.902 Section 780.902...

  5. Impact of Wellness Legislation on Comprehensive School Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Kim C.; Woods, Amelia Mays; O'Connor, Jamie A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, Congress passed the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act that requires schools to implement a wellness plan. Grounded in Ecological Systems Theory (EST) (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1979), the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the legislation, discover what measures have been taken to enact the legislation, gauge how the…

  6. Human tissue legislation in South Africa: Focus on stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-04

    Aug 4, 2015 ... Human tissue legislation is complex. It is characterised by an ever-changing landscape in which advances in science and medicine need to be accommodated. A high degree of technical expertise is required to ensure that the legislation is accurate, appropriate and unambiguous. However, it is generally ...

  7. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  8. "Right to recommend, wrong to require"- an empirical and philosophical study of the views among physicians and the general public on smoking cessation as a condition for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Joar; Juth, Niklas; Lynøe, Niels

    2018-01-08

    In many countries, there are health care initiatives to make smokers give up smoking in the peri-operative setting. There is empirical evidence that this may improve some, but not all, operative outcomes. However, it may be feared that some support for such policies stems from ethically questionable opinions, such as paternalism or anti-smoker sentiments. This study aimed at investigating the support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery among Swedish physicians and members of the general public, as well as the reasons provided for this. A random sample of general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons (n = 795) as well as members of the general public (n = 485) received a mail questionnaire. It contained a vignette case with a smoking 57-year old male farmer with hip osteoarthritis. The patient had been recommended hip replacement therapy, but told that in order to qualify for surgery he needed to give up smoking four weeks prior to and after surgery. The respondents were asked whether making such qualifying demands is acceptable, and asked to rate their agreement with pre-set arguments for and against this policy. Response rates were 58.2% among physicians and 53.8% among the general public. Of these, 83.9% and 86.6%, respectively, agreed that surgery should be made conditional upon smoking cessation. Reference to the peri-operative risks associated with smoking was the most common argument given. However, there was also strong support for the argument that such a policy is mandated in order to achieve long term health gains. There is strong support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery in Sweden. This support is based on considerations of peri-operative risks as well as the general long term risks of smoking. This study indicates that paternalistic attitudes may inform some of the support for peri-operative smoking cessation policies and that at least some respondents seem to favour a "recommendation strategy" vis-à-vis smoking

  9. [Current legislation in the healthcare system 2015/2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martenstein, I; Wienke, A

    2016-05-01

    The energy of the legislator in the healthcare system was barely stoppable in 2015. Many new laws have been brought into force and legal initiatives have also been implemented. The Hospital Structure Act, the Treatment Enhancement Act, amendments of the official medical fee schedules for physicians, the Prevention Act, the E-Health Act, the Anti-corruption Act, the hospital admission guidelines and amendments of the model specialty training regulations are just some of the essential alterations that lie ahead of the medical community. This article gives a review of the most important new legislative regulations in the healthcare system and presents the fundamental consequences for the practice.

  10. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  11. Trends in outdoor recreation legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Siehl

    1980-01-01

    The two decades which have passed since the era of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) have been active and fruitful in terms of Federal recreation legislation. The Commission and its final report "Outdoor Recreation for America" strongly influenced the burst of recreation legislation in the 1960's. Even today, the studies prepared...

  12. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  13. Dense breasts: a review of reporting legislation and available supplemental screening options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jessica M; Jafferjee, Nasima; Covarrubias, Gabriel M; Ghesani, Munir; Handler, Bradley

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this article are to discuss the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) and what it means for patients, define breast density and explain how it is measured, review the new state-based legislation regarding the reporting of dense breast tissue directly to patients and the possibility of an adjunct screening examination, describe possible supplemental screening options and the advantages and disadvantages of each, and outline the current shortcomings and unanswered questions regarding new legislation. Breast density is now established as an independent risk factor for developing breast cancer irrespective of other known risk factors. Women with breast density in the upper quartile have an associated four to five times greater risk of developing breast cancer relative to women with breast density in the lower quartile. Many states have enacted or proposed legislation requiring mammographers to report to patients directly if they have dense breast tissue and recommend discussing the possibility of a supplemental screening examination with their physicians. However, there is currently no consensus as to whether a supplemental screening examination should be pursued or which modality to use. Possible supplemental screening modalities include ultrasound, MRI, digital breast tomosynthesis, and molecular breast imaging. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved an automated breast ultrasound system for screening whole-breast ultrasound in patients with dense breasts. However, many questions are still unanswered including the impact on morbidity and mortality, cost-effectiveness, and insurance coverage.

  14. Disenfranchised Grief and Physician Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    Over the span of their career, physicians experience changes to their professional role and professional identity. The process of continual adaptation in their work setting incurs losses. These losses can be ambiguous, cumulative, and may require grieving. Grief in the workplace is unsanctioned, and may contribute to physicians' experience of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, low sense of achievement). Acknowledging loss, validating grief, and being prescient in dealing with physician burnout is essential. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  16. Breast Density Notification Legislation and Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis: Early Evidence from the SEER Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana; Asch, Steven M; Bendavid, Eran; Bhattacharya, Jay; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-06-01

    Twenty-eight states have passed breast density notification laws, which require physicians to inform women of a finding of dense breasts on mammography. To evaluate changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis after enactment of breast density notification legislation. Using a difference-in-differences analysis, we examined changes in stage at diagnosis among women with breast cancer in Connecticut, the first state to enact legislation, compared to changes among women in control states. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) registry, 2005-2013. Women ages 40-74 with breast cancer. Breast density notification legislation, enacted in Connecticut in October of 2009. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Our study included 466,930 women, 25,592 of whom lived in Connecticut. Legislation was associated with a 1.38-percentage-point (95 % CI 0.12 to 2.63) increase in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states who had localized invasive cancer at the time of diagnosis, and a 1.12-percentage-point (95 % CI -2.21 to -0.08) decline in the proportion of women with ductal carcinoma in situ at diagnosis. Breast density notification legislation was not associated with a change in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states with regional-stage (-0.09 percentage points, 95 % CI -1.01 to 1.02) or metastatic disease (-0.24, 95 % CI -0.75 to 0.28). County-level analyses and analyses limited to women younger than 50 found no statistically significant associations. Single intervention state, limited follow-up, potential confounding from unobserved trends. Breast density notification legislation in Connecticut was associated with a small increase in the proportion of women diagnosed with localized invasive breast cancer in individual-level but not county-level analyses. Whether this finding reflects potentially beneficial early detection or potentially harmful overdiagnosis is not known. Legislation was not

  17. Chapter 3. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) as central body of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the filed of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' there are 16 binding regulations under preparation. In 199 the following regulations were issued by UJD (1) Regulation No. 29/1999 Collection laws (Coll. l.) by which a list special materials and equipment is published. It came into force on 1 March 1999; (2) ) Regulation No. 30/1999 Coll. l. which defines details on maximum limits on quantities for nuclear materials for which there is no presumption of causing nuclear damage. It came into force on 1 March 1999; (3) Regulation No. 186/1999, which determines details to assure physical protection of nuclear installations, nuclear materials and radioactive waste. It came into force on 1 August 1999; (4) Regulations No. 187/1999 Coll. l. on professional competence of employees of nuclear installations. It came into force on 1 August 1999; (5) Regulation No. 198/1999 Coll. l. on accounting and inspection of nuclear materials. It came into force on 1 September 1999; (6) Regulation No. 245/1999 Coll. l. on emergency planning in case in incident or accident. It came into force on 1 October 1999; (7) Regulation No. 246/1999 Coll. l. on documentation of nuclear installations for decommissioning. It came into force on 1 October; (8) Regulation No. 284/1999 Coll. l. on details on transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. It came into force on 15 November 1999. Six UJD safety guide were published last year as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations'. UJD provides documentation for screening process of Energy sector and Environment sector as contribution to the accession process to the European Union. The most important subject within the negotiations with the European Commission were safety and operation of the NPP V-1 Bohunice. UJD grants

  18. General practitioners’ level of knowledge about their rights and criminal liabilities according to legislation in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baki Derhem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . To know legal regulations and to comply with them while providing health care is indispensable for physicians to work in a proper way. Ignorance of the criminal laws may not be an excuse according to Turkish Criminal Code. There is an obligation for physicians to know the law, as well as all citizens. Physicians should possess the scope of competences regarding medicolegal regulations at least. Objectives . The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge and behaviors of GPs regarding their rights, criminal liabilities and common rules of law that are regulated by legislation. We also aimed to determine how the answers were influenced by sociodemographic factors, educational status of participants and if the participants received any punishment. Material and methods . A total number of 381 physicians working at primary health care services located in Ankara were interviewed face-to-face. We used a 38-item questionnaire that was developed according to current legislation. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software (Version 11.5. The chi-square test was used in order to compare knowledge-based questions with sociodemographic factors. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for assessing whether the number of correct answers differs with socio-demographic factors or not. A p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results . 21.8 percent of the participants were FM specialists, and 78.2% of them were GPs. The mean age of physicians was 46.9 ± 7.6. The median score for correct responses in 18 knowledge-based questions was 8 (min–max: 3–14. In comparison with the working experience with correct answers, there was a statistically significant difference between 1–5 years of experience and 11–15 years and ≥ 16 years (p < 0.001. There was a significant difference in correct answers between the two groups, which were separated according to whether or not they received punishment as a result of a legal

  19. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. © 2014 AWHONN.

  20. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  1. Montgomery County Council Legislation - Bills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Council enacts local public laws for the ‘peace, good government, health, and welfare of the county’. The bills dataset contains all legislation considered by...

  2. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section compiles the presentations of the following texts sorted by country. Armenia - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: New design safety requirements adopted, New seismic hazard assessment guidelines adopted; France - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: Decree No. 2012-1248 of 9 November 2012 authorising the ITER Organisation to create the 'ITER' basic nuclear installation in Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (Bouches-du-Rhone); - Nuclear security: Law No. 2012-1473 of 28 December 2012 authorizing the approval of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Complementary safety assessments. Follow-up of the stress tests carried out on French nuclear power plants. Action Plan of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - December 2012; - International cooperation: Decree No. 2012-1178 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of the Republic of Tunisia for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed in Tunis on 23 April 2009; Decree No. 2012-1180 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of Mongolia in the field of nuclear energy (with annex), signed in Ulaanbaatar on 14 October 2010; Germany - General legislation: Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act to expedite the retrieval of radioactive waste from and to decommission the Asse II Mine (2013); Act to amend the Act on Environmental Legal Remedies and other environmental provisions (2013); - Radiation protection: General administrative rules on Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2012); - Nuclear Safety: Safety requirements for nuclear power plants (2012); - Transport of radioactive material: International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (2010, 2012); - Regulations on nuclear trade (including non-proliferation): Export List (2013); Greece

  4. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  6. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2007-05-15

    Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue.

  7. Fighting falsified medicines with paperwork - a historic review of Danish legislation governing distribution of medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Rasmus; Kaae, Susanne; Minssen, Timo; Traulsen, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many areas of pharmaceutical legislation in the European Union (EU) are harmonised in order to promote the internal market and protect public health. Ideally, harmonisation leads to less fragmented regulation and cross-border complexities. This study, however, focuses on an increasingly harmonised legislative area that is subject to increases in requirements and complexities: the distribution of medicines. This study compared Danish legislation governing the distribution of medicines before and after Denmark joined the EU in order to assess the impact of EU harmonisation, as well as to evaluate whether the drastic increases in requirements mandated by the Falsified Medicines Directive of 2011 correspond to a new approach to governing the pharmaceutical supply chain. A review was conducted of 115 applicable Danish laws, executive orders and guidelines from 1913 to 2014. Legal requirements were organised according to the year they were published and the companies they affected. Greater changes in legislative requirements were developed through inductive content analysis. Early legislation positioned pharmacies as gatekeepers, requiring them to identify and stop medicines of substandard quality. Legislation to regulate the supply chain was slow to materialise. After Denmark joined the EU, the scope of legislation widened to include all actors in the supply chain, and the quantity of legislation increased dramatically. Simultaneously, requirements became more specific, thereby promoting a formalistic interpretation and focusing the attention of companies and authorities on predefined areas with little room to implement innovative solutions. Over time, documentation became the focus of legislation, requiring companies to provide documentary evidence for their compliance with legislation. The Falsified Medicines Directive continues these trends by increasing requirements for documentation and promoting a formalistic interpretation. The legislative approach adopted since

  8. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  9. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  10. The physician payments sunshine act: what the average radiologist and manager need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramati, Nogah

    2013-06-01

    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act (PPSA) was enacted in 2010 and requires applicable manufacturers of medical devices, drugs, biological material, or medical supplies to report payments or transfers of value that are provided to physicians or teaching hospitals. PPSA has value in creating greater transparency in the financial relationships between industry, physicians, and teaching hospitals, and in potentially reducing problematic conflicts of interest. PPSA requires that this data be published, in searchable form, on a public website. CMS has delayed the reporting under PPSA until after January 1, 2013, and has yet to issue its final rules for PPSA; however, Physician Payments data already exist in a publically searchable database. It is important to realize that names of individuals may appear in the PPSA public database, even if those individuals did not actually receive a transfer of value. As with all broad-stroke legislation, consequences not anticipated or not considered sufficiently important for our government leaders may well present a problem for individuals. It behooves all physicians and healthcare managers to carefully follow the CMS PPSA regulations. In advance of meeting or interacting with any PPSA-applicable manufacturer, obtain a clear and mutual understanding regarding what reportable value, if any, will be prepared for and provided by the applicable manufacturer. In this, as in all situations in which government regulations are at play, "knowledge is strength." Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  12. Innovation in the occupational health physician profession requires the development of a work collective to improve the efficiency of MSD prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroly, S; Landry, A; Cholez, C; Davezies, P; Bellemare, M; Poussin, N

    2012-01-01

    Given the ageing population of occupational health physicians and the deteriorating situation of employee health, reforms targeting the multi-disciplinary nature of occupational health are currently being drawn up. These are of great concern to doctors in terms of the future of occupational health, notably with regard to changing medical practices. The objective of this study is to explore the actual practices of occupational health physicians within the framework of MSD prevention in France. By analysing the activity of occupational health physicians, we could gain a better understanding of the coordination between those involved in OHS with the ultimate goal being to improve prevention. Based on an analysis of peer activity, this method made it possible to push beyond pre-constructed discourse. According to activity theories, it is through others that the history and controversies of a profession can be grasped and skills developed. The results produced by these collective discussions on activity analysis contributed to establish a collective point of view about the important aspects of their profession that need defending and the variations in professional genre in relation to the current reforms, notably.

  13. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  14. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  15. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  16. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  17. 40 CFR 1508.17 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislation. 1508.17 Section 1508.17 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.17 Legislation. Legislation includes a bill or legislative proposal to Congress developed by or with the significant...

  18. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  19. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  20. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  1. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  2. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  3. Continuous professional development for physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K., Ghosh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of professional competence remains an exercise of permament learning and an essential requirement for evidence –based medical practice. Physicians attend continuing professional development (CPD programs to acquire new knowledge. Often CPD programs remain the main source for updates of information. CPD organizers have a considerable responsibility in determining appropriate curriculum for their conferences. Organizing an effective CPD activity often requires understanding of the principles of adult education. Prior to deciding on the curriculum for a CPD, course organizers should conduct needs assessment of physicians. CPD planners should create activities that would consistently improve physician competence. CPD sessions that are interactive, using multiple methods of instructions for small groups of physicians from a single specialty are more likely to change physician knowledge and behavior. The effectiveness of a CPD program should be evaluated at a level beyond measuring physician satisfaction. CPD planners should incorporate methods to determine the course attendees’ improvement of knowledge, skills and attitudes during the CPD activities. Pre and post conference evaluations of physicians using multiple choice questions may form a useful method of assessment.

  4. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... framework for a novel food in a regulatory context. Once admitted, edible insects require proper rules to assure consumers and stakeholders of their benefits and safety. This overview highlights the need to develop clearer legislation to govern the future production and consumption of new food in Europe...

  5. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  6. Physician Bonuses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MMA Section 413(b) required CMS to revise some of the policies that address HPSA bonus payments. Section 1833(m) of the Social Security Act provides bonus payments...

  7. Evolution of European Union legislation of herbal medicinal products and its transposition to national legislation in 1965-2007: case Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Sari M; Laitinen-Parkkonen, Pirjo; Airaksinen, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The study aim was to explore the progress of legislation relating to herbal medicinal products in the European Union and compare it with the corresponding progress of the legislation in Finland in 1965-2007. The study was carried out using content analysis. Data were searched from publicly available European Union directives and national acts. All definitions and safety-related requirements for herbal medicinal products were identified. The transposition of safety-related requirements into the national legislation was studied. Medicinal products from plant origins have been part of the European Union legislation since 1965. Most plant-based products have not initially been regarded as medicinal products but rather as some kind of medicine-like products. The official definition of herbal medicinal products was introduced in Directive 2004/24/EC and implemented into the Finnish legislation with the terminology to recognise herbal medicinal products as part of medicinal products. The current safety-related requirements of medicinal products concern analogously herbal medicinal products. Herbal medicinal products have had different definitions in pharmaceutical legislation over the study period in the European Union and Finland. The current definition places herbal medicinal products more clearly under the medicinal products' legislation. Safety-related requirements are now practically identical for all medicinal products. Transposition of the European Union legislation into the national legislation in Finland is apparent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... legislation; introduction. (a) Scope. (1) There are certain requirements an organization must meet in order to... attempting to influence legislation, (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is...

  9. Longevity of Thai physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Piyasing, Veera; Boontheaim, Benjaporn; Ratanamongkolgul, Suthee; Wattanasirichaigoon, Somkiat

    2004-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore characteristics of the long-lived Thai physicians. We sent 983 posted questionnaires to 840 male and 143 female physicians. We obtained 327 of them back after 2 rounds of mailing, yielding a response rate of 33.3 percents. The response rate of male physicians was 32.4 percents and that of female physicians was 38.5 percents. Their ages were between 68-93 years (75.1 +/- 4.86 years on average). The majority were married, implying that their spouses were also long-lived. Around half of them still did some clinical work, one-fourth did some charity work, one-fourth did various voluntary works, one-fifth did some business, one-fifth did some academic work, and some did more than one type of work. Most long-lived physicians were not obese, with BMI of 16.53-34.16 (average 23.97 +/- 2.80). Only 8 had BMI higher than 30. BMIs were not different between male and female physicians. However, four-fifths of them had diseases that required treatment, and some of them had more than one disease. The five most frequent diseases were hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, and benign prostate hypertrophy, respectively. Most long-lived physicians did exercise (87.8%), and some did more than one method. The most frequent one was walking (52.3%). Most did not drink alcohol or drank occasionally, only 9.0% drank regularly. Most of them slept 3-9 hours per night (average 6.75 +/- 1.06). Most (78.3%) took some medication regularly; of most were medicine for their diseases. Most did not eat macrobiotic food, vegetarian food, or fast food regularly. Most long-lived physicians practiced some religious activities by praying, paying respect to Buddha, giving food to monks, practicing meditation, and listening to monks' teaching. They also used Buddhist practice and guidelines for their daily living and work, and also recommended these to their younger colleagues. Their recreational activities were playing musical instruments

  10. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation; Maritimes Umweltstrafrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Grundlagen und deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  11. Impact of a State Law on Physician Practice in Sports-Related Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael R; Raybould, Toby; Jamal-Allial, Aziza; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Lee, Jarone; Gervasini, Alice; Ginsburg, Richard; Mandell, Mark; Donelan, Karen; Masiakos, Peter T

    2016-11-01

    To determine physician-reported adherence to and support of the 2010 Massachusetts youth concussion law, as well as barriers to care and clinical practice in the context of legislation. Primary care physicians (n = 272) in a large pediatric network were eligible for a cross-sectional survey in 2014. Survey questions addressed key policy and practice provisions: concussion knowledge, state regulations and training, practice patterns, referrals, patient characteristics, and barriers to care. Analyses explored relationships between practice and policy, adjusting for physician demographic and practice characteristics. The survey response rate was 64% among all responders (173 of 272). A total of 146 respondents who had evaluated, treated, or referred patients with a suspected sports-related concussion in the previous year were eligible for analysis. The vast majority (90%) of providers agreed that the current Massachusetts laws regarding sports concussions are necessary and support the major provisions. Three-quarters (74%) had taken a required clinician training course on concussions. Those who took training courses were significantly more likely to develop individualized treatment plans (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-11.0). Physician training did not improve screening of youth with concussion for depression or substance use. Most physicians (77%) advised patients to refrain from computer, telephone, or television for various time periods. Physicians reported limited communication with schools. Primary care physicians report being comfortable with the diagnosis and management of concussions, and support statewide regulations; however, adherence to mandated training and specific legal requirements varied. Broader and more frequent training may be necessary to align current best evidence with clinical care and state-mandated practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention in nat...... depends on the community’s resource endowments. These endowments are defined not only in terms of users’ current wealth accumulation but also from their expected ability to extract utility from natural resources over time....

  13. Legislators Urge Carbon Emissions Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    Legislators from the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries met on 14-15 February in Washington, D.C., to discuss the future of the global climate and strategies to mitigate temperature increases resulting from global warming. The world faces a ``double challenge-how to reduce damaging carbon emissions while still meeting the energy demand that the world's poor need to escape poverty,'' said World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz during a keynote talk.

  14. Roles of the Team Physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderknecht, James

    2016-07-01

    The roles of the team physician are much more than providing medical coverage at a sport's event. The team physician has numerous administrative and medical responsibilities. The development of an emergency action plan is an essential administrative task as an example. The implementation of the components of this plan requires the team physician to have the necessary medical knowledge and skill. An expertise in returning an athlete to play after an injury or other medical condition is a unique attribute of the trained team physician. The athlete's return to participation needs to start with the athlete's safety and best medical interests but not inappropriately restrict the individual from play. The ability to communicate on numerous levels needs to be a characteristic of the team physician. There are several potential ethical conflicts the team physician needs to control. These conflicts can create unique medicolegal issues. The true emphasis of the team physician is to focus on what is best for the athlete. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Development of the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals in response to the requirements of the EU cosmetics directive and REACH legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Hayden, Patrick; Kubilus, Joseph; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2011-09-01

    The recently implemented 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH legislation have heightened the need for in vitro ocular test methods. To address this need, the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test (EpiOcular-EIT), which utilises the normal (non-transformed) human cell-based EpiOcular tissue model, has been developed. The EpiOcular-EIT prediction model is based on an initial training set of 39 liquid and 21 solid test substances and uses a single exposure period and a single cut-off in tissue viability, as determined by the MTT assay. A chemical is classified as an irritant (GHS Category 1 or 2), if the tissue viability is ≤ 60%, and as a non-irritant (GHS unclassified), if the viability is > 60%. EpiOcular-EIT results for the training set, along with results for an additional 52 substances, which included a range of alcohols, hydrocarbons, amines, esters, and ketones, discriminated between ocular irritants and non-irritants with 98.1% sensitivity, 72.9% specificity, and 84.8% accuracy. To ensure the long-term commercial viability of the assay, EpiOcular tissues produced by using three alternative cell culture inserts were evaluated in the EpiOcular-EIT with 94 chemicals. The assay results obtained with the initial insert and the three alternative inserts were very similar, as judged by correlation coefficients (r²) that ranged from 0.82 to 0.96. The EpiOcular-EIT was pre-validated in 2007/2008, and is currently involved in a formal, multi-laboratory validation study sponsored by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) under the auspices of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The EpiOcular-EIT, together with EpiOcular's long history of reproducibility and proven utility for ultra-mildness testing, make EpiOcular a useful model for addressing current legislation related to animal use in the testing of potential ocular irritants. 2011 FRAME.

  16. 42 CFR 424.521 - Request for payment by physicians, nonphysician practitioners, physician or nonphysician...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT Requirements for Establishing and Maintaining Medicare Billing Privileges § 424.521 Request for payment by physicians, nonphysician practitioners, physician or nonphysician... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for payment by physicians, nonphysician...

  17. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  18. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  19. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows for greater policy change.......This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent...

  20. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how institutional constraints affect legislative activism and how legislative activism in turn affects policy change through an analysis of the European Union's legislative process. The argument revolves around the key role of the European Commission in advancing...... policy change, and emphasises that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from the period 1984–2012, the article shows...... that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposals, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU's legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity...

  1. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  3. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  4. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  5. 38 CFR 13.3 - State legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State legislation. 13.3... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.3 State legislation. Field facility Directors are authorized to... regarding any proposed legislation relating to fiduciary matters will be taken without the approval of the...

  6. 46 CFR 67.132 - Special legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special legislation. 67.132 Section 67.132 Shipping... legislation. (a) Vessels not otherwise entitled to be operated in the coastwise trade or in the fisheries may obtain these privileges as a result of special legislation by the Congress of the United States. (b) In...

  7. 29 CFR 11.14 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legislation. 11.14 Section 11.14 Labor Office of the... Administrative Procedures § 11.14 Legislation. Notwithstanding any provisions of this part, environmental assessments or impact statements prepared in connection with requests for new legislation or modification of...

  8. 50 CFR 80.3 - Assent legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assent legislation. 80.3 Section 80.3... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.3 Assent legislation. A State may participate in the benefits of the Act(s) only after it has passed legislation which assents to the provisions...

  9. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  10. 33 CFR 276.5 - Legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislative history. 276.5 Section 276.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Legislative history. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the reports by the Senate Committee on...

  11. 42 CFR 414.50 - Physician or other supplier billing for diagnostic tests performed or interpreted by a physician...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.50 Physician or other supplier billing for... services through such billing physician or other supplier. The “substantially all” requirement will be satisfied if, at the time the billing physician or other supplier submits a claim for a service furnished by...

  12. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  13. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  14. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...... variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote....

  15. When is a physician network a group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, T J; Zismer, D K

    1998-01-01

    Developing a network of physicians into a high-performing group requires a cultural transformation. The hallmarks, as well as the obstacles, to achieving this are reviewed by two experienced consultants. The requirements of highly successful physician organizations range from sharing a common mission, vision, and values to developing an effective infrastructure to having visionary leadership. Barriers to successful physician groups include a lack of clarity of purpose and goals, lack of quality standards, and an absence of shared learning. A blueprint on how to become a successful physician group is provided.

