WorldWideScience

Sample records for legislation protecting reproductive

  1. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  2. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  3. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  4. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  5. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  6. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  7. Enduring politics: the culture of obstacles in legislating for assisted reproduction technologies in Ireland

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    Jill Allison

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology has become a normalized part of reproductive medicine in many countries around the world. Access, however, is uneven and inconsistent, facilitated and restricted by such factors as affordability, social and moral acceptance or refusal and local cultures of medical practice. In Ireland, assisted reproductive technology has been available since 1987 but remains unregulated by legislation. This creates an uncertain and untenable legal circumstance given the contested issues related to constitutional protection of the right to life of the unborn and the indeterminate legal status of embryos in vitro. This paper examines the impact of an enduring political impasse. It explores how clinical assisted reproductive technology services in Ireland operate both inside and outside dominant institutional frameworks, meeting a pronatalist and pro-family social and political agenda, while sometimes contradicting the pro-life politics that has continued to shape women’s reproductive lives. The medical approaches to infertility thus intersect with the ongoing debates around abortion, the failure of the government to regulate, and notions of embodied motherhood and responsibility within changing meanings of family and kinship. At the same time women and their partners seek assisted reproductive technology treatment in other countries throughout the European Union where laws differ and availability of services varies. A decade has passed since the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction in Ireland released its recommendations; the enduring legislative vacuum leaves women, families and practitioners in potential legal limbo.

  8. New radiation protection legislation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jender, M.; Persson, Lars

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the new Act is to protect humans, animals and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiation. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with a single central radiation protection authority. According to the Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will assign greater responsibility than in the past to persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Persons engaged in such activities will be responsible for the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The Act also contains rules governing decommissioning of technical equipment capable of generating radiation. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervisory authority may, in particular, decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The scope for using penal provisions has been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders regarding radiation protection measures has been introduced. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection and atomic energy legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection and atomic energy laws of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are presented in this report in their status of March 1, 1984. As a background to this legislation the Nordic co-operation is briefly reviewed and the common basis for the legal texts is given. Some historical remarks for the legislation of each country are included. (orig./HP)

  10. Hydrological heritage within protection of geodiversity in Serbia: Legislation history

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    Simić Sava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a summary of the history of development of legislation in the field of geodiversity in Serbia. An important segment of this theme is the relationship of man to the protection of water and its phenomena - hydrological diversity and hydrological heritage. Although the historical development of nature protection as complex, socially significant, professional and scientific field is relatively long and in a sense shows the constant progress, the fact is that today's legislation in this sphere unreasonably delays for the reality and needs, and this is especially noticeable when comes to protection of geodiversity and water phenomena - hydrological heritage. This paper, through the attempt of the representation of development of a broad field of the geodiversity and hydrological heritage protection in the light of its legal and institutional introduction into social frameworks, in particular points to the existing problems that are reflected in the current regulation - the Nature Protection Act.

  11. Legislative Protection of Property Rights in Ethiopia: An Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are ambiguities, inconsistencies, gaps and outdated features in the legislative protection of some property rights in Ethiopia. Moreover, there is the bestowal of wide and undue discretion to various administrative authorities without judicial scrutiny. These problems clearly lead to discretionary and arbitrary ...

  12. "Unnecessary suffering": the cornerstone of animal protection legislation considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, M

    1999-09-01

    Causing "unnecessary suffering" has been widely adopted in legislation to define criminal liability in respect of the treatment of animals. This article examines the way in which the term has been interpreted and applied by the courts, and considers its effectiveness in affording animals protection from abuse.

  13. Hydrological heritage within protection of geodiversity in Serbia: Legislation history

    OpenAIRE

    Simić Sava

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the history of development of legislation in the field of geodiversity in Serbia. An important segment of this theme is the relationship of man to the protection of water and its phenomena - hydrological diversity and hydrological heritage. Although the historical development of nature protection as complex, socially significant, professional and scientific field is relatively long and in a sense shows the constant progress, the fact is that today's legis...

  14. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  15. Reflections On Employment Protection Legislation: An International Comparison

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    AMINE SAMIR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, as in the rest of industrialized countries, reforms of the labour market have generally concerned employment protection legislation (EPL. One of the main missions of this legislation is to insure security for workers, particularly in case of redundancy. The object of this article is to compare the strictness and the degree of rigidity of EPL in two different economies, namely, Canada and France. This choice is justified by the fact that the labour market policies in both countries do not have the same orientation and are based on different ideological references.

  16. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation -the UK approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The case for flexibility in the formulation of radiation protection legislation and that for precise invariable requirements which are applicable to all users of ionising radiations are presented. It is asserted that greater participation on the part of persons affected in the shaping of legislation brings with it a commitment to flexibility if consensus is to be achieved. The nature of the participative and consultative processes in the UK is described. The means by which flexibility will be inbuilt into future UK legislation are discussed, taking as examples, three particular areas: a) Notification of use of ionising radiations, where flexibility needs to be introduced to take care of improved knowledge of potential risk, the avoidance of bureaucratic procedures, and the wide variation in practice from one work activity to another; b) The definition of controlled areas, where flexibility is needed to cope with the wide range of potential use situations, yet if controlled areas are to be the route to defining Category A workers, where that flexibility must be restrained to ensure proper categorysation and effective enforcement; c) The criteria for the need to appoint and for the selection of radiation protection advisers where flexibility must be invoked to ensure that any particular task is matched by the quality of the radiation protection adviser concerned. It is concluded that the proposed UK legislation will achieve flexibility where this is appropriate and cost-effective and on the other hand demand adherence to strictly expressed levels of exposure where that is appropriate. (author)

  17. Regional legislation in Italy for the protection of local varieties

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    Enrico Bertacchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the consequences of regional legislation in Italy on protecting local and autochthonous varieties. In accordance with the objectives of the FAO treaty on plant genetic resources (ITPGRFA, these laws have emerged as one of the most interesting institutional attempts at Italian and European level towards enhancing and protecting agricultural biodiversity. A description of the regional laws and their implementation highlights the importance of supporting farming systems that are close relationship with the territory and local communities, creating sufficient juridical space for the varieties that are not part of the ‘formal’ seed system.

  18. Legislation Seeks to Protect Power Grid From Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-05-01

    Proposed legislation would help protect the U.S. power grid against space weather and other threats. The Grid Reliability and Infrastructure Defense Act (GRID Act) would give the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) authority to develop and enforce standards for power companies to protect the electric grid from geomagnetic storms and threats such as a terrorist attack using electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weapons. The act unanimously passed the U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce in April and will proceed to a vote in the full House of Representatives.

  19. Some remarks on the Austrian radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the provisions of the Austrian Radiation Protection Law and Radiation Protection Ordinance differ from those recommended by ICRP and IAEO. This is particularly true for the definition of working conditions, the categorization of radiation areas and the classification of radiation workers. It is suggested that the responsible authorities when considering a revision of the legislation in the light of ICRP 26 and the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards, also study the desirability of adapting the currently applicable provisions to the universally accepted international norms. (Auth.)

  20. Birds sacrifice oxidative protection for reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersma, Popko; Selman, Colin; Speakman, John R; Verhulst, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism has reactive oxygen species (ROS) as unavoidable by-products, and the damage ROS inflicts on DNA, proteins and lipids is considered to be a major agent of senescence. Increasing reproductive effort accelerates senescence, but whether reproductive effort is increased at the expense of protection against oxidative damage has not yet been tested. We manipulated reproductive effort in zebra finches through brood size manipulation and measured the activity of two major antioxi...

  1. Legal protection of pet animals in domestic legislation

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    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the author's analysis is the issue of legal protection of pet animals. Through analysis of applicable provisions contained in the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia, on one hand, and the fundamental principles and provisions set out in the European Convention for the Protection of Pet animals, on the other hand, this paper attempts to point out the degree of legal protection that pet animals are awarded under domestic legal regulations, as well as to answer the question of compatibility of the national legislation with the international standards set out in the mentioned European Convention regarding the above mentioned question. In addition, since the legal protection of pet animals is also regulated by relevant by-laws in our law, the analysis of certain aspects of protection provided to pet animals, specifically the Decision of the city of Novi Sad on keeping of domesticated animals, the paper attempts to draw attention to compliance of the solutions adopted in this legal act, with the fundamental principles of protection, provided to pets by laws or the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia. Finally, in order to provide a more comprehensive insight in terms of achievement of the legal protection of pets in Serbian law, the paper analyzes the types of unlawful conduct of the owner or the holder of the animals, as well as their respective sanctioning prescribed in specific laws or bylaws.

  2. ROUNDTABLE SESSION 2: DOES LEGISLATION WORK IN PROTECTING VULNERABLE SPECIES?

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    HOLDICH D. M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of discussions held at the Innsbruck CRAYNET meeting and the answers given to a subsequent questionnaire sent out to the National Co-ordinators of the 11 countries/regions, it is clear that most European countries aim at trying to protect their indigenous crayfish species (ICS from overexploitation, habitat modification, pollution, and spread of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS and crayfish plague. Two detailed case studies are given for Austria and England plus a summary of the questionnaires. These clearly illustrate the different attitudes of countries to protecting and managing their ICS and NICS. The situation is highly complex and differs depending upon whether or not there is a tradition for eating crayfish. Consequently, harmonisation of national and regional regulations for ICS and NICS in Europe may not be possible in the short term. In many cases legislation has not prevented further destruction of populations of ICS and the spread of NICS. However, without such legislation the situation could have been a lot worse and some ICS could already have become critically endangered. The continued efforts by the crayfish community and national authorities have resulted in a scenario where there are still some countries without NICS, and in most European countries there are specific areas with numerous, viable populations of ICS that are considered valuable and are protected by the authorities as well as by local people. The situation has recently been improved by providing protection for Austropotamobius torrentium under Annex II of the EU Habitats Directive. A major objective must be to develop methods for eradicating nuisance populations of NICS before they spread any further.

  3. Uniformity in radiation protection legislation in Australia: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robotham, F.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a recent licensing/approval process conducted by a company that has three plants utilizing large sealed sources of Cobalt-60, in one case approximately 70PBq. The company has operated successfully in one Australian State since 1971 and in a second since 1985. By 1999 it became apparent that there was sufficient business to warrant the opening of a third plant in a third Australian State. The plant chosen has a design capacity of 185PBq and an initial loading of 1 IPBq. This paper describes some of the licensing process and demonstrates, I believe, the urgent need for both uniformity in Australian Radiation Safety Legislation and consistency in interpretation and implementation. Copyright (2003) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  4. Clones, controversy, and criminal law: a comment on the proposal for legislation governing assisted human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T

    2001-09-01

    In the past few years there has been a tremendous amount of regulatory conflict and social controversy in the area of reproductive genetics. The Canadian government has recently released a proposal for legislating in this complex arena. Although the proposed Bill contains many positive elements, it is argued that the use of the criminal law as a regulatory mechanism is neither warranted nor appropriate. The author suggests a more flexible and responsive system of moratoriums and licenses that would enable review and adjustment to the realities of emerging reproductive technologies is a better approach.

  5. Contributions from assited human reproduction techniques' socio-legal research to the legislative field

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    Marisa Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s intention is to share some of the main results of two field-based research projects regarding assisted human reproduction practices in Argentina. Both projects have been developed in a dynamic legislative context involving medical coverage regulation, parentage determination and the right to know one's origins for children born with third party genetic material. Also, in this context, the Draft Civil and Commercial Code reform introduced two figures that were then removed in the parliamentary debate: post mortem fertilization and surrogate motherhood. All these issues concerning the use of assisted human reproduction challenge the legal field and are addressed in these research projects, one of them more from an explorative perspective and the other from a qualitative one. Therefore, this article aims to introduce some of the measured variables and the findings obtained to serve as relevant contributions to achieve a more appropriate legislation according with the medical and social reality.

  6. Sexual and reproductive rights in Argentina: New legislative trends and physician opinions

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    Maximiliano Nicolás Campana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If tracing the trajectory of right to health in Argentina over the last decade, we can see how the new legislation grants increasing importance to the voluntary will of patients. Argentine citizens are increasingly able to make decisions regarding everything related to the care of their own bodies and health. This undoubtedly causes a shift in the traditional role of physicians, who historically have made decisions regarding healthcare for the population. This article will focus on how sexual and reproductive rights have started to be regulated in the country, and then compare the current legislation with the opinion of doctors living in the city of Cordoba (Argentina, to see if healthcare professionals are in accordance with these new legislative trends.

  7. New reproductive technologies, ethics and legislation in Brazil: a delayed debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, D

    2001-06-01

    This paper focuses on the debate about the utilization of new reproductive technologies in Brazil, and the paths taken in the Brazilian National Congress in an attempt to draw up legislation to regulate the clinical practice of human assisted reproduction. British documents, such as the Warnock Report and Human Fertilization and Embriology [sic] Authority (HFEA) are used for thorough reference. The analysis of the Law Projects in the National Congress, the Resolution by the Federal Medicine Council, Resolution 196/96 and documents by the the Ministerio Publico (Public Prosecution Office), supplied the bases for the discussion. The principal question involved is the observation of different technical and moral prientations [sic] that influence the conduct of the issue in the legislative process. It is possible to observe that the main focus of the projects relates to the rights and interests of the children, to those possibly benefited by the technique and to embryo reduction. Very little attention has been directed to the issues of sexual and reproductive rights and to the health of the women submitted to the new reproductive techologies [sic].

  8. A blueprint for legislative action : consensus recommendations for U.S. Climate Protection Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In January 2007, we issued our Call for Action in which we joined together to call for prompt enactment of national legislation in the United States to slow, stop and reverse the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the shortest time reas...

  9. Medicolegal file. Amendments to child protection legislation. New legal accountability for physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Tremayne-Lloyd, T.

    2000-01-01

    In Ontario's past and present child protection legislation, physicians are included in the list of professionals designated to protect children and report their beliefs, suspicions, or knowledge of child abuse and neglect. Ontario's recent legislative amendments broaden the definition of child abuse and thereby widen the scope of the duty to report.

  10. Protection in the absence of legislation in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle Nakhid; Andrew Welch

    2017-01-01

    The Caribbean’s many small island States are grappling with increasingly complex mixed migration flows, yet few have introduced refugee legislation. Trinidad and Tobago is in the process of doing so.

  11. Protection in the absence of legislation in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Nakhid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean’s many small island States are grappling with increasingly complex mixed migration flows, yet few have introduced refugee legislation. Trinidad and Tobago is in the process of doing so.

  12. Towards Uniformity of Radiation Protection Legislation in a Multi-jurisdictional country- the Australian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Australia is a federation of nine jurisdictions, each with independent radiation protection legislation. The existing legislative non-uniformity across the jurisdictions has constituted an impediment for operators who must comply with differing legislative requirements in different jurisdictions. To address this issue, a National Competition Policy Review of Radiation Protection Legislation took place in 2000/2001. It has produced 19 Recommendations, which addressed objectives of the legislation, the need to regulate, alternative regulatory approaches, national uniformity, licensing and registration, strict and prescriptive standards, advertising and promotional activities, compliance costs and cost recovery issues. The Review has recommended that jurisdictions should retain the regulatory approach to achieve radiation protection objectives rather than leave them to be decided by market forces. But the approach should be performance-based, i.e. outcome-focused rather than prescriptive. An Implementation Plan of the Recommendations has been created which, by the end of 2004, will produce the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The Directory, which will become a consolidated repository of radiation protection standards, guidelines, codes of practice and administrative principles will provide a uniform national framework for radiation protection legislation in Australia. It will provide guidance for the jurisdictions redrawing their legislations. Because of its central role in shaping future legislation, the Directory will contain only those provisions, which have passed a formal process (process for issue resolution) concluded by an approval by the Australian Health Ministers Conference. Such process will also expedite the uniform adoption nationwide of legislative trends emerging from international radiation protection recommendations and standards. This Australian model might be a viable example for other multi-jurisdictional countries to consider

  13. The Protection of Animals in Thailand--An Insight into Animal Protection Legislation

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    Sulaiman Dorloh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many critics of current Thai law concerning the welfare of animals. They argue that the PACPAWA,2014 is inadequate to protect the welfare of animals. The absence of clear guidelines in the legislation concerning animal welfare has resulted in animal welfare receiving inadequate protection. There are other limitations contributing to the inadequacy of existing laws in protecting animals in Thailand. The possible penalties are very low. For the offence of cruelty against an animal, the PACPAWA,2014 sets a maximum fine of TBH 2000. This is considered inadequate and ineffective in preventing cruelty to animals. The study utilises doctrinal legal research or library-based research approach to provide valuable insights in understanding the law and and ascertaining the principles of legal interpretation and analysis. The study also provides possible suggestions to enhance the protection of the welfare of animals in Thailand. The research suggests that education should play an important role in promoting kindness towards animals.

  14. Identifying the gaps: Armenian health care legislation and human rights in patient care protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopunyan, Violeta; Krmoyan, Suren; Quinn, Ryan

    2013-12-12

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia has undergone an extensive legislative overhaul. Although a number of developments have aimed to improve the quality and accessibility of Armenia's health care system, a host of factors has prevented the country from fully introducing measures to ensure respect for human rights in patient care. In particular, inadequate health care financing continues to oblige patients to make both formal and informal payments to obtain basic medical care and services. More generally, a lack of oversight and monitoring mechanisms has obstructed the implementation of Armenia's commitments to human rights in several international agreements. Within the framework of a broader project on promoting human rights in patient care, research was carried out to examine Armenia’s health care legislation with the aim of identifying gaps in comparison with international and regional standards. This research was designed using the 14 rights enshrined in the European Charter on Patient Rights as guiding principles, along with domestic legal acts relevant to the rights of health care providers. The gaps analysis revealed numerous problems with Armenian legislation governing the relationships between stakeholders in health care service delivery. It also identified several practical inconsistencies with the international legal instruments ratified by the Armenian government. These legislative shortcomings are illustrated by highlighting key health-related rights violations experienced by patients and their health care providers, and by indicating opportunities for improved rights protections. A full list of human rights relevant to patient care and recommendations for promoting them in the Armenian context is provided in Tables 1 and 2. A number of initiatives must be undertaken in order to promote the full spectrum of human rights in patient care in Armenia. This section highlights certain recommendations flowing from the findings of

  15. Cracks in reproductive health rights: Buffalo City learners’ knowledge of abortion legislation

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    Catriona Macleod

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy(CTOP Actlegalised abortion on request in South Africa until up to 12 weeks of gestation and thereafter under specified conditions. Within the context of liberal legislation, accurate information is a necessary (although not sufficient requirement for women to exercise their reproductive rights. Objectives: This research investigated Grade 11 learners’ knowledge of the CTOP Act and its stipulations. Methods: Survey research was conducted with respondents drawn from a range of schools in Buffalo City, South Africa. Multi-stage sampling was used, namely stratified random sampling of schools and purposive sampling of grades used within schools. The data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires in group situations. Results: Results indicate that knowledge of the legal status of abortion, as well as of the various stipulations of the law, was poor. Various misunderstandings were evident, including that spousal approval is required in order for married women to have an abortion. Significant differences between the knowledge of respondents at the various schools were found, with those learners attending schools formerly designated for African learners during Apartheid having the least knowledge. Conclusion: Given the multiple factors that may serve as barriers to women accessing abortion, it is imperative that at least the most fundamental aspect of reproductive rights, that is, the right to information, is not undermined.

  16. The European Legislation and Protection of Trademarks in Romania

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    Codruta Stefania Jucan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present paper aims at producing a brief account and analysis of the changes thathave been made to the Romanian Trademark Law during the last few years in order to achieve harmonizationwith the European Trademark Law. Prior Work: The subject is being researched especially by the authorsfrom abroad and only the last years brought new investigations from the Romanians. Approach: The presentpaper was put together using a synthesis and analytical approach, taking in account different sources fromlegislation, court cases to papers that have been written about the subject. Results: The result of this studyindicates a way of harmonizing the internal legislation of Romania with that of the E.U on the subject andfuture directions of Trademark Law. Implications: The present study does its part in the intellectual propertystudies research area, offering a better view on the problems regarding the trademark law and itsnaturalization in the legal systems of the member states. Value: The study at hand is of great value inunderstanding the problems and challenges in the harmonization of legal concepts using the example ofIntellectual Property Rights in the U.E.

  17. The philosophy of German radiation protection legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is the objective of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance to protect life, health and property from the harmful effects of ionizing radiations and to ensure compensation for damage caused by ionizing radiations. This scope is already fixed in section 1 of the Atomic Law of the FRG and in accord with the comparable regulation or decrees of other countries all over the world. To reach this objective, by the Radiation Protection Ordinance: 1) the handling of radioactive material is subjected to an extensive control by the state or his organisations (part of this control are the licensing prcedures for handling, carriage, import and exprot, and transactions of radioactive materials as well as the direct supervision by the concerned authorities), 2) dose limits and limits of activity and concentrations are defined, 3) safety provisions are fixed which are legally binding the holder of a license and other persons appointed by him, responsible for radiation protection, 4) statutory offences are listed so that any person who wilfully or negligently contravenes the prescriptions shall be punished. (orig./RW) [de

  18. Incorporation of ICRP 60 into relevant Korean radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K. W.

    1997-01-01

    The program for the incorporation of the 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the new International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) into relevant Korean radiation protection laws and regulations in introduced. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out a five-year research project for the implementation of ICRP 60 and the new BSS since 1992 and drafted a proposed revision of the Enforcement Decree and Regulation, and the Ministerial Notice of Korean radiation protection laws. The proposed revision of laws and regulations incorporates the various elements of ICRP 60 and the new BSS including the use of new concepts, quantities and units, stricter dose limits, ALARA, and classification of workers, etc. Taking into account the possible impact on the Korean nuclear industry, the acceptability of ICRP 60 recommendations, and the current technical and socio-economic environment of Korea, a step by step implementation plan is under consideration. (author)

  19. A Synopsis of Proposed Data Protection Legislation in SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis S Cronjé

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy International made the following statement regarding South Africa’s financial sector in its 2005 world survey:“South Africa has a well-developed financial system and banking infrastructure. Despite the sophistication of the financial sector, the privacy of financial information is weakly regulated by a code of conduct for banks issued by the Banking Council.”This extract highlights some of the problems South Africa are experiencing with its current status on privacy as viewed from an International perspective. In recent years the International society has stepped up its efforts in creating a global village wherein the individual could be assured of having his/her privacy protected. Various conventions and guidelines2 have previously laid the foundation for privacy but it was not until the European Union’s (EU launch of its Directive on Data Protection in 1995 that we have seen a real coerced shift in the focus of such protection. Cross border data transfers from the EU became something of the past unless third countries (those countries outside the EU could prove the existence of adequate data protection provisions. It seemed to a big extend that international trade would be hampered and some of its biggest trading partners, such as the US, suddenly felt the impact due to its lagging protection measures. In order to curtail such inadequacies, a Safe Harbor Agreement was entered into between the EU and US whereby cross border data flow would be allowed under certain prerequisites. This Agreement however, does not cover Financial Institutions.

  20. Birds sacrifice oxidative protection for reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, P; Selman, C; Speakman, [No Value; Verhulst, S; Speakman, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism has reactive oxygen species (ROS) as unavoidable by-products, and the damage ROS inflicts on DNA, proteins and lipids is considered to be a major agent of senescence. Increasing reproductive effort accelerates senescence, but whether reproductive effort is increased at the

  1. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Gibbs

    Full Text Available It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  2. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  3. Protecting Endangered Species: Do the Main Legislative Tools Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Katherine E.; Currie, David J.

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

  4. Special Protective Legislation and Equality of Employment Opportunity for Women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The author believes that protective legislation in Australia has made women second-class citizens. He argues that while the elimination of discriminatory laws may help to improve women's employment prospects, the real need is for a concerted attempt to change attitudes that deny women equal opportunities in training, appointment, and promotion.…

  5. Legislation and Organization of Radiological Protection in the Republic of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Carrea, A.; Nowotny, G.

    1979-01-01

    The history of legislation and organization of radiological protection goes hack to 1950 in Argentina. The terms of references of the National Commission of Atomic Energy in Argentina are outlined and the actual organization of the authority is also presented. (author)

  6. Protection for Children Born Through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act, B.E. 2558: The Changing Profile of Surrogacy in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand has enacted on February 19, 2015 the Protection for Children Born through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act (ART Act). Its primary objective aims at protecting children born through assisted reproductive technologies and providing the legal procedures that the intended parents must follow. The focus of this article is to discuss the ongoing issues involving assisted reproduction in Thailand. After reviewing the past legal framework surrounding surrogate motherhood and the downsides of the assisted reproductive technology market in Thailand, the article will discuss the new ART Act and its regulatory framework. It will conclude that although the new law contains some flaws and limitations, it has so far been successful in tackling surrogacy trafficking and preventing reproductive scandals from occurring again.

  7. Protection for Children Born Through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act, B.E. 2558: The Changing Profile of Surrogacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Stasi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand has enacted on February 19, 2015 the Protection for Children Born through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act (ART Act. Its primary objective aims at protecting children born through assisted reproductive technologies and providing the legal procedures that the intended parents must follow. The focus of this article is to discuss the ongoing issues involving assisted reproduction in Thailand. After reviewing the past legal framework surrounding surrogate motherhood and the downsides of the assisted reproductive technology market in Thailand, the article will discuss the new ART Act and its regulatory framework. It will conclude that although the new law contains some flaws and limitations, it has so far been successful in tackling surrogacy trafficking and preventing reproductive scandals from occurring again.

  8. Protected Areas legislation and the conservation of the Colombian Orinoco Basin natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has shown a strong commitment to the achievement of the CBD´s biodiversity target, by promoting the conservation of at least 10% of its natural ecosystems. Protected Area categories in Colombia are undergoing a standardization process that should enhance the country´s capacity to protect its natural ecosystems. In this study we use a spatial analysis to examine how the legislation and the civil society´s initiatives help in the conservation of natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. We found that differentiation in use restriction legislation limits the conservation potential of some Protected Area categories. The only fully Protected Areas in Colombia are the Natural National Parks System Areas, which protect only 10% of the area of natural ecosystems and less than 50% of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. Indigenous Reserves help significantly in the conservation of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin, but are not a Protected Area category, making it difficult for indigenous groups to aid in the accomplishment of conservation goals in Colombia.A small percentage of ecosystems of the Colombian Orinoco Basin fall outside of any Protected Area or Indigenous Reserve and urgent actions may be needed to protect them. Future similar studies should use current and updated information on Protected Areas and take into account changes in land cover, for a better understanding of the role of different categories of Protected Areas in the achievement of conservation objectives in Colombia.

  9. The Impact of Active Conductors on Czech and Hungarian Lightning Protection Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikeš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the developmental conditions for the emergence of protection against lightning. It reviews the legislation especially in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years, and its application for active lightning conductors. The paper presents examples of the damage caused bylightning strikes on buildings protected by ESE lightning rods constructed using the French nationalstandard NFC 17-102 [1] and STN 34 1391 [2]. Installation of lightning conductors based on thesestandards is not, however, in accordance with the valid legislation in the Czech Republic and Hungary.In response to a growing number of ESE installations in the Czech Republic, it is vital to inform boththe broader professional publc and the lay public of cases involving failures of this type of lightningconductor.

  10. The Evolution of Legislation in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR, involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF, and research on embryos have created expectation to many people affected by infertility; at the same time it has generated a surplus of laws and ethical and social debates. Undoubtedly, MAR represents a rather new medical field and constant developments in medicine and new opportunities continue to defy the attempt to respond to those questions. In this paper, the authors reviewed the current legislation in the 28 EU member states trying to evaluate the different legislation paths adopted over the last 15 years and highlighting those EU countries with no specific legislation in place and MAR is covered by a general health Law and those countries in which there are no laws in this field but only “guidelines.” The second aim of this work has been to compare MAR legislation and embryo research in EU countries, which derive from different origins ranging from an extremely prohibitive approach versus a liberal one, going through a cautious regulatory approach.

  11. IMPROVING PATENT PROTECTION OF INVENTIVE ACTIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF EU LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Philyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: clarify legal nature of relations emerging in connection with registration of patent law objects. In this article the authors research special features of legal regulation of inventive activity. In particular, they consider several issues of patenting the patent law objects and clarify legal nature of relations arose during registration of the rights to the patent law objects. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction inventive activity Results: during the research the authors focus their attention to the drawbacks of the effective legislation and form the main directions of the effective legislation improvement in accordance with international law in the context of the patent law objects protection. Special attention is devoted to analysis of the main threats of the patent law violations and ways to overcome them. Conclusions: the results confirming improving the efficiency of the system of intellectual property protection through institutional changes and changes in the legal regulation of inventive activity and results will have a positive impact on the reform of the system of intellectual property protection in Ukraine.

  12. The Impact of Reproductive Health Legislation on Family Planning Clinic Services in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristine; Aiken, Abigail R. A.; Stevenson, Amanda; Hubert, Celia; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of legislation in Texas that dramatically cut and restricted participation in the state’s family planning program in 2011 using surveys and interviews with leaders at organizations that received family planning funding. Overall, 25% of family planning clinics in Texas closed. In 2011, 71% of organizations widely offered long-acting reversible contraception; in 2012–2013, only 46% did so. Organizations served 54% fewer clients than they had in the previous period. Specialized family planning providers, which were the targets of the legislation, experienced the largest reductions in services, but other agencies were also adversely affected. The Texas experience provides valuable insight into the potential effects that legislation proposed in other states may have on low-income women’s access to family planning services. PMID:25790404

  13. The Development of Legislation in the Field of Child Protection and Social Work in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main regulations existing in Romanian legislation on the protection and social work regarding the children in difficulty, as they were established, progressively, between 1990 and 2010. In this respect, the article presents the international legal documents which formed the basis of the laws and regulations drafted in Romania with respect to the protection of children against abuses, and it sets out how the domestic institutional child protection system is organized and operates. It also mentions the objectives included in the action plans drafted by the Romanian government for the prevention and fight against child abuse, neglect and exploitation, as well as the various projects and activities of the National Authority for the Protection of Family and Child Rights.

  14. Differences in legislation of data privacy protection in internet marketing in USA, EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing number of companies that are, in its operations and dealings with consumers, turning to the Internet and using huge opportunities that it provides. Therefore, Internet marketing is now experiencing extreme expansion and it is considered to be the marketing segment that is vulnerable to intensive and continuous change. Along with the positive effects brought to both businesses and consumers, there are some negatives associated with this form of marketing, and one of them is the insufficient protection of privacy. The fact is that we must raise the level of data protection, and improve its quality. Intense changes have to be taken on the normative level, because there are still plenty of reasons for the dissatisfaction of consumers when it comes to protecting their privacy. Thus, the legislation must play a key role in building consumer confidence as well as in the establishment of a positive relationship with marketers. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of the construction of such levels of private data protection which will establish longterm partnerships between consumers, marketers and other participants in the market, since only the aforementioned relations can bring prosperity to all parties. The paper will make a comparative analysis of the legislative framework in this field in the United States, the European Union and Serbia, as well as stress still present significant backlog of Serbia in relation to the aforementioned developed countries.

  15. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study assessed the protective role of vitamin E in alleviating the detrimental effect of nicotine on reproductive functions in male rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats. Control group was treated orally with 1.1 ml/kg body weight normal saline, nicotine treated group received 1.0 ...

  16. Promoting and Protecting the Sexual and Reproductive Health of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    advocate the use of these strategies in promoting sexuality education. The study also reveals that significant difference does not exist in the means scores of male and female counsellors on the ways to promote and protect the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents as shown in table III. Implications for Counselling.

  17. Considerations on the sphere of application of European Union animal protection legislation for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Peli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing awareness of animal welfare issues among consumers and the general public in the European Union has brought about the adoption of laws for the protection of production animals throughout the various steps of the food chain, from breeding to slaughter. Considering that horses may be kept for a variety of reasons, including as companion animals and as farm animals, protective legislation in Europe applies to this species only partially. In consistency with the areas of competence of the European Union, it is the purpose of the activity (be it economic/commercial or neither and not the final purpose of the equine (whether they are intended for human consumption or not along the entire food chain that determines the application of the above legislation. Even horses which are not kept for food production are covered by EU laws when they are bred or transported in connection with a commercial activity, while equines kept for purposes outside this context are protected only by national laws.