  16. Automated External Defibrillators in High Schools: Disparities Persist Despite Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Matthew D; Cicero, Mark X; McCabe, Megan E; Chen, Lei

    2017-10-31

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have demonstrated increased survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and their prevalence continues to rise. In 2009, Connecticut passed a legislation requiring all schools to have an AED, barring financial barriers. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if this legislation was associated with an increase in Connecticut high school AEDs and (2) to detect disparities in the availability of AEDs based on school type, student demographics, and school size. A single researcher conducted a scripted telephone survey of all 54 public and 13 private high schools in New Haven County, Connecticut. A response rate of 100% was achieved. Forty-nine percent of high schools had an AED before the legislation, compared with 88% after (P schools had a higher percentage of AEDs than public schools (69% vs 44%; P = 0.1). Postlegislation, the difference is less (92% vs 87%; P = 0.4). Small schools (schools (40% vs 100%; P Schools with a higher percentage of students with disabilities are also less likely to have an AED (P = 0.005), even when controlling for school size (P = 0.03). State legislation requiring schools to have an AED, if financially feasible, was associated with a significant increase in AED presence among New Haven County high schools. Small high schools and those with a higher percentage of students with disabilities remain less likely to have an AED despite legislation.

  17. Interference with the patient-physician relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. “Life is like a boomerang. Our thoughts, deeds and words return to us sooner or later, with astounding accuracy.”-Brant M. Bright, former project leader with IBM A recent sounding board in the New England Journal of Medicine discussed legislative interference with the patient-physician relationship (1. The authors, the executive staff leadership of the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American College of Physicians, and the American College of Surgeons believe that legislators should abide by principles that put patients’ best interests first. Critical to achieving this goal is respect for the importance of scientific evidence, patient autonomy, and the patient-physician relationship. According to the authors, lawmakers are increasingly intruding into the realm of medical practice, often to satisfy political agendas without regard to established, evidence-based guidelines for care. The article goes on to cite examples including: The Florida ….

  18. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  19. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Algeria, Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Executive Decree No. 17-126 of 27 March 2017; 2 - Belgium, Liability and compensation, Law of 7 December 2016 modifying the law of 22 July 1985 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; 3 - Canada, Liability and compensation, Ratification by Canada of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; 4 - France, Radioactive waste management: Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code (Code de l'environnement) and setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; and Order of 23 February 2017 implementing Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; Liability and compensation: Order of 10 November 2016 amending the Appendix to the Order of 19 August 2016, setting the list of reduced liability amount sites pursuant to Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the nuclear energy field; International co-operation: Decree No. 2016-1225 of 16 September 2016 making public the Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the Development of the Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 27 August 2008; 5 - Germany, Transport of radioactive materials: New Versions of Ordinances on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (2017); Radioactive Waste Management: Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2017); 6 - Lithuania, Nuclear security: Cyber security; Nuclear installations: Free release criteria of buildings and site of nuclear

  1. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  2. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation. [WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted.

  3. House Calls: Physicians in the US Congress, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Matthew N

    2015-11-01

    Physicians occupy a prominent position in the US healthcare system, and physicians who serve in Congress may bring a particular perspective, expertise, and influence to health-related legislation. The purpose of this study was to describe physician membership in the US Congress between 2005 and 2015. Congressional biographical records were searched to identify physicians who served in the US Congress from 2005 to 2015. Political and demographic characteristics of physician-members were compared with those of nonphysician-members of Congress and of all US physicians. The numbers of physicians in recent Congresses also were compared with those in each Congress since 1945. A total of 27 physicians representing 17 states have served in Congress since 2005. There has been a significant increase in physician representation since 1987, reaching a high of 20 members (3.7%) in the Congresses immediately following passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Physician-members were mostly men (93%) and more likely than their Congressional colleagues to be Republican (78% vs 53% of all members, P = 0.007) and from the South (63% vs 35% of all members, P = 0.003). Compared with physicians in general, physicians in Congress were more likely to be men (93% vs 70%, P = 0.009) and surgeons (26% vs 11%, P = 0.01). Physician representation in Congress has increased substantially since 2000, potentially reflecting the greater political prominence of healthcare issues, as well as increased interest by and recruitment of physician-candidates. Physicians in Congress differ from their colleagues and from physicians in general in various demographic and political characteristics.

  4. Competition in the Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems: Legislative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    do not significantly change this particular procedure. See Herbert W. Stephens , "The Role of the Legislative Committees in the Apptopriations Process...procurement where the inventory requirement is large enough to warrant the second source? Dr. L.ABIRGE (Dr. Waiter I. LaBerge , Assistant Secretary of the Air

  5. Proposed Legislation for Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauries, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the recommendations and findings in Dr. Barnett Berry's policy brief, the proposed set of legislative enactments presented in this paper offers both monetary incentives and positive working conditions requirements likely to further three goals: (a) cause more effective teachers to choose to work in high-need schools and fields, (b)…

  6. A descriptive analysis of state legislation and policy addressing clinical trials participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Claudia R; Mishra, Shiraz I; Weinberg, Armin D

    2009-05-01

    This report describes state policy and legislation related to clinical trials participation and Maryland's model to enhance clinical trial availability and participation. Descriptive review of state policy and legislation related to coverage for clinical trials costs based on data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) State Cancer Legislative Database, the American Cancer Society, and NCI; additionally, discussion of Maryland's comprehensive multilevel clinical trial model comprising policy initiatives, community engagement, research, education, and infrastructure support. Twenty-four states have mandated clinical trial coverage through specific legislation or agreements since 1994. Covered benefits varied among the states. Besides cost and insurance barriers, there is a need to address important patient, physician and researcher, and structural barriers to clinical trial participation. Maryland provides a comprehensive model to address the multi-faceted clinical trial participation determinants as it tracks state and federal policy, documents trial barriers, and conducts community education.

  7. Charles Lucas and medical legislation in eighteenth century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, S

    2015-09-01

    Charles Lucas, apothecary, physician and MP, was instrumental in facilitating legislation in Ireland in 1765 that established a nationwide network of hospitals in Ireland. This legislation was unique in contemporary Europe, and by the end of the century, there was a hospital in every county in the country. His work as an apothecary provided him with the knowledge to attempt to address the problems in the apothecaries' trade, and his 1741 pamphlet, Pharmacomastix, provided the framework for the 1761 Irish Apothecaries Act, which attempted to address these issues. It was, however, 1791 before nationwide regulation of the Irish apothecaries' trade was implemented following the establishment of the Apothecaries Hall, and this was 24 years before similar regulatory legislation was passed in Britain. Lucas sought enhanced regulation of the apothecaries' trade to provide better quality drugs and medicines for the general public, and he tried to ensure that untrained quacks did not practise as apothecaries, unbeknownst to their patients. He was aware that his proposals would meet with opposition, but he had the courage to pursue these without any element of personal gain. In medical terms, Charles Lucas was man ahead of his time.

  8. Critical Care Nurses' Knowledge of Confidentiality Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Angela B; Kjervik, Diane K

    2016-05-01

    Health care legislation can be difficult to understand and apply in critical situations where patients may not be physically capable of autonomous control of confidential health information. Nurses are often the first to encounter confidential information about patients. To explore critical care nurses' knowledge of federal and North Carolina state legislation regarding confidentiality. This descriptive, qualitative study included 12 critical care nurses who were asked to describe their knowledge of federal confidentiality legislation and specific knowledge of North Carolina's confidentiality legislation. Critical care nurses were knowledgeable about federal confidentiality laws but demonstrated a need for further education about state-specific legislation. Nurses' application of confidentiality legislation demonstrates their knowledge of confidentiality legislation. To continue the trusting relationship that nurses have traditionally held with patients and patients' families, it is imperative for nurses to remain current about confidentiality legislation. Through education both before and after licensure, correct application of legislation can be achieved. Further research can aid in exploring the intersection between health care legislation and ethics. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  9. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  10. Smoke-free legislation: global reach, impact and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruer, L; Tursan d'Espaignet, E; Haw, S; Fernández, E; Mackay, J

    2012-03-01

    Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2005) requires all signatory countries to adopt measures to protect people from tobacco smoke in indoor workplaces, indoor public places, public transport and other public places as appropriate. The aims of this symposium were to review progress across the world, to assess the evidence for the impact of legislation on health, and to identify the continuing challenges in making universal protection a reality. There was agreement that even in countries where strict legislation is enforced, many children continue to be dangerously exposed to parental second-hand smoke in the womb, the home and private cars. The importance of using accurate estimates of the burden of disease caused by second-hand smoke was agreed, in order to present an unassailable case for legislation and enforcement. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physician Fee Schedule Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website is designed to provide information on services covered by the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS). It provides more than 10,000 physician services,...

  12. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  13. Potential Effects of Health Care Policy Decisions on Physician Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Christopher; Goodrich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many regions in America are experiencing downward trends in the number of practicing physicians and the number of available physician hours, resulting in a worrisome decrease in the availability of health care services. Recent changes in American health care legislation may induce a rapid change in the demand for health care services, which in turn will result in a new supply-demand equilibrium . In this paper we develop a system dynamics model linking physician availability to health care demand and profitability. We use this model to explore scenarios based on different initial conditions and describe possible outcomes for a range of different policy decisions.

  14. Research on the Legislation of Chinese Space Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongwen

    2002-01-01

    1 Need and necessity for the legislation of Chinese space activities --Complying with UN treaties and principles on outer space --Adapting to the requirements of market economy --Promoting the further development of Chinese space activities --Developing international space cooperation 2 Research method for legislation of Chinese space activities The research method is ROCCIPI. This method was introduced into China with the project "Legislation Supports Economy Reform" supported by the UN Office of Development Planning - By analyzing the correlations among the seven factors: Rule, Opportunity, Capacity, Communication, Interest, Process and Ideology, the optimal legal measures can be found . Such analysis and research works on the master law of Chinese space activities have been made in the paper. 3 Research of international treaties &principles on outer space, and of national space laws of other countries. Studies have been made in this paper on many aspects of international outer space laws, such as framework, development stage, current characteristics, new problems will be faced with in new century, and development tendency in the future, etc. Based on the investigation and study of national space laws of other countries, analyses and researches on national space law have been made in the paper from some aspects, such as legislative purpose, legislative aim, legislative form, legislative content and etc, and some enlightenments, which can be used for reference in the legislation of Chinese Space Laws, are found. 4 Framework of Chinese Space Laws The jurisdiction of Chinese Space Laws lies in three areas: space technology - space applications and space science. Chinese Space Laws are divided into 3 levels: Master law, Administration Regulations of the State Council of the P.R.C, Rules of governmental sectors. 5 Conclusions and Suggestions --The legislation of Chinese Space Activities should be strengthened --More attentions should be paid to the research work in

  15. Physician heal thyself

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to overweight or obese physicians, normal‑weight physicians were significantly more likely to discuss weight loss with their obese patients, according to a study among. 500 primary care physicians, undertaken by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.[4]. A recent, highly accessed ...

  16. The Status and Role of Legislation In South Africa as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second, it is shown that and how statutes have become (subsidiary) allies to the Constitution and have been standing the realisation of constitutional values in good stead. Finally, it is argued that the constitutional requirement of popular participation in legislative deliberation has also added to the esteem for legislation in ...

  17. Overview of physician-hospital ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Kenneth H; Allyn, Thomas R; Rosenfield, Robert H; Schwartz, Richard

    2005-01-01

    An ongoing environment of reimbursement lagging behind escalating expenses has led physicians to explore new sources of revenue. The goal of physician-hospital ventures is to create a valuable entity that benefits patients, physicians, and the hospital. Physicians may choose to invest in healthcare facilities to improve patient care and obtain increased control over daily operations. If so, they should seek counsel to avoid violating Stark laws and anti-kickback laws. Modalities for investing in physician-hospital ventures are joint equity (stock) ventures, participating bond transactions (PBTs), and contractual integration, a new method to align the goals of specialists and hospital management without using joint equity ventures. Physicians and management should invest time in developing a shared vision of the future before beginning contract negotiations. Successful partnering requires transparency and stepwise building of trust. The greatest gain in joint ventures arises when both sides become active owners, rather than passive investors.

  18. Physician buy-in for EMRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackanicz, Lori; Kerr, Richard; Levick, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Implementing an EMR in an ambulatory practice requires intense workflow analysis, introduction of new technologies and significant cultural change for the physicians and physician champion. This paper will relate the experience at Lehigh Valley Health Network in the implementation of an ambulatory EMR and with the physician champions that were selected to assist the effort. The choice of a physician champion involves political considerations, variation in leadership and communication styles, and a cornucopia of personalities. Physician leadership has been shown to be a critical success factor for any successful technology implementation. An effective physician champion can help develop and promote a clear vision of an improved future, enlist the support of the physicians and staff, drive the process changes needs and manage the cultural change required. The experience with various types of physician champions will be discussed, including, the "reluctant leader", the "techie leader", the "whiny leader", and the "mature leader". Experiences with each type have resulted in a valuable, "lessons learned" summary. LVHN is a tertiary academic community medical center consisting of 950 beds and over 450 employed physicians. LVHN has been named to the Health and Hospital Network's 100 Top Wired and 25 Most Wireless Hospitals.

  19. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Argentina: Organisation and structure; 2 - France: Radioactive waste management (Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016 specifying the procedures for creating a reversible deep geological repository for long-lived medium and high-level radioactive waste), Liability and compensation (Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; Ministerial Order of 19 August 2016 listing the sites benefiting from a reduced amount of liability pursuant to decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy), Nuclear facilities (Decree No. 2016-846 of 28 June 2016 related to the modification, final shutdown and decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, and to subcontracting); 3 - Germany: Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation (Amendments to the Foreign Trade Act and the Foreign Trade Ordinance (2015)), Radioactive waste management (Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management (2016); Final report of the Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy; Draft Bill of an Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2016)); 4 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning), Nuclear security (Physical security of sources of ionising radiation), Radioactive waste management, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Enforcement measures); 5 - Luxembourg: Radioactive waste management (Agreement between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Belgium on the Management and Final Disposal of the Radioactive Waste of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the Territory of the Kingdom of Belgium, signed on 4 July 2016); 6

  1. [Reform of emergency physician training in Austria : Finally up to date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, H; Baubin, M; Kreutziger, J; Frank, G; Prause, G

    2018-02-01

    During the last 20 years Austrian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) have significantly improved. The structure and organization of Austrian EMS comply with European standards but training requirements for prehospital EMS physicians are insufficient when compared with other countries. Although some EMS systems follow the German or Swiss postgraduate training concepts, the legal requirements in Austria defining the scope of mandatory training for physicians in the prehospital setting are only minimal. Thus, besides board certification as a general practitioner or specialist of any discipline, the only formal requirement is a 1-week theoretical course comprising some manikin simulations. Experience in anesthesia or intensive care medicine is still not mandatory. The Austrian Society of Anesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care Medicine (ÖGARI) drafted a reform paper in 2009, which was adapted by the Austrian Chamber of Physicians, section of emergency medicine, and subsequently presented to the Austrian Ministry of Health. Due to the slowness of the legislation process, the relevant § 40 of the Austrian Physician 's Act is still unchanged. In the meantime, Austrian specialist training regulations were restructured in 2015 with significant consequences. Due to changes in the residency programs, board certification and subsequent full working permit becomes more difficult to obtain, thus further aggravating the shortage of emergency physicians in Austria. In order to counteract the threatening shortage of prehospital EMS physicians, the ÖGARI section of emergency medicine was requested by the Ministry of Health to develop a reasonable model for how physicians could be qualified and subsequently employed in EMS prior to full board certification. Presently, the Austrian Ministry of Health, the Chamber of Physicians and medical societies are in discussion on whether this approach might fit into the legal framework. This manuscript details the

  2. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  3. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  4. Development of Food Legislation Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of systems are presented in the perspective of the development of food legislation to give an impression of the features found in food law and the reasons they have taken certain forms. Legislation on food is not only widely distributed in time but also in space. The assurance of safe food

  5. Special Education Legislation and Policy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Shirley R.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the historical context in which Canadian legislation and policy for children with special needs has evolved. The potential for the rights of students with special needs in light of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is outlined. The role of the Federal and Provincial governments in legislation and policy vis-à-vis…

  6. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  7. 28 CFR 61.7 - Legislative proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the environment, that subunit shall prepare a legislative environmental impact statement in... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.7 Legislative proposals. (a) Each subunit of the... to Congress which may have an effect on the environment shall, in the early stages of development of...

  8. EU's new pharmacovigilance legislation: considerations for biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Begoña; Zuñiga, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Biosimilars are biological medicines, the active substances of which are highly similar to those of biologics that have already been authorized. As for any other medicine, the applicant of the biosimilar marketing authorization must submit a risk-management plan (RMP)/pharmacovigilance plan. The pharmacovigilance plan should take into account risks identified during product development, the potential risks and how those risks will be addressed after authorization of the product.Recently, new European Pharmacovigilance legislation has been implemented, ensuring proper risk management through the recording of suspected adverse drug reactions and data collection from all stakeholders. The new regulation entails a reduction of the administrative burden on companies and regulatory agencies, as obligations of the responsible parties are clearly established and duplication of effort avoided.This article analyzes the new European Pharmacovigilance System requirements, with special focus on those medicines requiring additional monitoring, such as biosimilars, which are priorities for pharmacovigilance. Further, it provides the new obligations to marketing authorization holders, such as the continuous benefit-risk assessment.

  9. Radiological risk assessment of isotope laboratories according to the requirements of the radiation protection ordinance and the protective labour legislation; Beurteilung des radiologischen Risikos von Isotopenlaboratorien nach den Vorgaben der Strahlenschutzverordnung und den Richtlinien fuer Arbeitssicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerm, R.P. [SafPro AG, Ausbildung und Beratung in Strahlenschutz, Basel (Switzerland); Kuster, M. [Novartis International AG, Corporate Health, Safety and Environment, Basel (Switzerland); Traub, K. [Novartis Pharma AG, Zentralstelle fuer Strahlenschutz, Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    According to the Swiss Radiation Safety Ordinance the supervising authority may require a safety report from the operator of a radioactive laboratory (Art.95) and establish the methodology of the risk analysis. Isotope laboratories of the chemical industry are supervised by Swiss accident insurance agency (SUVA). In that respect SUVA safeguards both radiation protection issues and general protection of the workers and established guide lines in order to assess conventional risks in industrial premises. In these conventional analysis the working process is analysed according to its possible detriment (death, severe invalidity, slight invalidity, injury with absence, injury without absence) and the probability of occurrence (frequent, seldom, rare, improbable, virtually impossible). According to this the risks are categorised in a matrix as 'high', 'medium' and 'low'. SUVA requested such a risk analysis for two isotope laboratories of B type in Basel in which on the one hand the hazard to the workers on the other hand to the public should be analysed and radiologically assessed. It was proposed to use a methodology established in workers safety and the insurance section. This required a comparison of risks of radiation doses in mSv to the consequences of conventional working accidents (death, invalidity) and the risk perception of the public and politicians. In this paper this risk matrix derived in discussions among the supervising body, the company management, the laboratory head and workers is described. In the opinion of the authors such a comparison between radiological and conventional risks has not been performed up to now and the results obtained here are open to discussion. (orig.) [German] Gemaess schweizerischer Strahlenschutzverordnung kann die Aufsichtsbehoerde vom Inhaber einer Bewilligung zum Umgang mit radioaktiven Stoffen einen Sicherheitsbericht verlangen (Art. 95) und die Methodik der Stoerfallanalyse festlegen (Art

  10. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  11. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  12. Physicians' Perspectives Regarding Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Use Within the Department of Veterans Affairs: a Multi-State Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Thomas R; Bixler, Felicia R; Zickmund, Susan L; Roman, KatieLynn M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Hale, Jennifer A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Hausmann, Leslie R M; Thorpe, Joshua M; Suda, Katie J; Stroupe, Kevin T; Gordon, Adam J; Good, Chester B; Fine, Michael J; Gellad, Walid F

    2018-03-08

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has implemented robust strategies to monitor prescription opioid dispensing, but these strategies have not accounted for opioids prescribed by non-VA providers. State-based prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are a potential tool to identify VA patients' receipt of opioids from non-VA prescribers, and recent legislation requires their use within VA. To evaluate VA physicians' perspectives and experiences regarding use of PDMPs to monitor Veterans' receipt of opioids from non-VA prescribers. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Forty-two VA primary care physicians who prescribed opioids to 15 or more Veterans in 2015. We sampled physicians from two states with PDMPs (Massachusetts and Illinois) and one without prescriber access to a PDMP at the time of the interviews (Pennsylvania). From February to August 2016, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews that addressed the following topics regarding PDMPs: overall experiences, barriers to optimal use, and facilitators to improve use. VA physicians broadly supported use of PDMPs or desired access to one, while exhibiting varying patterns of PDMP use dictated by state laws and their clinical judgment. Physicians noted administrative burdens and incomplete or unavailable prescribing data as key barriers to PDMP use. To facilitate use, physicians endorsed (1) linking PDMPs with the VA electronic health record, (2) using templated notes to document PDMP use, and (3) delegating routine PDMP queries to ancillary staff. Despite the time and administrative burdens associated with their use, VA physicians in our study broadly supported PDMPs. The application of our findings to ongoing PDMP implementation efforts may strengthen PDMP use both within and outside VA and improve the safe prescribing of opioids.

  13. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation -the UK approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The case for flexibility in the formulation of radiation protection legislation and that for precise invariable requirements which are applicable to all users of ionising radiations are presented. It is asserted that greater participation on the part of persons affected in the shaping of legislation brings with it a commitment to flexibility if consensus is to be achieved. The nature of the participative and consultative processes in the UK is described. The means by which flexibility will be inbuilt into future UK legislation are discussed, taking as examples, three particular areas: a) Notification of use of ionising radiations, where flexibility needs to be introduced to take care of improved knowledge of potential risk, the avoidance of bureaucratic procedures, and the wide variation in practice from one work activity to another; b) The definition of controlled areas, where flexibility is needed to cope with the wide range of potential use situations, yet if controlled areas are to be the route to defining Category A workers, where that flexibility must be restrained to ensure proper categorysation and effective enforcement; c) The criteria for the need to appoint and for the selection of radiation protection advisers where flexibility must be invoked to ensure that any particular task is matched by the quality of the radiation protection adviser concerned. It is concluded that the proposed UK legislation will achieve flexibility where this is appropriate and cost-effective and on the other hand demand adherence to strictly expressed levels of exposure where that is appropriate. (author)

  14. Legislative advocacy is key to addressing teen driving deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, J S

    2006-06-01

    The increased crash risk of young, novice drivers, especially in their teenage years, has been a growing concern at both the state and federal levels. Teenage drivers are involved in fatal crashes at more than double the rate of the rest of the population per 100 000 licensed drivers. The best way of stemming these losses is to enact laws adopting graduated licensure systems that restrict young, novice drivers to conditions that reduce crash risk exposure when they first operate motor vehicles and to educate the public on the need for this legislation. Legislated teenage driving restrictions involve night-time vehicle driving restrictions, prohibitions on other teenage passengers, and the required presence of supervising adults. These restrictions are relaxed as teenage drivers successfully progress through initial and intermediate stages of graduated licensure before being granted unrestricted driver licenses. Unfortunately, many states have incomplete graduated licensing systems that need further legislative action to raise them to the desirable three-stage system that has been shown repeatedly to produce the greatest safety benefits. These state efforts should be buttressed by federal legislation that has proved to be crucial in allied driver behavioral concerns. Because reducing crash risk involves other strategies, stringent enforcement of primary seat belt laws as well as improved motor vehicle crash avoidance capabilities and crashworthiness must accompany efforts to reduce young driver crash risk.

  15. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  16. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  17. The Interagency Breakdown: Why We Need Legislative Reform to Coordinate Execution of the National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borkowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    To meet the national security demands of the 21st century, the U.S. Government's interagency structure and process require legislative reform equivalent to an interagency Goldwater-Nichols Act. The U.S...

  18. Transfer pricing as tax avoidance under different legislative schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Carolin Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates transfer pricing as tax avoidance before and after reforms of anti-avoidance legislation. The reforms introduced and tightened obligatory documentation requirements for transfer prices to enforce that multinational enterprises (MNEs) set internal transfer prices at an arm’s-length. Linking data from the Microdatabase Statistics on International Trade in Services that comprehends prices of MNEs’ international service transactions to the Microdatabase Direct Investment, ...

  19. Harmonisation of Slovenian nuclear legislation with EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, M.

    1999-01-01

    Slovenia as a member of the first group of candidates countries which started the accession negotiations with the European Union. The extensive work started in 1998 to align the domestic legislation with the legislation of the European Union. The activities related to the accession of Slovenia to EU in the area of nuclear legislation are carried out in different national working groups. The main part of activities is in working groups: energy and environment, but there are some topics, which are covered in other groups, like control of dual-use materials in the group of External Relations, research in reactor physics, nuclear engineering and fusion in the group Science and Technology

  20. Requirements for Logical Models for Value-Added Tax Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are ubiquitous in commercial enterprises of all sizes and invariably need to account for the notion of value-added tax (VAT). The legal and technical difficulties in handling VAT are exacerbated by spanning a broad and chaotic spectrum of intricate country...... of the Danish VAT law in Web Ontology Language (OWL) and in Con¿git Product Modeling Language (CPML)....

  1. 7 CFR 282.1 - Legislative authority and notice requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 282.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION, RESEARCH, AND... 17 of the Act authorizes the Secretary to conduct demonstration, research, and evaluation projects...

  2. requirement of geographical spread in elections into Legislative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    boycotted by the appellant in protest. Nevertheless, the commission carried on with the election and thereafter declared the 1st respondent as elected/returned. The Court of Appeal sitting over the decision of the elections petition tribunal held that it was wrong of the Commission to have conducted elections in the 5 wards of ...

  3. Canadian parents' attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation in provinces with and without legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Degroot, J; Macpherson, A; Fuselli, P; Macarthur, C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to survey Canadian parents on their attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation and to compare responses from parents living in provinces with and without legislation. A national survey of 1002 parents of children aged under 18 years was conducted. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses from the surveyed parents in the different jurisdictions. Responses from parents living in provinces with legislation (n = 640) and without legislation (n = 362) were as follows: concern for injury (63% vs. 68%, nonsignificant [NS]); believe helmets are effective (98% vs. 98%, NS); child always wears a helmet (74% vs. 69%, NS); support legislation for children (95% vs. 83%, p legislation for all ages (85% vs. 75%, p legislation decreases the amount of time their child bicycles (5% vs. 8%, NS). Parents are highly supportive of bicycle helmet legislation in Canada. They believe that bicycle helmets are effective and that legislation does not decrease the amount of time a child spends bicycling. There was also a high level of support for legislation across all ages, and for police enforcement.