  18. Consequences of the new Slovenian legislation on radiation protection and nuclear safety for radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozelj, M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents brief description of the old Slovenian regulations and an overview of the new, harmonised regulations in the field of radiation protection training. The most important novelties were pointed out with possible consequences for the implementation of radiation protection training. Some suggestions on how to overcome transitional problems and how to improve training were also given. (author)

  19. The development of occupational, public and environmental radiation protection legislation in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.P.; Chandler, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In Great Britain, legislation to protect workers exposed to ionising radiation has developed separately from, but largely in parallel with, legislation to protect the public and the environment. Occupational radiation protection started from a narrow and industry specific base in 1947. Over the succeeding years, and partly in response to the obligations arising from the United Kingdom's accession to the European Community, this narrow base has broadened. As the nuclear power industry developed in Great Britain so did a separate and rigorous regulatory regime for nuclear installations, starting with the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959. The 1959 Act was amended by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. From 1974, all occupational health and safety legislation began to be brought under the umbrella of a new legal framework, the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, which for the first time adopted an across-the board approach to all work activities and goal-setting, rather than prescriptive, legislation. The purpose of the Act was to provide one comprehensive and integrated system of law concerning health and safety (including the self-employed) and also public safety, so far as it was affected by work activities. The Act also provided for consultation with all interested parties during the development of legislation. The first across the board occupational radiation protection legislation, covering all uses and users of ionising radiation (including, for the first time, exposure to natural radiation), arrived with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 and supporting Approved Codes of Practice and non-statutory guidance. The need for some controls on the use of radioactive materials that went wider than simply the protection of workers was recognised in 1948, when the first Radioactive Substances Act was made. Although the 1948 Act was the first to mention radioactive waste specifically, it proved ineffective as a regulatory tool. The first

  20. The significance of soil protection legislation for the protection of waters and of the aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, R. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Landschaftsoekologie/Bodenkunde]|[Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. of Aquatic Resources Research and Management

    2001-07-01

    For its implementation, the EU Water Framework Directive requires action not only with respect to water bodies as such, but also with respect to watersheds, terrestrial areas along water bodies, and river basins. The measures required are, for a good deal, those which concern land use practices and which are, as well, addressed to under the label of soil protection and conservation. In Germany the Federal Soil Protection Bill has passed the parliament in 1998, and guidelines for its implementation have been issued last year (July, 1999). In this contribution the goals and regulations of the Soil Protection Bill and its state of implementation is examined, with a focus of consideration upon its contribution for cleaner rivers, lakes and groundwater. Following the workshop topic, I will concentrate here upon pollution that may occur in the context of storm and flood events.

  1. The trend on legislation of physical protection law and the effective measures for its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of strengthening the international regime of physical protection, the 'Legal and Technical Experts Meeting' to prepare a draft amendment of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material(INFCIRC/274/Rev.1) has been held under the auspices of IAEA Secretariat, based on the results of about two-year discussion related to its amendment among the Member States. In addition, terrorism of last September in the United States has made the amendment work of the Convention speed up to quickly cope with the real threat of nuclear facility, and the Diplomatic Conference for its amendment would be held at the end of this year. In order to meet these international strengthening trends and to prepare the measures against radiological emergency with the re-establishment of domestic protection system, Korean government has currently pursued to establish a comprehensive 'law for Physical Protection and Measures against Radiological Emergency' This paper suggests the consideration on domestic status of the legal system, the trend of its legislation and the effective measures for its implementation, to efficiently maintain domestic system of physical protection

  2. [Medical-assisted reproduction and protection of the person].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnoni, F

    1998-01-01

    The position of the Catholic community on medical assisted procreation is here put forward. The two values that need to be upheld are: the protection of human life from before the birth and its conception within marriage. These values need to be incorporated into juridical norms, which, in a pluralistic society, cannot involve anything other than a long process of reapproachment between varying positions towards an agreed text. The absolute nature of the values defended by catholics do not require "legislative rigidity", but allow collaboration towards the common good of all those involved. The United Nations' declaration on human rights and the nascent international conventions on bioethics provide us with negative limits at the least and encourage the political community to take on their proper legislative responsibilities in the field.

  3. Legislation regarding social protection of children and youth in Sweden with particular emphasis on protection from abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slobodan 2

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of children from abuse and neglect is a current problem in the world. The consequences of violence against children are very important because they can leave behind permanent bodily injuries up to severe invalidity, as well as psychological consequences which very often lead to transmission of violence into next generations. In most extreme cases death occurs as a consequence of abuse and neglect. In this paper authors present legislation which regulate social protection of children and youth in Sweden, with special emphasis on protection from abuse and neglect. Sweden is a country in which social care of most vulnerable groups including children, was always at the top of priorities. Authors made comparative analysis of Swedish and domestic (Serbian laws regarding protection of children from violence, with particular emphasis on mandatory report of these cases from professionals who are in regular professional contact with children. Authors will also put emphasis on duties of medical doctors in the system of protection of children and youth from abuse and neglect.

  4. Teenage pregnancies in the European Union in the context of legislation and youth sexual and reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Kai; Moreau, Caroline; Donati, Serena; Gissler, Mika; Fronteira, Inês; Karro, Helle

    2013-12-01

    To study cross-country and regional variations and trends in reported teenage pregnancies in the context of legislation and youth sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in Europe. Data were collected on teenage live births and induced abortions, abortion legislation and youth SRH services. Population-based statistics from the European Union (EU) member states. Fifteen- to nineteen-year-old female teenagers. Detailed statistical information for each member state about teenage live births, induced abortions, abortion legislation and youth SRH services were compiled relying on national and international data sources. The annual reported pregnancies per 1000 women aged 15-19 years. Teenage pregnancy rates have declined since 2001, although progress has been uneven across regions and countries. Eastern Europe has a higher average teenage pregnancy rate (41.7/1000) than Northern (30.7/1000), Western (18.2/1000) and Southern Europe (17.6/1000). While data on teenage live births are available across Europe, data on teenage abortions are unavailable or incomplete in more than one-third of EU countries. Reported teenage pregnancy rates are generally lower for countries where parental consent for abortion is not required, youth SRH services are available in all areas and contraceptives are subsidized for all minors, compared with countries where these conditions are not met. The collection of standardized teenage pregnancy statistics is critically needed in the EU. The remarkable variability in teenage pregnancy rates across the EU is likely to be explained, among other factors, by varying access to abortion and youth SRH services. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Protection of Children in Malaysia through Foster Care Legislation and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are immature, naive and unable to care for themselves. Due to this verynature of children, they are in need of among others, care, attention andsupervision from adults. Care, attention and supervision are among the means ofcare and protection of children, which can only be acquired in a familyenvironment. One of the ways to achieve family environment is through FosterCare where a child who is in need of care and protection will be placed with afamily permanently or temporarily or until they are able to care for themselves.Foster care will at least provide for a family life experience especially for childrenwithout family or who have problems in their family life. This paper is to examinethe Concept of Foster care in Malaysia and the law relating to it as to provideprotection to children in need of care and protection. Examination will focus onrelevant legislations and policy relating to Foster Care. Discussion will extend toanalysis on whether the available laws and policies are adequate to sustainchildren protection in Malaysia through Foster Care.

  6. (Another Bankruptcy Legislation reform - functionalization of bankruptcy legal protection or placebo effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Bodul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most current topic in the field of collective civil law protection. The reforms of the Bankruptcy Act (seven of them as well as implementation of the Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlements Act (three amendments, which were implemented in 2012, have significantly altered Croatian insolvency legislation. Nevertheless, the indicative methods of determining the facts show that the bankruptcy and preliminary bankruptcy procedures, in relation to other countries in the region, are consuming less time. They are more expensive and have lower satisfaction from creditors. In comparison to countries with developed bankruptcy systems, Croatian regulations still need improvement. One has to take into consideration a substantial impact of multiple external, institutional factors on legislative solutions (unfavourable social context, problems in the payment system, the precarious recordings of immovable and movable property, an insufficient number of judges who were entrusted with the liquidation proceedings, weak training of bankruptcy administrators, inadequate methods of financing, and consequently weak motivation to work. The legislators are planning to make another functionalization of the Bankruptcy Act. His intention is, after two years of experimentation in the Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlements Act, to accept provisions on pre-bankruptcy settlements and reinstate many pre-existing options in the preparation of the reorganization plan. Since the existing framework is not allowing for a detailed analysis of the aforementioned subjects, one must emphasize that the space here does not permit a detailed analysis of these issues. Therefore, authors of this article will deal with subjects they see as relevant and essential for understanding key issues within the domain of the Bankruptcy Act. This work has been supported by the Croatian science foundation under the project number 6558 "Business and

  7. Debating LGBT Workplace Protections in the Bible Belt: Social Identities in Legislative and Media Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Claire D; Stewart, Craig O

    2016-07-01

    This article reports a case study of the legislative and media discourse surrounding the addition of sexual orientation and gender identity language to the employment nondiscrimination ordinance of a city in the heart of the Bible Belt. The purpose of the study is to uncover how different identities were constructed and contested at city council meetings and in the news media on the way to passing legal protection for LGBT city employees in a region that is often characterized by anti-gay prejudice. This debate over the nondiscrimination ordinance centered on the question of whether LGBT identities are equivalent to identity categories based on race, gender, or religious belief, and it was shaped by various intergroup communication dynamics, specifically between members of the LGBT minority and the straight majority, between LGBT and Christian identities, and between "true" and "false" Christian identities.

  8. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation; Caracteristicas de la legislacion en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E. [Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria (MIEM), Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion Nacional de Tecnologia Nuclear

    2001-07-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  9. Legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania, starting with the basic Law 111/1996 on the Safe Deployment of Nuclear Activities, and its amendments in 1998 and 2006 and the general nuclear safety regulation, which is in agreement with the international regulation. Regarding the medical exposure, jointly the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Ministry of Public Health issued in 2002 a separate regulation, which was published in the Official Gazette Part I No. 446 bis in 25 June 2002 and represents the transposition of the European Directive 97/43/EURATOM of 30 June 1997 on health protection on individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure, and repealing Directive 84/466/EURATOM. Following this document, several specific regulations on radiation protection of the patients were approved by the Ministry of Public Health. Some practical problems already arise, particularly due to the lack of medical physics departments in hospitals. (author)

  10. Legislations set out to protect workers against ionizing radiations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivelet-Denais, M.-F.

    1975-01-01

    A physical review on ionizing radiations and a biological survey of their possible effects on exposed workers are followed by a study, first general and then analytical, of the various legislations set out to protect these workers in the European Community. In the light of this study a few comments are called for. In all member States the rules are particularly strict for everything to do with approval and homologation of plants and equipment, technical qualifications of users, safety measures, physical protection control, atmospheric checks and individual dosimetry. Reservations must be made as to the exact organization of controls and the interdependence between supervisory and user bodies, these points generally remaining rather vague. France more than the other member States has made an effort at precision which deserves credit but is disappointing in practice where medical supervision of exposed workers is concerned. This inadequacy of the medical examination is due mainly to the lack of any significant symptom betraying a biological overdose. The hematological examination is also disparaged for its lack of sensitivity and above all specificity [fr

  11. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)

  12. Promoting and Protecting Apologetic Discourse through Law: A Global Survey and Critique of Apology Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Kleefeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The year 2016 was a milestone for the law-and-apology field, marking the thirtieth anniversary of the first general law aimed at enabling apologies for civil wrongs, introduced in Massachusetts in 1986, as well as the tenth anniversary of the Apology Act, enacted in British Columbia in 2006. The Apology Act seeks to promote apologies and apologetic discourse as an important form of out-of-court dispute resolution, chiefly by making apologetic statements inadmissible for proving liability in civil wrongs. It has served as a benchmark from which subsequent law reform efforts in Canada and abroad have been measured. In 2017, that benchmark was passed with the enactment in Hong Kong of the most ambitious apology law yet, which privileges not only statements of remorse, but also statements of facts embedded in apologies. This article summarises global apology legislation and court decisions to date. Part I considers each major jurisdiction, starting with the USA and concluding with Hong Kong. Part II draws some conclusions about where we have been and where we are going in our efforts to promote or protect apologetic discourse, including recommendations on interpreting existing laws and on drafting or redrafting apology legislation. El año 2016 supuso un hito en el campo del derecho y las disculpas, marcando el trigésimo aniversario de la primera ley general destinada a permitir las disculpas para daños civiles, aprobada en Massachusetts en 1986, así como el décimo aniversario de la Ley de Disculpa, aprobada en la Columbia Británica en 2006. La Ley de Disculpa busca promover las disculpas y el discurso de arrepentimiento como una forma importante para resolver disputas fuera de los tribunales, principalmente haciendo que las afirmaciones de arrepentimiento no fueran admisibles para probar la responsabilidad por daños civiles. Ha servido como ejemplo con el que comparar siguientes intentos de reforma jurídica en Canadá y el extranjero. En

  13. International and National Legislative Regulations Aiming at Preventing Sexual Abuse against Children, as Well as the Protection of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a short “history” of the evolution over time of internationallegal regulations concerning child rights and the protection of children against any actof physical, emotional or sexual abuse. The concerns of European bodies in this respectare also highlighted, as are the objectives of the legislation in different countries, whichare mainly aimed at sanctioning abuses committed against children and, in particular,the punishment of acts of sexual abuse.

  14. Tanning Salon Compliance Rates in States With Legislation to Protect Youth Access to UV Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa S; Buhalog, Brittany; Blumenthal, Laura; Stratman, Erik J

    2018-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has classified tanning beds as carcinogenic. Most states have enacted legislation to prevent or create barriers for minors accessing tanning establishments. Determining tanning salon compliance with legislation would provide an indication of the influence of legislation at preventing exposure to the carcinogen in minors. To investigate compliance rates in the 42 states and the District of Columbia with legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors and to identify differences in compliance based on population, regional location, salon ownership, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. This investigation was a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted between February 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, by callers posing as minors attempting to schedule a tanning appointment. The setting was tanning salons in the 42 states and the District of Columbia that currently have legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors. Included in the study were 427 tanning salons, 10 randomly selected from each state or territory with tanning legislation. Overall compliance of tanning salons with state tanning legislation and differences in compliance based on community population, regional location, independent vs chain tanning salon, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. Of the 427 tanning salons surveyed, overall noncompliance with state legislation was 37.2% (n = 159). There were more noncompliant tanning salons in rural locations (45.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-53.7%; P = .009), southern regions of the United States (49.4%; 95% CI, 41.4%-57.4%; P = .001), independently owned salons (43.9%; 95% CI, 37.3%-50.6%; P = .003), states with younger age groups being regulated (53.5%; 95% CI, 45.7%-61.2%; P legislation aimed at limiting tanning bed use among US minors is unsatisfactory, indicating that additional efforts to enforce the laws and education of the harmful effects of UV tanning are

  15. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires concernant la protection de la population et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)

  16. Legal Protection against Discriminatory Tax Legislation : The Struggle for Equality in European Tax Law,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of the contribution by Gribnau is the relationship between increasingly complex tax legislation and the principle of equality. He starts with a conceptual analysis of equality. Then the focus shifts to the character of the formal principle of equality. He argues that it is not as empty as

  17. Birds protected by national legislation show improved population trends in Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Schleuning, M.; Burfield, I. J.; Báldi, A.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Devictor, V.; Fernández-García, J. M.; Hořák, D.; Van Turnhout, C. A. M.; Hnatyna, O.; Reif, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 172, April (2014), s. 109-116 ISSN 0006-3207 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conservation effectiveness * Ecological trait * Environmental legislation * Global change * Life history strategy * Population growth rate Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2014

  18. Consumer protection through a legislative ban on industrially produced trans fatty acids in foods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Legislation has, within a few years, virtually eliminated the intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) in Denmark, by banning any food with an IP-TFA content greater than 2% of total fat. This accomplishment has been obtained without noticeable effects on the availability, price...

  19. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  1. Limiting value definition in radiation protection physics, legislation and toxicology. Fundamentals, contrasts, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich; Koenig, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The volume is the documentation of an ENTRIA workshop discussion on limiting value definition in radiation protection including the following contributions: Introduction in radiation protection -fundamentals concepts of limiting values, heterogeneity; evaluation standards for dose in radiation protection in the context of final repository search; definition of limiting values in toxicology; public participation to limiting value definition - a perspective for the radiation protection regulation; actual developments in radiation protection.

  2. Identifying best practices for "Safe Harbor" legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Susan; Azzi, Veronica F; Ryan, Gery; Brook, Robert; Chung, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with Safe Harbor experts in these states. Participants conveyed that Safe Harbor legislation signified a critical paradigm shift, treating commercially sexually exploited youth not as criminals but as vulnerable children in need of services. However, Safe Harbor legislation varied widely and significant gaps in laws exist. Such laws alone were considered insufficient without adequate funding for necessary services. As a result, many well-meaning providers were going around the Safe Harbor laws by continuing to incarcerate commercially sexually exploited youth in the juvenile justice system regardless of Safe Harbor laws in place. This was done, to act, in their view, in what was the best interest of the victimized children. With imperfect laws and implementation, these findings suggest an important role for local and state responders to act together to protect victims from unnecessary criminalization and potential further traumatization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Actions of the Cuban Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the adequate implementation of the legislation in matter of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornet R, O.M.; Guillen C, A.; Betancourt H, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of the regulatory activity in matter of safety and radiological protection it depends in great measure of the practical implementation level of the legislation in this matter. In our country this objective has been achieved through the one continuous improvement of the Hierarchical System of Nuclear Regulation, the reconciliation with specialists and national experts in each matter during the elaboration of the legal documents; the popularization and gratuitous distribution of it approved; the precision in the validation conditions of the authorizations of those main precepts applicable to the practices; the legal foundation of the deficiencies evidenced in the regulatory inspections; the development of a Safety Culture; the realization of Annual Regulatory Conferences and mainly in the training of the personnel related with the safety. Also, the constant analysis on the part of the specialists of the Regulatory Authority of the grade of implementation of this legislation, it discussion in national and international events and the actions recommended in these works. As a result of this focus, it is considered that the Regulatory Authority has impacted appropriately in the implementation of this legislation. (Author)

  4. Using research data to impact consumer protection legislation: lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerster, Katherine D; Mayer, Joni A

    2013-09-01

    The Correlates of Indoor Tanning in Youth (CITY100) project evaluated individual, built-environmental, and policy correlates of indoor tanning by adolescents in the 100 most populous US cities. After CITY100's completion, the research team obtained supplemental dissemination funding to strategically share data with stakeholders. The primary CITY100 dissemination message was to encourage state-level banning of indoor tanning among youth. We created a user-friendly website to broadly share the most relevant CITY100 data. Journalists were a primary target audience, as were health organizations that would be well positioned to advocate for legislative change. CITY100 data were used to pass the first US state law to ban indoor tanning among those under 18 (CA, USA), as well as in other legislative advocacy activities. This paper concludes with lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination activities that we hope will encourage more health researchers to proactively address policy implications of their data and to design relevant, effective dissemination strategies.