  4. Towards Uniformity of Radiation Protection Legislation in a Multi-jurisdictional country- the Australian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Australia is a federation of nine jurisdictions, each with independent radiation protection legislation. The existing legislative non-uniformity across the jurisdictions has constituted an impediment for operators who must comply with differing legislative requirements in different jurisdictions. To address this issue, a National Competition Policy Review of Radiation Protection Legislation took place in 2000/2001. It has produced 19 Recommendations, which addressed objectives of the legislation, the need to regulate, alternative regulatory approaches, national uniformity, licensing and registration, strict and prescriptive standards, advertising and promotional activities, compliance costs and cost recovery issues. The Review has recommended that jurisdictions should retain the regulatory approach to achieve radiation protection objectives rather than leave them to be decided by market forces. But the approach should be performance-based, i.e. outcome-focused rather than prescriptive. An Implementation Plan of the Recommendations has been created which, by the end of 2004, will produce the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The Directory, which will become a consolidated repository of radiation protection standards, guidelines, codes of practice and administrative principles will provide a uniform national framework for radiation protection legislation in Australia. It will provide guidance for the jurisdictions redrawing their legislations. Because of its central role in shaping future legislation, the Directory will contain only those provisions, which have passed a formal process (process for issue resolution) concluded by an approval by the Australian Health Ministers Conference. Such process will also expedite the uniform adoption nationwide of legislative trends emerging from international radiation protection recommendations and standards. This Australian model might be a viable example for other multi-jurisdictional countries to consider

  5. Negotiation for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Micah J; DeCherney, Alan H

    2013-05-01

    Physicians are involved in negotiations on a daily basis. Interactions with patients, support staff, nurses, fellow physicians, administrators, lawyers, and third parties all can occur within the context of negotiation. This article reviews the basic principles of negotiation and negotiation styles, models, and practical tools. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  11. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  19. [New Croatian legislation on tissue banking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busić, Mirela

    2007-12-01

    regarding quality and safety for procurement, testing, processing and distribution of human tissues and cells for therapeutic purposes according to the required standards; Ordinance on Storing Personal Data of Donors and Recipients of Human Body Parts (OG 141/05), Ordinance on Cooperation with Related Foreign and International Organisations for the Purpose of Exchanging Organs and Human Tissues for Transplantation (OG 141/05), Ordinance on Measures to Ensure Safety and Quality of Human Body Parts for Medical Use COG 143/05), Ordinance on Distribution Principles of Unrelated Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cells and the Register of Potential Bone Marrow Donors COG 151/05), Ordinance on Distribution Criteria of Human Body Parts and Compilation of a National Waiting List (OG 152/05), Ordinance on the Method of Storage and Transportation of Human Body Parts Intended for Transplantation COG 152/05), Ordinance on Keeping Medical Documentation on Performed Removals and Transplants of Human Body Parts COG 152/05), Ordinance on Notification Procedures of the Death of Eligible Human Body Part Donors for Therapeutic Purposes (OG 152/05), Ordinance on the Work of Tissue Banks with and Supervision over Health Care Institutes or Divisions of Health Care Institutes COG 1/06), Ordinance on Method, Procedure and Medical Criteria for Death Determination of Body Part Donors for Transplants COG 3/06), and Ordinance on the Work of Coordinators in the Procedure of Removal and Transplantation of Human Body Parts for Therapeutic Purposes COG 51/06). The Croatian legislation is greatly consistent with the legislation of the European Union regarding this field. In the above mentioned law and decrees, Croatia has a legal foundation for regulating this field in compliance with EU standards.

  20. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  1. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  2. State legislators' beliefs about legislation that restricts youth access to tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nell H; Goldstein, Adam O; Flynn, Brian S; Cohen, E Joanna E; Bauman, Karl E; Solomon, Laura J; Munger, Michael C; Dana, Greg S; McMorris, Laura E

    2003-04-01

    Better understanding of the cognitive framework for decision making among legislators is important for advocacy of health-promoting legislation. In 1994, the authors surveyed state legislators from North Carolina, Texas, and Vermont concerning their beliefs and intentions related to voting for a hypothetical measure to enforce legislation preventing the sale of tobacco to minors, using scales based on the theory of planned behavior. Attitude (importance), subjective norm (whether most people important to you would say you should or should not vote for the law), perceived behavioral control (ability to cast one's vote for the law), and home state were independently and significantly related to intention to vote for the law's enforcement. The results, including descriptive data concerning individual beliefs, suggest specific public health strategies to increase legislative support for passing legislation to restrict youth tobacco sales and, more generally, a framework for studying policy making and advocacy.

  3. Shared consultant physician posts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1\\/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14\\/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17\\/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1\\/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1\\/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (p<0.001) patients were seen per clinic. Length of stay was shortened by 2.49 days (p<0.001). A saving of 69,212 was made due to decreased locum requirements. We present data suggesting structured shared consultancy posts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  4. Seminar on present and future Spanish Legislation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Proceedings of the Seminar contain the papers presented and the conclusions of each Session. The topics cover Spanish nuclear legislation including the licensing of nuclear power plants and control, analysed in the context of legislation in other fields and the new requirements since Spain joined the European Communities. Other papers deal with the origin and evolution of Spanish nuclear law, the competent international organizations and the nuclear third party liability regime set in place by the international conventions in that field. Also discussed are the national regulations on radioactive waste management and the competent authorities. Finally, a revision of the Spanish Nuclear Energy Act is considered necessary in the light of developments since its inception [fr

  5. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  6. Considerations Regarding the Impact of Legislative Inflation on Economic Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of legislative inflation upon the activities of the commercial agents.  A clear and transparent legal framework is required in order for the economic system to be efficient and to grow. Unfortunately, the large amount of norms that come into force monthly, if not weekly and regulate the activities of the moral persons, and in particular, the activities of the economic agents determine a high grade of informational entropy at a systemic level. This study tackles the possibility of improving the legal communication of norms by reducing legislative inflation. Firstly, the communication stream is analysed, and then the possibilities for improving such communication are brought forward.

  7. Liver transplantation for nontransplant physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany AbdelMaqsod Sholkamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the nontransplant physicians who manage hepatic patients (internists and hepatologists keep asking about liver transplantation. The purpose of this article is to highlight important topics a nontransplant colleague may require in his practice. There are many topics in this respect; however, three most important topics need to be highlighted; those are; the time of referral to transplantation, the indications and contraindications and the metabolic issues regarding a transplanted patient. Still, there are no clear guidelines for the management of many of the metabolic issues regarding liver transplanted patients. And this why, collaborative efforts of transplant and nontransplant physicians are needed to conduct multicenter, long term randomized controlled trials and proper follow up programs.

  8. Can visual arts training improve physician performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joel T; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts - a subset of medical humanities - into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation.

  9. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  10. Progress in Slovak nuclear legislation in 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the legislative area, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic focused on 3 basic topics. First, the Slovak Atomic Act (Act No. 541/2004 on peaceful use of nuclear energy) was amended to include provisions of Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom. The key changes concerned the definition of a nuclear installation, introduction of a definition of safety culture, detailed specification of administrative, technical, organisational and financial requirements for licensees aimed to ensure nuclear safety quality management. Second, preparatory work was done on 2 new regulations: regulation on the requirements for nuclear safety and regulation on quality management. Third, regulations encompassing changes in the Atomic Act were prepared. (orig.)

  11. Unintended consequences of health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, James H

    2011-10-01

    Unintended consequences of health care legislation threaten the financial and social well-being of the United States. Examples of major legislation resulting in unintended and unforeseen consequences include the Social Security Amendments Acts of 1989 and 1993 (the Stark laws), the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, and the Social Security Amendments Act of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid). Each of these has had unintended financial and social outcomes. Spending for Medicare and Medicaid now equals an unsustainable 23% of the federal budget. Major reasons for unintended consequences include failure to appreciate the complexity of the issues, the open-ended nature of medical advances with attendant increases in costs, the inducement of change in behaviors in response to legislation, and the moral hazard of people spending other people's money. Actions that should be considered to avoid unintended consequences include more involvement of health professionals in the design of legislation, the inclusion of triggers to target review of legislatively defined programs, and the setting of time limits for sun-setting legislation. The ACR has played an important advocacy role and should continue to offer input to legislators, federal policymakers, and other stakeholders. Many opportunities exist to address the current financial situation by reducing the amount of unnecessary care delivered. Both major US political parties need to find the political will to compromise to chart the way forward. Some level of sacrifice is likely to be necessary from patients and providers and other stakeholders. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  13. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Stolz

    Full Text Available Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia.A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971. Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1 abstract description of euthanasia, (2 abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3 the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4 the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses.Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69% and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%. A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate.Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  14. [The situation of physician in the state prison--constitutional state guarantees of individual rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, R

    2000-04-01

    In Germany, 220,000 persons are imprisoned yearly. Their health care is provided by physicians supported by medical teams in 9 prison hospitals. There is a total of 395 physicians mainly practicing in general medicine, internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry. Other medical disciplines are represented by external physicians that are paid by fees. It is common to consult external physicians which can be explained by the legislation ruling the penal system. The prison administration has to provide a health care of equal quality as outside of prison. A pathology typical in prison, the unproportional representation of certain social groups (poor people, foreigners) and diseases (mental diseases, drug abuse, tbc, hepatitis, HIV) request an expanded profile of expertise from the physician. Except the task of health care, the physician is included in executive functions. Thus, the physician is exposed to control by non-medical institutions.

  15. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  16. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  18. Physician Assistant profession (PA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020. The first PA students were mostly military medics. They were able to expand on the knowledge ... PA. Most states allow physician supervision by telephone communication with periodic site visits. Supervising doctors and PAs ...

  19. Hitler's Jewish Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2014-07-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  20. Physician Referral Patterns

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The physician referral data was initially provided as a response to a Freedom of Information (FOIA) request. These files represent data from 2009 through June 2013...

  1. Physician Compare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is the official dataset associated with the Medicare.gov Physician Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). These data...

  2. Physician Shared Patient Patterns

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The physician referral data linked below was provided as a response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. These files represent the number of encounters a...

  3. Turkish nuclear legislation: Developments for a nuclear newcomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Erinc; Schneider, Horst

    2013-01-01

    The scope of legal investigation in this article focuses on nuclear legislation with regard to siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of NPPs, taking into account the main issues of nuclear safety, security, safeguards, radiological protection and nuclear third party liability. The state of existing legislation and, furthermore, of drafts published or announced related to substantive regulations and organisational aspects are at the centre of this article. International conventions and agreements, national legislation consisting of the constitution, laws, decrees and regulations as binding norms and otherwise, directives and non-binding guides provide the legal structure for nuclear activities. The evaluation of Turkish nuclear legislation with regard to the accomplishment of the obligations under, in particular, the CNS and Euratom directives, leads finally to the perspective on the specific issues that should be addressed in the regulation of nuclear energy for Turkey's future energy needs and to ensure conformity with international standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). A brief discussion of Turkish energy legislation and institutional structure is necessary, because NPPs also need a licence for electricity production under Turkey's energy legislation. The Turkish government is aiming for greater privatisation in the energy sector. The current electricity market is governed, on the one hand, by the Electricity Market Law and Electricity Market License Regulation, which requires NPPs to have an electricity production licence and, on the other hand, by specific institutions. In terms of the Electricity Market Law, private legal entities who wish to obtain an electricity generation licence must 'be established as incorporated or limited liability companies in accordance with the provisions of the Turkish Commercial Law'. The relevant institutions in Turkey's energy sector include: the Energy

  4. Psychotropic Drugs in Children: A Guide for the Family Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Benjamin

    1989-01-01

    Pediatric psychopharmacology, an emerging field, is a field fraught with potential abuses, about which consumer groups are concerned. These concerns have initiated legislation in some jurisdictions of Canada. Abuse is most likely to occur in the absence of other professional services, such as psychology, education, or social services. After careful assessment, diagnosis, and consultation, if necessary, the family physician can prescribe these medications responsibly, sharing the decision-maki...

  5. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  6. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  7. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  8. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  9. Smoke-free legislation and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-11-17

    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world's population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike.

  10. Seatbelt use, attitudes, and changes in legislation: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Fuller, Ray; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina; Davou, Bettina; Justo, Joao

    2002-11-01

    The use of seat belts is among the most effective methods of reducing injury in motor vehicle crashes. We examined trends in seat belt use by university students from 13 European countries between 1990 and 2000, in relation to changes in legislation, attitudes, and hazardous driver behaviors. Data were collected via an anonymous standardized questionnaire from university students in Belgium, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Spain. There were 10,576 respondents in 1990, and 10,294 in 2000. Data were also collected from 1672 students in the United States in 2000. Analyses were performed in early 2002. Reported seat belt use increased from 63% to 73% in male students, and from 66% to 77% in female students over the decade. There were marked increases in seat belt use in countries with changes in legislation or enforcement from 1990 to 2000, with 24% to 64% more respondents reporting seat belt use in 2000. The prevalence of use and noted changes during this period correlated with findings from national surveys (r= 0.91). Attitudes to seat belt use were associated with behavior both within and between countries. Nonuse of seat belts was positively related to alcohol-impaired driving and failure to obey speed limits. Legislation has a substantial impact on the use of vehicle seat belts, but additional gains require efforts to change attitudes within the university student population.

  11. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  12. BANK DEPOSIT CONTRACT: CURRENT STATUS OF LEGISLATION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kozhevnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.734The relevance of the study is determined by the debates around legal rules devoted to the bank deposit contract, as well as an extensive judicial practice, revealing the problems of existing legislation. Purpose: to systematize the main problems of enforcement related to the bank deposit contract and to suggest ways of improving the current legislation. Meth-ods: general and special scientific methods (systemic, comparative, formal-logical and other are used. Results: on the basis of the comparative experience of Belarus, Kazakhstan and other foreign countries, analysis of judicial practice proposals to improve existing legislation are presented (including types of contract, investigation of deposits, bail-in.The authors conclude, it is necessary to supplement Chapter 44 of Russian Civil Code by rules on types of bank deposit agreement, establish the order of registration of the deposit and deposited funds with the remote technology, by list of requirements as to the form of deposit and savings certificates, by details and peculiarities of treatment, as well as consolidate the definition of "interest capitalization" and establish the list of cases of restriction of the rights of depositors for disposal of deposits. Procedural rules on the investigation of the deposits, determining the jurisdiction of cases on the protection of investors, are also should be improved.

  13. Impact of the legislation on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Douglas Lee points out that the question of nuclear waste will not go away. Nuclear waste is with us and consumers should support legislation to deal with the problem once and for all. The spent fuel is growing, and twenty-nine nuclear plants will face onsite storage problems in this decade. If these plants shut down, consumers will face higher electric generating costs if a switch to a more expensive fuel is necssary, or if the utilities are forced to purchase power of the grid. The cost of waste disposal under this proposed legislation will amount to about 75 cents per month for those electric customers serviced by nuclear plants

  14. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  15. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The benefists of outdoor recreation and the need for recreation inventories and monitoring are described in various policy and legislation documents at the European level. The objective of this paper is to analyse how these recreational aspects are reflected at the national level in core forest...... indicates that a consistent forest recreation monitoring system, linked to sustainable forest management, as describes for example in the Helsinki process, should be better transferred into national policuy and legislation. Compareable data across Europe could then provide a sound base for making decisions...

  16. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    European Union research has made great strides in understanding the dynamics of the European Union decision-making process. In contrast to this progress, the dynamics unfolding after the enactment of a European Union secondary legislative act has largely been ignored. Some of these acts remain...... revisions of European Union legislative acts are more likely to occur. Based on an analysis of the revision histories of 158 major European Union acts in the time period between 1958 and 2003, we find significant support for this hypothesis....

  17. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  18. [Is there a physician on board?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H T

    1998-11-01

    Physicians responding to emergency calls on board airliners in intercontinental traffic may not be aware of certain legal complications which may arise. For instance, the medical practitioner may hold a license valid in one country, the air carrier may be registered in another, and the patient may be a third state national. Legislation varies between nations, as do court decisions. Physicians may be aware neither of the laws and regulations which apply nor the subtle differences between terms and interpretations used in formal language. This article contains a scenario description from a commercial air liner in intercontinental transit carrying a patient unknown to the physician who responds to a call for medical assistance. The main considerations to be made, the more likely diagnoses and various strategies for immediate interventions are reviewed. Likewise, appraisal and use of medical equipment on board are discussed, as are issues concerning responsibility and liability when equipment is used in supposedly "trained hands". Main themes in the current international medico-legal debate are considered with emphasis on the "Good Samaritan Principle", the responsibility of commercial air carriers, and telemedicine with insurance against law suits. The article concludes with some practical advice to the travelling medical community.

  19. New psychoactive substances legislation in Ireland - Perspectives from academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of 'legal highs' or 'new psychoactive substances' (NPS) on the Irish market is reflective of their appearance in many countries, with some notable exceptions. The official response to the situation is examined here by looking at Irish controlled drugs legislation and drug enforcement policies as enacted in recent years and their effects on academic research on NPS. The philosophy and practice of outright bans of scheduled substances has not been effective in delivering the stated aims of illicit drug control, namely harm reduction. With these legislative changes, we have witnessed the removal of the 'legitimate' sale and open marketing of a number of NPS to the general public in commercial retail premises. However, as legislation was enacted, suppliers and vendors rapidly changed the contents of their legal high products from now controlled to non-controlled substances. We have found that it is administratively challenging to perform scientific research on controlled substances at academic institutions. It is desirable to gather analytical, pharmacological, and toxicological data on these substances as they emerge on the market but due to the restrictive nature of licensing requirements, once a substance or generic class of substances is controlled, this becomes more difficult. The facts that any quantity of substance, no matter how small, is controlled, the nomenclature used to describe compounds is not consistent within the enacted legislation and the use of catch-all classes of compounds with the intention of controlling many similar molecular structures, all create problematic issues for academic researchers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  1. Physicians and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, B H; Wright, R A; Raho, L E

    1985-01-01

    In this study, although the majority of responding physicians seemed to perceive advertising as not having an impact on the medical marketplace, the results concerning the medical profession appear quite different. In addition to soundly rejecting advertising as a communication mode in their profession, the physicians felt strongly that it would damage the profession's public image, plus promote fraud and hucksterism. A majority of respondents even went so far as to state that advertising would cause the quality of care to deteriorate. A majority also felt that advertising is ethically wrong for physicians. From these results, it seems that these physicians were not as concerned about the evils of advertising, per se, as the manner in which advertising would be applied by their colleagues to undermine the profession. It is very clear from the factor analysis that the major dimension of these physicians' attitudes toward advertising pertained to concern for the image of the profession, although economic and media communications aspects were of some importance. The question items loading most heavily on the IMAGE factor reflect perceptions that advertising will impact on the quality of care, promote fraud and hucksterism, convey a negative public image, etc. Thus, the primary focus of the physicians' negative attitudes does not seem to be toward the economic consequences, nor toward advertising as a societal entity. But, the major element for negativity is the way in which advertising would be applied by medical practitioners. More specifically, physicians believed that it would be applied in an unprofessional, unethical manner. Results of the factor analysis imply that the negativity focused upon advertising is really directed toward uncertainty pertaining to the ethics of medical practitioners and the way in which these ethics would be projected through media and other communications vehicles.

  2. Legislation on university technology transfer and research management 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This book deals with legislation on university technology transfer in 2012, which includes invention promotion act, legislation on technology transfer and promotion of industrialization, legislation on industrial education and industrial cooperation, and special legislation on venture business. It lists the legislation related research and development by government department : fundamental law of scientific technique, law on evaluation and management of domestic research development business, national science and technology council and the patent office.

  3. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  4. Legislation, Empirical Research and Juridical Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotel, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the incorporation of empirical research into legislation from a juridical law perspective. Juridical law is characterized by four elements: autonomous and artificial reasoning; making statements to authorize factual actions; mobilizing helpers of the proponent and de-mobilizing

  5. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  6. Parental Perceptions of the 2014 SEND Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John; Pell, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    The study researched parent's experiences of The Children and Families Act 2014 in Hull and the East Riding of Yorkshire. A sample of parents using KIDS Services in the area were surveyed by questionnaire, both before and after the legislation came into force. Nearly half of the parents were aware of a change in Special Educational Needs and…

  7. Networking Concepts and Cooperation among Legislative Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that military rule does not provide the appropriate environment for the growth and development of legislative libraries. Cooperation and not competition is stated as the driving philosophy for library networks and cooperation. Resource sharing is the premise for participation in library network. Network ...

  8. The need for hate crime legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South. Africa and convener of ... risk for developing a variety of mental health problems including ..... organisation has expressed an interest in support- ing South Africa by providing experts for related training.57. Regardless of whether hate crime legislation is adopted in South ...

  9. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  10. Quality legislation: lessons for Ontario from abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillard, Jérémy; Tipper, Brenda; Klazinga, Niek

    2012-01-01

    While the Excellent Care for All Act, 2010 (ECFA Act) provides a comprehensive approach to stimulating quality improvement in healthcare, there are other examples of legislations articulating strategies aimed at the same goal but proposing different approaches. This paper reviews quality of care

  11. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  12. The European legislative framework for audit committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    In 2014 the European Union reformed the regulatory framework of statutory audits in Directive 2014/56/EC and Regulation (EU) Nr. 537/2014. Part of the new legislation addresses the composition and responsibilities of the audit committee of public-interest entities. This contribution studies the

  13. Industrial Relations Legislation: A Creative Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Malcolm

    1976-01-01

    One specific area of industrial relations training is considered--that of meeting the implications of change as a result of the current theme of joint involvement in proposed industrial relations legislation. This will demand new approaches for industry in England. (Author/BP)

  14. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  15. North Carolina Sexual Offender Legislation: Policy Placebo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Amy Dellinger; Hill, Julie Sprinkle; Gilbert, Griff

    2012-01-01

    Current legislation at the state and federal level is largely based on the premise that we can best protect children by prohibiting sexual offenders' access to children through the use of residency restrictions, employment sanctions, and community notification. While well intentioned, these policies are short sighted and based more on public…

  16. 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    that peace, order and good governance shall be promoted both at the Federal and State levels. Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. Introduction. The National Assembly is the highest law making and representative body in Nigeria. It is the. Constitutional ...

  17. Herbal products: Marketing strategies and legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooyenga, P.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Groen, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing of herbal products in the European Union (EU) has been regulated under national legislation for years, leading to differences in legal status of these herbal products. In one member state, a product may be regulated as a food supplement, while in the other member state the same product is

  18. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2004. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-07

    This final rule will refine the resource-based practice expense relative value units (RVUs) and make other changes to Medicare Part B payment policy. The policy changes concern: Medicare Economic Index, practice expense for professional component services, definition of diabetes for diabetes self-management training, supplemental survey data for practice expense, geographic practice cost indices, and several coding issues. In addition, this rule updates the codes subject to the physician self-referral prohibition. We also make revisions to the sustainable growth rate and the anesthesia conversion factor. These changes will ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. We are also finalizing the calendar year (CY) 2003 interim RVUs and are issuing interim RVUs for new and revised procedure codes for CY 2004. As required by the statute, we are announcing that the physician fee schedule update for CY 2004 is -4.5 percent, the initial estimate of the sustainable growth rate for CY 2004 is 7.4 percent, and the conversion factor for CY 2004 is $35.1339. We published a proposed rule (68 FR 50428) in the Federal Register on Part B drug payment reform on August 20, 2003. This proposed rule would also make changes to Medicare payment for furnishing or administering certain drugs and biologicals. We have not finalized these proposals to take into account that the Congress is considering legislation that would address these issues. We will continue to monitor legislative activity that would reform the Medicare Part B drug payment system. If legislation is not enacted soon on this issue, we remain committed to completing the regulatory process.

  19. PREREQUISITE PROGRAMMES IN OWN CHECKS IN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisite Programmes approach is a requirement for implementing a correct own check plan. This new approach, born according to the European Legislation, is completely recognized by third Nation Authorities and private Inspection and Accreditation Bodies. This method is the basis to verify if an own check system is under control and to verify if corrective actions are built up to warrant hygienic production standards. The present work demonstrate that a correct own check plan is built up only by a Pre Requisites Program approach. The new UNI EN ISO 22000:2005 standard describe this concept specifying the difference between PRP and CCP.

  20. Physician health and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClafferty, Hilary; Brown, Oscar W

    2014-10-01

    Physician health and wellness is a critical issue gaining national attention because of the high prevalence of physician burnout. Pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout at levels equivalent to other medical specialties, highlighting a need for more effective efforts to promote health and well-being in the pediatric community. This report will provide an overview of physician burnout, an update on work in the field of preventive physician health and wellness, and a discussion of emerging initiatives that have potential to promote health at all levels of pediatric training. Pediatricians are uniquely positioned to lead this movement nationally, in part because of the emphasis placed on wellness in the Pediatric Milestone Project, a joint collaboration between the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Pediatrics. Updated core competencies calling for a balanced approach to health, including focus on nutrition, exercise, mindfulness, and effective stress management, signal a paradigm shift and send the message that it is time for pediatricians to cultivate a culture of wellness better aligned with their responsibilities as role models and congruent with advances in pediatric training. Rather than reviewing programs in place to address substance abuse and other serious conditions in distressed physicians, this article focuses on forward progress in the field, with an emphasis on the need for prevention and anticipation of predictable stressors related to burnout in medical training and practice. Examples of positive progress and several programs designed to promote physician health and wellness are reviewed. Areas where more research is needed are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Burnout among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Maya; Ashkar, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a common syndrome seen in healthcare workers, particularly physicians who are exposed to a high level of stress at work; it includes emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. Burnout among physicians has garnered significant attention because of the negative impact it renders on patient care and medical personnel. Physicians who had high burnout levels reportedly committed more medical errors. Stress management programs that range from relaxation to cognitive-behavioral and patient-centered therapy have been found to be of utmost significance when it comes to preventing and treating burnout. However, evidence is insufficient to support that stress management programs can help reducing job-related stress beyond the intervention period, and similarly mindfulness-based stress reduction interventions efficiently reduce psychological distress and negative vibes, and encourage empathy while significantly enhancing physicians' quality of life. On the other hand, a few small studies have suggested that Balint sessions can have a promising positive effect in preventing burnout; moreover exercises can reduce anxiety levels and exhaustion symptoms while improving the mental and physical well-being of healthcare workers. Occupational interventions in the work settings can also improve the emotional and work-induced exhaustion. Combining both individual and organizational interventions can have a good impact in reducing burnout scores among physicians; therefore, multidisciplinary actions that include changes in the work environmental factors along with stress management programs that teach people how to cope better with stressful events showed promising solutions to manage burnout. However, until now there have been no rigorous studies to prove this. More interventional research targeting medical students, residents, and practicing physicians are needed in order to improve psychological well-being, professional careers, as well as the

  2. Physician views on practicing professionalism in the corporate age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, B; Wear, D

    2000-07-01

    Arnold Relman argues that medical education does not prepare students and residents to practice their profession in today's corporate health care system. Corporate health care administrators agree: Physicians enter the workforce unskilled in contract negotiation, evidence-based medicine, navigating bureaucratic systems, and so forth. What about practicing physicians? Do they agree as well? According to this study, they do. Feeling like decentered double agents and unprepared, physicians find themselves professionally lost, struggling to balance issues of cost and care and expressing lots of negativity toward the cultures of medicine and managed care. However, physicians are resilient. A group of physicians, who may be called proactive, are meeting the professional demands of corporate health care by becoming sophisticated about its bureaucratic organization and the ways in which their professional and personal commitments fit within the system. Following the lead of proactive physicians, the authors support Relman's thesis and education for both students and physicians requires a major overhaul.