  5. The Development of Russian Legislation Relating to the Protection of the Rights of Separated Parents and Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Krasnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article deals with the challenges created by legal regulations concerning divorced or separated couples and focuses on the rights of separated parents with children. The article analyzes the problems associated with law enforcement practices in this area, the gaps in existing family law, as well as the disputed aspects of theory concerning parents’ legal relations. Suggestions for legislative developments in Russia concerning the protection of family rights within separated families are given. The authors of this paper argue for a rethink of existing approaches to legal regulations in this field of law due to the fact that existing family legislation does not take into consideration many of the challenges and realities of modern parenthood. Furthermore, current legal regulations in Russia do not fully correspond to international legal norms. The authors contend that this will lead to the curtailment of the legal rights of the separated parents. Such status is characterized, on the one hand, by unreasonable restrictions on parental rights. On the other hand, it permits only a limited degree of responsibility for a child’s upbringing and financial support on the part of a parent living separately from their child. The authors propose that, in this respect, it is necessary to rethink disputed legal decisions relating to family law and the implementation of family law in practice. By analyzing such implementation, the authors single out a number of interrelated factors that must be overcome in order to effectively protect separated parents’ relationships with their children. The aim of the article is to initiate a new approach to parental legal relations after divorce or separation and to propose new legislative regulations concerning the legal status of a parent who lives separately from their child. New developments in family law are proposed in order to ensure a balance between parental responsibilities and rights as well as

  6. Data protection legislation: A very hungry caterpillar: The case of mapping data in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, H.D.; van Loenen, Bastiaan; Kulk, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The European Union's policy on open data aims at generating value through re-use of public sector information, such as mapping data. Open data policies should be applied in full compliance with the principles relating to the protection of personal data of the EU Data Protection Directive. Increased

  7. Data protection legislation : A very hungry caterpillar. The case of mapping data in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loenen, Bastiaan; Kulk, Stefan; Ploeger, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The European Union's policy on open data aims at generating value through re-use of public sector information, such as mapping data. Open data policies should be applied in full compliance with the principles relating to the protection of personal data of the EU Data Protection Directive. Increased

  8. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esco, R.; Biete, A.; Pardo, J.; Carceller, J.A.; Veira, C.; Palacios, A.; Vazquez, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  9. [International legal policy in the sphere of protection of the rights of people with mental disorders and Russian legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhnyak, V S; Otstavnova, E A

    2015-01-01

    Protection of human rights is a matter of priority for the international and Russian legislation. The State is responsible for respect of corresponding principles. Main documents on human rights were accepted by the United Nations and then by the European Council and WHO. They were generalized to psychiatric patients as well. In the Russian Federation, the main law concerning the rights of people with mental disorders is the law «On Psychiatric Care and Guarantees of Citizens. Rights during Its Provision» (1992). The authors pointed out that some fields of its implementation are not adequately explored in comparison to international situation on the protection of rights of patients with mental disorders.

  10. Legislation in the field of environmental protection as a factor of preserving tourist resource basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Vukan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and environment are closely linked, whereas the environmental protection has fundamental importance for the future development of tourist destinations. Motivation of modern tourists is increasingly linked to the destinations guided by the principles of sustainable development, which is why the state as well as the local communities should pay greater attention to the efficiency of regulations related to the environmental protection. Even though, tourism in Serbia has been identified as one of the sectors with the greatest potential for development, it is necessary to do more about the system of environmental protection and conservation as well as the enforcement of regulations. The harmonization of laws in the field of environmental protection with the EU regulations affects tourism, which is expected to have an important stake in the future economic growth of the country.

  11. Criminal Protection Regarding the Copyright of Computer Programs - European and National Legislation -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dimofte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Any harmonization of copyright and related rights must be based on a high levelof protection since these rights are crucial to intellectual creation. Their protection helps tomaintain and develop creativity in the interests of authors, performers, producers, consumers,culture, industry and general public. Consequently, intellectual property has been recognizedas an integral part of the property. A rigorous and effective system of protection of copyrightand related rights is one of the main instruments that guarantee the production and creativityof European cultural resources necessary to obtain and maintain autonomy and dignity ofcreators and performers. A joint research and a consistent implementation at European level oftechnical measures for the protection of works or other subject-matter and to providenecessary information on rights to be essential, since the ultimate goal of these measures is toimplement the principles and guarantees prescribed by law.

  12. Comprehensive Legislative Reform to Protect the Integrity of the 340B Drug Discount Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeta, Lowell M

    2015-01-01

    The 40B Drug Discount Program (340B Program) is a federally facilitated program that requires drug manufacturers to provide steep discounts on outpatient prescription drugs to qualifying safety net health care providers. The federal program is intended as a safeguard to ensure access to affordable drugs to the indigeut. However, over the last two decades safety net health care providers have exploited financial incentives under the 340B Program at the expense of drug manufacturers and patients, including the most needy and vulnerable populations-they are committed to serve. Although the federal government has been applauded for increasing effortsto combat health care fraud and abuse including recovering $3.3 billion in 2014, federal officials and the general public have paid markedly less attention to pervasive abuse of the 340B Program. In 2014, drug purchases of 340B-designated drugs totaled $7 billion and are expected to increase to $12 billion: by 2016 as a result of the expansion of the program under the Affordable Care Act. The 340B Program has completely lost its way, and comprehensive legislation is necessary to realign the program with its intent.

  13. Implementation of smoke-free legislation in Malaysia: are adolescents protected from respiratory health effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aziemah; Abidin, Najihah Zainol; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Rahman, Anita Abd; Rasdi, Irniza; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Semple, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation. A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8). Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

  14. European legislation impedes critical care research and fails to protect patients' rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Rossel, Peter Johannes Hancke

    2011-01-01

    The European Clinical Trials Directive requires an informed consent from the patient or a proxy in drug trials. Although informed consent is a valuable tool to protect patients' rights in clinical trials, this requirement largely impedes research in critical care settings, and if pursued in this ......The European Clinical Trials Directive requires an informed consent from the patient or a proxy in drug trials. Although informed consent is a valuable tool to protect patients' rights in clinical trials, this requirement largely impedes research in critical care settings, and if pursued...

  15. Protection of media pluralism in the republic of Serbia under the new legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a short review of the provisions of the Law on Public Information and Media and Law on Electronic Media, concerning to the protection of media pluralism and media concentrations. The author points out that these rules focus on better protection of media pluralism and on providing greater transparency of media ownership, because the major changes introduced by the laws are the media register and new, more detailed regulated, media concentration regime. Therefore, the new laws establish the modern regulatory framework of the Republic of Serbia in the area of media concentration, which represent a solid basis for further development of media pluralism.

  16. Anti-Spam Legislation in Consideration of Personal Data Protection and Other Legal Instruments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matejka, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 90-114 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : spam * personal data protection * e- marketing Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure and maternal action to protect children from secondhand smoke: pre- and post-smokefree legislation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Mak, Yim Wah; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing

    2014-01-01

    Smokefree legislation may protect children from secondhand smoke (SHS) in the home from smoking parent(s). We examined the effect of the 2007 smokefree legislation on children's exposure to SHS in the home and maternal action to protect children from SHS exposure in Hong Kong. Families with a smoking father and a non-smoking mother were recruited from public clinics before (2005-2006, n = 333) and after the legislation (2007-2008, n = 742) which led to a major extension of smokefree places in Hong Kong. Main outcomes included children's SHS exposure in the home, nicotine level in mothers' and children's hair and home environment, mothers' action to protect children from SHS, and their support to the fathers to quit. Fewer mothers post-legislation reported children's SHS exposure in the home (87.2% versus 29.3%, pchildren away from cigarette smoke (6.3% versus 92.2%; pchildren from SHS increased after the 2007 smokefree legislation. Maternal support to fathers to quit showed moderate improvement. Cessation services for smokers and specific interventions for smoking families should be expanded together with smokefree legislation.

  18. RPE and RPO in the revised Swiss radiation protection legislation; RPE und RPO in der revidierten schweizerischen Strahlenschutzgesetzgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, S.G. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Brugg (Switzerland); Stritt, N.; Bogni, S. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Bern (Switzerland); Hammans, M. [Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Luzern (Switzerland); Duerst, B. [Departement fuer Verteidigung, Bevoelkerungsschutz und Sport (VBS), Bern (Switzerland); Kuehne, G. [Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Wuerenlingen (Switzerland); Besancon, A. [Institut de Radiophysique (IRA), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Currently the Swiss 'Ordinance on Radiation Protection' and the 'Ordinance about Education and Training in RP' are undergoing a revision process. Concerning responsibilities and obligations as well as the capabilities and skills in RP the new ordinances are supposed to take account on the new EU Basic Safety Standard on the one hand and on the other hand to resume the approved approaches on RP in Switzerland. An overview of the planned content of the revised ordinances will be given in this report. In the Swiss system the education, training and retraining of RPO has a higher priority. Particularly it will be described which groups of persons assume the roles of RPE and therefore the definition of RPE in the new Swiss legislation is needless. (orig.)

  19. Changes in public attitudes towards confidential adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Lithuania after the introduction of new legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sauliune, Skirmante

    2015-01-01

    and reproductive healthcare (SRH) by comparing data from surveys administered in 2005 and 2012. METHODS: For both surveys, the participants were random samples of the Lithuanian residents aged 16 to 74. A 23-item questionnaire was used in 2005 and complemented with 2 items in 2012. Linear regression analysis...... was employed to estimate absolute differences in prevalence of belief in whether or not adolescents would find confidentiality important when consulting a physician on SRH issues. A log-binomial regression model was fitted to estimate the relative changes (prevalence ratio) of the independent variables...

  20. Changes in public attitudes towards confidential adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Lithuania after the introduction of new legislation: findings from the cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2005 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sauliune, Skirmante; Jarusevicius, Gediminas; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2015-09-04

    In Lithuania, the right to confidentiality in healthcare for adolescents over the age of 16 was guaranteed in 2010 through the adoption of new legislation. This study sets out to explore changes in Lithuanian residents' attitudes towards confidentiality protection in adolescent sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH) by comparing data from surveys administered in 2005 and 2012. For both surveys, the participants were random samples of the Lithuanian residents aged 16 to 74. A 23-item questionnaire was used in 2005 and complemented with 2 items in 2012. Linear regression analysis was employed to estimate absolute differences in prevalence of belief in whether or not adolescents would find confidentiality important when consulting a physician on SRH issues. A log-binomial regression model was fitted to estimate the relative changes (prevalence ratio) of the independent variables. The total number of respondents was 1054 (response rate 83%) in 2005 and 1002 (response rate 80%) in 2012. The proportion of respondents who reported a belief that adolescents would find confidentiality important when seeing a physician for SRH issues increased significantly from 62% in 2005 to 73% in 2012. Regardless of their belief in the importance of confidentiality, in 2012 respondents more often indicated positive outcomes on the relations between the physician and the minor patient, such as increased trust of the adolescent in the physician and more frequent visits to physicians. However, study participants who believed that adolescents would find confidentiality important in 2012 were less optimistic about potential positive outcomes of further legal consolidation of adolescents' right to confidentiality than in 2005. Younger respondents were the most optimistic about potential outcomes if laws were enacted to further protect adolescent confidentiality. This study uncovers the dynamics of public attitudes towards the socially and ethically sensitive issue of adolescent SRH. Our

  1. Fundamental roles of reactive oxygen species and protective mechanisms in the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Futoshi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controlled oxidation, such as disulfide bond formation in sperm nuclei and during ovulation, plays a fundamental role in mammalian reproduction. Excess oxidation, however, causes oxidative stress, resulting in the dysfunction of the reproductive process. Antioxidation reactions that reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species are of prime importance in reproductive systems in maintaining the quality of gametes and support reproduction. While anti-oxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, play a central role in eliminating oxidative stress, reduction-oxidation (redox systems, comprised of mainly glutathione and thioredoxin, function to reduce the levels of oxidized molecules. Aldo-keto reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor, detoxifies carbonyl compounds resulting from the oxidation of lipids and proteins. Thus, many antioxidative and redox enzyme genes are expressed and aggressively protect gametes and embryos in reproductive systems.

  2. Justification of methodical procedures for the optimization of radiation protection in reproductive women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, A.N.; Zynova, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific information on the influence of low-dose ionizing radiation on human embryos and fetuses is analyzed and the risk of irradiation in the different weeks of pregnancy is estimated quantitatively. Program and methods of follow-up in occupationally exposed reproductive women are justified. Emphasis is laid on methods estimating the condition of reproductiveness. Measures concerning prophylaxis and radiation protection of occupationally exposed women are investigated

  3. Radiation protection: Creating capacity, legislation and regulation, control of exposure and emergency preparedness through technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the IAEA technical cooperation (TC) programme provides more than US $70 million worth of training services, and equipment in approximately 100 countries and territories throughout Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Latin America. TC projects span an ever increasing range of sectors that have direct links to human and environmental health. Wherever nuclear and other radiation based technologies are applied, protecting the safety and health of employees, medical patients and the public at large is a top priority and a demanding responsibility. One of the primary aims of the TC's radiation protection programme is to help Member States fulfil their safety and security obligations. Rarely in the history of the IAEA has radiation based technology provided so much opportunity. Just as Member States - particularly developing countries - acquire the expertise needed to utilize technologies that contribute to social and economic development, they need to ensure that they have an adequate national infrastructure for radiation safety and security. Beyond the existing infrastructure for radiation safety and security, other factors increasingly call for attention. They are, on the one hand: - The development and deployment of new nuclear technologies; - Renewed interest in large scale nuclear energy production and on the other hand: - Geopolitical instability and global terrorism, which create a black market for radioactive materials; - Ongoing attempts to acquire capacity in nuclear weapons. If the world is to realize the potential of radiation based technologies for peaceful purposes, each country must be prepared to confront the associated risks. The nature of today's global environment is such that a significant threat can arise virtually any time, anywhere. Thus, there is a pressing need to strengthen the safety and security network at every level. The TC programme is committed to building a global safety regime for nuclear technology, country by country

  4. The patient's radiological protection in medical practices: Legal support in the Cuban legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, I.; Duran Delgado, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear energy have a great importance in medical practice, for their use in diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. The possibility to detect diseases and the use of radiation as a palliative or curative method, enables the use of such polemic energy. Practices associated with the use of ionizing radiation are under regulatory control, and in this regard it becomes necessary to prescribe a series of administrative requirements aimed at granting the corresponding authorization, once it has been demonstrated that the technical requirements that ensure the safe performance of the practice, without undue risk on life, goods and environment, are met. This includes the protection of any patient who could be under treatment, who is considered the main user of this application. (author)

  5. The patient's radiological protection in medical practices, legal support in the cuban legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, Ivonne; Duran Delgado, Marlen

    2005-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear energy have a great importance in medical practice, for their use in diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. The possibility to detect diseases and the use of radiation as a palliative or curative method, ennobles the use of such polemic energy. Practices associated with the use of ionizing radiation are under regulatory control, and in this regard it becomes necessary to prescribe a series of administrative requirements aimed at granting the corresponding authorization, once it has been demonstrated that the technical requirements that ensure the safe performance of the practice, without undue risk on life, goods and environment are met. This includes the protection of any patient who could be under treatment, who is considered the main user of this application

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure and maternal action to protect children from secondhand smoke: pre- and post-smokefree legislation in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Siu Chee Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smokefree legislation may protect children from secondhand smoke (SHS in the home from smoking parent(s. We examined the effect of the 2007 smokefree legislation on children's exposure to SHS in the home and maternal action to protect children from SHS exposure in Hong Kong. METHODS: Families with a smoking father and a non-smoking mother were recruited from public clinics before (2005-2006, n = 333 and after the legislation (2007-2008, n = 742 which led to a major extension of smokefree places in Hong Kong. Main outcomes included children's SHS exposure in the home, nicotine level in mothers' and children's hair and home environment, mothers' action to protect children from SHS, and their support to the fathers to quit. RESULTS: Fewer mothers post-legislation reported children's SHS exposure in the home (87.2% versus 29.3%, p<0.01, which was consistent with their hair nicotine levels (0.36 ng/mg versus 0.04 ng/mg, p<0.01. More mothers post-legislation in the last month took their children away from cigarette smoke (6.3% versus 92.2%; p<0.01 and advised fathers to quit over 3 times (8.3% versus 33.8%; p<0.01. No significant change was found in the content of smoking cessation advice and the proportion of mothers who took specific action to support the fathers to quit. CONCLUSIONS: SHS exposure in the home decreased and maternal action to protect children from SHS increased after the 2007 smokefree legislation. Maternal support to fathers to quit showed moderate improvement. Cessation services for smokers and specific interventions for smoking families should be expanded together with smokefree legislation.

  7. Radiological risk assessment of isotope laboratories according to the requirements of the radiation protection ordinance and the protective labour legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuerm, R.P.; Kuster, M.; Traub, K.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Swiss Radiation Safety Ordinance the supervising authority may require a safety report from the operator of a radioactive laboratory (Art.95) and establish the methodology of the risk analysis. Isotope laboratories of the chemical industry are supervised by Swiss accident insurance agency (SUVA). In that respect SUVA safeguards both radiation protection issues and general protection of the workers and established guide lines in order to assess conventional risks in industrial premises. In these conventional analysis the working process is analysed according to its possible detriment (death, severe invalidity, slight invalidity, injury with absence, injury without absence) and the probability of occurrence (frequent, seldom, rare, improbable, virtually impossible). According to this the risks are categorised in a matrix as 'high', 'medium' and 'low'. SUVA requested such a risk analysis for two isotope laboratories of B type in Basel in which on the one hand the hazard to the workers on the other hand to the public should be analysed and radiologically assessed. It was proposed to use a methodology established in workers safety and the insurance section. This required a comparison of risks of radiation doses in mSv to the consequences of conventional working accidents (death, invalidity) and the risk perception of the public and politicians. In this paper this risk matrix derived in discussions among the supervising body, the company management, the laboratory head and workers is described. In the opinion of the authors such a comparison between radiological and conventional risks has not been performed up to now and the results obtained here are open to discussion. (orig.) [de

  8. Data for Summary of the Development the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) Using Data from Nine Multigenerational Medaka Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to various legislative mandates the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) formed its Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), which...

  9. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Maternal Action to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke: Pre- and Post-Smokefree Legislation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Mak, Yim Wah; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lam, Tai Hing

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokefree legislation may protect children from secondhand smoke (SHS) in the home from smoking parent(s). We examined the effect of the 2007 smokefree legislation on children’s exposure to SHS in the home and maternal action to protect children from SHS exposure in Hong Kong. Methods Families with a smoking father and a non-smoking mother were recruited from public clinics before (2005–2006, n = 333) and after the legislation (2007–2008, n = 742) which led to a major extension of smokefree places in Hong Kong. Main outcomes included children’s SHS exposure in the home, nicotine level in mothers’ and children’s hair and home environment, mothers’ action to protect children from SHS, and their support to the fathers to quit. Results Fewer mothers post-legislation reported children’s SHS exposure in the home (87.2% versus 29.3%, plegislation in the last month took their children away from cigarette smoke (6.3% versus 92.2%; plegislation. Maternal support to fathers to quit showed moderate improvement. Cessation services for smokers and specific interventions for smoking families should be expanded together with smokefree legislation. PMID:25166507

  10. A review of the legislative mechanisms available to protect the social participation rights of people with depression in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Cristina; Lee, Ming-Been; Chiu, Chen-huan

    2004-01-01

    To conduct a review of the legislative mechanisms potentially available to protect the social participation rights of people with depression in the Asia Pacific region. Questions were sent to the SEBoD International Advisory Board and Internet and legal database searches were conducted to supplement responses from advisors. While it cannot be said that comprehensive antidiscrimination legislation in relation to disability exists in all countries in the Asia Pacific region, most countries have commenced the process. Many have implemented either human rights or antidiscrimination legislation and most have set up a Human Rights Commission to protect social participation rights and allow complaints to be lodged. This review highlighted the difference between legislation and practice. While many countries have enacted laws, insufficient resources have been committed to support the objectives to realise the protection of rights enshrined in legislation. Additionally, many people may not know that the laws exist or do not have the money or social supports to fight for their rights. Many countries, however, have commenced a concerted approach to tackling the larger issues and have developed comprehensive action plans to address the social participation rights of people with disability.

  11. Digital Privacy Legislation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Foulds; Magda Huisman; Gunther R. Drevin

    2013-01-01

    Privacy is regarded as a fundamental human right and it is clear that the study of digital privacy is an important field. Digital privacy is influenced by new and constantly evolving technologies and this continuous change makes it hard to create legislation to protect people's privacy from being exploited by misuse of these technologies. This study aims to benefit digital privacy legislation efforts by evaluating the awareness and perceived importance of digital privacy legislation among...

  12. Units for the protection of child victims and witnesses in the criminal proceedings: Domestic legislation and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević-Đukić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Serbia has invested maximum efforts in adjusting national legislation with the international legal framework, as well in fulfilling its obligations foreseen in relevant international documents, including the Child Rights Convention. The purpose of this paper is to present Units for the Protection of Child Victims and Witnesses in the Criminal Proceedings that were developed within the IPA project “Improvement of Children's Right through the System of Justice and Social Protection in Serbia”, funded by the EU, and implemented by the UNCEF in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Labour, Employment, Veteran and Social Policy of the Republic of Serbia. The project was implemented from August 2014 to March 2017. The purpose of the Units is to ensure the best interest of children in situation when a child is identified as a victim or a witness of a crime and appears in the criminal or other court procedure. In this way, the state protects children who are important and infallible part of judicial proceedings from secondary victimization and traumatisation, given that the processes within institutions inevitably reflect on mental state of a child. Units were established in four cities: Belgrade, Niš, Novi Sad, and Kragujevac, and they operate at the regional level. This enables that all children, even those in rural areas, will be provided with adequate assistance and support during preparations for the hearing, during criminal proceedings, as well as in its aftermath. The role of the Units is multiple: along with the support to children, it also includes support to the judiciary agencies since the hearing may be performed with a help of professional personnel, psychologist, pedagogue or social worker. Since the members of the Units are trained for conducting forensic interviews according to the Protocol of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, their involvement by the judiciary becomes even

  13. Safety and protective efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome recombinant virus vaccines in young pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheije, M.H.; Kroese, M.V.; Linden, van der I.F.A.; Boer-Luijtze, de E.A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recombinants, generated by mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus (LV) isolate, were tested for their safety and protective efficacy as potential PRRSV vaccines in pigs. Recombinant vABV688 contains two amino

  14. A new genre of social protection policy for older people: a critical analysis of legislative development in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma Bhattarai, Lok P

    2013-01-01

    This commentary critically discusses recent legislation promulgated in Nepal to safeguard older people's rights and promote their well-being. Using a human-rights-based framework, the legislation is analyzed for its strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis has also been placed on discussing various aspects overlooked by the legislation, such as changing family structure, relations, and social values; the impact of employment structure and migration; and, importantly, maintaining a desired balance between the roles of the state and of the family in providing social security, support, and care to older people. Efforts have been made to reflect the promulgated law in light of the contemporary developments taking place globally, particularly in regions of Asia. Areas for future policy work are also identified in order to make legislation more inclusive and effective.

  15. Evaluating technologies in reproductive health: case studies of a consumer protection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, L D; Castilho, S R

    1998-12-01

    A consumer-protection assessment and action program aimed at improving reproductive health technologies is reviewed. Evaluations employed both literature review, synthesis, market analysis and laboratory testing for conformity to standards of a wide range of products which affect reproductive health on the Brazilian market 1995-1997. Anti-infective gynecological products, ampicillins, condoms, pregnancy tests, hormonal contraceptives, infant formulas, selected teratogens, bromocriptine and prostaglandins were studied. Actions include dissemination in periodicals and the mass media, consumer education, pressure for regulation, negotiations with manufacturers and legal action. The program was effective in improving the supply and regulation of some, but not all products studied. Impact on health and utilization are unknown. A significant proportion of products studied are unsafe, ineffective or of sub-standard quality. A combination of careful scientific work, strong links between scientists and social movements, dissemination and legal action, can effectively improve the quality of products which affect reproductive health.

  16. Protection of the female reproductive system from natural and artificial insults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Jonathan L.; Kolesnick, Richard N.

    2010-12-14

    Described are methods for protecting the female reproductive system against natural and artificial insults by administering to women a composition comprising an agent that antagonizes one or more acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) gene products. Specifically, methods disclosed herein serve to protect women's germline from damage resulting from cancer therapy regimens including chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In one aspect, the method preserves, enhances, or revives ovarian function in women, by administering to women a composition containing sphingosine-1-phosphate, or an analog thereof. Also disclosed are methods to prevent or ameliorate menopausal syndromes and to improve in vitro fertilization techniques.

  17. 40 CFR 1508.17 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislation. 1508.17 Section 1508.17 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.17 Legislation. Legislation includes a bill or legislative proposal to Congress developed by or with the significant...

  18. Migrant workers in Sabah, East Malaysia: The importance of legislation and policy to uphold equity on sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Tong, Wen Ting; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-04-01

    Sabah, located in Southeast Asia, hosts the highest number of non-Malaysian citizens (27.7%), predominantly the Indonesian and Filipino migrants in comparison to other states in Malaysia. Sabah has inadequate data on migrants' sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHRs). Various migrant-related policies and laws are present, but they do not offer full protection and rights to legal migrants in terms of their SRHRs. The aim of the laws and policies appears to be controlling the migrants from having any negative impact on the locals, rather than protecting migrants' health and rights. This affected their rights to marriage, having children, increase their vulnerabilities to labour trafficking and sexual abuse and access to health-care services. Female migrant workers and undocumented migrants form the most vulnerable subgroups of migrants. This narrative review highlights the status of SRHRs of migrants in Sabah and the migrant-related Malaysian laws and policies affecting their SRHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and research, such as human reproductive cloning.“ However, despite advances in ART the proportion of ... religions such as Islam completely forbid them, and in many countries there is strict regulation of treatment. Although sperm cryopreservation in humans was introduced in 1953,13 sperm donation commenced using.

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  1. Radiation protection and safety in medical use of ionising radiation in Republic of Bulgaria - Harmonisation of the national legislation with Euratom directives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, K.; Vassileva, J.; Rupova, I.; Pavlova, A.

    2005-01-01

    From February 2002 to November 2003 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection conducted a PHARE twinning project 'Radiation Protection and Safety at Medical Use of Ionising Radiation'. The main purposes of the project were the harmonisation of Bulgarian legislation in the field of radiation protection with EC Directives 96/29 and 97/43 Euratom, and the establishment of appropriate institutional infrastructure and administrative framework for their implementation. This paper presents the main results of the project: elaboration of Ordinance for Protection of Individuals from Medical Exposure; performance of a national survey of distribution of patient doses in diagnostic radiology and of administered activities in nuclear medicine and establishment of national reference levels for the most common diagnostic procedures. (authors)

  2. Passive transfer of virus-specific antibodies confers protection against reproductive failure induced by a virulent strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and establishes sterilizing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, F A; Galeota, J A; Nelson, E; Brodersen, B; Doster, A; Wills, R; Zuckermann, F; Laegreid, W W

    2002-10-10

    Immune mechanisms mediating protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are not well understood. The PRRSV-specific humoral immune response has been dismissed as being ineffective and perhaps deleterious for the host. The function of PRRSV antibodies in protective immunity against infection with a highly abortifacient strain of this virus was examined by passive transfer experiments in pregnant swine. All of a group of pregnant gilts (n = 6) that received PRRSV immunoglobulin (Ig) from PRRSV-convalescent, hyperimmune animals were fully protected from reproductive failure as judged by 95% viability of offspring at weaning (15 days of age). On the other hand, the totality of animals in a matched control group (n = 6) receiving anti-pseudorabies virus (PRV) Ig exhibited marked reproductive failure with 4% survival at weaning. Besides protecting the pregnant females from clinical reproductive disease, the passive transfer of PRRSV Ig prevented the challenge virus from infecting the dams and precluded its vertical transmission, as evidenced by the complete absence of infectious PRRSV from the tissues of the dams and lack of infection in their offspring. In summary, these results indicate that PRRSV-Igs are capable of conferring protective immunity against PRRSV and furthermore that these Igs can provide sterilizing immunity in vivo.

  3. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae) in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Freitas, Leandro

    2011-12-01

    One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008) in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa), as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas.

  4. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Wolowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008 in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa, as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1939-1948. Epub 2011 December 01

  5. Bribery or just desserts? Evidence on the influence of Congressional reproductive policy voting patterns on PAC contributions from exogenous variation in the sex mix of legislator offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Dalton; McCabe, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between political contributions and legislators' voting behavior is marred by concerns about endogeneity in the estimation process. Using a legislator's offspring sex mix as a truly exogenous variable, we employ an instrumental variable estimation procedure to predict the effect of voting behavior on political contributions. Following previous research, we find that a legislator's proportion daughters has a significant effect on voting behavior for women's issues, as measured by score in the "Congressional Record on Choice" issued by NARAL Pro-Choice America. In the second stage, we make a unique contribution by demonstrating a significant impact of exogenous voting behavior on PAC contributions, lending further credibility to the hypothesis that Political Action Committees respond to legislators' voting patterns by "rewarding" political candidates that vote in line with the positions of the PAC, rather than affecting those same votes - at least in this high-profile policy domain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umubyeyi, Aline; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  7. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Umubyeyi

    Full Text Available Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda.Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter.Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  8. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-01-01

    for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. RESULTS: Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations......OBJECTIVE: An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents...... for confidentiality in both contexts. Public expectations regarding confidentiality were less demanding in 2012 than in 2005. CONCLUSIONS: The expectation of confidentiality protection was greater for topics related to sexual behaviour than for the consequences of sexual behaviour, such as pregnancy, abortion...

  9. Reproductive Toxic Chemicals at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek

    2017-06-01

    A huge number of chemicals are produced and used in the world, and some of them can have negative effects on the reproductive health of workers. To date, most chemicals and work environments have not been studied for their potential to have damaging effects on the workers' reproductive system. Because of the lack of information, many workers may not be aware that such problems can be related to occupational exposures. Newly industrialized countries such as Republic of Korea have rapidly amassed chemicals and other toxicants that pose health hazards, especially to the reproductive systems of workers. This literature review provides an overview of peer-reviewed literature regarding the teratogenic impact and need for safe handling of chemicals. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Search strategies were narrowed based on author expertise and 100 articles were chosen for detailed analysis. A total of 47 articles met prespecified inclusion criteria. The majority of papers contained studies that were descriptive in nature with respect to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords: "reproductive and heath or hazard and/or workplace or workers or occupations." In the absence of complete information about the safe occupational handling of chemicals in Republic of Korea (other than a material safety data sheet), this review serves as a valuable reference for identifying and remedying potential gaps in relevant regulations. The review also proposes other public health actions including hazard surveillance and primary prevention activities such as reduction, substitution, ventilation, as well as protective equipment.

  10. Reproductive Toxic Chemicals at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A huge number of chemicals are produced and used in the world, and some of them can have negative effects on the reproductive health of workers. To date, most chemicals and work environments have not been studied for their potential to have damaging effects on the workers' reproductive system. Because of the lack of information, many workers may not be aware that such problems can be related to occupational exposures. Newly industrialized countries such as Republic of Korea have rapidly amassed chemicals and other toxicants that pose health hazards, especially to the reproductive systems of workers. This literature review provides an overview of peer-reviewed literature regarding the teratogenic impact and need for safe handling of chemicals. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Search strategies were narrowed based on author expertise and 100 articles were chosen for detailed analysis. A total of 47 articles met prespecified inclusion criteria. The majority of papers contained studies that were descriptive in nature with respect to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms and keywords: “reproductive and heath or hazard and/or workplace or workers or occupations.” In the absence of complete information about the safe occupational handling of chemicals in Republic of Korea (other than a material safety data sheet, this review serves as a valuable reference for identifying and remedying potential gaps in relevant regulations. The review also proposes other public health actions including hazard surveillance and primary prevention activities such as reduction, substitution, ventilation, as well as protective equipment.