  3. Leasing physician office space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Charles

    2009-01-01

    When leasing office space, physicians should determine the effective lease rate (ELR) for each building they are considering before making a selection. The ELR is based on a number of factors, including building quality, building location, basic form of lease agreement, rent escalators and add-on factors in the lease, tenant improvement allowance, method of square footage measurement, quality of building management, and other variables. The ELR enables prospective physician tenants to accurately compare lease rates being quoted by building owners and to make leasing decisions based on objective criteria.

  4. [Hippocrates' treatise physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøland, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This small treatise does not appear to have been published in Danish in its entirety. It gives a vivid picture of the physician in ancient Greece. The well known first chapter describes the attitudes and attributes of the doctor. It goes on discussing in some detail how the light should be in the surgery, the instruments to be used, the preparations of bandages and drugs, and the use of cupping instruments. The author stresses both the needs of the patient and the necessity of the physician's dignity and integrity.

  5. The Status and Role of Legislation In South Africa as a Constitutional Democracy: Some Exploratory Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L du Plessis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This note explores the proposition that in the face of probably one of the most unequivocal forms of constitutional review in a modern day state, legislation in South Africa has since 27 April 1994 grown in status (and stature nonetheless, and has assumed an unprecedented role in our constitutional democracy. First, it is shown how constitutional review with the necessary judicial self-restraint has instilled respect for legislation in the context of and with reference to the separation of powers. Second, it is shown that and how statutes have become (subsidiary allies to the Constitution and have been standing the realisation of constitutional values in good stead. Finally, it is argued that the constitutional requirement of popular participation in legislative deliberation has also added to the esteem for legislation in our constitutional democracy.

  6. Physician performance feedback in a Canadian academic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Dennis; Worthington, James; McGuire, Shaun; Burgetz, Stephanie; Forster, Alan J; Patey, Andrea; Gerin-Lajoie, Caroline; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Roth, Virginia

    2017-10-02

    Purpose This paper aims at the implementation and early evaluation of a comprehensive, formative annual physician performance feedback process in a large academic health-care organization. Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods approach was used to introduce a formative feedback process to provide physicians with comprehensive feedback on performance and to support professional development. This initiative responded to organization-wide engagement surveys through which physicians identified effective performance feedback as a priority. In 2013, physicians primarily affiliated with the organization participated in a performance feedback process, and physician satisfaction and participant perceptions were explored through participant survey responses and physician leader focus groups. Training was required for physician leaders prior to conducting performance feedback discussions. Findings This process was completed by 98 per cent of eligible physicians, and 30 per cent completed an evaluation survey. While physicians endorsed the concept of a formative feedback process, process improvement opportunities were identified. Qualitative analysis revealed the following process improvement themes: simplify the tool, ensure leaders follow process, eliminate redundancies in data collection (through academic or licensing requirements) and provide objective quality metrics. Following physician leader training on performance feedback, 98 per cent of leaders who completed an evaluation questionnaire agreed or strongly agreed that the performance feedback process was useful and that training objectives were met. Originality/value This paper introduces a physician performance feedback model, leadership training approach and first-year implementation outcomes. The results of this study will be useful to health administrators and physician leaders interested in implementing physician performance feedback or improving physician engagement.

  7. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  8. An MBA: the utility and effect on physicians' careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Selene G; Singh, Bikramjit

    2007-02-01

    Higher economic, legislative, legal, and administrative constraints in health-care services in the United States have led to an increase in physician dissatisfaction and a decrease in physician morale. In this study, we attempted to understand the motivation for a physician to enroll in a business school, and to discover the utility of the Master of Business Administration degree and how it changed the career path for the practicing clinician. We conducted a retrospective study in which a twenty-seven-question survey was distributed by the United States Postal Service and by e-mail to 161 physician graduates of three East Coast business schools. The results were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was performed. Eighty-seven physicians (54%) responded. Eight surveys were discarded because of incomplete data or stray marks, leaving seventy-nine surveys. The average age of the respondents was 41.4 years. The major motivations for going back to school included learning the business aspects of the health-care system (fifty-three respondents; 67%) and obtaining a more interesting job (forty-one respondents; 52%). The time that the respondents allocated for health-care-related activities before and after obtaining the degree was 58.3% and 31.8%, respectively, for patient care (p administrative responsibilities (p principles (thirty-three; 42%), working within a team (twenty-seven; 34%), and negotiating effectively (twenty-five; 32%). Sixty-four physicians (81%) believed that their business degree had been very useful or essential in the advancement of their careers. Many physicians decide to acquire a Master of Business Administration degree to understand the business of medicine. After they complete the degree program, their practice patterns substantially change, which is reflected particularly by an increase in time spent on administrative responsibilities. In order for physicians to overcome the multifaceted challenges of the evolving health-care system, it is

  9. Physician-owned companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuik, John P

    2007-05-15

    The author relates his experience in the development of a spinal implant development company (K2M) that is significantly advised by physicians. To provide information about the development of a spinal implant company (K2M) advised by a group of professional spinal surgeons. To relate the federal laws (STARK and anti-kickback) as they pertain to surgeon-influenced companies. To discuss the role of a scientific advisory board. A self-developed company was developed together with significant, but minority physician financial input and majority scientific advice. A privately owned spinal implant development corporation (K2M) was developed 3 years ago. Physician financial participation was less than 20% (Stark laws state no more than 40%). Users of product are greater than 60% non-investor physicians. The development of a large scientific advisory board has been very influential in product development. A privately owned spinal implant company (K2M) has been developed strictly within Federal laws. Its board of scientific advisors that receives recompense commissurate only with effort significantly impacts the company policy.

  10. Developing physician leaders in academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, D J

    1997-01-01

    While physicians have historically held positions of leadership in academic medical centers, there is an increasing trend that physicians will not only guide the clinical, curriculum and scientific direction of the institution, but its business direction as well. Physicians are assuming a greater role in business decision making and are found at the negotiating table with leaders from business, insurance and other integrated health care delivery systems. Physicians who lead "strategic business units" within the academic medical center are expected to acquire and demonstrate enhanced business acumen. There is an increasing demand for formal and informal training programs for physicians in academic medical centers in order to better prepare them for their evolving roles and responsibilities. These may include the pursuit of a second degree in business or health care management; intramurally conducted courses in leadership skill development, management, business and finance; or involvement in extramurally prepared and delivered training programs specifically geared toward physicians as conducted at major universities, often in their schools of business or public health. While part one of this series, which appeared in Volume 43, No. 6 of Medical Group Management Journal addressed, "The changing role of physician leaders at academic medical centers," part 2 will examine as a case study the faculty leadership development program at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. These two articles were prepared by the author from his research into, and the presentation of a thesis entitled. "The importance of leadership training and development for physicians in academic medical centers in an increasingly complex health care environment," prepared for the Credentials Committee of the American College of Healthcare Executives in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Fellowship in this College.*

  11. Physicians' knowledge of genetics and genetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, K J; Tambor, E S; Chase, G A; Geller, G; Faden, R R; Holtzman, N A

    1993-08-01

    To assess primary care physicians' and psychiatrists' knowledge of genetics and genetic tests and the factors associated with differences in these physicians' knowledge. Questionnaires were mailed in 1991 to 1,795 primary care physicians (family physicians, internists, pediatricians, obstetrician-gynecologists) and psychiatrists who had graduated from medical school between 1950 and 1985 (67.6% of the sample had graduated after 1970) and who were members of professional societies. The questions elicited demographic and practice characteristics as well as knowledge of genetics concepts and facts and awareness of the availability of genetic tests. To validate the questionnaire, 360 medical geneticists and genetic counselors received questionnaires. Statistical analysis involved arc-sine function transformation, t-tests, analyses of variance, F-tests, Tukey's HSD, and stepwise multiple regression. A total of 1,140 (64.8%) of the non-geneticist physicians responded. They correctly answered an average of 73.9%, SD, 13.9%, of the knowledge items, compared with 94.6%, SD, 4.2%, for the genetics professionals (p < .001). The most significant predictors of knowledge were recency of graduation from medical school and practicing in primary care specialties in which exposure to genetics problems is likely. Other significant predictors (from most to least important) were graduation from a U.S. medical school, willingness to adopt a new predictive test before it becomes standard practice, not using pharmaceutical companies as a source of information about new medical practices, and taking a required genetics course in medical school. The results suggest that knowledge of genetics and genetic tests is increasing among physicians, particularly among more recent graduates and physicians who are exposed to genetics problems in their practices, but deficiencies remain. Although a medical school course in genetics may improve knowledge, it is not sufficient. Greater emphasis is needed

  12. Achieving fire-safe cigarette legislation through coalition-based legislative advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam O; Grant, Ernest; McCullough, Anna; Cairns, Bruce; Kurian, Ann

    2010-02-01

    Advocates who work for tobacco control legislation through coalition-based policy advocacy have access to a broad base of support and resources that are critical to overcoming the tobacco industry lobby. This article provides an example of how a coalition-based advocacy strategy that engaged a diverse group of stakeholders and was supported by a national coordinating movement achieved state level fire-safe cigarette legislation in a tobacco-producing and manufacturing state.

  13. Physical activity opportunities in Canadian childcare facilities: a provincial/territorial review of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia; Ismail, Ali; van Zandvroort, Melissa M

    2012-05-01

    Preschoolers spend a substantial portion of their day in childcare; therefore, these centers are an ideal venue to encourage healthy active behaviors. It is important that provinces'/territories' childcare legislation encourage physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to review Canadian provincial/territorial childcare legislation regarding PA participation. Specifically, this review sought to 1) appraise each provincial/territorial childcare regulation for PA requirements, 2) compare such regulations with the NASPE PA guidelines, and 3) appraise these regulations regarding PA infrastructure. A review of all provincial/territorial childcare legislation was performed. Each document was reviewed separately by 2 researchers, and the PA regulations were coded and summarized. The specific provincial/territorial PA requirements (eg, type/frequency of activity) were compared with the NASPE guidelines. PA legislation for Canadian childcare facilities varies greatly. Eight of the thirteen provinces/territories provide PA recommendations; however, none provided specific time requirements for daily PA. All provinces/territories did require access to an outdoor play space. All Canadian provinces/territories lack specific PA guidelines for childcare facilities. The development, implementation, and enforcement of national PA legislation for childcare facilities may aid in tackling the childhood obesity epidemic and assist childcare staff in supporting and encouraging PA participation.

  14. [The science of communication in the patient-physician relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroianu Zlatescu, Irina; Popescu, Octav

    2007-09-01

    The authors dedicate their work to the improvement of inter-human communication within the healthcare system, mainly in the sub-system of the patient-physician relationship, with the aim of respecting human rights in general and in particular, of respecting patient rights. The combined usage of elements of medical ethics, acquired throughout professional training - university and post-university studies - and the knowledge assimilated following some last minute information relative to the science of communication is a permanent responsibility of all healthcare practitioners with the goal of improving their relationships with patients. The authors believe that this is the only way of increasing the degree of trust and satisfaction of the population towards healthcare providers. The authors are in favor of the implementation, in common medical practice, of this motto of communication: "If you do not communicate, you do not exist. If you do not know, you are at fault", as a founding principle of ethics and of the medical professional ethics, applicable equally in private and public medical practice. Effective patient-physician communication generates reciprocal trust. Its absence or poor communication can lead to distrust, suspicion, animosity and even conflicts which can cause physicians to be called before the College of Physicians of Romania or lead to legal repercussions for both physicians and patients. If it is true that, during medical assistance procedures, patients wish their right to be cared for and treated as dignified humans to be respected, it is also fair for those who care for them to evoke in turn their right to respect and dignity from the side of their patients. National legislation dedicated to issues relating to the professional patient-physician relationship contains provisions strictly in agreement with the regulations of the European Union. Once ethical and legal standards are introduced into national legislation, the next step should be

  15. Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined.

  16. Critical analysis of the Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas P, Elkin; Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document analyses the Colombian mining legislation, Act 685 of 2001, based on the reasons expressed by the government and the miners for its conceit and approval. The document tries to determine the developments achieved by this new Mining Code considering international mining competitiveness and its adaptation to the constitutional rules about environment, indigenous communities, decentralization and sustainable development. The analysis formulates general and specific hypothesis about the proposed objectives of the reform, which are confronted with the arguments and critical evaluations of the results. Most hypothesis are not verified, thus demonstrating that the Colombian mining legislation is far from being the necessary instrument to promote mining activities, making it competitive according to international standards and adapted to the principles of sustainable development, healthy environment, community participation, ethnic minorities and regional autonomy

  17. State Firearm Legislation and Nonfatal Firearm Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Mills, Brianna; Young, Bessie; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether stricter state-level firearm legislation was associated with lower hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries. Methods. We estimated discharge rates for hospitalized and emergency department–treated nonfatal firearm injuries in 18 states in 2010 and used negative binomial regression to determine whether strength of state firearm legislation was independently associated with total nonfatal firearm injury discharge rates. Results. We identified 26 744 discharges for nonfatal firearm injuries. The overall age-adjusted discharge rate was 19.0 per 100 000 person-years (state range = 3.3–36.6), including 7.9 and 11.1 discharges per 100 000 for hospitalized and emergency department–treated injuries, respectively. In models adjusting for differences in state sociodemographic characteristics and economic conditions, states in the strictest tertile of legislative strength had lower discharge rates for total (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.82), assault-related (IRR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.99), self-inflicted (IRR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.14, 0.24), and unintentional (IRR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.84) nonfatal firearm injuries. Conclusions. There is significant variation in state-level hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries, and stricter state firearm legislation is associated with lower discharge rates for such injuries. PMID:26066935

  18. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  19. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  20. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  1. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  2. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  3. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  4. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEATHER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the current legislation and compliance issues leather waste in different waste groups according to relevant legislation and shows that, although seemingly harmless waste of skin sometimes contain dangerous compounds. As presented risks to human health were some restricted substances in leather. Since 2001 Romania had preoccupation in national legislation on waste management, but some categories, such as leather waste are not framed to this category. Also, another goal is implementing the EU management/storage strategy of industrial waste. Unfortunately, Romania imports huge quantities of used clothing and shoes. Transport, storage and use of them are poor, and many of these are subsequently stored waste by the fact that it is even sometimes improperly discarded. The paper also shows the statistics on waste management in the Bihor County by activity of national economy and by activity of industry at level of CANE REV.2 Section. Analyzing the postings on Internet regarding the sale and purchase of leather wastes in Romania, it was found that there are the following 'categories' of wastes: leather goods, leather from coats, leather from footwear industry, suede, leather, leather resulting from the production of upholstery. It was found that most car buyers use waste leather upholstery. It is recommended that production companies to highlight more transparent their inventory textile and leather waste on types for those interested (including online can access/capitalize them.

  5. Physician Fee Schedule National Payment Amount File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The significant size of the Physician Fee Schedule Payment Amount File-National requires that database programs (e.g., Access, dBase, FoxPro, etc.) be used to read...

  6. Reasons for misuse of prescription medication among physicians undergoing monitoring by a physician health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Lisa J; Singhakant, Supachoke; Cummings, Simone M; Cottler, Linda B

    2013-01-01

    Substance-related impairment of physicians is a small but serious problem, with significant consequences for patient safety and public health. The purpose of this study was to identify reasons for prescription drug misuse among physicians referred to a physician health program for monitoring because of substance-related impairment, to develop better mechanisms for prevention and intervention. A total of 55 physicians (94.5% male) who were being monitored by their State physician health program because of substance-related impairment participated in guided focus group discussions. Participation was anonymous. Discussions were transcribed from 9 separate focus groups, lasting 60 to 90 minutes each. Qualitative analyses were conducted to examine themes. All participants were diagnosed with substance dependence, and 69.1% of them endorsed a history of misusing prescription drugs. Participants documented the following 5 primary reasons for prescription drug misuse: (1) to manage physical pain, (2) to manage emotional/psychiatric distress, (3) to manage stressful situations, (4) to serve recreational purposes, and (5) to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Our results emphasize the importance of self-medication as a leading reason for misusing prescription medications, although recreational use was also an important factor. Prevention efforts targeting prescription drug misuse among physicians should be initiated during medical training, with continuing education requirements throughout the physicians' careers.

  7. Physician Information Seeking Behaviors: Are Physicians Successful Searchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek-Kelley, Janice

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, physicians found answers to questions by consulting colleagues, textbooks, and professional journals. Now, the availability of medical information through electronic resources has changed physician information-seeking behaviors. Evidence-based medicine is now the accepted decision-making paradigm, and a physician's ability to…

  8. Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs

  9. Joint conference on the impact of EU legislation on therapeutic advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgó, Nikolaus; Hildebrandt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    On October 11, 2012, two FP7-funded Research Consortia, CONTRACT (Consent in a Trial and Care Environment) and Academic GMP, held a Joint Conference in Brussels entitled "The Impact of EU Legislation on Therapeutic Advance." Academic researchers including stem cell transplant physicians and cell therapy specialists, legal advocates and representatives from industry, regulatory authorities and patient advocacy groups met with members of the European Parliament and the European Commission. This article summarizes important points of discussion and detailed proposals for improvement. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  11. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  12. Government capacities and stakeholders: what facilitates ehealth legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Newly established high-technology areas such as eHealth require regulations regarding the interoperability of health information infrastructures and data protection. It is argued that government capacities as well as the extent to which public and private organizations participate in policy-making determine the level of eHealth legislation. Both explanatory factors are influenced by international organizations that provide knowledge transfer and encourage private actor participation. Methods Data analysis is based on the Global Observatory for eHealth - ATLAS eHealth country profiles which summarizes eHealth policies in 114 countries. Data analysis was carried out using two-component hurdle models with a truncated Poisson model for positive counts and a hurdle component model with a binomial distribution for zero or greater counts. Results The analysis reveals that the participation of private organizations such as donors has negative effects on the level of eHealth legislation. The impact of public-private partnerships (PPPs) depends on the degree of government capacities already available and on democratic regimes. Democracies are more responsive to these new regulatory demands than autocracies. Democracies find it easier to transfer knowledge out of PPPs than autocracies. Government capacities increase the knowledge transfer effect of PPPs, thus leading to more eHealth legislation. Conclusions All international regimes – the WHO, the EU, and the OECD – promote PPPs in order to ensure the construction of a national eHealth infrastructure. This paper shows that the development of government capacities in the eHealth domain has to be given a higher priority than the establishment of PPPs, since the existence of some (initial) capacities is the sine qua non of further capacity building. PMID:24410989

  13. The paradoxes of application of the legislation on personal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Bobrova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of legislation on personal data and it’s enforcement in the educational process in higher educational institutions.The purpose of the article is highlight controversies in legislation on personal data, generating mistakes in enforcement during the educational procedures.The description of methodology. The author uses methods of complex analysis, synthesis, as well as formal-logical and formal-legal methods.The main results and scope of their application. The practice of interpreting the concepts of “personal data”, “confidential personal data”, “official secret”, “publicly available personal data” is extremely contradictory.Currently, there are hundreds departmental regulatory legal acts about various aspects of the protection of official secrets. Analysis of these acts shows that the rules aimed at preserving the confidentiality of official information regulate the following aspects of the functioning of state and municipal bodies, institutions and organizations: (a ensuring access to official information; (b providing state and municipal services; (c document flow and record keeping; (d staffing; (e anti-corruption; (f use of information systems; (g interaction with the media; (h prevention of conflicts of interest.The study load cannot be attributed to the personal data, that requires the consent of the teacher to be processed. The study load is nothing more than publicly available information, arising from the principles of collegiality of educational process management, competitiveness of education, its openness and transparency, that are established in the legislation on education.Conclusions. Extended interpretation of confidential personal data and inclusion of the teaching load to it is unacceptable. This contributes to conflicts of interest, corrupt factors and devaluation of higher education.

  14. Physician migration: donor country impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwihare, A P R

    2005-01-01

    Physician migration from the developing to developed region of a country or the world occurs for reasons of financial, social, and job satisfaction. It is an old phenomenon that produces many disadvantages for the donor region or nation. The difficulties include inequities with the provision of health services, financial loss, loss of educated families, potential employers, and role models and diminished resources with which to conduct medical education. Staff for undergraduate and postgraduate education is depleted. The critical mass for research and development becomes difficult to achieve or maintain, and these disadvantages are not compensated for adequately by increased contacts, the introduction of new ideas, or financial inflow to the donor region or country. The political will of governments and international organizations regarding treaties about the ethics of physician recruitment is called into question by discrepancies between the text of agreements and the ground realities. Amelioration of this situation requires economic development and imaginative schemes by the donors and, ideally, ethical considerations from recipient governments. At the very least, adequate compensation should be made to the donor country for the gain obtained by the host country.

  15. The future for physician assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, J F; Ott, J E; DeAtley, C A

    1983-06-01

    Physician assistants were intended to be assistants to primary care physicians. Physicians in private practice have only moderately responded to the availability of these professionals. Cutbacks in the numbers of foreign medical graduates entering American schools for graduate medical education, concern for overcrowding in some specialties, and the economic and clinical capabilities of physician assistants have lead to new uses for these persons. Physician assistants are employed in surgery and surgical subspecialties; in practice settings in institutions such as medical, pediatric, and surgical house staff; and in geriatric facilities, occupational medicine clinics, emergency rooms, and prison health systems. The projected surplus of physicians by 1990 may affect the use of physician assistants by private physicians in primary care.

  16. Physician education: expansion of the radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classic, Kelly; Carlson, Stephanie; Vetter, Richard J.; Roessler, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, physician knowledge of radiation risk and risk associated with medical exams involving radiation has been studied and found deficient. In some cases, radiation risk was overestimated leading to patient anxiety. In other cases, the risk was underestimated leading to cavalier ordering of medical radiation exams. Even physicians practicing in radiology were unable to accurately assess the risk for their patients. Many of the studies concluded that more effort is needed to educate the physician community on radiation risk. Objectives of the Health Physics Society, a not-for-profit society of radiation safety professionals, include dissemination of radiation safety information and public education. In 1996, the Society launched a Web site as one method to achieve its objectives (www.hps.org). On the Web site, the initial focus was to provide radiation information resources for the public, but more recently that was expanded to include specific resources for teachers, students, legislators and regulators, and first responders. In addition to these, the Society is adding educational resources for physicians. Published studies we reviewed suggest that physician education should include information about radiation risk, radiation effects, the amount of radiation dose from medical exams, and potential doses to the concepts when a mother undergoes medical exams involving radiation. The information we provide includes these topics as well as radiation basics (radiation units, radiation terms, radiation in the environment) separated into brief educational programs (slide shows). To complement these, topical information sheets are available. Also available is a tool allowing physicians to ask individual questions of our experts about radiation, radiation exposure, and radiation risk. This approach of providing information and resources to physicians not only provides a benefit to the physician personally, but especially to his or her patients

  17. It's About Time for Autism Reform Legislation in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Brian J

    2015-05-01

    On 3 April 2014, Governor Gary Herbert signed into law a health insurance reform bill that requires private insurers to cover autism therapy. Specifically, SB57 requires state-regulated health plans to cover applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy. While early diagnosis and intervention can reduce the long-term cost of autism, families are finding themselves bankrupt in order to pay for ABA therapy. Currently, 37 states, and the District of Columbia have enacted insurance reform laws. Ensuring that children with autism receive proper therapy is a serious public health issue. Utah was right to pass reform legislation because it properly benefits and safeguards the interests of affected children in promoting their well-being and participation in society.

  18. Thermoelectric power plant legislation in Italy: Public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Anno, P.

    1991-01-01

    Existing Italian legislation describes public involvement in fossil fuel power plant environmental impacts assessments as merely the opportunity to express interest, since it does not acknowledge, in the usual procedural formulas, any actual role to be played by the public. This paper illustrates this point in its examination of the myriad of procedural requirements prescribed by Italian laws governing power plant feasibility analyses. It demonstrates that the recent addition of the environmental element to the standard economic and technological elements in proposal evaluations requires that efforts be made to reduce the complexity of administrative procedures, and that mechanisms be created to allow the public, who will be most affected by any final ruling, a greater say in the decision making

  19. [Burnout in physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Ilsemarie; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Burnout is a syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. The primary objective of this study was to investigate both the prevalence and severity of burnout symptoms in a sample of clinical physicians from different speciality disciplines. A total of 69 clinical physicians ≤55 years who are working at the Medical University/regional Hospital Innsbruck were included into a cross-sectional study. Next to the assessment of sociodemographic and work-related variables the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to investigate burnout symtoms. Overall, 8.8% of the study population showed high emotional exhaustion with high or moderate depersonalization and low personal accomplishment and therefore had a high risk to develop a burnout syndrom. 11.8% showed a moderade burnout risk. Neither sociodemographic variables nor the degree of educational qualification or speciality discipline had an influence on burnout symptoms. However, there was a positive correlation between scientific activity and personal accomplihment. Our results suggest that the dimension of burnout symtoms among clinical physicians in Austria has be taken seriously. Further research is needed to develop specific programs in terms of burnout prevention and burnout therapy.

  20. Influences on patients' ratings of physicians: Physicians demographics and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Paul; Meldrum, Sean; Fiscella, Kevin; Shields, Cleveland G; Epstein, Ronald M

    2007-02-01

    There is considerable interest in the influences on patients' ratings of physicians. In this cross-sectional study, patients (n = 4616; age range: 18-65 years) rated their level of satisfaction with their primary care physicians (n = 96). Patients and physicians were recruited from primary care practices in the Rochester, NY metropolitan area. For analytic purposes, length of the patient-physician relationship was stratified ( or =5 years). Principal components factor analysis of items from the Health Care Climate Questionnaire, the Primary Care Assessment Survey and the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire yielded a single factor labeled "Satisfaction" that served as the sole dependent variable. Higher scores mean greater satisfaction. Predictors of interest were patient demographics and morbidity as well as physician demographics and personality, assessed with items from the NEO-FFI. Patients treated by a physician for 1 year or less rated male physicians higher than female physicians. This gender difference disappeared after 1 year, but two physician personality traits, Openness and Conscientiousness, were associated with patients' ratings in lengthier patient-physician relationships. Patients report being more satisfied with physicians who are relatively high in Openness and average in Conscientiousness. Older patients provide higher ratings than younger patients, and those with greater medical burden rated their physicians higher. Patients' ratings of physicians are multidetermined. Future research on patient satisfaction and the doctor-patient relationship would benefit from a consideration of physician personality. Identifying physician personality traits that facilitate or undermine communication, trust, patient-centeredness, and patient adherence to prescribed treatments is an important priority. Learning environments could be created to reinforce certain traits and corresponding habits of mind that enhance patient satisfaction. Such a shift in the culture

  1. Mental health legislation and human rights in England, Wales and the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) published its Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation (Geneva: WHO) presenting a detailed statement of human rights issues which need to be addressed in national legislation relating to mental health. The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which revised mental health legislation in England, Wales (2007) and Ireland (2001) accords with these standards (excluding standards relating solely to children or mentally-ill offenders). Legislation in England and Wales meets 90 (54.2%) of the 166 WHO standards examined, while legislation in Ireland meets 80 standards (48.2%). Areas of high compliance include definitions of mental disorder, relatively robust procedures for involuntary admission and treatment (although provision of information remains suboptimal) and clarity regarding offences and penalties Areas of medium compliance relate to competence, capacity and consent (with a particular deficit in capacity legislation in Ireland), oversight and review (which exclude long-term voluntary patients and require more robust complaints procedures), and rules governing special treatments, seclusion and restraint. Areas of low compliance relate to promoting rights (impacting on other areas within legislation, such as information management), voluntary patients (especially non-protesting, incapacitated patients), protection of vulnerable groups and emergency treatment. The greatest single deficit in both jurisdictions relates to economic and social rights. There are four key areas in need of rectification and clarification in relation to mental health legislation in England, Wales and Ireland; these relate to (1) measures to protect and promote the rights of voluntary patients; (2) issues relating to competence, capacity and consent (especially in Ireland); (3) the role of "common law" in relation to mental health law (especially in England and Wales); and (4) the extent to which each jurisdiction

  2. The relationship between administrative court control and legislative control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The legislator can determine the extent of control of administrative courts by reduction of substantive conditions. The author has the opinion that the judicial control cannot be stricter than the legislative control. For the range of the control of administrative courts is decisive, to what extent the legislator is forced to proper legislative settlements. In this context the author discusses the Kalkar-decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1978. (CW) [de

  3. The Christian physician in the non-Christian institution: objections of conscience and physician value neutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppin, John F

    1997-03-01

    Christian physicians are in danger of losing the right of conscientious objection in situations they deem immoral. The erosion of this right is bolstered by the doctrine of "physician value neutrality" (PVN) which may be an impetus for the push to require physicians to refer for procedures they find immoral. It is only a small step from referral to compelling performance of these same procedures. If no one particular value is more morally correct than any other (a foundational PVN premise) and a physician ought to be value neutral, than conscientious objection to morally objectionable actions becomes a thing of the past. However, the argument for PVN fails. Therefore, Christian physicians should state their values openly, which would allow patients the ability to choose like-minded physicians. Some possible responses to this erosion of conscientious objection include, disengagement from non-Christian institutions, the formation of distinctly Christian medical institutions and political action. However, for the Christian the initial focus should be on a life of holiness which requires each of us to avoid evil.

  4. Chemical Dependency and the Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Keith H.; Seppala, Marvin D.; Schipper, Agnes M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the nature and scope of addictive disease are commonly reported in the lay press, the problem of physician addiction has largely escaped the public's attention. This is not due to physician immunity from the problem, because physicians have been shown to have addiction at a rate similar to or higher than that of the general population. Additionally, physicians' addictive disease (when compared with the general public) is typically advanced before identification and intervention. This...

  5. The physician's duty to report the battered child syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, D

    1979-09-01

    All US jurisdictions require that physicians file formal reports of suspected cases of child abuse and/or child neglect. Most states expressly grant civil immunity from lawsuits to all reporting physicians. The physician who fails to file such a report will be exposed to civil liability for professional malpractice when failure to report leads to continued child abuse. At least 37 states provide for criminal penalties for physicians who fail to report battered children. This paper examines procedures for minimal compliance with any state's reporting statute and details the precise reporting procedure for each US jurisdiction.

  6. The Role of Physicians in State-Sponsored Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muaygil, Ruaim

    2016-07-01

    The question of whether there is justification for physicians to participate in state-sanctioned corporal punishment has prompted long and heated debates around the world. Several recent and high-profile sentences requiring physician assistance have brought the conversation to Saudi Arabia. Whether a physician is asked to participate actively or to assess prisoners' ability to withstand this form of punishment, can there be an ethical justification for medical training and skills being put toward these purposes? The aim of this article is to examine aspects of Islamic law along with the different professional and religious obligations of Saudi Arabian physicians, and how these elements may inform the debate.

  7. Politics is local: State legislator voting on restrictive voter identification legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth C McKee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marked increase in restrictive voter identification (ID laws since the 2010 elections reveals the extreme partisan polarization in those state legislatures advancing this reform. Unlike previous studies that examine state-level factors expected to influence passage of restrictive voter ID bills, this study is the first to investigate the question using the state legislator as the unit of analysis. Multivariate analysis of the voting behavior of state legislators shows which kinds of district-level factors increase or decrease their likelihood of supporting stricter voter ID laws. Given the differentiable coalitions favoring Democratic and Republican candidates, certain partisan-aligned district demographics influence state lawmaker support for restrictive voter ID legislation. Race in particular is a major cleavage conditioning support for restrictive voter ID laws. Unlike the mixed findings generated by macro-level studies, this article provides convincing evidence that the size of the black district population negatively influences the likelihood that a Democratic legislator votes in favor of a restrictive voter ID bill, but positively affects the probability that a Republican lawmaker votes yes. The findings in this study illuminate the contextual factors that influence legislator voting on this salient election reform.

  8. 31 CFR 0.212 - Influencing legislation or petitioning Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Influencing legislation or... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.212 Influencing legislation or... Congress to favor or oppose any legislation. This prohibition does not apply to the official handling...

  9. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  10. 29 CFR 783.28 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 783.28 Section 783.28 Labor... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Legislative History and Judicial Construction of the Exemptions § 783.28 General legislative history. As originally enacted in 1938, section 13(a)(3) of the Fair Labor...

  11. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As orginally...

  12. A Critique of the Key Legislative Framework Guiding Civil Liberties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key legislative framework presented in this paper is within the areas of media and access to information, individual rights and freedoms, as well as legislation pertaining to the conduct of elections. In some cases, colonial legislation that politicians claimed to have repealed was reincarnated, as the post-colonial dispensation ...

  13. Physician-industry relations. Part 1: individual physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Susan L

    2002-03-05

    This is part 1 of a 2-part paper on ethics and physician-industry relationships. Part 1 offers advice to individual physicians; part 2 gives recommendations to medical education providers and medical professional societies. Physicians and industry have a shared interest in advancing medical knowledge. Nonetheless, the primary ethic of the physician is to promote the patient's best interests, while the primary ethic of industry is to promote profitability. Although partnerships between physicians and industry can result in impressive medical advances, they also create opportunities for bias and can result in unfavorable public perceptions. Many physicians and physicians-in-training think they are impervious to commercial influence. However, recent studies show that accepting industry hospitality and gifts, even drug samples, can compromise judgment about medical information and subsequent decisions about patient care. It is up to the physician to judge whether a gift is acceptable. A very general guideline is that it is ethical to accept modest gifts that advance medical practice. It is clearly unethical to accept gifts or services that obligate the physician to reciprocate. Conflicts of interest can arise from other financial ties between physicians and industry, whether to outside companies or self-owned businesses. Such ties include honorariums for speaking or writing about a company's product, payment for participating in clinic-based research, and referrals to medical resources. All of these relationships have the potential to influence a physician's attitudes and practices. This paper explores the ethical quandaries involved and offers guidelines for ethical business relationships.

  14. Physician Order Entry Clerical Support Improves Physician Satisfaction and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contratto, Erin; Romp, Katherine; Estrada, Carlos A; Agne, April; Willett, Lisa L

    2017-05-01

    To examine the impact of clerical support personnel for physician order entry on physician satisfaction, productivity, timeliness with electronic health record (EHR) documentation, and physician attitudes. All seven part-time physicians at an academic general internal medicine practice were included in this quasi-experimental (single group, pre- and postintervention) mixed-methods study. One full-time clerical support staff member was trained and hired to enter physician orders in the EHR and conduct previsit planning. Physician satisfaction, productivity, timeliness with EHR documentation, and physician attitudes toward the intervention were measured. Four months after the intervention, physicians reported improvements in overall quality of life (good quality, 71%-100%), personal balance (43%-71%), and burnout (weekly, 43%-14%; callousness, 14%-0%). Matched for quarter, productivity increased: work relative value unit (wRVU) per session increased by 20.5% (before, April-June 2014; after, April-June 2015; range -9.2% to 27.5%). Physicians reported feeling more supported, more focused on patient care, and less stressed and fatigued after the intervention. This study supports the use of physician order entry clerical personnel as a simple, cost-effective intervention to improve the work lives of primary care physicians.

  15. Can physicians' care be neutral regarding religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel E; Curlin, Farr

    2004-07-01

    A recent critique of the growing field of spirituality and medicine suggests that physicians should foster a professional ethic that is deliberately neutral regarding religion. The critique reflects an anxiety that it is almost inherently coercive for physicians to engage their patient's spiritual concerns, and it expresses a parallel admonition to physicians not to impose their values on patients. Although the authors agree that religious coercion is never warranted, they argue that neutrality regarding religion is neither possible nor desirable. They suggest rather that the challenging interface between religion and medicine requires wisdom and character formed by deep self-awareness of the various commitments (religious or otherwise) that shape decisions regarding medical practice, policy, and professional conduct.

  16. Social Media Use Among Physicians and Trainees: Results of a National Medical Oncology Physician Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilman, Rachel; Rajmohan, Yanchini; Brooks, Edward; Urgoiti, Gloria Roldan; Chung, Caroline; Hammad, Nazik; Trinkaus, Martina; Naseem, Madiha; Simmons, Christine; Adilman, Rachel; Rajmohan, Yanchini; Brooks, Edward; Roldan Urgoiti, Gloria; Chung, Caroline; Hammad, Nazik; Trinkaus, Martina; Naseem, Madiha; Simmons, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Cancer management requires coordinated care from many health care providers, and its complexity requires physicians be up to date on current research. Web-based social media support physician collaboration and information sharing, but the extent to which physicians use social media for these purposes remains unknown. The complex field of oncology will benefit from increased use of online social media to enhance physician communication, education, and mentorship. To facilitate this, patterns of social media use among oncologists must be better understood. A nine-item survey investigating physician social media use, designed using online survey software, was distributed via e-mail to 680 oncology physicians and physicians in training in Canada. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 207 responses (30%) were received; 72% of respondents reported using social media. Social media use was highest, at 93%, in respondents age 25 to 34 years and lowest, at 39%, in those age 45 to 54 years. This demonstrates a significant gap in social media use between younger users and mid- to late-career users. The main barrier to use was lack of free time. The identified gap in social media use between age cohorts may have negative implications for communication in oncology. Despite advancements in social media and efforts to integrate social media into medical education, most oncologists and trainees use social media rarely, which, along with the age-related gap in use, may have consequences for collaboration and education in oncology. Investigations to further understand barriers to social media use should be undertaken to enhance physician collaboration and knowledge sharing through social media.

  17. Euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide? A survey from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Rietjens, Judith A C; van der Heide, Agnes; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2014-03-01

    Legalizing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is a current topic of debate in many countries. The Netherlands is the only country where legislation covers both. To study physicians' experiences and attitudes concerning the choice between euthanasia and PAS. A questionnaire including vignettes was sent to a random sample of 1955 Dutch general practitioners, elderly care physicians and medical specialists. In total, 793 physicians (41%) participated. There was no clear preference for euthanasia (36%) or PAS (34%). Two thirds of physicians thought that PAS underlines the autonomy and responsibility of the patient and considered this a reason to choose PAS. Reasons for not choosing PAS were expected practical problems. A minority (22%) discussed the possibility of PAS with their patient in case of a request for assistance in dying. Patients receiving PAS more often experienced psychosocial suffering in comparison with patients receiving euthanasia. In vignettes of patients with a request for assistance in dying due to psychosocial suffering, physicians agreed more often with the performance of PAS than with euthanasia. Dutch physicians perceive a difference between euthanasia and PAS. Although they believe PAS underlines patient autonomy and responsibility, the option of PAS is rarely discussed with the patient. The more psychosocial in nature the patient's suffering, the more physicians choose PAS. In these cases, PAS seems to fulfil physicians' preferences to emphasize patient autonomy and responsibility. Expected technical problems and unfamiliarity with PAS also play a role. Paradoxically, the choice for PAS is predominantly a physician's one.

  18. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  19. Politeness Indicators in Nigeria Legislative Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Unoalegie Bola Agbara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In every human interaction, interlocutors strive to maintain appropriate decorum and politeness in order to avoid undue feeling of not being ‘nice’ or being insensitive to co-participant’s self-esteem or image. This culture of being ‘nice’ is expressed not only through verbal codes, but also through non-verbal cues such as pitch, tone, voice modulation, facial expression and other forms of body language. Nigeria legislative House reflects the uniqueness of Nigeria as a multicultural nation with about two hundred and fifty ethnic groups. Each tribe has a unique way of expressing ‘nice’ (politeness. This paper examines how Nigerian legislators from different ethnic groups acknowledge the self-esteem of other legislators during senate debates. The study used Scollon and Scollon’s politeness principle which states that in every interaction there is a continuous ‘face’ (self-image negotiation and this ‘face’ which is made up of two aspects - involvement and independent- must be balanced during interactions because ‘face’ is a paradoxical concept. The interest of this study is to identify and to explain how politicians, who though are in opposition, acknowledge the self-esteem of others. Six hansards were sampled from 2009 to 2010, one bill from each quarter of the year. It was discovered that speakers almost always punctuate their contributions to debate with different types of politeness indicators as a means of acknowledging both the involvement and dependent face wants of participants. The politeness indicators often used by senators include address forms which are used not only as vocative (to the presiding senator but also as designative (for reference to a third person mentioned in the speech, first person plural pronouns, rhetorical (speech politeness markers and ritualized utterances.

  20. Legislative and technical aspects of mutagenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, V W; Flamm, W G

    1975-08-01

    A brief account is given of the history of the legislative acts that give responsibility to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ensuring the safety of foods, drugs, and cosmetics. Within the present legislative framework the FDA has the authority to impose regulations which are designed to ensure the safety of all foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The existing legislative authority is adequate for this purpose; however, the difficulty lies instead with technology and the inadequacy of scientific perspective in the emerging area of mutagenicity testing. Earlier efforts in development of mutagenicity screening systems culminated only a few years ago in the proposal to use the host-mediated assay, somatic cell cytogenetics, and dominant lethal tests collectively. Subsequent research efforts indicated that there were serious practical and scientific deficiencies in using this approach. More recently a new proposal, the tier system, has been suggested as an alternative measure. The proposed tier system at FDA consists of three testing levels of increasing complexity. The first tier is an initial screening effort using techniques having maximum sensitivity that are also useful for large-scale, rapid testing. The second tier is designed to identify and confirm that the presumptive mutagens detected in the first tier are truly mutagenic for higher organisms, most especially, for mammals. The third tier would be devoted to explicit genetic tests in mammals designed to ascertain the imposed risk to man by the introduction of a mutagen in our environment. The FDA is currently involved in a number of research activities in the area of mutagenicity safety screening which will explore the adequacies and possible deficiencies of the tier system approach. These efforts are described for our in-house activities, our contract activities, and our cooperative and collaborative activities with other government agencies and institutions.

  1. [Is family physician concept possible to resume?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Aleksandar; Gluhak, Ines; Stevanović, Ranko; Pristas, Ivan; Jurković, Ljiljanka; Nekić, Venija Cerovecki; Bezovan, Blazenka; Ostrić, Gordana Mrazovac; Vuk, Zeljko; Bilić, Jolanda

    2007-02-01

    An anonymous survey was performed in a sample of 454 adult patients from the catchment population of eight family medicine teams at Dugave-Travno Clinic in Zagreb to assess their attitudes towards the family physician concept, its advantages and shortcomings. These family medicine teams providing care for 16,077 insures also the number of families with all their members receiving care from these teams. The method of descriptive statistics was used. Data were obtained on the number of families where only some members received care at the same physician's office and on the proportion of individual family members receiving care at family medicine offices. The sample indicated that more than half of patients received care from the same family physician, and that only one tenth of patients were without their family medical file. Study subjects considered that the family doctor institution contributed to improved care and were aware of the advantages of the family doctor concept. The concept of comprehensive family treatment could currently be implemented in half of the patients. However, the other half are broken up, receiving medical care at offices of different teams. The family physician concept could be implemented in two ways: exchange of the insures among the teams at a particular clinic providing care for defined populations, and in administrative way. The family physician concept would require two strategic decisions: establishment and development of group practice, and virtual linkage of the family member medical data through an integrated primary health care information system.

  2. Legislative aspects of RAPS supply by Australian electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Regan, S.; Watt, M. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

    1995-11-01

    The supply of power to residents of remote areas is an increasingly difficult issue for electricity utilities. The pressure on utilities to take a more commercial orientation rests uneasily with the significant losses many make on their rural networks. At the same time, recent developments in stand-alone power supply systems (RAPS) have made them a technically and economically viable alternative to remote grid extensions connections that are often both costly for the customer and uneconomic for the distributors. This paper reports on a recent review of electricity legislation in all Australian States and Territories which focused on issues relating to utility supply via RAPS systems, rather than grid connection. A study undertaken for NSW in 1994 indicated a number of impediments to the supply of electricity by alternative means, including existing regulations, pricing structures, lack of information and the culture and structure of the electricity distribution industry. However, the situation differs from State to State, both in the scope for grid alternatives and in the legislative framework under which supply authorities operate. Clarifying the situation in each State will facilitate the use of alternative means of supply, where these are appropriate. It will also assist the Australian electricity industry to diversify its functions and modes of operation to meet the rapid changes occurring in its marketplace, including industry restructuring, environmental constraints and changing customer service requirements. (author). 1 tab., 2 photos., 1 ref.

  3. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  4. [International trends in laboral risk legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vigil, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    It had been established that labor damage are: laboral injuries, professional diseases and others diseases related with laboral conditions. All of them are referred to as diseases or damages suffered as a consequence of a laboral relations. It is implicated that the damage occurs in the place or during a laboral scheduled time with a causal direct relation. There is a trend in the Spanish laboral legislation, which is controversial in laboral medicine, because it includes a Law for the Prevention of Laboral Risks that consider also to the chronic diseases as a cause no traumatic of a laboral risk to conditioned a damage during the laboral journey.

  5. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  6. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  7. Turkey's physicians' attitudes toward euthanasia: a brief research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkara, Erdem; Hanci, Hamit; Civaner, Murat; Yorulmaz, Coskun; Karagoz, Mustafa; Mayda, Atilla Senih; Goren, Suleyman; Kok, Ahmet Nezih

    2004-01-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are subject to an ongoing debate and discussed with various aspects. Because physicians are in a profession closely related to euthanasia, their attitudes toward this subject are significant. Thus, research intending to explore their opinions is carried out in many countries. In this study, opinions of the physicians regarding euthanasia's definition, contents, legal aspects, and acceptable conditions for its application are addressed. The questionnaire was given to 949 physicians, more than 1% of the total working in Turkey. Of the physicians who participated in the study, 49.9% agreed with the opinion that euthanasia should be legal in certain circumstances. In addition, 19% had come across a euthanasia request and the majority of physicians (55.9%) believed that euthanasia is applied secretly in the country despite the prohibitory legislation. In conclusion, the authors infer from the study itself and believe that euthanasia should be legal in certain circumstances and that the subject, which is not in the agenda of the Turkish population, should continue to be examined.

  8. Labelling of end-of-life decisions by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyaert, Jef; Chambaere, Kenneth; Cohen, Joachim; Roelands, Marc; Deliens, Luc

    2014-07-01

    Potentially life-shortening medical end-of-life practices (end-of-life decisions (ELDs)) remain subject to conceptual vagueness. This study evaluates how physicians label these practices by examining which of their own practices (described according to the precise act, the intention, the presence of an explicit patient request and the self-estimated degree of life shortening)they label as euthanasia or sedation. We conducted a large stratified random sample of death certificates from 2007 (N=6927).The physicians named on the death certificate were approached by means of a postal questionnaire asking about ELDs made in each case and asked to choose the most appropriate label to describe the ELD. Response rate was 58.4%. In the vast majority of practices labelled as euthanasia, the self-reported actions of the physicians corresponded with the definition in the Belgian euthanasia legislation; practices labelled as palliative or terminal sedation lack clear correspondence with definitions of sedation as presented in existing guidelines. In these cases, an explicit life-shortening intention by means of drug administration was present in 21.6%, life shortening was estimated at more than 24 h in 51% and an explicit patient request was absentin 79.7%. Our results suggest that, unlike euthanasia,the concept of palliative or terminal sedation covers abroad range of practices in the minds of physicians. This ambiguity can be a barrier to appropriate sedation practice and indicates a need for better knowledge of the practice of palliative sedation by physicians.

  9. Intellectual property and access to medicines: an analysis of legislation in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Alejandro; Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass

    2009-10-01

    Globalization of intellectual property (IP) protection for medicines has been advancing during the past decade. Countries are obliged to adapt their legislation as a requirement of their membership to the World Trade Organization or as a condition of being part of international trade agreements. There is a growing recognition that, in low-income countries, stronger IP protection is a barrier to access to medicines. At the same time, the number of low-income countries writing national legislation to protect IP for pharmaceutical products is growing worldwide, but little research has been done on the ways in which this process is happening at the national level. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the implementation of IP legislation at the national level by providing a comparative analysis of the countries that are part of the United States-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). The analysis shows three trends. First, countries have often implemented stronger IP protection than required by trade agreements. Second, some countries have adopted IP protection before signing the trade agreements. Third, the process of ratification of DR-CAFTA increased public debate around these issues, which in some cases led to IP legislation that considers public health needs. These trends suggest that industrialized countries and the pharmaceutical industry are using more tactics than just trade agreements to push for increased IP protection and that the process of national legislation is a valid arena for confronting public health needs to those of the industry.

  10. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  12. Oral Health Practices Among Pakistani Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda H; Naseem, Sajida; Awan, Sara A; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ali, Zainab; Khan, Najeeb A

    2018-01-21

    necessitate the integration of oral health awareness in the medical curriculum. A multiprofessional approach with physicians in crucial roles is required to address the burden of dental diseases globally.

  13. Oral Health Practices Among Pakistani Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda H; Naseem, Sajida; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ali, Zainab; Khan, Najeeb A

    2018-01-01

    necessitate the integration of oral health awareness in the medical curriculum. A multiprofessional approach with physicians in crucial roles is required to address the burden of dental diseases globally.   PMID:29568714

  14. An Overview of Pending Asylum and Refugee Legislation in the US Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Nezer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no significant legislation related to the asylum process enacted in Congress in nearly a decade.  In 1996, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act (IIRIRA became law, rolling back protections for asylum seekers by including a one-year deadline for filing asylum applications, subjecting asylum seekers to “expedited removal” procedures, and expanding the detention of asylum seekers. In 2005, Congress enacted the REAL ID Act, which created additional legal barriers to asylum, including new requirements for proving an asylum claim. During the past several sessions of Congress, bills have been introduced that would make significant changes to the country’s asylum laws and refugee admissions program. This paper provides an overview of the pending legislation and the changes proposed.  This overview is instructive in understanding (1 which members of Congress have demonstrated interest and leadership in refugee and asylum issues; (2 which refugee and asylum reform issues have been of most interest to members of Congress in recent years; (3 the different approaches to refugee and asylum issues by members of Congress who have shown leadership on these issues; and (4 which provisions have been enacted, which have gained traction, and which remain pending without significant movement through the legislative process.While it is difficult to imagine in the current partisan climate how any asylum or refugee legislation could be enacted into law, some legislative provisions have been reintroduced over a number of sessions of Congress and some have a history of bipartisan support.  Legislation focused on a group of particular interest or concern to members of Congress could gain traction.  A more comprehensive legislative approach framed by the need generally to improve the system could be less effective, particularly in the context of the years-long stalemate on comprehensive immigration reform

  15. [Physician retirement from clinical practice: how and when].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert Barraza, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico there is no legislation as to when a physician should retire from active practice as it is the case in other countries. The Mexican Social Security for instance, in its global working contract between the authorities and the employees, for the period 2009-2011 clearly stated that after 30 years of service for men and 27 for women the employee may retire but the physician can still work in another institution or in private practice for as long as he or she wants. In this article, the experience of distinguished Mexican surgeons who had written in the past in relation to this topic is acknowledged. A brief description of the retirement of physicians in Spain where the National Health System retire physicians from practice at age 65 and in some cases at age 70 is discussed. The author analyzes what happens in other activities of human mankind such as in the arts, painting, architecture, music, physics and philosophy, where there are plenty of outstanding examples of men and women doing their best work well over the age of 65. The names of some distinguished Mexican physicians past presidents of the Academy of Medicine are mentioned, all of them legends in the field of medicine who worked or continue to work many, many years after the age of 65. The author recognizes the process of accreditation and certification of medical specialists in Mexico that is carried out by the 47 specialty councils that have the recognition of the National Committee for Medical Specialties: CONACEM. Finally he offers his personal thoughts about what a physician may do when he or she is thinking of retiring and urges them not to throw away their personal experiences of many years in medical practice but instead to utilize the social networks such as Twitter or Facebook in order to continue to provide their expertise to young physicians who may benefit greatly.