  11. Protective Effect of Vitamins E and C on Endosulfan-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Kargar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of oxidative stress in endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity has been implicated. This study was performed to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamins E and C, against endosulfan-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.Methods: Fifty adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each. The groups included a control receiving vehicle, a group treated with endosulfan (10 mg/kg/day alone, and three endosulfan-treated group receiving vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day, vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day, or vitamine C+vitamin E at the same doses. After 10 days of treatment, sperm parameters, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, plasma testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the testis were determined. Results: Oral administration of endosulfan caused a reduction in the sperm motility, viability, daily sperm production (DSP and increased the number of sperm with abnormal chromatin condensation. Endosulfan administration increased testis MDA and plasma LDH. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E to endosulfan-treated rats reduced the toxic effect of endosulfan on sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation in the testis. Vitamin E was more protective than vitamin C in reducing the adverse effects of the endosulfan.Conclusion: The findings data suggest that administration of vitamins C and E ameliorated the endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and sperm toxicity in rat. The effect of vitamin E in preventing endosulfan-induced sperm toxicity was superior to that of vitamin C.

  12. Supporting breastfeeding in emergencies: protecting women's reproductive rights and maternal and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D; McGrath, Marie; MacLaine, Ali; Lhotska, Lida

    2011-10-01

    Women have the right to support that enables them to breastfeed. Supporting breastfeeding in emergencies is important because artificial feeding places mothers and children at risk. In emergencies, artificial feeding is dangerous to the infant, difficult and requires substantial resources. In contrast, breastfeeding guards infant health. It is also protective against postpartum haemorrhage, maternal depletion, maternal anaemia and closely spaced births and should therefore concern not only nutritionists, but also those involved in reproductive health. However, it is common for women's ability to breastfeed to be undermined in emergencies by the indiscriminate distribution of breast-milk substitutes and the absence of breastfeeding support. Controlling the distribution of breast-milk substitutes, providing supportive environments, and appropriate medical and practical assistance to breastfeeding women safeguards the health and well-being of mothers and babies. Greater collaboration between the nutrition and reproductive health sectors is required to promote best practice in protecting breastfeeding women and their children in emergencies. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  13. Are organisations in South Africa ready to comply with personal data protection or privacy legislation and regulations?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, Ntsako

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available classification, policies, the POPI Act, standards, and training or awareness campaigns within organisations. The study also looked at the significance of viewing personal data protection beyond the South African context, including the use of cloud services...

  14. Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris extract against bisphenol A induced reproductive damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Zhihui; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against reproductive damage induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Rats were administrated 200 mg/kg BPA for 4 weeks and treated with C. militaris (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight/day). By the end of the fourth week, the level of oxidative damage, sperm parameters, hormone levels, and histopathological changes were examined. In the group that only received BPA, there was a significant decrease in body weight compared with the normal control (NC) group. C. militaris significantly alleviated the BPA-induced reproductive damage by increasing testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and glutathione (GSH); as well as by reducing serum malondialdehyde (MDA). C. militaris not only obviously enhanced the levels of serum LH and T, but it also improved the sperm count and motility compared to the BPA-treated group. These results suggest that C. militaris could be used as a potential natural substance for preventing BPA induced reproductive damage. Abbreviations BPA: bisphenol A; SOD: superoxide dismutase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; T: testosterone; LH: luteinizing hormone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; UPLC: ultra performance liquid chromatography; RIA: radioimmunoassay; q quantitative real time PCR; NC: normal control group; BPA: 200 mg/kg BPA administered group; H: 800 mg/kg C. militaris extract administered group; LB, MB, and HB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg C. militaris administered group, respectively; VeB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 300 mg/kg Vitamin E administered group; Star: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 3β-HSD: 3beta-hydroxyl-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase; CYP11A1: cytochrome P 450 family 11 subfamily A member 1; CYP17A1: cytochrome P 450 family 17 subfamily A member 1.

  15. Administration of melatonin protects against acetylsalicylic acid-induced impairment of male reproductive function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Niloufar Hedayati; Lafout, Farzaneh Mahmoudi; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh

    2018-02-01

    Melatonin, an important hormone secreted by the epiphysis, is a powerful anti-oxidant with a high potential to neutralize medical toxins. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the beneficial effect of melatonin on epididymal sperm and reproductive parameters in mice treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Male adult mice were divided into four treatment groups: control, ASA, melatonin, and ASA+melatonin. Mice were administered ASA (50 mg/kg, orally) and/or melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or vehicle control, for 14 days. Sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were evaluated to assess fertility. A colorimetric assay was used to measure serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test was used to assess sperm chromatin integrity. Sex hormone levels were measured by ELISA. Compared to the control group, ASA treatment resulted in a significant decrease in sperm parameters ( P <0.05), as well as a decrease in the integrity of sperm chromatin ( P <0.01). ASA treatment also reduced serum testosterone and TAC levels ( P <0.05). Co-administration of melatonin with ASA significantly improved epididymal sperm parameters and increased serum testosterone and TAC levels compared to the ASA-treated group. LH level was not different in the combined treatment group compared to control or ASA treatment. Short-term administration of ASA (50 mg/kg) has adverse effects on male reproductive function in mice. Co-administration of melatonin protects against ASA-induced impairment of male reproductive function by preventing the reduction in serum TAC and testosterone levels seen with ASA treatment alone.

  16. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Douglas; Stead, Martine; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Murray, Susan; Best, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, Amanda; MacGregor, Andy; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction. A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83) selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively. Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%). Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%). Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations regarding the use

  17. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eadie

    Full Text Available From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction.A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83 selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively.Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%. Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%.Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations

  18. Protective Effects of Female Reproductive Factors on Lauren Intestinal-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Mi; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jeeyun; An, Ji Yeong; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Jae J; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung; Choi, Min Gew

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer shows a male predominance that might be explained by protective effects from estrogens in females. Two Lauren classification histological subtypes, intestinal and diffuse, have distinct carcinogeneses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of sex hormone on female gastric cancer according to Lauren classification. We reviewed medical records for and administered questionnaires, surveying reproductive and hormonal factors, to 758 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Samsung Medical Center from May 2012 to November 2014. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between females and males. The incidence of intestinal-type gastric cancer was compared between females subgroups, consist of premenopausal women and three groups of postmenopausal women (five-year intervals after menopause), and males. The association between reproductive factors and intestinal-type gastric cancer was analyzed by multivariate models for the female group. In total, 227 females (29.9%) and 531 males (70.9%) were included in the analysis. Undifferentiated adenocarcinoma and diffuse-type histology were more frequent in female patients than male patients. While 221 (41.6%) male patients had intestinal-type gastric cancer, no premenopausal female patient had this type of gastric cancer. The incidence of intestinal-type gastric cancer increased with time after menopause, and was similar to males after 10 years from menopause. Parity was associated with an increased risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer in menopausal women. These findings support that female sex hormones might be protective against intestinal-type gastric cancer. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  19. Same-sex parenting, assisted reproduction and gender asymmetry: reflecting on the differential effects of legislation on gay and lesbian family formation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabete Imaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an anthropological approach to examine how laws governing family formation in Spain affect same-sex couples seeking to become parents, in particular the cultural causes and implications of such laws. It highlights how the same laws are has a different impact on gay couples and lesbian couples. Legislation combines with other factors to favour and expand the possibilities of accessing motherhood for women in lesbian couples while limiting the possibilities of parenthood for men in gay couples. Moreover, the persistence of certain cultural models of fatherhood and motherhood can be observed, which further constrain parenthood access options and the forming of new family models.

  20. Selim v Lele and the civil (industrial) conscription prohibition: constitutional protection against federal legislation controlling or privatising Australian public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Selim v Lele (2008) 167 FCR 61; [2008] FCAFC 13 was a decision of the Federal Court which interpreted s 51(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This section accords the federal government, among other things, power to make laws with respect to the provision of "medical and dental services (but not so as to authorise any form of civil conscription)". The Federal Court decided that the phrase "civil conscription" was analogous to "industrial conscription". In that sense the Federal Court held that the prohibition was designed to preserve the employment autonomy of Australian medical practitioners or dentists, preventing federal laws that required them, either expressly or by practical compulsion, to work for the federal government or any industrial employer nominated or permitted by the federal government. The specific question in Selim v Lele was whether the imposition of standards and prohibition of "inappropriate practice" under the Health Insurance Act 1973 (Cth), ss 10, 20, 20A and Pt VAA, amounted to civil conscription. The court held they did not. The Federal Court also discussed in that context the sufficiency of "practical compulsion" in relation to the s 51(xxxiiiA) prohibition, The constitutional prohibition on "any form" of civil conscription provides one of the few rights protections in the Australian Constitution and may have an important role to play in shaping the limits of health care system privatisation in Australia.

  1. Texas passes first law for safe patient handling in America: landmark legislation protects health-care workers and patients from injury related to manual patient lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    compensation costs. Because the health-care industry has relied on people to do the work of machines, nursing work remains the most dangerous occupation for disabling back injury. Back injury from patient lifting may be the single largest contributor to the nursing shortage, with perhaps 12% of nurses leaving or being terminated because of back injury. The US health-care industry has not kept pace with other industries, which provide mechanical lift equipment for lifting loads equivalent to the weight of patients, or with other countries, such as Australia and England, which are more advanced in their use of modern technology for patient lifting and with no-lifting practices in compliance with government regulations and nursing policies banning manual lifting. With Texas being the first state to succeed in passing legislation for safe patient handling, other states are working toward legislative protection against injury with manual patient lifting. California re-introduced safe patient handling legislation on February 17, 2005, with CA SB 363, Hospitals: Lift Teams, following the September 22, 2004, veto of CA AB 2532 by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who said he believes existing statutory protection and workplace safety standards are sufficient to protect health care workers from injury. Massachusetts HB 2662, Relating to Safe Patient Handling in Certain Health Facilities, was introduced December 1, 2004. Ohio HB 67, signed March 21, 2005 by Governor Bob Taft (R), creates a program for interest-free loans to nursing homes for implementation of a no-manual-lift program. New York companion bills AB 7641 and SB 4029 were introduced in April, 2005, calling for creation of a 2-year study to establish safe patient handling programs and collect data on nursing staff and patient injury with manual patient handling versus lift equipment, to determine best practices for improving health and safety of health-care workers and patients during patient handling. Washington State is

  2. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  3. “The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical power of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) data for simulations” Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excel spreadsheet that contains the raw fecundity data used to conduct power simulations specific to the MEOGRT reproductive assessment. This dataset is associated...

  4. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  5. [On the Decision of the European Court of Human Rights. The S.H. and others against Austria. TEDH 2010/56 of April 1, on human assisted reproduction and its incidence on the European legislative arena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Martínez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The judgment of ECHR 2010/56 responds positively the appeal on the part of four Austrian citizens (two married couples) against the Austrian state. The applicants complained that the prohibition of sperm and ova donation for in vitro fertilisation as established in the Austrian Law of 1992 amounts to discrimination, against article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights in conjunction with article 8, which establishes that everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life. After a detailed exposition of the circumstances surrounding this case, the author examines the origin of the practices of artificial insemination and IVF. The author highlights the transcendence of questions linked to extracorporeal fertilisation and human embryology and looks at the European regulation and the doctrine of reproductive rights, paying attention to the widespread use of the abovementioned techniques in the globalised world and the transborder practices in the European territories. The author points out that the current implementation of assisted reproduction techniques and the lack of uniform regulation in the European context might have influenced the above judgment of the ECHR 2010/56, which pronounced that the 1992 Austrian Law of Artificial Reproduction was not in accordance with article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights, contrary to the judgment passed by the Austrian Constitutional Court eleven years earlier. It was not questioned, and so it was established by the ECHR, that the applicants right to use assisted reproduction techniques is protected by article 8 of the Convention. However, this does not make the estate liable to allow or regulate the abovementioned practices as long as this does not result in discrimination. According to the author, the right to resort to artificial reproduction techniques is contingent and therefore different from the freedom to procreate that is inherent to the human person, and covered under the right of

  6. A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Sabherwal, Simran

    2013-11-01

    To conduct a literature review of studies that examined risk and protective factors related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries. A literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, JSTOR, and the Interagency Youth Working Group. Review criteria included publications that: were conducted in a low- or middle-income country; had a sample size of at least 100 young people aged 10-24 years, and used multivariate analysis. All studies that were identified were also conducted between 1990 and 2010, a 20-year time frame. The literature search and initial review yielded a total of 244 studies that met the criteria and analyzed risk and protective factors related to the following outcomes: sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, condom use, contraceptive use, pregnancy and early childbearing, human immunodeficiency virus, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual coercion. Most studies that were conducted on adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries were largely focused in Sub-Saharan African contexts, and primarily examined factors related to sexual initiation and condom use. Most factors that examined an adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcome were also focused on the individual level, although an increasing number of studies within the past 10 years have focused on family-level factors. Few studies examined factors at the community or neighborhood level, which, to date, has largely been ignored in developing country contexts. The review not only summarizes what is currently known in terms of risk and protective factors that relate to adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries, but also highlights the gaps. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  8. Pathological effects of cigarettes on the reproductive system and the protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Erol, Onur; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Tola, Esra Nur; Savran, Mehtap; Ozmen, Ozlem

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) has some detrimental effects that occur via oxidative stress (OS). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the pathological and immunohistochemical effects of CS and the protective effects of a strong antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on CS-induced genital system changes in a rat model. Twenty-eight female rats were randomly allocated to three groups as control, CS-exposed, and CS-exposed and ALA-treated. Reproductive tract organs were collected for biochemical and pathological examinations. In the CS group, OS markers increased in the tissues of both the ovary and fallopian tubes. Decreased follicle numbers in the ovary, marked cilial loss in the fallopian tubes, and pathologic changes in the uterus were observed in the CS group. Positive calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), caspase 3α, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) immunoreactions were observed in uterine tissues and HIF-1α immunoreactions in tubal and uterine epithelial cells of the CS group. ALA reversed all these findings effectively. CS has negative effects on the female reproductive system via HIF-1α in tuba uterina and HIF-1α, HIF-2α, TNF-α, caspase 3, and CGRP in the uterus, and ALA could protect against the negative effects of CS on the female reproductive system.

  9. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  11. Legislative Proposals To Protect Children from Inappropriate Materials on the Internet. Hearing on H.R. 3783, H.R. 774, H.R. 1180, H.R. 1964, H.R. 3177, and H.R. 3442 before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade, and Consumer Protection of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Commerce.

    This hearing addresses legislative proposals to protect children from inappropriate materials on the Internet. Among the issues discussed are federal investments and information access, defining standards for protection, child pornography and marketing to children, filtering technology and adult verification services, and freedom of speech.…

  12. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (Trade governed by nuclear energy legislation; Trade governed by radiation protection legislation; Trade governed by export/import control legislation); 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Ministerial Level (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; Ministry of Trade and Industry; Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Other Ministries); B. Subsidiary Level: (The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA; The Norwegian Nuclear Emergency Organisation); 2. Public and Semi-Public Agencies - Institute for Energy Technology - IFE

  13. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Wolowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008 in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa, as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1939-1948. Epub 2011 December 01Es importante determinar la eficacia de las áreas de conservación cuando se están implementando diferentes categorías de manejo, y una forma de hacerlo es conociendo si se mantiene una reproducción sexual efectiva en las especies de plantas y sus interacciones con grupos de animales. Para evaluar esta cuestión, se comparó la fenología, el

  14. Summary of the development the US Environmental Protection Agency's Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) using data from 9 multigenerational medaka tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin; Lothenbach, Doug; Whiteman, Frank; Hammermeister, Dean; Touart, Leslie W; Swintek, Joe; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Onishi, Yuta; Iguchi, Taisen; Johnson, Rodney

    2017-12-01

    In response to various legislative mandates, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) formed its Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), which in turn, formed the basis of a tiered testing strategy to determine the potential of pesticides, commercial chemicals, and environmental contaminants to disrupt the endocrine system. The first tier of tests is intended to detect the potential for endocrine disruption mediated through estrogen, androgen, or thyroid pathways, whereas the second tier is intended to further characterize the effects on these pathways and to establish a dose-response relationship for adverse effects. One of these tier 2 tests, the Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT), was developed by the USEPA for the EDSP and, in collaboration with the Japanese Ministry of the Environment, for the Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The MEOGRT protocol was iteratively modified based on knowledge gained after the successful completion of 9 tests with variations in test protocols. The present study describes both the final MEOGRT protocol that has been published by the USEPA and the OECD, and the iterations that provided valuable insights into nuances of the protocol. The various tests include exposure to 17β-estradiol, 4-t-octylphenol, o,p'- dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, tamoxifen, 17β-trenbolone, vinclozolin, and prochloraz. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3387-3403. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  15. Gender Differences in Sexual and Reproductive Health Protective and Risk Factors of Batswana Adolescents: Implications for Parent and Adolescent Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Christina J; Seloilwe, Esther S; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse S; Miller, Kim S; St Lawrence, Janet S

    2018-02-01

    Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and in Botswana in particular continue to bear the brunt of the HIV epidemic. This analysis assessed gender differences among theory-based sexual and reproductive health protective and risk factors in a cross-sectional sample of 228 Batswana adolescents. Incongruence between preferred and actual sources of sexual information and several important gender differences in parent-adolescent relationships, psychosocial influences, and adolescent sexual behaviors were identified. Parents were the fourth most common source of information about sex; yet, over three-quarters of adolescents preferred to have parents teach them about sex. Boys reported more positive relationships with their parents and girls reported more positive attitudes toward transactional sex. Both boys and girls reported similarly low levels of parental monitoring, parental communication, and parental responsiveness, all of which are important protective factors. These findings suggest interventions should address these gender differences and consider offering parallel interventions for adolescents and their parents in Botswana.