  16. A blueprint for legislative action : consensus recommendations for U.S. Climate Protection Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In January 2007, we issued our Call for Action in which we joined together to call for prompt enactment of national legislation in the United States to slow, stop and reverse the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the shortest time reas...

  17. Regulating nanomaterials: bottlenecks and perspectives in EU legislation on chemicals and products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelezang-Stoute, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines some of the challenges that nanomaterials involve for the EU legislator, due to the specific features of these materials and their uncertain risks for human health and the environment. The reporting and information requirements for the marketing of nanomaterials form a focal

  18. Comprehensive fire prevention legislation enacted by the California legislature in 1992 after the East Bay firestorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Richman

    1995-01-01

    Legislation was enacted by the California Legislature in 1992 after the East Bay firestorm on the Oakland/Berkeley border; it included roofing standards, brush clearance, and other safety requirements. Fire safety personnel and local government officials all participated in developing these measures and presenting them to the California Legislature.

  19. Legislative proposal for a controlled foreign companies regime in Poland from an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Małgorzata Hybka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tackling corporate profit shifting requires appropriate anti-avoidance measures. This article reviews one of these measures, a controlled foreign companies (corporations regime. It has been implemented in many countries, in some of them as early as the 1960s. The need for its introduction has also been expressed on many occasions by the Polish legislator. The article is composed of three sections. The first considers the reasons for the implementation of the analyzed regime. The second describes the controlled foreign corporation legislation in the USA and selected European Union member states. The last section is devoted to a bill on taxing controlled foreign companies in Poland.

  20. SYSTEMIC REFORM OF CHINESE ANTICORRUPTION LEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of ongoing systematic reform of Chinese anticorruption legislation and practice of its enforcement.The purpose of the article is to formulate ways of improvement Chinese anti-corruption legislation.The methods of legislation analysis and synthesis of legislative gaps and contradictions are used.The results, scope of application. Nowadays, China is moving from the struggle against corruption by political means to the struggle by legal means. In attempt to construct a system of anti-corruption legislation, China is actively forming a dualistic normative system and a mechanism for the interaction between party norms and state legislation. A multilevel vertical-integrated system of anti-corruption legislation with "The anti-corruption law" as a core was created; the Party is stressing the priority status of preventive legislation and the auxiliary role of legislation on control over power. This system should became the basis for building Chinese anti-corruption legislation. The author formulated a system of principles of Chinese anti-corruption legislation, including the principles of efficiency, consistency, economy and gradualism. The importance of the anti-corruption legislative program, the task formulated in 2015, is underlined. The list of the main anti-corruption legislative acts has been determined, including legislation in the aspects "do not dare to take [bribes]", "cannot take [bribes]" and "do not want to take [bribes]". The problem of improving the legislation in the "do not dare to take" aspect have been specially considered, including improvement of criminal legislation, adoption of the law on accountability and responsibility of public servants, as well as the adoption of an anti-corruption law. The main alternatives and problems of improving legislation in the context of "not being able to take" are considered, such as adoption of laws on declaration of property of public servants

  1. [The new pharmacovigilance legislation in practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekmans, André W; Mol, Peter G M

    2014-01-01

    Recent European legislation has provided new tools to enhance the overseeing of medicinal products in the postmarketing phase. Package leaflets of newly approved medicines contain a black inverted triangle as a signal for enhanced monitoring. The leaflets also have clear instructions on how to report possible adverse drug reactions. Databases of drug reactions are accessible by the public. The most important change is the establishment of the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) within the European Medicines Agency (EMA). This Committee will review safety signals of medicinal products arising in the member states of the European Union. The Committee could recommend adaptation of the package leaflet, or suspension or revocation of the marketing authorisation. The PRAC is also involved in the assessment of risk management plans for medicinal products and post-authorisation efficacy and safety studies.

  2. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  3. Colombian legislation for air contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-01-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms

  4. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  5. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...... and subsequent proxy consent, as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to describe the delay associated with obtaining consent and to assess whether consent from NOK or GP/Danish Health and Medicines Authority is obtained with delays beyond the intervention. METHODS: In a prospective study, 171 comatose...... days (IQR: 6-23, max. 527 days). CONCLUSION: NOK fully accepted participation in a clinical trial after OHCA with short delays in consent. Consent from GPs was associated with long delays beyond the intervention, which make GPs less appropriate for proxy consent of incapacitated adults in acute...

  6. [The issue of harm reduction in Polish legislation concerning drug addiction. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeyko, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of work is the assessment of legal permissibility for health and social harm reduction programmes resulting from drug use in the context of the polish legislation on narcotic drug use and drug addiction. The thesis outlines harm reduction programmes implemented worldwide, role of penal code in counteracting both narcotic drug supply and demand, attitude of United Nations and European Union to the drug problem including harm reduction programmes, solutions adopted in the selected European Union member states. The main part of the thesis presents the evolution of polish legislation regarding drug use and analysis of legal permissibility for harm reduction programmes in this context. The conclusion inferred is the statement that implementation of the harm reduction programmes requires a certain minimal depenalisation of the drug use by a legislator and the fact that restrictive legal system impedes programme realization. Thus the thesis postulates depenalisation of small drug quantities for personal use.

  7. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met......, waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have...

  8. Legislative Process For National Atomic Energy Laws Various Legal Approaches And Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Legislative Process for National Atomic Energy Laws (NAELs) aim at establishing a legal base for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Various approaches (partial and comprehensive) to draft the NAELs are studied. The paper also studies some national nuclear energy laws through a comparative legal analysis and the important developments that have taken place in the legislative process for NAELs. There are lessons learned from the legislative process for NAELs. First, each state must develop its own legislative framework based on its own situation. Second, although the NAELs have common features, they vary considerably due to national legal traditions, social, economic circumstances and cultural values. Third, the NAELs have also evolved in time. Fourth, the technical standards, rules and guidelines should not be part of legislation issued by the Parliament because they would also facilitate quick adaption to new technical developments. Fifth, interface between legal and technical issues, requiring legal and technical experts to interact with each other. Sixth, continuing assessment that may lead to amendments to the law over time

  9. Factors for and against establishing and working in private practice correlated with work-related behavior and experience patterns of Ferman physicians in Schleswig-Holstein: A 2-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Voltmer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify factors in favor of or against establishing and working in private practice, to determine the quality of life and work-related behavior and experience patterns of German physicians working in private practice, and to analyze the correlation of those factors. Material and Methods: A representative sample of physicians in private practice in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was surveyed according to a 2-year longitudinal design (T1 – 2008, N = 549 and T2 – 2010, N = 414. The study included 22 items regarding the attractiveness of establishing and working in private practice, and the questionnaires: the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12, and Work-related Behavior and Experience Pattern (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster – AVEM. Results: Job satisfaction among those private practitioners decreased over time but their willingness to choose the profession once again remained unchanged. Patient care and the continuity of physician-patient relationship encouraged establishing and working in private practice; state regulation, financial risk, and administrative effort weighed against it. At both T1 and T2, physicians scored significantly lower for mental health than general population. About 20% of physicians showed a healthy behavior and experience pattern but 40% of them showed the pattern of reduced working motivation. About 20% of participants were at elevated risk for overexertion and for burnout. Physical and mental health as well as the total distribution of patterns did not change significantly during the 2-year observation period. Physicians at higher burnout risk rated tasks related to patient care considerably less positively than those with healthy pattern. Conclusions: In order to improve job satisfaction and quality of life, and to make private practice more attractive, those German physicians require a improved legislation, b educational programs that promote the attractiveness of private practice

  10. The physician leader as logotherapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, E R

    1998-01-01

    Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.

  11. The impact of physician entrepreneurship on escalating health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Health care costs in this country are escalating at an alarming rate. Many economists predict this rate is unsustainable due to the long-term financial burden on our citizenry. Moreover, our health care delivery is fragmented and wasteful. United States health care is ranked last among the industrialized nations. Proponents of the U.S. system of health care extoll the virtues of our "free market." This article explores the role of physician entrepreneurship in the perversion of the marketplace of health care delivery. Medicine has become overcommercialized at the expense of patients and taxpayers. The time has come to implement legislative measures to redirect our dysfunctional health care system. This article explores the role of physician entrepreneurship in rising health care costs. Under the wrong circumstances, the invisible hand of the free market can become dysfunctional.

  12. Fractals for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamrin, Cindy; Stern, Georgette; Frey, Urs

    2010-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the study of fractals in medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of fractals, of techniques available to describe fractals in physiological data, and we propose some reasons why a physician might benefit from an understanding of fractals and fractal analysis, with an emphasis on paediatric respiratory medicine where possible. Among these reasons are the ubiquity of fractal organisation in nature and in the body, and how changes in this organisation over the lifespan provide insight into development and senescence. Fractal properties have also been shown to be altered in disease and even to predict the risk of worsening of disease. Finally, implications of a fractal organisation include robustness to errors during development, ability to adapt to surroundings, and the restoration of such organisation as targets for intervention and treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Prevention and control of substance abuse in the workplace: a new and significant opportunity for the occupational physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, L; Porru, S; Feltrin, G; Latocca, R; Bonzini, M; Bordini, L; Ferrario, M M

    2009-01-01

    Substance abuse is nowadays a recurrent theme in the daily practice of occupational physicians (OP), mainly owing to recent legislation prescribing mandatory assessments for workers performing job tasks involving danger to third parties. While some degree of bureaucracy is inevitable and legislation seems to be inclined towards deterrence, it is recommended to take advantage of the opportunities offered for practical interventions which, in accordance with science and ethics, the OP can carry out in the workplace. Risk assessment, health surveillance, fitness for work, health promotion and cooperation in management issues are the areas of intervention required for the OP to fully accomplish his role in the practice of modern occupational health. We propose specific activities for the OP so as to highlight roles and obligations, based on available scientific evidence and established codes of ethics. Lastly, we wish to emphasize the overall role of the OP in taking on responsibilities shared jointly with all the parties and in the approach to the substance abuse problem in all workplaces with the ultimate goal of acting for the benefit of workers, enterprises and society in general.

  14. Chemical Dependency and the Physician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Keith H.; Seppala, Marvin D.; Schipper, Agnes M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the nature and scope of addictive disease are commonly reported in the lay press, the problem of physician addiction has largely escaped the public's attention. This is not due to physician immunity from the problem, because physicians have been shown to have addiction at a rate similar to or higher than that of the general population. Additionally, physicians' addictive disease (when compared with the general public) is typically advanced before identification and intervention. This delay in diagnosis relates to physicians' tendency to protect their workplace performance and image well beyond the time when their life outside of work has deteriorated and become chaotic. We provide an overview of the scope and risks of physician addiction, the challenges of recognition and intervention, the treatment of the addicted physician, the ethical and legal implications of an addicted physician returning to the workplace, and their monitored aftercare. It is critical that written policies for dealing with workplace addiction are in place at every employment venue and that they are followed to minimize risk of an adverse medical or legal outcome and to provide appropriate care to the addicted physician. PMID:19567716

  15. The physician as moral entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J N

    1982-12-01

    This paper argues that the work of the contemporary physician is at least in part the work of a moral entrepreneur. The effects of religious affiliation and religiosity on the decision making of a modern doctor are examined in an analysis of the responses of 231 physicians to a mailed questionnaire. Decision-making issues were considered to be those with social/moral implications. Religious physicians tend to favor clergy involvement in social and procreative issues. Roman Catholic physicians oppose the involvement of the medical profession in birth control issues.

  16. Physician ownership of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, James; Cassil, Alwyn; Pham, Hoangmai H

    2010-12-01

    This Data Bulletin presents findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey, a nationally rep­resentative mail survey of U.S. physicians providing at least 20 hours per week of direct patient care. The sample of physicians was drawn from the American Medical Association master file and included active, nonfederal, office- and hospital-based physicians. Residents and fellows were excluded, as well as radiologists, anesthesiologists and pathologists. The survey includes responses from more than 4,700 phy­sicians, and the response rate was 62 percent. Since this Data Bulletin examines the extent of physician practice ownership or leasing of medical equipment, the sample was limited to 2,750 physicians practic­ing in community-based, physician-owned practices, who represent 58 percent of all physicians surveyed. Physicians employed by hospitals, who practiced in hospital-based settings or who worked in hospital-owned practices were excluded.

  17. Social media: physicians-to-physicians education and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehring, Keith A; De Martino, Ivan; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Sculco, Peter K

    2017-06-01

    Physician to physician communication is essential for the transfer of ideas, surgical experience, and education. Social networks and online video educational contents have grown exponentially in recent years changing the interaction among physicians. Social media platforms can improve physician-to-physician communication mostly through video education and social networking. There are several online video platforms for orthopedic surgery with educational content on diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and surgical technique. Social networking instead is mostly centered on sharing of data, discussion of confidential topics, and job seeking. Quality of educational contents and data confidentiality represent the major drawbacks of these platforms. Orthopedic surgeons must be aware that the quality of the videos should be better controlled and regulated to avoid inaccurate information that may have a significant impact especially on trainees that are more prone to use this type of resources. Sharing of data and discussion of confidential topics should be extremely secure according the HIPAA regulations in order to protect patients' confidentiality.

  18. Should physicians have facial piercings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. Survey. Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician.

  19. Features Of Legislation On The Bank Account Agreement Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Y. Katvickaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the basic stages of legislation on bank accounts in Russia development are analyzed. Author research features of accounts regulation in Russian Empire, Soviet Union and in modern conditions. It is noted that active development of operations on bank accounts and emergence of new types of bank accounts in Russia takes place in the second half of the XIX century. Account, at that time was considered as a kind of deposits on demand. In the Soviet period legal regulation of bank accounts and transactions on them was conducted by a quite extensive array of regulations that were adopted by various government agencies. One of the types of bank deposit agreements was the bank account agreement, according to which the banks, on behalf of customers carried out various types of payment transactions. In respect to concentration of considerable mass of payments in credit institutions it became possible to organize of non-cash payments. During the Soviet period of formation and development of civil law contract of bank accounts was an independent civil contract, other than a bank deposit agreement, which was intended to serve citizens and was a separate type of civil contract. In modern conditions for the proper understanding and legal interpretation of legal acts concerning the legal regulation of bank account agreement it is important to know position of the Constitutional Court in respect to this position and judicial practice. It is concluded that in Russian legislation and practice exists a fairly long history of legal regulation of operations with bank accounts. Accumulated practice requires further scientific analysis.

  20. Creating 'healthy built environment' legislation in Australia; a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Marie-Thow, Anne; Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon; McCue, Peter

    2017-09-05

    Influencing healthy public policy through health advocacy remains challenging. This policy analysis research uses theories of agenda setting to understand how health came to be considered for specific mention in legislation arising from land-use planning system reform in New South Wales, Australia. This qualitative study follows critical realist methodology to conduct a policy analysis of the case. We collected data from purposively sampled in-depth interviews (n = 9), a focus group and documentary analysis. We used three classic policy process (agenda setting) theories to develop an analytic framework for explaining the empirical data: Multiple Streams; Punctuated Equilibrium Theory and Advocacy Coalition Framework. The reform process presented a window of opportunity that opened incrementally over a 2 year period. The opportunity was grasped by individual policy entrepreneurs who subsequently formed a coalition of healthy planning advocates focused on strategically positioning 'health' as legislative objective for the new system. The actual point of influence seemed to appear suddenly when challenges to a perceived economic development agenda within the reforms peaked, and the health objective, see as non-threatening by all stakeholders, was taken up. Our analysis demonstrates how this particular point of influence followed sustained long-term activity by health advocates prior to and during the reform process. We demonstrate a theory-driven policy analysis of health advocacy efforts to influence an instance of major land-use planning reform. The application of multiple policy process theories enables deep understanding of what is required to effectively advocate for healthy public policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Public unawareness of physician reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Nicole Lilly; Fontanesi, John; Rush, Toni; Schatz, Richard A

    2017-10-31

    To assess subjects' perception of healthcare costs and physician reimbursement. The lack of transparency in healthcare reimbursement leaves patients and physicians unaware of the distribution of health care dollars. Anonymous survey-based study by means of convenience sampling. Participants were asked to estimate the total hospital cost and physician fee for one of the six medical procedures (n = 250). On the average for all 6 procedures, patients estimated the total cost was $36,177, ∼1,540% more than the actual Medicare rate of $7,333. Similarly, patients estimated the physician fee was $7,694, 1,474% more the actual Medicare rate of $589. Patients' perception of the total cost and physician fee are significantly higher than Medicare rates for all 6 procedures. This lack of insight may have widespread negative implications on the patient-physician relationship, on political trends to reduce physician reimbursement, and on a physician's desire to continue practicing medicine. © 2017 The Authors Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    services. Resident physicians should not be left unsupervised to care for critically ill patients. In settings in which the acuity is high, physicians who have completed residency should provide direct supervision for resident physicians. Supervising physicians should always be physically in the hospital for supervision of resident physicians who care for critically ill patientsThe ACGME should explicitly define “good” supervision by specialty and by year of training. Explicit requirements for intensity and level of training for supervision of specific clinical scenarios should be providedCenters for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) should use graduate medical education funding to provide incentives to programs with proven, effective levels of supervision. Although this action would require federal legislation, reimbursement rules would help to ensure that hospitals pay attention to the importance of good supervision and require it from their training programs Resident physician work hours Although the IOM “Sleep, supervision and safety” report provides a comprehensive review and discussion of all aspects of graduate medical education training, the report’s focal point is its recommendations regarding the hours that resident physicians are currently required to work. A considerable body of scientific evidence, much of it cited by the Institute of Medicine report, describes deteriorating performance in fatigued humans, as well as specific studies on resident physician fatigue and preventable medical errors. The question before this conference was what work redesign and cultural changes are needed to reform work hours as recommended by the Institute of Medicine’s evidence-based report? Extensive scientific data demonstrate that shifts exceeding 12–16 hours without sleep are unsafe. Several principles should be followed in efforts to reduce consecutive hours below this level and achieve safer work schedules. The recommendations are: Limit resident physician

  3. [Risk management in health care systems: the new legislative orientations in medical civil responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, A; Signorelli, C; Colzani, E

    2004-01-01

    The recent radical change in the relationships between physicians and patients has increased the frequency of malpractice. Consequently, on one hand, many physicians got used to avoiding any possible risk of denunciation by applying the so called "defensive medicine", while on the other hand, the insurance companies raised the prices of their premiums for policies concerning civil responsibility of health operators. In order to avoid this "vicious circle", some health structures created Units for the Risk Management related to malpractice, while others took advantage of the collaboration of Associations for Patients' Rights to create database about the most frequent medical mistakes. The need for a legislative change has been accepted by the Parliament which expects with the proposal n.108 (approved in spring 2002 by the Commission for Hygiene and Health of the Senate) to attribute the civil responsibility of the physicians to the hospitals (both private and public) for which they work, to constitute a Register of experts and to accelerate the legal disputes. The problem is complex and still to be solved, but it seems that time for a strong intervention in order to improve the situation has to come.

  4. Planning legislation and healthy air : a response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutis, P.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the legislative framework used to promote healthy air in Ontario with reference to the Planning Act, the 2001 Municipal Act, and the 2001 Brownfields Statute Law Amendment Act. The objective of the framework is to promote sustainable economic development in a manner which promotes healthy air, land and water. Another objective is to encourage a land use planning system that is led by provincial policy and which integrates matters of provincial interest. Provincial interests include the protection of ecological systems, agricultural resources, and the supply of energy and water. Provincial interests also include the efficient use of transportation, sewage, water and waste management systems. The Planning Act makes sure that any development and land use patterns that cause concern to public health and safety are avoided. The objectives for healthy communities are to promote street patterns and a mix of land uses in new and redeveloping areas which reduce trip length and facilitate walking, cycling and transit use to ultimately improve air quality, energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 1 ref, 1 fig

  5. Stricter antitrust legislation?; Verschaerfung des Kartellrechts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-15

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  6. Information Privacy: Culture, Legislation and User Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cockcroft

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003

  7. Legislative and political aspects of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the Senate bill on waste disposal the definition for high-level waste was based on the source of the waste. High-level waste was defined as the liquids and solids resulting from reprocessing. The other terms defined in that bill that are crucial for any legislation dealing with high-level waste are storage and disposal. In the Senate bill, the definition of storage specifically mentioned transuranic (TRU) waste, but it did not include TRU waste in the definition of disposal. In the four House versions of the nuclear waste bill, the definition of high-level waste are addressed more carefully. This paper discusses the following four House committee's versions particularly pointing out how TRU waste is defined and handled: (1) Science Committee bill; (2) Interior Committee bill; (3) Commerce Committee bill; and (4) Armed Service Committee bill. The final language concerning TRU waste will depend on the next series of conference between these Committees. After resolving any differences, conferences will be held between the House and Senate. Here a concensus bill will be developed and it will go to the Rules Committee and then to the floor

  8. [Chapter 2. The embryo in abortion legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Daniel

    2018-03-07

    For a long time, the legal condition of the child conceived, the embryo or the human fœtus, to use the language of biomedicine, was dominated by two main principles : one, having its roots in Roman law, made it possible to count it, by anticipation, among beings with a legal existence, so as to grant it its rights, as if it was already born (the infans conceptus maxim) : the other, protecting its life in utero, and so its chances of being born, by the penal incrimination of abortion. The legalisation of abortion by the ?Veil? law of 17 January 1975 upset this traditional approach of the law. The subsequent evolution of the legislation has accentuated the phenomenon. The promotion of the freedom of women to obtain an abortion has been accompanied by a correlated decline in the protection of the embryo. At the same time, abortion resting on medical techniques has become a means, precious for research, to obtain embryo or foetal cells or tissues. Eliminated on the one hand, the embryo has finally become on the other hand the object of medical and scientific stakes.

  9. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  10. Physician-Rating Web Sites: Ethical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samora, Julie Balch; Lifchez, Scott D; Blazar, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    To understand the ethical and professional implications of physician behavior changes secondary to online physician-rating Web sites (PRWs). The American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) Ethics and Professionalism Committee surveyed the ASSH membership regarding PRWs. We sent a 14-item questionnaire to 2,664 active ASSH members who practice in both private and academic settings in the United States. We received 312 responses, a 12% response incidence. More than 65% of the respondents had a slightly or highly unfavorable impression of these Web sites. Only 34% of respondents had ever updated or created a profile for PRWs, although 62% had observed inaccuracies in their profile. Almost 90% of respondents had not made any changes in their practice owing to comments or reviews. One-third of respondents had solicited favorable reviews from patients, and 3% of respondents have paid to improve their ratings. PRWs are going to become more prevalent, and more research is needed to fully understand the implications. There are several ethical implications that PRWs pose to practicing physicians. We contend that it is morally unsound to pay for good reviews. The recourse for physicians when an inaccurate and potentially libelous review has been written is unclear. Some physicians have required patients to sign a waiver preventing them from posting negative comments online. We propose the development of a task force to assess the professional, ethical, and legal implications of PRWs, including working with companies to improve accuracy of information, oversight, and feedback opportunities. It is expected that PRWs will play an increasing role in the future; it is unclear whether there will be a uniform reporting system, or whether these online ratings will influence referral patterns and/or quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physicians beware: revisiting the physician practice acquisition frenzy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmiller, Judith Riley

    2014-01-01

    This commentary compares the current physician practice acquisition frenzy to that of the mid-1990s and reflects on lessons learned. The bottom line: Physicians must understand that there were no "white knights" in the 1990s, and there really aren't any today. This article delineates five main factors that both physicians and hospital executives should thoroughly explore and agree on before an alignment or acquisition. Agreement on these issues is the glue that holds the deal together after the merger. These factors eliminate both buyer and seller remorse and delve into the true cultural alignment that must take place as the healthcare industry addresses the challenges of the future.

  12. Impact, compliance and control of legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panek, Aleksander; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    While the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) imposes Member States (MS) to set requirements, it does not specify the severity of those requirements, nor the measures to be taken to control implementation. Consequently, MS can fulfil the requirements of articles 4 through 6...... of the EPBD (minimum energy performance requirements for new and renovated buildings) without increasing the existing levels of requirements and without carrying out any kind of control. The main goal of this task of the European project ASIEPI was to provide a good view about the impact of the present EPBD...... on the requirements and how MS deal with the respect of requirements. Compliance and control are essential parts of successfully implementing the EPBD. The main recommendations and findings from reports collected vary significantly regarding EPBD implementation, the large potential for further savings, the needs...

  13. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2015 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; reasonable compensation equivalents for physician services in excluded hospitals and certain teaching hospitals; provider administrative appeals and judicial review; enforcement provisions for organ transplant centers; and electronic health record (EHR) incentive program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, and other legislation. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2014. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014. In addition, we discuss our proposals on the interruption of stay policy for LTCHs and on retiring the "5 percent" payment adjustment for collocated LTCHs. While many of the statutory mandates of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act apply to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, others will not begin to apply until 2016 and beyond. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revising requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that

  14. Forecasting Japan's physician shortage in 2035 as the first full-fledged aged society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Yuji

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Japan is rapidly becoming a full-fledged aged society, and physician shortage is a significant concern. The Japanese government has increased the number of medical school enrollments since 2008, but some researchers warn that this increase could lead to physician surplus in the future. It is unknown how many physicians will be required to accommodate future healthcare needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We simulated changes in age/sex composition of the population, fatalities (the number of fatalities for the consecutive five years, and number of physicians from 2010 to 2035. Two indicators were defined: fatalities per physician and fatalities by physician working hour, based on the data of the working hours of physicians for each tuple of sex and age groups. We estimated the necessary number of physicians in 2035 and the number of new physicians to maintain the indicator levels in 2010. RESULTS: The number of physicians per 1,000 population is predicted to rise from 2·00 in 2010 to 3·14 in 2035. The number of physicians aged 60 years or older is expected to increase from 55,375 (20% of physicians to 141,711 (36%. In 2010 and 2035, fatalities per physician were 23·1 and 24·0 for the total population, and 13·9 and 19·2 for 75 years or older, respectively. Fatalities per physician working hour are predicted to rise from 0·128 to 0·138. If working hours are limited to 48 hours per week in 2035, the number of fatalities per physician working hour is expected to be 0·196, and the number of new physicians must be increased by 53% over the current pace. DISCUSSION: The number of physicians per population continues to rise, but the estimated supply will not fulfill the demand for healthcare in the aging society. Strategies to increase the number of physicians and improve working conditions are urgently needed.

  15. Medicare: Documenting Teaching Physician Services Still a Problem. Report to Congressional Committees by the United State General Accounting Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Amounts billed for teaching physician services and paid by Medicare carriers were reviewed by the General Accounting Office (GAO) to determine whether such payments had been made only where the physicians had satisfied the requirements of the Social Security Act. Attention was focused on the requirement that teaching physicians must provide a…

  16. 43 CFR 20.506 - Appropriations, legislation and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appropriations, legislation and lobbying. 20.506 Section 20.506 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.506 Appropriations, legislation and lobbying...

  17. 48 CFR 231.205-22 - Legislative lobbying costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislative lobbying costs. 231.205-22 Section 231.205-22 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-22 Legislative lobbying costs. (a) Costs associated with...

  18. Evidence and argument in policymaking: development of workplace smoking legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to identify factors that affect the passage of public health legislation by examining the use of arguments, particularly arguments presenting research evidence, in legislative debates regarding workplace smoking restrictions. Methods We conducted a case-study based content analysis of legislative materials used in the development of six state workplace smoking laws, including written and spoken testimony and the text of proposed and passed bills and amendments. We coded testimony given before legislators for arguments used, and identified the institutional affiliations of presenters and their position on the legislation. We compared patterns in the arguments made in testimony to the relative strength of each state's final legislation. Results Greater discussion of scientific evidence within testimony given was associated with the passage of workplace smoking legislation that provided greater protection for public health, regardless of whether supporters outnumbered opponents or vice versa. Conclusion Our findings suggest that an emphasis on scientific discourse, relative to other arguments made in legislative testimony, might help produce political outcomes that favor public health.

  19. Game Theory and Educational Policy: Private Education Legislation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a game theory analysis of legislating private education in China, based on set of primary and secondary documents related to this issue. The article argues that shaping educational legislation is a dynamic, repeated game of negotiation, cooperation, and/or competition on multiple occasions among various interested actors,…

  20. Guidelines for the review of environmental-related legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of legislation for the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food is labelled as an international and national objective. Section 27(2) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 assigns a compulsory mandate to the South African government to take reasonable legislative and ...

  1. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  2. use of library and information services for legislative research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Keywords: Legislature, National Assembly, Library services, Legislative research, Information. Introduction. Information has ... offers core services for learning and research. It plays the role of support to the legislative learning .... Nisbet ,J and Schucksmith (1986) Learning strategies. London: Rutledge and Kegan Paul.

  3. Brazilian nuclear legislation. Revision n.1/2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Gilberto Cardoso de

    2002-01-01

    This work intends to facilitate the access to the Brazilian nuclear legislation and other legal instruments, foreseeing the use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in health, work and environment areas up to 2002. Legislation on the civil liability of nuclear damage, the law of licensing taxes, controlling and inspection are also included

  4. The Political Economy of Collective Labour Legislation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Y. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a seminal analysis of collective labour legislation in Taiwan. A chronological review of Taiwan’s legislative process suggests that the context of incorporation, institutional framework, mechanisms for delivering reforms, and sequence of reforms together shape the legislative outcomes of labour reforms at the collective level. While most labour legislation was revised and passed after the preceding sequence of economic transition, the reform of collective labour rights was greatly constrained by the flexible labour-market structure. In order for politicians to form new alliances with labour organizations, legislation of collective labour rights was a strategy to cultivate support during electoral periods. Consequently, the industrial relations changed following the enactment of substantial reform-oriented labour legislation. Theore-tically, the historical analysis of legislative procedure unveils evolutionary reform paths for collective labour rights in new democracies. At the same time, empirically, Taiwan demonstrates an alternative reform path in combination with incremental steps and progressive agendas. For new democracies of small economy, a window of opportunity for the progress in collective labour legislation remains open today, albeit with limitations.

  5. Washington D.C. and Safety Legislation for School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, William

    The author describes what is being done by legislators, the Department of Transportation (DOT), States, and school bus contract operators to improve school bus safety. He intimates that communication problems and political problems in the Congress and in the DOT have hindered progress of safety legislation. Two other areas of concern are…

  6. New mental health legislation in South Africa - principles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mental Health Care Act has been passed by parliament. There are a number of changes from the Mental Health Act (Act 18 of 1973) and this article outlines the basic principles of the new legislation and several of the procedural modifications which follow. The legislation has a strong human rights focus and addresses ...

  7. Equal pay legislation and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite equal pay legislation dating back 50 years, American women still earn 22% less than their male counterparts. In the UK, with its Equal Pay Act of 1970, and France, which legislated in 1972, the gap is 21% and 17% respectively, and in Australia it remains around 17%. Thus, the gender pay gap continues to be an important policy issue.

  8. Legislative and regulatory framework of radioactive waste management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper intent is to present an update on the Romanian legislative and regulatory framework in the area of radioactive waste management. Based on the experiences gained by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control in the past years, the recent legislative initiatives related to the coherent radwaste management policy at the national level are presented. (author)

  9. 75 FR 17854 - Travel Expenses of State Legislators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... expenses, but not other deemed business travel expenses, on specified legislative days. These regulations... state legislators' deductions for business travel expenses and suggested that the proposed regulations... from home and may be entitled to deduct actual business travel expenses under the general rules of...

  10. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.

  11. Physician morality and perinatal decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Zafra, Katherine; Amrita, Sabharwal; Wilson, Tracey E; Homel, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Given the same set of "facts" (e.g. fetal prognosis) different physicians may not give the same advice to patients. Studies have shown that people differ in how they prioritize moral domains, but how those domains influence counseling and management has not been assessed among obstetricians. Our objective was to see if, given the same set of facts, obstetricians' counseling would vary depending on their prioritization of moral domains. Obstetricians completed questionnaires that included validated scales of moral domains (e.g. autonomy, community, divinity), demographic data, and hypothetical scenarios (e.g. how aggressively they would pursue the interests of a potentially compromised child, the degree of deference they gave to parents' choices, and their relative valuation of fetal rights and women's rights). Multivariate logistic regression using backwards conditional selection was used to explore how participants responded to the moral dilemma scenarios. Among the 249 participating obstetricians there was wide variation in counseling, much of which reflected differences in prioritization of moral domains. For example, requiring a higher likelihood of neonatal survival before recommending a cesarean section with cord prolapse was associated with Fairness/Reciprocity, an autonomy domain which emphasizes treating individuals equally (OR=1.42, 90% CI=1.06-1.89, p=0.05). Honoring parents' request to wait longer to suspend attempts to resuscitate an infant with no heart rate or pulse was associated with the community domains (involving concepts of loyalty and hierarchy) of In-Group/Loyalty; OR 1.30, 90% CI=1.04-1.62, p=0.05 and Authority/Respect (OR=1.34, 90% CI=1.06-1.34, p=0.045). Carrying out an unconsented cesarean section was associated with In-Group Loyalty (OR=1.26, 90% CI=1.01-1.56, p=0.08) and religiosity (OR=1.08, 90% CI=1.00-1.16, p=0.08). The advice that patients receive may vary widely depending on the underlying moral values of obstetricians. Physicians

  12. [Social support and physicians' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decades, social support (SU) has proved to be an important psychological health resource in the prevention of mental and physical illness as well as for the promotion and restoration of general health. This study evaluates the relevance of social support for the health and well-being of physicians. This is a systematic literature review using PubMed from 1970 to 2007 with the keywords "social support", "physicians", "physician's role", and respectively "medical staff, hospital" from medical subheadings (MeSH). From the retrieved articles the additionally relevant keywords "marriage", "spouse", "friends", and "self-help groups" (MeSH) were identified and researched. Social support with distinct effects on physician's health could be shown in the areas of colleagues and professional network (30 sources), marriage/spouse (47), friends (3), and support groups (13). Female physicians appeared to seek and profit more from SU than did male physicians. Informal friendships have yet to be evaluated thoroughly. In the light of a physician's daily stress, SU appears to be a jeopardized resource that could significantly contribute to the prevention of burnout or other profession-related symptoms or illnesses.

  13. Interstate dispensing: a case for uniform, intuitive legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole L; King, Michelle A; Hope, Denise L

    2014-09-01

    Australian health practitioner registration is national, whereas legislation regarding the handling of medicines is governed by individual States and Territories. To align with the July 2010 national registration scheme some legislative modifications were made concerning scheduled drugs and poisons, but many differences between jurisdictions remain. In Queensland, the Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 (Qld) allows for dispensing of controlled drugs written by interstate prescribers but not lower scheduled specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs. The aim of this study was to assess awareness of seemingly counterintuitive legislation by pharmacists practising in South-East Queensland. Of 125 Gold Coast pharmacies contacted, 54 (43.2%) agreed to participate. The majority of pharmacists (88.9%) had good knowledge regarding controlled drugs. In contrast, they demonstrated confusion regarding specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs (51.9% correct awareness). Uniform legislation between jurisdictions or more intuitive legislation would ease practitioner confusion.

  14. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  15. Physician leadership. Learning to be a leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, C A

    1996-09-01

    As the business role of health care delivery expands and complex reform is imposed, physicians must assume leadership roles and imprint medical expertise on business dynamics. Before the end of this century, health care and its delivery will likely become unrecognizable to those who ended their practices only a decade ago. Traditional management will wither away to be replaced by self-managed, self-trained, and self-motivated workers, no longer employed in jobs but working through processes, projects, and assignments in integrative health care delivery systems. Becoming a leader is an active and arduous process that can no longer be approached haphazardly. To be effective, the physician must plot a course with clear and calculated intent and effort, which requires acquiring organizational tools and administrative skills to innovatively alter medical care for the good of all.

  16. Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: from evidence to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssen, H.J. van; Schellart, A.J.M.; Anema, J.R.; Boer, W.E.L. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education,

  17. Attitudes of pharmacists and physicians to antibiotic policies in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, A; Simpson, J M; Armour, C L

    1999-06-01

    Antibiotic therapy in hospitals has substantial impact on patient outcome and the pharmacy drug budget. Antibiotic policies have been implemented by some hospitals to improve the quality of patient outcome and cost of antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic policies impose certain requirements on pharmacists and physicians. Pharmacists' and physicians' attitudes to and opinions about antibiotic policies are likely to affect the usefulness of such policies. To determine the attitudes of pharmacists and physicians to antibiotic policies in New South Wales (NSW) hospitals. Pharmacists and physicians in NSW public hospitals were surveyed to determine their attitudes to and opinions on antibiotic policies. A simple one-stage cluster sample of 241 pharmacists and a two-stage cluster sample of 701 physicians were obtained. Factor analysis was used to identify the attitudinal dimensions. General linear modelling was used to investigate the effects of predictor variables on outcome variables. The response rates were 91% and 77% for pharmacists and physicians, respectively. Factor analysis identified three dimensions of attitude to antibiotic policies: that they encourage rational antibiotic use; that they improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing and that they are associated with some problems. The reliability of these factors (Cronbach's alpha) ranged from 0.71 to 0.74, and was 0.90 for the overall attitude scale. Pharmacists and physicians had a positive overall attitude to antibiotic policies. Whereas physicians recognize that antibiotic policies improve the quality of prescribing, this was highly correlated with identification of problems (alpha = 0.71). In urban hospitals, pharmacists were more likely than physicians to associate antibiotics with problems. There was a positive overall attitude to hospital antibiotic policies expressed by pharmacists and physicians.

  18. Validation of the Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Index for physicians in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappans, Renukha; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a collaborative working relationship between doctors and pharmacists is essential for the effective provision of pharmaceutical care. The Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Index (PPCI) was developed to assess the professional exchanges between doctors and pharmacists. Two versions of the PPCI was developed: one for physicians and one for pharmacists. However, these instruments have not been validated in Malaysia. To determine the validity and reliability of the PPCI for physicians in Malaysia. An urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This prospective study was conducted from June to August 2014. Doctors were grouped as either a "collaborator" or a "non-collaborator". Collaborators were doctors who regularly worked with one particular clinical pharmacist in their ward, while non-collaborators were doctors who interacted with any random pharmacist who answered the general pharmacy telephone line whenever they required assistance on medication-related enquiries, as they did not have a clinical pharmacist in their ward. Collaborators were firstly identified by the clinical pharmacist he/she worked with, then invited to participate in this study through email, as it was difficult to locate and approach them personally. Non-collaborators were sampled conveniently by approaching them in person as these doctors could be easily sampled from any wards without a clinical pharmacist. The PPCI for physicians was administered at baseline and 2 weeks later. Validity (face validity, factor analysis and discriminative validity) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the PPCI for physicians. A total of 116 doctors (18 collaborators and 98 non-collaborators) were recruited. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that the PPCI for physicians was a 3-factor model. The correlation of the mean domain scores ranged from 0.711 to 0.787. "Collaborators" had significantly higher scores compared to "non-collaborators" (81.4 ± 10.1 vs. 69.3 ± 12.1, p Malaysia.

  19. Role of the Physician Anesthesiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anesthesia, leading the Anesthesia Care Team and ensuring optimal patient safety. Physician anesthesiologists specialize in anesthesia care, ... used for major operations, such as a knee replacement or open-heart surgery. Monitored anesthesia or IV ...

  20. Physician Compare National Downloadable File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician Compare National Downloadable File is organized at the individual eligible professional level; each line is unique at the professional/enrollment...

  1. Association of American Indian Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the OMH website Tribal Stories Needed for CDC Museum Exhibition Stories should highlight how Native traditions and ... of American Indian Physicians. Website designed by Back40 Design & managed by Javelin CMS

  2. American College of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Career Center is where you can find your dream job Search Jobs Now Tweets about "@ACEPNow OR # ... For You emCareers.org Insurance Programs Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians emCareers.org Terms of ...

  3. [Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.

  4. Structuring competitive physician compensation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kim; Turcotte, Claire

    2010-12-01

    When developing and reviewing their physician compensation programs, healthcare organizations should: Understand the market data. Test outcomes of incentive plans for fair market value. Check total compensation for fair market value and reasonableness.

  5. [Collaboration between occupational physicians and other specialists including insurance physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkenberg, A M; van Sprundel, M; Stassijns, G

    2013-09-01

    Collaboration between various stakeholders is essential for a well-operating vocational rehabilitation process. Researchers have mentioned, among other players, insurance physicians, the curative sector and employers. In 2011 the WHO organised the congress "Connecting Health and Labour: What role for occupational health in primary care". The congress was also attended by representatives of the WONCA (World Organisations of Family Medicine). In general, everyone agreed that occupational health aspects should continue to be seen as an integral part of primary health care. However, it is not easy to find literature on this subject. For this reason we conducted a review. We searched for literature relating to collaboration with occupational physicians in Dutch, English and German between 2001 and autumn 2011. Our attention focused on cooperation with specialists and insurance physicians. Therefore, we searched PUBMED using MeSH terms and made use of the database from the "Tijdschrift voor bedrijfs- en verzekeringsgeneeskunde (TBV) [Dutch Journal for Occupational - and Insurance Medicine]". We also checked the database from the "Deutsches Arzteblatt [German Medical Journal]" and made use of the online catalogue from THIEME - eJOURNALS. Last but not least, I used the online catalogue from the German paper "Arbeits -, Sozial -, Umweltmedizin [Occupational -, Social -, Milieu Medicine]". Additionally, we made use of the "snowball - method" to find relevant literature. We found many references to this subject. The Netherlands in particular has done a lot of research in this field. However, there is little research on the cooperation between occupational physicians and specialists; in particular insurance physicians. This is interesting, because several authors have mentioned its importance. However, cooperation with other specialists seems not to be the norm. Therefore, cooperation between curative physicians (specialists but also family doctors), insurance physicians and

  6. Legislation and regulatory infrastructure for the safety of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    The essential generic characteristics of a national legislative and regulatory system for the safety of radioactive waste management are defined and discussed. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management as well as other relevant international legal instruments and guidelines are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the following characteristics of a national legislative and regulatory system: (i) definition of responsibilities, (ii) financing of future costs, (iii) nuclear and radiation safety requirements, (iv) siting and licensing procedures, (v) regulatory functions, and (vi) international co-operation. It is concluded that there exists an internationally endorsed basis for establishing effective national legislation and regulatory infrastructures for the safety of radioactive waste management. It is underlined that the continuing internationalization of the nuclear industry stresses the need for national legislation and regulatory infrastructure to be based on such internationally endorsed principles and standards. It is pointed out that regulators are accountable to the public and have to gain public trust by being active in the public arena, demonstrating their competence and integrity. Finally, prescriptive and goal-oriented international safety regimes are briefly discussed in the light of experience so far gained with the Convention on Nuclear Safety. (author)

  7. State legislatures and energy policy in the Northeast: energy facility siting and legislative action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    At the Federal level, a vast array of bureaucratic and legislative institutions are presently immersed in various explorations of energy policy and its national ramifications. Almost each of the 50 states has Energy offices. One element of the institutional/political equation, however, often is missed in studies of energy policy: the state legislature. This institution may well be vitally important to formulation of broad policies, and certainly is critical to successful implementation of certain aspects of those policies--especially when new enabling legislation, new tax incentives, or new regulatory powers are required. The study covers three main aspects of energy-policy formulation and action by state legislatures: legislative structure; enactment of energy-facility-siting laws; and passage (or defeat) of significant energy legislation of a more general nature. Emphasis is placed on energy-facility-siting statutes and approaches for two reasons. First, energy facilities have a great impact on land use, environmental quality, and economic growth. Second, siting of these facilities raises inherent conflicts in the attempt to achieve balance between potentially contradictory objectives. The states of New Jersey and Maryland were examined in considerable depth as examples in this study. (MCW)

  8. Sexual violence legislation in sub-Saharan Africa: the need for strengthened medico-legal linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Nduku; Ndung'u, Njoki; Nthamburi, Nerida; Ajema, Caroline; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Six sub-Saharan African countries currently have laws on sexual violence, including Kenya, and eight others have provisions on sexual violence in other legislation. Effective legislation requires functioning medico-legal linkages to enable both justice to be done in cases of sexual violence and the provision of health services for survivors of sexual violence. The health sector also needs to provide post-rape care services and collect and deliver evidence to the criminal justice system. This paper reviews existing data on sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and summarises the content of sexual violence legislation in the region and the strengths and weaknesses of existing medico-legal linkages, using Kenya as a case study. Many sub-Saharan African countries do not yet have comprehensive post-rape care services, nor substantial co-ordination between HIV and sexual and reproductive health services, the legal and judicial systems, and sexual violence legislation. These need to be integrated by cross-referrals, using standardised referral guidelines and pathways, treatment protocols, and medico-legal procedures. Common training approaches and harmonised information across sectors, and common indicators, would facilitate government accountability. Joint and collaborative planning and working at country level, through sharing of information and data between the different systems remain key to achieving this.

  9. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Physician motivation, satisfaction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, S E; Clement, D G

    1997-01-01

    Physicians are working harder today and enjoying it less. What has happened to create such dissatisfaction among those in one of the most autonomous professions? What can be done to address the anger, fear and unhappiness? This article is an analysis of the factors influencing human motivation. Maslow's hierarchy of needs--physiological, safety/security, social/affiliation, esteem and self-actualization--is used to suggest ways physicians can satisfy their needs in turbulent financial and professional times.

  11. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  12. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  13. Meeting the political and the legislative Copenhagen Criteria, the case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LL.M. Rinor Hoxha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The next enlargement of the European Union is predicted to be in the Balkans. Kosovo, a small country of the Balkan Peninsula, which has been declared as an independent state in 2008, aims the membership in EU. Kosovo is currently at the stage of negotiating the Stabilization and Association Agreement with EU. For the membership in EU, candidate countries are required to achieve certain criteria: political, legislative, economic and administrative. The first three are known as the Copenhagen Criteria, whereas the last one as the Madrid Criteria. This paper looks to briefly asses the difficulties of Kosovo in meeting the two Copenhagen Criteria: the political and the legislative one. Although, Kosovo has achieved certain progress related to this matter, this paper presents only the dimensions where Kosovo is lacking in achieving the aforementioned requirements.

  14. Analysis of a global random stratified sample of nurse legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Fernández-Fernández, M P; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2015-06-01

    To identify, compare and contrast the major component parts of heterogeneous stratified sample of nursing legislation. Nursing legislation varies from one jurisdiction to another. Up until now no research exists into whether the variations of such legislation are random or if variations are related to a set of key attributes. This mixed method study used a random stratified sample of legislation to map through documentary analysis the content of 14 nursing acts and then explored, using quantitative techniques, whether the material contained relates to a number of key attributes. These attributes include: legal tradition of the jurisdiction; model of regulation; administrative approach; area of the world; and the economic status of the jurisdiction. Twelve component parts of nursing legislation were identified. These were remarkably similar irrespective of attributes of interest. However, not all component parts were specified in the same level of detail and the manner by which the elements were addressed did vary. A number of potential relationships between the structure of the legislation and the key attributes of interest were identified. This study generated a comprehensive and integrated map of a global sample of nursing legislation. It provides a set of descriptors to be used to undertake further quantitative work and provides an important policy tool to facilitate dialogue between regulatory bodies. At the individual nurse level it offers insights that can help nurses pursue recognition of credentials across jurisdictions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  15. Efficient lighting in buildings: The lack of legislation in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, António Manuel; Martins, António Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of building designers is conditioned by the existing legislation and regulations in the national context in which they operate. However, in the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight, and therefore, designers are not stimulated to adopt solutions that make use of the existing potential of sunlight availability. In the same way, it is difficult to understand the lack of specific regulation, with quantified targets, limiting power density of artificial lighting installed inside buildings. The present opportunity, generated by the need to carry out the revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation, should be used to fill the existing gap in national legislation regarding those matters. In this paper the authors present some proposals for future legislation that will have as central purpose the utilization of efficient lighting systems and the promotion of architectural solutions that optimize the use of daylighting. It is possible, and desirable, to add new directives to national legislation that contribute to the improvement of Portuguese buildings, characterized by its good performance in terms of daylight availability, and at the same time, increasing the energy efficiency and reducing the energy consumption of lighting systems installed in those buildings. - Highlights: • In the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight. • Lack of specific regulation limiting power density of artificial lighting. • Revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation. • Some proposals for future legislation. • Improvement of Portuguese buildings promoting energy efficiency

  16. Accountability legislation: Implications for financial and performance reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Rixon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to first examine the implications of accountability legislation on the financial and performance reporting of a public sector agency in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador and secondly, to compare the level of accountability with Stewart’s (1984 ladder of accountability. This paper is based on the first phase of a two-phase study. The first phase focuses on the initial impacts of accountability legislation on agencies and the challenges created by the legislation’s ‘one size fits all’ approach. The second phase of this study will examine the impact of the legislation on stakeholders after it has been in operation for five years. The second phase will include interviews with stakeholders to ascertain the level of satisfaction with the new legislation. The first phase of the study is significant since it highlights how governments could consider stakeholder needs when drafting such legislation. This research contributes to the body of literature on stakeholder accountability since there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the impact of accountability legislation on public sector agencies. An important contribution of this paper is the introduction of a framework for legislated accountability reporting. The main theoretical frameworks used to analyse the findings are Stewart’s (1984 ladder of accountability in conjunction with Friedman and Miles (2006 ladder of stakeholder management and engagement.

  17. Medical ethical knowledge and moral attitudes among physicians in Bavaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrowski, Jana; Schuster, Tibor; Strube, Wolfgang; Steger, Florian

    2012-02-01

    Everyday clinical practice requires knowledge of medical ethics and the taking of moral positions. We investigated the ethical knowledge and attitudes of a representative sample of physicians with regard to end-of-life decisions, euthanasia, and the physician-patient relationship. 192 physicians (96 women, 96 men; mean age 50) in a random sample of Bavarian physicians completed our structured questionnaire. Data were collected from September to November 2010. There was much uncertainty among the respondents about the relevant knowledge for end-of-life decisions and the implementation of existing guidelines and laws on euthanasia and advance directives. Attitudes to ethical questions were found to be correlated with the length of time the physicians had been in practice. Physicians' personal values and moral attitudes play a major role in clinical decision-making. We used a questionnaire to examine physicians' opinions about end-of-life issues and to determine the factors that might influence them. We found their knowledge of medical ethics to be inadequate. Competence in medical ethics needs to be strengthened by more ethical teaching in medical school, specialty training, and continuing medical education.

  18. Strikes by physicians: a historical perspective toward an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren

    2006-01-01

    Current conditions surrounding the house of medicine-including corporate and government cost-containment strategies, increasing market-penetration schemes in health care, along with clinical scrutiny and the administrative control imposed under privatization by managed care firms, insurance companies, and governments-have spurred an upsurge in physician unionization, which requires a revisiting of the issue of physician strikes. Strikes by physicians have been relatively rare events in medical history. When they have occurred, they have aroused intense debate over their ethical justification among professionals and the public alike, notwithstanding what caused the strikes. As physicians and other health care providers increasingly find employment within organizations as wage-contract employees and their work becomes more highly rationalized, more physicians will join labor organizations to protect both their economic and their professional interests. As a result, these physicians will have to come to terms with the use of the strike weapon. On the surface, many health care strikes may not ever seem justifiable, but in certain defined situations a strike would be not only permissible but an ethical imperative. With an exacerbation of labor strife in the health sector in many nations, it is crucial to explore the question of what constitutes an ethical physician strike.

  19. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  20. MODEL-BASED VALIDATION AND VERIFICATION OF ANOMALIES IN LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An anomaly in legislation is absence of completeness, consistency and other desirable properties, caused by different semantic, syntactic or pragmatic reasons. In general, the detection of anomalies in legislation comprises validation and verification. The basic idea of research, as presented in this paper, is modelling legislation by capturing domain knowledge of legislation and specifying it in a generic way by using commonly agreed and understandable modelling concepts of the Unified Modelling Language (UML. Models of legislation enable to understand the system better, support the detection of anomalies and help to improve the quality of legislation by validation and verification. By implementing model-based approach, the object of validation and verification moves from legislation to its model. The business domain of legislation has two distinct aspects: a structural or static aspect (functionality, business data etc., and a behavioural or dynamic part (states, transitions, activities, sequences etc.. Because anomalism can occur on two different levels, on the level of a model, or on the level of legislation itself, a framework for validation and verification of legal regulation and its model is discussed. The presented framework includes some significant types of semantic and syntactic anomalies. Some ideas for assessment of pragmatic anomalies of models were found in the field of software quality metrics. Thus pragmatic features and attributes can be determined that could be relevant for evaluation purposes of models. Based on analogue standards for the evaluation of software, a qualitative and quantitative scale can be applied to determine the value of some feature for a specific model.