  16. Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinxiang; Wu, Shiqiang; Xie, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhengyao; Wu, Ruiyun; Cai, Junfeng; Luo, Xiangmin; Huang, Suzhen; You, Liuxia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of zinc on hydrogen peroxide-induced sperm damage in assisted reproduction techniques. First, sperms were selected from semen samples of 20 healthy men prepared by density gradient centrifugation. Selected sperm were treated with either 0.001% H(2)O(2), 12.5 nM ZnCL(2), 0.001% H(2)O(2) + 12.5 nM ZnCL(2) or 0.9% NaCl(2) (control). After this treatment, the motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation of sperms in each group were analysed by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay. Poorer motility, vitality, membrane integrity and more DNA damage were found in sperms treated by H(2)O(2), compared with control. When sperms were treated with both H(2)O(2) and zinc, however, all indicators were improved compared with H(2)O(2) alone. There was a close association between oxidative stimulation and sperm injury; zinc could inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of sperm in assisted reproductive technology. However, the presence of zinc in culture medium can decrease the sperm quality without addition of peroxide. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproductive biology of the great capricorn beetle, Cerambyx cerdo (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): a protected but occasionally harmful species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vila, L M

    2017-12-01

    Cerambyx cerdo (Cc) is a protected saproxylic beetle in Europe, although it is increasingly reported as an oak 'pest'. Cc ecological features are relatively well known, but, its reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Hence, we investigated the reproductive traits of Cc under laboratory conditions. In females, body length was 44.1 ± 0.9 mm, 28-53 (mean ± SE, range); fecundity 143 ± 11 eggs, 33-347; fertility 78 ± 1%, 65-93; oviposition period 44 ± 3 days, 13-128 and longevity 59 ± 5 days, 16-157. Fecundity was positively correlated with female size, longevity and oviposition period. Daily fecundity was 3.5 ± 0.2 eggs/day, 0.9-6.5 showing a fluctuating synovigenic pattern with a slight decreasing trend over time. Egg length was 3.74 ± 0.01 mm, 2.3-6.0 and egg volume 5.45 ± 0.04 mm3, 2.4-9.6. Egg size was correlated with female size, but, the relative size of eggs was larger in smaller females. Incubation time was 13.5 ± 0.1 days, 7-28. Hatching was superior in larger eggs and neonate size was positively correlated to egg volume. Females were polyandrous (up to 19 matings), but, multiple mating did not enhance fecundity or fertility. In males, body length was 41.8 ± 0.8 mm, 29-53 and longevity 49 ± 3 days, 9-124. Male longevity was unrelated to body size. Males were polygynous (up to 16 matings) and mating number did not affect male longevity. Overall, females were larger and lived longer than males. Cc reproductive traits are compared with those other Cerambycidae, especially with the congeneric pest Cerambyx welensii. Our data may be valuable to improve the protection/management measures of Cc in dehesa woodlands and other oak forests.

  18. 40 CFR 1506.8 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposals for legislation. 1506.8 Section 1506.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.8 Proposals for legislation. (a) The NEPA process for proposals for legislation (§ 1508.17...

  19. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  20. Development and reproductive performance of beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat on temperate grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of energy supplementation was evaluated on the development and reproductive performance of beef heifers on temperate grasslands. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore heifers, with initial average age of 18 months and initial live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized. The animals were maintained on oat + ryegrass pasture and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation (NS: heifers kept exclusively on pasture; MEG: supplementation with protected fat Megalac®; BRM: supplementation with brown rice meal; BRM+MEG: supplementation with BRM + protected fat. The average final weight of the heifers was of 403.4 kg and corresponded to 89.5% of the adult weight. The body condition of heifers increased linearly with daily increase of 0.012 points, correlating positively with the final weight. There was interaction between treatment and period for average daily weight gain. The highest daily weight gain, 1.395 kg, occurred in the first period when the animals were supplemented with BRM+MEG. In the last period, the NS animals presented the lowest daily weight gain, 0.888 kg. Supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat does not interfere in the intake of pasture by heifers or increase the total intake of dry matter, not changing, therefore, the average daily weight gain at the end of the period of grazing. The daily weight gain does not change during supplementation. The use of temperate pasture with and without supplementation promotes the proper development of the structure and reproductive tract of heifers, benefiting the animal performance indexes in the first mating at 25-27 months of age.

  1. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  2. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  3. A study of radiological protection for women of reproductive age in diagnostic radiology. Questionnaire for medical radiation technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubone, Chie; Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki

    2005-01-01

    There has been great concern regarding the radiation protection for women of reproductive age when exposed to diagnostic radiation. The 10-day-rule proposed by the ICRP has not been recommended since 1983 because the risk to embryo and fetus within four weeks after menstruation may be small. However, some expects see that incomplete abandon of the 10-day-rule might cause confusion among the medical doctors and patients, and consequently unwarranted abortion happens. This paper surveyed the views of radiation technologies in hospitals and discussed how radiation exposure of women of reproductive age in medicine should be controlled. We found that the views to be 10-day-rule were spilt 50:50 and that radiation technologists do not necessarily think the 10-day-rule should be abandoned. Even the radiation technologists who are supposed to be able to explain to the patients the health risk following diagnostic exposure do not fully understand the risk involved. In conclusion, although a low-dose risk of diagnostic exposure should be sufficiently educated in order to obtain an exact understanding, the 10-day-rule may be useful in order to actually avoid any trouble in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  4. Protection of sexual and reproductive health rights: addressing violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, Claudia; Stöckl, Heidi

    2009-08-01

    Violence against women is recognized as a global public health and human rights problem in need of urgent attention. It affects women's health, including their sexual and reproductive health, and their human rights. While progress has been made in the last 15 years, there is still a long way to go. International human rights law and public health provide tools to governments and non-governmental actors to ensure women a life free from violence and its consequences. Health policies and services need to address violence more systematically and health providers must take action. At a minimum, they should be informed and able to respond appropriately to violence, providing appropriate care and referral to other services. Equally, if not more important, is to provide support to interventions that prevent violence against women from happening in the first place.

  5. 2011 SREB Legislative Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Gale F., Comp.

    2011-01-01

    The "2011 Legislative Briefing" is a topical summary of state budget and legislative actions that affect elementary, secondary and higher education across the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region. It outlines actions in areas such as tax and spending legislation, assistance to local districts, tuition and fees, student…

  6. Reproductive rights violations reported by Mexican women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil

    2009-01-01

    Demand for reproductive health services by people with HIV is increasing, as is the urgency of protecting and promoting their reproductive rights. The reproductive rights of Mexicans with HIV are formally protected by the constitution and by health and anti-discrimination legislation, as well as by international conventions. However, the reproductive rights of women with HIV continue to be violated in public clinics and hospitals. This paper discusses three violations identified as priority problems by Mexican women with HIV, illustrating these problems with cases identified during a participatory skills building workshop. The violations cover the following rights: the right to non-discrimination, the right to adequate information and informed consent to medical procedures, and the right to choose the number and spacing of children. Physicians can either violate or promote reproductive rights. Unfortunately, in many instances Mexican physicians continue to perpetrate reproductive rights abuses against women with HIV. Collaborations between women with HIV, civil society, government, and international organizations are needed to educate and sanction health care providers and to support women with HIV in their pursuit of reproductive rights. Demanding accountability from health care practitioners and the State to guarantee reproductive rights in countries where these rights are formally protected will improve the quality of life of people with HIV and can demonstrate that rights-based approaches are compatible with and indeed, crucial for public health.

  7. Private Use, Private Property and Public Policy: Home Recording and Reproduction of Protected Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, David

    This discussion of the difficulties of protecting copyright for audio and video recordings focuses on the application of the 1976 Copyright Act and the Fair Use principle to educational off-air taping and private home recording. Court cases such as Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation versus Crooks and Universal Studios, et al. versus…

  8. Actions of the Cuban Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the adequate implementation of the legislation in matter of radiological protection; Acciones de la Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear cubana en la adecuada implementacion de la Legislacion en materia de proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet R, O.M. [Delegacion Territorial CITMA. Peralta No.16, Rpto Peralta, Holguin, CP 80400 (Cuba); Guillen C, A.; Betancourt H, L.A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Calle 28 No.504, Miramar Playa, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: ofelia@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of the regulatory activity in matter of safety and radiological protection it depends in great measure of the practical implementation level of the legislation in this matter. In our country this objective has been achieved through the one continuous improvement of the Hierarchical System of Nuclear Regulation, the reconciliation with specialists and national experts in each matter during the elaboration of the legal documents; the popularization and gratuitous distribution of it approved; the precision in the validation conditions of the authorizations of those main precepts applicable to the practices; the legal foundation of the deficiencies evidenced in the regulatory inspections; the development of a Safety Culture; the realization of Annual Regulatory Conferences and mainly in the training of the personnel related with the safety. Also, the constant analysis on the part of the specialists of the Regulatory Authority of the grade of implementation of this legislation, it discussion in national and international events and the actions recommended in these works. As a result of this focus, it is considered that the Regulatory Authority has impacted appropriately in the implementation of this legislation. (Author)

  9. e-ready legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line; Baaner, Lasse

    In general, digital society challenges traditional modes of legislation and rulings. Dissimilar compositions of the legislation and non-comparable spatial representations of the legal content makes traditional legislation unfit for e-Government. Lacking attention may lead to the undermining...... of the trustworthiness of administration systems. On the other hand, a successful adaption of legislation to a digital setup could help promote good service towards citizens and businesses, and according to land administration theories maybe even promote societal sustainability in large. Based on studies on Denmark......, different challenges within digital land administration solutions are demonstrated. This paper discusses how legislation needs to change in order to be ‘e-Ready’....

  10. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  11. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  12. Mentoring Interventions and the Impact of Protective Assets on the Reproductive Health of Adolescent Girls and Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Kate F; Ippoliti, Nicole B; Nanda, Geeta; McCarraher, Donna R

    2017-08-01

    Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS and other negative reproductive health (RH) outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that programs to build AGYW's assets can help reduce their vulnerability to poor RH. Mentoring interventions have demonstrated a positive impact on a variety of youth development outcomes, including the protective assets needed to circumvent poor RH outcomes. The purpose of this review was to understand the types of mentoring programs for AGYW that have demonstrated effectiveness in improving protective assets, and/or, RH knowledge, intentions, behaviors, or outcomes themselves. Interventions were identified through an electronic search of the peer-reviewed and the gray literature. Studies were excluded in stages based on reviews of titles, abstracts, and full text. A review of 491 publications yielded a total of 19 articles that were included in the final review. The majority of the publications examined the impact of the one-to-one mentoring model in the United States. However, a good proportion examined the impact of both one-on-one and group-based interventions globally. The few interventions that followed a group-based model demonstrated more promise; evaluations of this model demonstrated a positive impact on RH knowledge and behavior, academic achievement, financial behavior, and social networks, as well as reductions in the experience of violence. Group-based mentoring programs demonstrated the most promise in building AGYW's protective assets and improving their RH outcomes. The most successful interventions consisted of multiple components, including mentoring, that sought to directly improve AGYW's protective assets and met with more frequency over a longer duration. Despite the promising evidence, more research is needed to better understand the relationship between assets and RH; the characteristics of successful mentoring programs; and the influence mentoring alone has on RH outcomes

  13. Protective effects of melatonin against metabolic and reproductive disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sarayu A; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of melatonin on metabolic and reproductive aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats. PCOS was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of testosterone (20 mg/kg) to 21-day-old female rats for 35 days. Rats were given metformin (500 mg/kg), melatonin (1 mg/kg) or melatonin (2 mg/kg) along with testosterone. One group served as vehicle control. On the 36th day, the animals were euthanised, and anthropometrical, biochemical (glucose, insulin, lipids, testosterone, C reactive protein (CRP)), oral glucose tolerance test, and histopathological evaluation of ovaries, uterus and intraabdominal fat (IAF), were carried out. Daily colpocytological examination was carried out from 14(th) day of study until termination. Both the doses of melatonin significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, IAF, insulin and CRP. A favourable lipid profile, normal glucose tolerance and a decrease in the percentage of estrus smears were observed. Histopathological examination of ovary, uterus and IAF revealed a decrease in the number of cystic follicles, decrease in neoplastic endometrial glands, and decrease in adipocyte hypertrophy, respectively. The effects observed with melatonin were comparable to that with metformin. The study provides evidence of the potential beneficial effects of melatonin in PCOS. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Legal protection of the right to work and employment for persons with mental health problems: a review of legislation across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardodkar, Renuka; Pathare, Soumitra; Ventriglio, Antonio; Castaldelli-Maia, João; Javate, Kenneth R; Torales, Julio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    The right to work and employment is indispensable for social integration of persons with mental health problems. This study examined whether existing laws pose structural barriers in the realization of right to work and employment of persons with mental health problems across the world. It reviewed disability-specific, human rights legislation, and labour laws of all UN Member States in the context of Article 27 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). It wes found that laws in 62% of countries explicitly mention mental disability/impairment/illness in the definition of disability. In 64% of countries, laws prohibit discrimination against persons with mental health during recruitment; in one-third of countries laws prohibit discontinuation of employment. More than half (56%) the countries have laws in place which offer access to reasonable accommodation in the workplace. In 59% of countries laws promote employment of persons with mental health problems through different affirmative actions. Nearly 50 years after the adoption of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and 10 years after the adoption of CRPD by the UN General Assembly, legal discrimination against persons with mental health problems continues to exist globally. Countries and policy-makers need to implement legislative measures to ensure non-discrimination of persons with mental health problems during employment.

  15. Food-borne zoonoses, the EU zoonosis legislation and the prospects for food safety and consumer protection during primary animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Frans J M; Vågsholm, Ivar; Korkeala, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted naturally between animals and humans. The control of food-borne zoonoses within the European Union is a prerequisite for assuring a functional internal market and consequently represents an important item on the political agenda. Unfortunately, until recently, gaining a clear view of the current incidence of food-borne zoonoses and the prevalence of its causative agents has been frustrated by the absence of reliable monitoring and reporting systems. Similarly, it has become clear that, Europe wide, one has witnessed only limited success with regard to the control of important food-borne agents such as Salmonella spp. The European Union has adopted legislation to remedy this situation and to control food-borne zoonoses in primary production. This contribution discusses the incentives for introducing EU Directive 2003/99/EC and EU Regulation No. 2160/2003, summarises their essentials and discusses major ramifications of both pieces of legislation for the prevention of food-borne zoonoses. It is concluded that there is reason for cautious optimism concerning human salmonellosis, while for other food-borne zoonoses there should be a call for action.

  16. Chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing shuffled multiple envelope genes confers cross-protection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Opriessnig, Tanja; Cao, Dianjun; Piñeyro, Pablo; Yugo, Danielle M; Overend, Christopher; Cao, Qian; Lynn Heffron, C; Halbur, Patrick G; Pearce, Douglas S; Calvert, Jay G; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    The extensive genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains is a major obstacle for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that chimeric PRRSVs in which a single envelope gene (ORF3, ORF4, ORF5 or ORF6) was shuffled via DNA shuffling had an improved heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. In this study, we incorporate all of the individually-shuffled envelope genes together in different combinations into an infectious clone backbone of PRRSV MLV Fostera(®) PRRS. Five viable progeny chimeric viruses were rescued, and their growth characteristics were characterized in vitro. In a pilot pig study, two chimeric viruses (FV-SPDS-VR2,FV-SPDS-VR5) were found to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination/challenge study in 72 pigs revealed that chimeric virus FV-SPDS-VR2 and parental virus conferred partial cross-protection when challenged with heterologous strains NADC20 or MN184B. The results have important implications for future development of an effective PRRSV vaccine that confers heterologous protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxic effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chuankui; Wang, Yanli; Xiao, Zhengcao; Xiao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxicity, Japanese Medaka was injected intraperitoneally with BaP alone and co-injected with both BaP and GTP of different concentrations, respectively.