  1. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation; Irradiacion de Alimentos. Legislacion Vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdejo S, M. [Secretaria de Salud. Subsecretaria de Regulacion y Fomento Sanitario. Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos. Mariano Escobedo No. 366- 4o. Piso. Col. Nueva Anzures. Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named `Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives` standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  2. Problems encountered in embodying the principles of ICRP-26 and the revised IAEA safety standards into UK national legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the United Kingdom procedures and format for safety legislation and goes on to show how the necessary legislation for radiological protection will fit into the general framework. The United Kingdom, as a member of the European Community and EURATOM, is bound to implement the Euratom Directive on radiological protection within the next few years. The latest draft of the Directive takes account of the recommendations of ICRP-26 and further, a recent draft of the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards is a composite of both the Directive and ICRP-26. Thus, the effect of embodying the principles of the Directive is to embody the principles of ICRP-26 and the Basic Safety Standards. Some of the problems which have been met are described and in particular there is discussion of the problems arising from the incorporation of the three ICRP-26 facets of dose control, namely justification, optimization and limitation, into a legislative package. The UK system of evolving safety legislation now requires considerable participation by all the parties affected (or by their representatives). This paper indicates that the involvement of persons affected, coupled with a legislative package which consists of a hierarchy of (a) regulations; (b) codes of practice; and (c) guidance notes, will result in the fundamental principles of ICRP-26 being incorporated into UK legislation in a totally acceptable way. (author)

  3. Association between fire-safe cigarette legislation and residential fire deaths in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Rebecca K; Marshall, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarettes and other tobacco-related smoking products have traditionally been a major ignition source for residential fire deaths. In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws requiring that cigarettes self-extinguish if they are not being smoked (so-called fire-safe cigarette laws). The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between state-level implementation of fire-safe cigarette legislation and the rate of residential fire dea...

  4. Fighting Falsified Medicines with Paperwork – A Historic Review of Danish Legislation Governing Distribution of Medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Rasmus; Kaae, Susanne; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Many areas of pharmaceutical legislation in the European Union (EU) are harmonised in order to promote the internal market and protect public health. Ideally, harmonisation leads to less fragmented regulation and cross-border complexities. This study, however, focuses on an increasingly harmonise...... the drastic increases in requirements mandated by the Falsified Medicines Directive of 2011 correspond to a new approach to governing the pharmaceutical supply chain....

  5. Reforming Current Legislation On the Import and Export of Research Materials

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Voinov; Sh. A. Dzhabrailov; I. B. Khlebnikov

    2014-01-01

    The current procedure for importing and exporting materials for research and development activity prevents their prompt delivery, which leads to a decrease in the effectiveness of research and development activity conducted by Russian scientific and educational organizations. A simplified procedure for importing and exporting research materials (issuing a uniform permit required for importing and exporting research materials into and from the Russian Federation) is proposed at the legislative...

  6. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  7. A 1992 update on legislation and regulations affecting power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the major energy and related environmental legislation and regulations affecting power generation and recent developments in these areas, including: The growth of non-utility electricity generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA); The Clean Air Act and the Amendments of 1990 (CAAA); Proposed legislation to implement the National Energy Strategy (NES); The EPA WEPCO decision, the Court of Appeals ruling on the EPA decision and attempts at a 'WEPCO Fix' in both legislation (NES) and new EPA regulations. 16 refs

  8. The impact of state legislation on eye banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farge, E J; Silverman, L M; Khan, M M; Wilhelmus, K R

    1994-02-01

    Corneal transplantation, the most common transplantation procedure done in the United States, requires access to a sufficient number of donor eyes. We examined how laws governing tissue donation affect availability of corneal tissue by reviewing records of the Lions Eye Bank of Texas, Houston, from 1961 through 1990 (43,696 eyes from 21,898 donors). Relevant Texas statutes included the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 1970, the Justice of the Peace/Medical Examiner Law of 1977, and the Routine Inquiry Law of 1988. Before 1970, the mean (+/- SD) number of donated corneas was 72 +/- 38 per year; enactment of each statute above was associated with increased mean annual donations of 215 +/- 87, 1329 +/- 562, and 1958 +/- 33 corneas, respectively. The Justice of the Peace/Medical Examiner Law yielded significantly younger donors (who died of trauma), and the Routine Inquiry Law increased the number of hospitalized donors. Data from this eye bank were compared with current state laws nationwide. Effective legislation is a means to meet national ophthalmic surgical needs.

  9. Child sex tourism: extending the borders of sexual offender legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Holt, Ben W; Rabun, John S; Phillips, Gary; Scott, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Child sex tourism, the act of traveling to engage in sexual acts with minors, plagues developing nations worldwide. Several laws have been passed internationally in recent years designed to curtail this practice. Government entities and human rights organizations have driven these efforts. United States citizens represent a significant proportion of participants in child sex tourism. The PROTECT Act of 2003 prohibits United States citizens from participating in sexual acts with minors while traveling, and establishes extraterritorial jurisdiction. The case of Michael Lewis Clark, the first United States citizen convicted under this legislation, is highlighted. Child sex tourism poses unique issues to courts that will require ongoing clarification as challenges arise. This article discusses potential future challenges, describes strategies to address this problem, and relates this issue to psychiatry. Mental health providers may have the role of evaluating both the victims and perpetrators of child sex tourism. The authors propose a classification system for offenses and an initial list of topics to discuss with victims. The authors also describe the proper mechanism for reporting United States citizens suspected of participating in child sex tourism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The accounting and tax legislation of the Greek football clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANAGIOTIS E. DIMITROPOULOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new «capital form» establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme, the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.

  11. Handgun Legislation and Changes in Statewide Overall Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C; Butterworth, Sarah E

    2017-04-01

    To examine the extent to which 4 laws regulating handgun ownership were associated with statewide suicide rate changes. To test between-group differences in statewide suicide rate changes between 2013 and 2014 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia with and without specific laws, we ran analyses of covariance. We found significant differences in suicide rate changes from 2013 to 2014 in states with mandatory waiting periods and universal background checks relative to states without such laws. States with both laws differed significantly from those with neither. No significant differences in rate changes were noted for open carry restrictions or gun lock requirements. Some state laws regulating aspects of handgun acquisition may be associated with lower statewide suicide rates. Laws regulating handgun storage and carrying practices may have a smaller effect, highlighting that legislation is likely most useful when its focus is on preventing gun ownership rather than regulating use and storage of guns already acquired. Public Health Implications. The findings add to the increasing evidence in support of a public health approach to the prevention of suicide via firearms, focusing on waiting periods and background checks.

  12. Market, Legislation Make Wind an Attractive Investment in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-06-01

    This brochure, part of the SEP Stellar Projects series, covers development of wind energy in Texas due to favorable legislation and public policy and favorable market forces. Those odd shaped structures popping up out in West Texas aren't funny looking oil rigs and they're not genetically altered cotton plants. They're wind turbines, an old technology with a 21st century update. Once too expensive for commercial production, the addition of computers to wind turbines and the rise in fossil fuel prices has brought the cost of wind-generated electricity in line with other power sources. A push by the 1999 Legislature to restructure the retail electric power market put in place rules that encourage wind generation. One rule requires Texas utilities to get an additional 2,000 megawatts of their power from renewable resources such as wind and solar power by 2009. Rules easing the cost of transmitting electricity from remote areas also aid the development of wind farms in West Texas.

  13. [Knowledge, attitude and opinion of patients regarding the new German legislation on advance care planning : Results of a survey in a department of general internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmeadawy, S; Fitzner, C; Elsner, F; Dietrich, C G

    2017-02-01

    In September 2009 a new legislation for advance care planning was introduced in Germany with the important characteristics of bindingness and unlimited validity for individual directives. Knowledge regarding this act and the attitude towards its characteristics among patients is unclear. Analysis of knowledge, attitude and opinion of patients in a general internal medical department regarding advance care planning in general and the recent German legislation. A total of 200 consecutive patients in an internal medicine ward were interviewed with the help of a questionnaire regarding their attitude to and knowledge on advance care planning in general and the current legislation. Approximately 40 % of the patients had issued some form of directive (either advance care directive or health care proxy) and only 7.5 % were advised by their physicians to make an advance directive. Patients with no directive were not willing to deal with dying and death, were not well-informed about directives or assumed that relatives or physicians would make an appropriate decision. Characteristics of the new legislation were controversially assessed; only 21 % of the patients wished to have a literal implementation of their directive. Regarding the content of an advance directive, more than 80 % of the patients voted for pain control in the palliative setting. The proportion of patients with a directive regarding advance care planning is only slowly increasing. Many patients are not well-informed, do not want to deal with dying or would like to delegate decisions to relatives and physicians. The present characteristics of the German legislation are controversially assessed and often do not represent the wishes of the patients.

  14. [Pregnancy and smoking: the occupational physician's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugniez, A; Duquesne, D; Fontaine, B

    2005-04-01

    It has become urgent to initiate preventive measures to avoid occupation exposure of pregnant women to smoking. Tobacco smoke is a recognized cause of respiratory cancer and a large number of workers are exposed to substances classified as cancerogenic agents. The occupational physician can provide information on risks, measure biological markers (CO in ambient air, serum markers such as CO in expired air, carboxyhemoglobin or cotinine), counsel the employer concerning elimination of the secondary smoke current or the management of toxic materials, and propose modifications of the ventilation system. The current legislation (Evin law) should be included in the house rules. In the event a non-smoking pregnant woman is exposed to passive smoking, the work post should be adapted or changed. Smoking women should be encouraged to stop smoking and provided with the necessary support to achieve cessation. The woman's individual maternity book let should include information on the risk of smoking and encourage contact with the primary care physician, the gynecologist, or the anti-smoking care center. The occupational physician should search for addictive or occupational co-exposures.

  15. Physician communication via Internet-enabled technology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil G; Randall, Glen E; Archer, Norman P; Musson, David M

    2017-10-01

    The use of Internet-enabled technology (information and communication technology such as smartphone applications) may enrich information exchange among providers and, consequently, improve health care delivery. The purpose of this systematic review was to gain a greater understanding of the role that Internet-enabled technology plays in enhancing communication among physicians. Studies were identified through a search in three electronic platforms: the Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search identified 5140 articles; of these, 21 met all inclusion criteria. In general, physicians were satisfied with Internet-enabled technology, but consensus was lacking regarding whether Internet-enabled technology improved efficiency or made a difference to clinical decision-making. Internet-enabled technology can play an important role in enhancing communication among physicians, but the extent of that benefit is influenced by (1) the impact of Internet-enabled technology on existing work practices, (2) the availability of adequate resources, and (3) the nature of institutional elements, such as privacy legislation.

  16. Physician-assisted dying: thoughts drawn from Albert Camus' writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzaro, Claudia

    2018-03-20

    Physician-assisted dying (assisted suicide and euthanasia) is currently an intensely discussed topic in several countries. Despite differences in legislation and application, countries with end-of-life laws have similar eligibility criteria for assistance in dying: individuals must be in a hopeless situation and experience unbearable suffering. Hopelessness, as a basic aspect of the human condition, is a central topic in Albert Camus' philosophical work The Myth of Sisyphus, which addresses the question of suicide. Suffering in the face of a hopeless situation, and the way doctors approach this suffering, is the topic of his novel The Plague, which describes the story of a city confronted with a plague epidemic. In this paper, I draw philosophical and ethical conclusions about physician-assisted dying based on an analysis of central concepts in the work of Camus-specifically, those treated in The Myth of Sisyphus and The Plague. On the basis of my interpretation of Camus' work, I argue that hopelessness and unbearable suffering are useless as eligibility criteria for physician-assisted dying, given that they do not sufficiently elucidate where the line should be drawn between patients who should to be eligible for assistance and those who should not.

  17. [Assessment of physicians? : Results of a sample analysis for the selection of physicians for staff positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anheuser, P; Kranz, J; Dieckmann, K P; Steffens, J; Oubaid, V

    2017-11-01

    As in aviation and other organizations requiring high levels of safety, medical complications and errors can in most cases be traced back to the human factor as a main cause. The correct selection of medical students and physicians is therefore very important, especially in leadership and key positions. This is not only a necessary safety aspect but also the prerequisite for the stipulated efficiency of modern medicine.

  18. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: a step by step guide to recent Italian ethical and legislative troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2008-10-01

    To analyse legislation and medical professionals' position concerning the doctor's role in assisted reproduction techniques in Italy, and to discuss the implications for physicians of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Until recently a strict interpretation of the assisted reproduction law (40/2004) and the guidelines subsequently issued, lead to denying infertile couples affected by genetic diseases the right to resort to PGD. In October 2006 the Constitutional Court ruled regarding the question of the constitutional legitimacy of the prohibition of PGD. The Constitutional Court declared the manifest inadmissibility of the question of the constitutional legitimacy of article 13 of law 40/2004. The debate has become very animated since the ruling. After the negative sentence of the Constitutional Court, three further sentences recognised the right of couples to obtain PGD, representing a hard blow to law 40/2004 and to the ministerial guidelines; a further confirmation of the untenability of a law that violates fundamental principles such as the right to healthcare for women and the unborn child, the right to responsible motherhood and to informed consent. It seems that in Italy the legislative inadequacy for medically assisted procreation is reprieved by the courageous decisions of the judges, which refer to the values of the Italian Constitution, in defence of the fundamental rights of the citizens.

  19. Physician Self-directed Learning and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Tagawa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are expected to be life-long learners because updated and effective patient care should be provided while medical and clinical knowledge and skills and social requirements for patient care are rapidly changing. Also, qualified clinical competence needs long periods of training and each physician has to continually learn as long as he/she works as a professional. Self-directed learning is an important factor in adult learning. Medical students' readiness for self-directed learning is not high, and should be improved by medical school and postgraduate training curricula. Garrison proposed a comprehensive model of self-directed learning, and it has dimensions of motivation (entering and task, self-monitoring (responsibility, and self-management (responsibility. To teach individual self-directed learning competencies, the following are important: (1 situate learners to experience “real” problems; (2 encourage learners to reflect on their own performance; (3 create an educational atmosphere in clinical training situations. In 2005, a 2-year mandatory residency program was implemented in Japan, and fewer medical school graduates took residency programs in medical school hospitals and advanced specialty programs provided by medical school departments. Medical school departments provide traditional, but life-long clinical training opportunities. Under the new residency program, an additional postgraduate and continuing medical training system has to be built up to maintain and confirm a physician's competencies. If physicians do clinical work using a scholarly way of thinking with critical analysis of their own competencies and improvement by reflection, they will become an excellent life-long learner.

  20. Investigation on legal problems encountered by emergency medicine physicians in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsin Emre Kayipmaz

    Full Text Available Medicine is a profession that carries certain risks. One risky area of practice is the emergency department. Emergency physicians diagnose and treat a high volume of patients, and are also responsible for preparing reports for forensic cases. In this study, we aim to investigate emergency physicians' legal-administrative problems and reveal their level of understanding on forensic cases.An electronic questionnaire form was prepared after the approval of an ethical committee. This form was sent to the residents, specialists and academicians of emergency medicine by e-mail. The physicians were asked to fill out the form online. All the gathered data was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency percentages with mean and standard deviation. Chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Correlation between number of complaint cases and age, sex, career, institution, and duration of service in emergency department were investigated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.294 physicians participated in the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, 170 of the physicians were reported to the patient communication units due to medical malpractice. Mean number of compliant reports was 3.20±3.5. 29 of the physicians received administrative penalties. 42 of the physicians were judged in the court for medical malpractice. 1 physician was fined 5000 Turkish Liras as a result of these judgments.We found that the number of complaint reports is negatively correlated with duration of service in emergency medicine and age. There was a significant difference between number of complaint reports and career (p<0.05. The physicians' level of awareness on forensic cases was found to be insufficient. Lack of legislation knowledge may be an important cause of complaint reports concerning emergency physicians, who have a high load of patients. Thus, we think that increasing the frequency of post-graduate education sessions and

  1. Evaluation of Physicians' Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Beckstead, Jason W; Elqayam, Shira; Reljic, Tea; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Cannon-Bowers, Janis; Taylor, Stephanie; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Turner, Brandon; Paidas, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Patient outcomes critically depend on accuracy of physicians' judgment, yet little is known about individual differences in cognitive styles that underlie physicians' judgments. The objective of this study was to assess physicians' individual differences in cognitive styles relative to age, experience, and degree and type of training. Physicians at different levels of training and career completed a web-based survey of 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing v. satisficing, analytical v. intuitive reasoning, need for cognition, intolerance toward ambiguity, objectivism, and cognitive reflection). We measured psychometric properties (Cronbach's α) of scales; relationship of age, experience, degree, and type of training; responses to scales; and accuracy on conditional inference task. The study included 165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (median age 31 years; range 25-69 years). All 6 constructs showed acceptable psychometric properties. Surprisingly, we found significant negative correlation between age and satisficing (r = -0.239; P = 0.017). Maximizing (willingness to engage in alternative search strategy) also decreased with age (r = -0.220; P = 0.047). Number of incorrect inferences negatively correlated with satisficing (r = -0.246; P = 0.014). Disposition to suppress intuitive responses was associated with correct responses on 3 of 4 inferential tasks. Trainees showed a tendency to engage in analytical thinking (r = 0.265; P = 0.025), while attendings displayed inclination toward intuitive-experiential thinking (r = 0.427; P = 0.046). However, trainees performed worse on conditional inference task. Physicians capable of suppressing an immediate intuitive response to questions and those scoring higher on rational thinking made fewer inferential mistakes. We found a negative correlation between age and maximizing: Physicians who were more advanced in their careers were less willing to spend time and effort in an

  2. Radiologic reports : attitudes, preferred type, and opinion of referring physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Young; Hwang, Seong Su; Ahn, Myeong Im and others

    2001-01-01

    To determine referring physicians' general attitudes, preferred reporting types, and opinions on radiologic reports. A survey questionnaire was distributed to the 315 staff and residents of four university hospitals with 400 to 800 beds, and a total of 228 physicians responded. The questionnaire aimed to determine of the general attitude of referring physicians to radiologic reports, the type of report they preferred, and other opinions and suggestions. The responses elicited, as well as discrepancies among residents, staff, internist, and surgeons, were analyzed. Most referring physicians replied that they read an entire report regardless of its length, and the second majority read the conclusion first and then the remainder of the report only if clarification was required. With regard to report length, physicians answered that reports describing the findings of conventional radiography were often too short, while those dealing with MRI were verbose. The majority experienced occasional confusion when reading a report, the major cause being grammatical errors and incomprehensible sentence structure. When confused, most physicians consulted the radiologist ; staff showed a greater inclination than residents to pursue this option. Most physicians preferred brief phrases or telegraphic-style sentences to a style which stressed completeness and detail, a preference which was statistically higher among residents than staff. Whereas physicians favored a brief radiologic report in cases of normal radiologic findings, conventional radiologic studies or no clinical findings, they wished to see a more detailed report in cases of abnormal radiologic findings, specific radiologic studies (special radiographs, US, CT, or MRI), or positive clinical findings. This need for more detail was expressed more frequently by internists than by surgeons. If implemented, the results of this study can be expected to enhance the quality and comprehensibility of radiologic reports, and may

  3. Prevention of elderly suicide. Physicians' assessment of firearm availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M S; Adamek, M E; Rhoades, J A

    1998-07-01

    Physicians have a unique role to play in the prevention of elder suicide, yet they may not be sufficiently attentive to the prominence of firearms in the rising trend in suicide by elder persons. This study sought to examine the extent to which physicians inquired about firearms with their depressed and suicidal elderly patients and further identified factors associated with physicians' likelihood of asking about firearms. A probability sample of 300 primary care physicians in Illinois was drawn from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Physicians were chosen from the specialties most likely to be involved with elderly persons: internal medicine and family practice. A mailed questionnaire yielded a 63% response rate. Although they were treating depressed and suicidal older patients, a sizable proportion of the respondents (42%) reported that they did not ask such patients or their family members whether they had access to a firearm. Several factors distinguished physicians who assessed for firearms from those who did not. The most salient predictors were: continuing medical education training in suicide risk assessment, expertise in geriatric mental health, confidence in diagnosing depression, having a patient mention suicide in the past year, and indicating patient reluctance as a barrier to mental health treatment. Physicians working with depressed and suicidal elderly persons need to be informed about the prevalence of elder suicide and about the likelihood of elderly persons using firearms as a method of suicide. Effective suicide prevention will require physician training that directly addresses geriatric mental health and firearm suicide, in particular, at the student, residency, and continuing education levels.

  4. Physicians' intentions and use of three patient decision aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Susan L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids are evidence based tools that assist patients in making informed values-based choices and supplement the patient-clinician interaction. While there is evidence to show that decision aids improve key indicators of patients' decision quality, relatively little is known about physicians' acceptance of decision aids or factors that influence their decision to use them. The purpose of this study was to describe physicians' perceptions of three decision aids, their expressed intent to use them, and their subsequent use of them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of random samples of Canadian respirologists, family physicians, and geriatricians. Three decision aids representing a range of health decisions were evaluated. The survey elicited physicians' opinions on the characteristics of the decision aid and their willingness to use it. Physicians who indicated a strong likelihood of using the decision aid were contacted three months later regarding their actual use of the decision aid. Results Of the 580 eligible physicians, 47% (n = 270 returned completed questionnaires. More than 85% of the respondents felt the decision aid was well developed and that it presented the essential information for decision making in an understandable, balanced, and unbiased manner. A majority of respondents (>80% also felt that the decision aid would guide patients in a logical way, preparing them to participate in decision making and to reach a decision. Fewer physicians ( Conclusion Despite strong support for the format, content, and quality of patient decision aids, and physicians' stated intentions to adopt them into clinical practice, most did not use them within three months of completing the survey. There is a wide gap between intention and behaviour. Further research is required to study the determinants of this intention-behaviour gap and to develop interventions aimed at barriers to physicians' use of decision aids.

  5. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians

  6. Developing a Physician׳s Professional Identity Through Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Kenneth E; Abercrombie, Caroline L

    2017-02-01

    Professionalism represents a fundamental characteristic of physicians. Professional organizations have developed professionalism competencies for physicians and medical students. The aim of teaching medical professionalism is to ensure the development of a professional identity in medical students. Professional identity formation is a process developed through teaching principles and appropriate behavioral responses to the stresses of being a physician. Addressing lapses and critical reflection is an important part of the educational process. The "hidden curriculum" within an institution plays an important role in professional identity formation. Assessment of professionalism involves multiple mechanisms. Steps in remediating professionalism lapses include (1) initial assessment, (2) diagnosis of problems and development of an individualized learning plan, (3) instruction encompassing practice, feedback and reflection and (4) reassessment and certification of competence. No reliable outcomes data exist regarding the effectiveness of different remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between fire-safe cigarette legislation and residential fire deaths in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Rebecca K; Marshall, Stephen W

    2014-12-01

    Cigarettes and other tobacco-related smoking products have traditionally been a major ignition source for residential fire deaths. In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws requiring that cigarettes self-extinguish if they are not being smoked (so-called fire-safe cigarette laws). The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between state-level implementation of fire-safe cigarette legislation and the rate of residential fire death. Poisson regression was used to analyze state-years data. Main intervention: Implementation dates for fire-safe cigarette legislation in each state. Residential fire mortality rate. Implementation of fire-safe cigarette legislation was associated with a 19% reduction in overall residential fire mortality rates, adjusted for demographic differences between states (rate ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.84). This is approximately similar to the estimated proportion of residential fire deaths in which smoking materials are an ignition source (23%). Legislation implementation was associated with a protective effect for every age, sex, race, and ethnicity strata that we examined. State-specific residential fire mortality death rates decreased (defined as a drop of at least 5%) in 32 states after fire-safe cigarette legislation was implemented. In 12 states there was either less than a 5% decrease or an increase, and seven states had insufficient deaths to evaluate state-level changes. Implementation of fire-safe cigarette is associated with reductions in residential fire mortality rates.

  8. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE JUDICIARY SWITCHES ROLES WITH THE LEGISLATOR? AN INNOVATIVE ISRAELI VERSION OF A MIXED JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim Sandberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil Law codices are analytic, abstract and removed from the specific influence of particular cases. When rules are codified In Common Law systems they reflect a collection of rulings and not a collection of analytic principles. These differences stem from the nature and the motivations of the legislative enterprise. Civil-continental legislation originates in a legislative initiative “from above”. It is driven by the aspiration for legal harmony and completeness, and was originally formulated by academics. Legislation in the common-law countries results from a "bottom up" effect in which reality dictates the nature of the developing rules, step by step.Civil law systems like Common Law systems accept the supremacy of the statutory law over judge-made law. Yet when the judiciary has the authority or the power to influence the legislative agenda there is a veritable role switch. In a manner resembling continental-style legislation, the court reviewing existing legislation determines an abstract principle, usually in reliance on a particular constitutional text, and it is the legislature that is required to distill the principles into specific legislative norms, a function normally fulfilled by the common law court. The question forming the basis of this paper is the nature of the legislative process and the legislation produced by this kind of relationship. The paper addresses this question through the narrow prism of a detailed examination of a particular Israeli test case in which the Israeli Supreme Court handed down a ruling on a fundamental principle but on its own initiative delegated to the legislature the task of implementing it and providing a specific legislative enactment of this principle, on the basis of which the Court would then rule on the concrete case. The result in this particular case was that the traditional roles of the respective branches were reversed. The practical result of the move to delegate the implementation of

  9. Protection in the absence of legislation in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle Nakhid; Andrew Welch

    2017-01-01

    The Caribbean’s many small island States are grappling with increasingly complex mixed migration flows, yet few have introduced refugee legislation. Trinidad and Tobago is in the process of doing so.

  10. Protection in the absence of legislation in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Nakhid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean’s many small island States are grappling with increasingly complex mixed migration flows, yet few have introduced refugee legislation. Trinidad and Tobago is in the process of doing so.

  11. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  12. Commentary: The proposed legislation on termination of pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commentary: The proposed legislation on termination of pregnancy does not protect women or children in Malawi and is not fit for the intended purpose: Christian Medical and Dental Fellowshipi position.

  13. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  15. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  16. Allegheny County Pennsylvania U.S. Legislative Congressional District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the U.S. Legislative Congressional district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania...

  17. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  19. The Rhetoric of the NRA: Handgun Control Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Raymond S.

    1983-01-01

    A speech communication professor applies his rhetorical training to an analysis of the NRA's opposition to gun control legislation. (Available from City News Publishing Co., Box 606, Southold, NY 11971; sc $1.25.) (PD)

  20. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...