  18. Protective role of glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in the male reproductive tract of the F-344 rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teaf, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The purposes of this study were fourfold: to quantify GSH concentration and GSH-S-transferase activity in testis and epididymis of the F-344 rat; to screen selected compounds for capacity to depress GSH in male reproductive tissue; to determine the effect of pretreatment with agents which depress testicular/epididymal GSH on the dominant lethal (DL) mutagenic effect of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), which undergoes GSH-dependent metabolism; and to investigate the correlation between binding of radiolabelled EMS (/sup 3/H-EMS) and the temporal pattern of EMS-induced germ cell mutations. Cadmium (Cd), at a dosage which did not cause testicular necrosis was not effective in depressing GSH. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) depressed testicular and epididymal GSH to a minimum of 40% of concurrent controls in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. 1,2-dibromethane (EDB) depressed epididymal and testicular GSH in a dose-dependent fashion at 2 hours post-injection. Cd and EDB inhibited GSH-S transferase activity in edpididymis but no testis. Pretreatment of male F-344 rats with BSO or EDB potentiated the rate of EMS-induced DL mutations. The rate of /sup 3/H-EMS binding to isolated sperm heads was well correlated with the temporal pattern of DL mutations induced by EMS. BSO and EDB significantly increased /sup 3/H-EMS binding to sperm heads at time points during which potentiation of germ cell mutagenicity was observed. Data from these studies demonstrate that GSH depression is functionally correlated with enhancement of germ cell toxicity, establishing the importance of this biochemical protective mechanism GSH in male reproductive tissue.

  19. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  20. The 2007 Legislative Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey; Gaines, Gale F., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    "The 2007 Legislative Briefing" is a topical summary of actions during the 2006 legislative sessions that affect education in the 16 SREB states. Topics include state budgets and the economy, tax and revenue, school finance, teacher compensation, licensure, certification and evaluation of teachers, strengthening elementary and secondary…

  1. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical power of the Environmental Protection Agency’s medaka Extended One-Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research...

  2. Application of Spanish legislation on radiation protection in contaminated soils; Aplicacion de la normativa espanola sobre suelos contaminados en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, C.; Robles Atienza, B.

    2013-07-01

    As the developments that have led the regulations on contaminated soils conventional pollutants are more advanced than those due to radioactive contaminants, this work is a state of the art of the current situation and is framed within the developments in R and D for radiation protection of the public and the environment. (Author)

  3. Sensivity of Adult Reproduction and Reproductive Development in Japanese Medaka Exposed to 4-Tert-octylphenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to legislation, the USEPA is developing assessment tools for identifying chemicals likely to cause sublethal effects on reproduction and reproductive development with ultimate adverse impacts on fish populations. While fecundity and fertility data from short-term adul...

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities - National Radiation Laboratory - NRL; 2. Advisory bodies - Radiation Protection Advisory Council; 3. Public and semi-public agencies - Research institutes

  5. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health and Social Security; Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute)

  6. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Framework: 1. General; 2. Mining; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency measures); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. General Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health; Minister of Labour; Other Ministers competent); 2. Advisory bodies (Higher Health Council)

  7. Considerações sobre a legislação correlata à zona-tampão de unidades de conservação no Brasil Interpretation of the legislation about buffer zones of protected areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia De Luca Vitalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Zonas tampão são áreas ao redor de unidades de conservação, sujeitas a normas específicas, que visam mitigar impactos sobre os ecossistemas protegidos. Analisamos os instrumentos jurídicos que tratam dessas zonas no Brasil e consideramos que podem ser classificadas como limitações ao exercício do direito de propriedade, cabendo aos gestores das unidades de conservação, juntamente com os órgãos licenciadores, indicar quais atividades devem ser submetidas ao licenciamento ambiental para que possam ser instaladas ao redor de unidades de conservação.Buffer zones are areas around natural reserves under special laws, aiming at minimizing threats to the protected ecosystems. After analyzing the Brazilian legislation concerning the subject, we interpret buffer zones as a sort of limitation to the property rights. It is in the hands of the managers of protected areas, together with the licensing institutions, to indicate which activities are potentially of great impact and must have an environmental license to be permitted in the buffer zone of protected areas.

  8. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  9. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties.

  10. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  11. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  12. [Protective eyeglasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, G

    1997-01-01

    Reminder of the materials used for the manufacture of corrective lenses. Belgian statistics concerning eye accidents at work and European legislation concerning the prevention of eye accidents, personal protective equipment, P.P.E. Eye protection for sports.

  13. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  15. Evaluation of protective immunity in gilts inoculated with the NADC-8 isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and challenge-exposed with an antigenically distinct PRRSV isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1999-08-01

    To determine whether intrauterine inoculation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) interferes with conception and whether exposure to one strain of PRRSV provides protection against challenge-exposure (CE) with homologous or heterologous strains of PRRSV. 40 gilts. Gilts were inoculated by intrauterine administration of a PRRSV isolate (NADC-8) at breeding. Inoculated and noninoculated gilts were exposed oronasally to homologous (NADC-8) or heterologous (European isolate) PRRSV during late gestation. Specimens from gilts and fetuses were tested against CE virus. Lack of virus in gilts indicated protective immunity for the dam, in fetuses indicated protection of gilt from reproductive losses, and in both groups indicated complete protection. In the homologous CE group, interval from inoculation to CE ranged from 90 to 205 days, and protection was complete. In the heterologous CE group, interval from inoculation to CE ranged from 90 to 170 days, and protection was incomplete. The CE virus was detected in gilts necropsied 134 to 170 days after CE and in a litter necropsied 170 days after CE. Homologous protection can be induced in gilts by exposure to live PRRSV. Heterologous protection from reproductive losses can be induced in gilts by exposure to live PRRSV; however, this protection is incomplete and may have a shorter duration than homologous protection. Exposure of swine to enzootic PRRSV will provide protection against homologous PRRSV-induced reproductive losses. Extent and duration of protection against heterologous PRRSV may be variable and dependent on antigenic relatedness of the virus strains used for inoculation and CE.

  16. Implementation of patients' rights legislation in the Republic of Macedonia: gaps and disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcheva, Gabriela; Gerovski, Filip; Beletsky, Leo

    2013-12-12

    Since its formation after the breakup of Yugoslavia, Macedonia has made major strides in formulating a framework for protecting patient rights through extensive legal reform. The impact of this reform had not been assessed before the work of this project. Within the context of a larger project on improving human rights in patient care, this paper provides an overview of patients' rights legislation in Macedonia and uses research, case reports, and other empirical information to highlight the gaps in the implementation of patients' rights legislation on the ground. The Law on the Protection of Patients' Rights (2008) and attendant legislation governing health care provision and other aspects of the social contract in Macedonia provide extensive protections for the rights of patients in such domains as the right to access health care, the right to information, and the right to remedy. This legislation also outlines several new procedural channels to enable patients to vindicate their rights within institutional and governmental structures on the local and national levels. Data from a number of studies and case file reviews suggest, however, that the implementation of many key provisions is lacking, both in terms of quality and presence of services or mechanisms contemplated by Macedonian law. Gaps in implementation disproportionately affect vulnerable and marginalized groups, including women, rural residents, and Roma. Although the letter of Macedonian law generally complies with international best practices in patients' rights, these rights are not fully implemented and the mechanisms implied are not fully functional. Additional investment must be made in monitoring systems, education, and incentive mechanisms to ensure effective implementation, including the formation of a mandated commission for the protection of patients' rights. Copyright © 2013 Alcheva, Gerovski, and Beletsky. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons

  17. Chapter 3. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) as central body of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the filed of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' there are 16 binding regulations under preparation. In 199 the following regulations were issued by UJD (1) Regulation No. 29/1999 Collection laws (Coll. l.) by which a list special materials and equipment is published. It came into force on 1 March 1999; (2) ) Regulation No. 30/1999 Coll. l. which defines details on maximum limits on quantities for nuclear materials for which there is no presumption of causing nuclear damage. It came into force on 1 March 1999; (3) Regulation No. 186/1999, which determines details to assure physical protection of nuclear installations, nuclear materials and radioactive waste. It came into force on 1 August 1999; (4) Regulations No. 187/1999 Coll. l. on professional competence of employees of nuclear installations. It came into force on 1 August 1999; (5) Regulation No. 198/1999 Coll. l. on accounting and inspection of nuclear materials. It came into force on 1 September 1999; (6) Regulation No. 245/1999 Coll. l. on emergency planning in case in incident or accident. It came into force on 1 October 1999; (7) Regulation No. 246/1999 Coll. l. on documentation of nuclear installations for decommissioning. It came into force on 1 October; (8) Regulation No. 284/1999 Coll. l. on details on transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. It came into force on 15 November 1999. Six UJD safety guide were published last year as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations'. UJD provides documentation for screening process of Energy sector and Environment sector as contribution to the accession process to the European Union. The most important subject within the negotiations with the European Commission were safety and operation of the NPP V-1 Bohunice. UJD grants

  18. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects (The Environmental Code, Environmental impact statement, Permit under the Environmental Code)); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiological protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability (The Nuclear Liability Act; Chernobyl legislation); II. Institutional Framework: 1. Ministries with responsibilities concerning nuclear activities (Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications; Ministry of Justice; Ministry of Foreign Affairs); 2. Swedish Radiation Safety Authority

  19. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  20. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  1. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  2. Protective role of Centella asiatica on lead-induced oxidative stress and suppressed reproductive health in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, S B; Meena, R; Supriya, Ch; Reddy, K Pratap; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2011-09-01

    Centella asiatica has been mentioned in ancient ayurvedic text of the Indian system of medicine for its properties to promote intelligence. The objective of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effects of C. asiatica on lead-induced oxidative stress and suppressed reproductive performance in male rats. Significant decrease in the weights of testes and epididymis were observed in lead treated animals. Exposure to lead acetate significantly increased malondialdehyde levels with a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver, brain, kidneys and testes of rats. Epididymal sperm count, viable sperms, motile sperms and HOS-tail coiled sperms decreased significantly in lead-exposed rats. Testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities also decreased significantly in lead-exposed rats. No significant changes in the selected reproductive variables were observed in the plant extract alone treated rats. Whereas, co-administration of aqueous extracts of C. asiatica to lead exposed rats showed a significant increase in the weights of reproductive organs, reduction in lead-induced oxidative stress in the tissues and improvement in selected reproductive parameters over lead-exposed rats indicating the beneficial role of C. asiatica to counteract lead-induced oxidative stress and to restore the suppressed reproduction in male rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Algeria, Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Executive Decree No. 17-126 of 27 March 2017; 2 - Belgium, Liability and compensation, Law of 7 December 2016 modifying the law of 22 July 1985 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; 3 - Canada, Liability and compensation, Ratification by Canada of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; 4 - France, Radioactive waste management: Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code (Code de l'environnement) and setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; and Order of 23 February 2017 implementing Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; Liability and compensation: Order of 10 November 2016 amending the Appendix to the Order of 19 August 2016, setting the list of reduced liability amount sites pursuant to Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the nuclear energy field; International co-operation: Decree No. 2016-1225 of 16 September 2016 making public the Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the Development of the Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 27 August 2008; 5 - Germany, Transport of radioactive materials: New Versions of Ordinances on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (2017); Radioactive Waste Management: Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2017); 6 - Lithuania, Nuclear security: Cyber security; Nuclear installations: Free release criteria of buildings and site of nuclear

  4. North Carolina Sexual Offender Legislation: Policy Placebo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Amy Dellinger; Hill, Julie Sprinkle; Gilbert, Griff

    2012-01-01

    Current legislation at the state and federal level is largely based on the premise that we can best protect children by prohibiting sexual offenders' access to children through the use of residency restrictions, employment sanctions, and community notification. While well intentioned, these policies are short sighted and based more on public…

  5. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  6. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  7. Notoriety for Profit Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    this study is a relatively new and important area in victimology known as "Notoriety For Profit Legislation". The study contains descrip- tions...in the area of victimology require further study. I BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bard, Morton, and Dawn Sangrey. The Crime Victims Book. New York: Basic Books

  8. Does the current regulation of assisted reproductive techniques in the UK safeguard animal welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive medicine is one of the fastest-developing fields of veterinary medicine, Regulation of veterinary assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is currently divided between the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (1986); the Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966, and the Animal Welfare Act (2006). None of those pieces of legislation was purpose designed to protect the welfare of animals undergoing ARTs, either directly or by determining which veterinary ART procedures may or may not be performed. Consequently, due to the lack of reference to such procedures, the welfare protection aims of the legislation are sometimes ambiguous. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether the aims of the legislation are being fulfilled, but, in the opinion of this author, the legislation is anyway inadequate in scope, most particularly because it fails to provide a reporting function. It is unclear whether all or any veterinary ART procedures being undertaken on post-natal animals are associated with suffering. Some ARTs may cause discomfort, stress or pain: study or review of the welfare effects of these would be valuable. Any future review of the legislation regulating veterinary ARTs, be that an overall review or a review of one of the relevant statutes (for example the VSA), should take into account the interface between research and clinical medicine; the potentially welfare-compromising gaps between the Acts; the need to introduce reporting functions in order to build an evidence base, and the issue of veterinary specialisation and whether specialised techniques should be carried out only by those with specialist post-graduate qualifications.

  9. Legal and ethical standards for protecting women's human rights and the practice of conscientious objection in reproductive healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina

    2013-12-01

    The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental human rights. International ethical, health, and human rights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing human rights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international human rights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and human rights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and human rights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and human rights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoke-free legislation and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-11-17

    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world's population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike.

  11. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation; Maritimes Umweltstrafrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Grundlagen und deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  12. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  13. Can a restrictive law serve a protective purpose? The impact of age-restrictive laws on young people's access to sexual and reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kirsten; Apland, Kara; Watson, Katherine

    2014-11-01

    This article explores the purpose, function and impact of legal restrictions imposed on children's and young people's involvement in sexual activity and their access to sexual and reproductive health services. Whilst there is no consensus on the age at which it is appropriate or acceptable for children and young people to start having sex, the existence of a minimum legal age for sexual consent is almost universal across national jurisdictions, and many states have imposed legal rules that place restrictions on children's and young people's independent access to health services, including sexual health services. The article draws on evidence and analysis from a recent study conducted by the International Planned Parenthood Federation in collaboration with the Coram Children's Legal Centre, UK, which involved a global mapping of laws in relation to sexual and reproductive rights, and exploratory qualitative research in the UK, El Salvador and Senegal amongst young people and health care providers. The article critically examines the social and cultural basis for these rules, arguing that the legal concept of child protection is often founded on gendered ideas about the appropriate boundaries of childhood knowledge and behaviour. It concludes that laws which restrict children's access to services may function to place children and young people at risk: denying them the ability to access essential information, advice and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  16. Legislating interprofessional collaboration: A policy analysis of health professions regulatory legislation in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; Orchard, Carole; Khalili, Hossein; Brunton, Laura; Leslie, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Changes to Ontario's health professions regulatory system were initiated through various legislative amendments. These amendments introduced a legislative obligation for health regulatory colleges to support interprofessional collaboration (IPC), collaborate where they share controlled acts, and incorporate IPC into their quality assurance programs. The purpose of this policy analysis was to identify activities, strategies, and collaborations taking place within health professions regulatory colleges pertaining to legislative changes related to IPC. A qualitative content analysis of (1) college documents pertaining to IPC (n = 355) and (2) interviews with representatives from 14 colleges. Three themes were identified: ideal versus reality; barriers to the ideal; and legislating IPC. Commitment to the ideal of IPC was evident in college documents and interviews. Colleges expressed concern about the lack of clarity regarding the intent of legislation. In addition, barriers stemming from long-standing issues in practice including scope of practice protection, conflicting legislation, and lack of knowledge about the roles of other health professionals impede IPC. Government legislation and health professional regulation have important roles in supporting IPC; however, broader collaboration may be required to achieve policy objectives.

  17. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  18. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  19. Collection of legislative and regulatory arrangements relative to radiation protection. Part 1: laws and decrees of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires relatives a la radioprotection. Partie 1: lois et decrets du code de la sante publique et du code du travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This collection concerns on one hand the protection of the population and on the other hand the protection of the workers against ionizing radiations. As regards the protection of the populations, there is a quality control of waters, a control of the medical devices for the protection of patients. For the protection of the workers it is the employment law which serves as reference. (N.C.)

  20. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  1. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  2. Commentary: The proposed legislation on termination of pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commentary: The proposed legislation on termination of pregnancy does not protect women or children in Malawi and is not fit for the intended purpose: Christian Medical and Dental Fellowshipi position.

  3. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Health; Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education; Ministry of Economy and Innovation; Ministry of Environment and Territorial Planning; Other authorities); 2. Advisory bodies (Independent Commission for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - CIPRSN; National Radiation Protection Commission - CNPCR; National Commission for Radiological Emergencies - CNER; Other advisory bodies); 3. Public and semi-public agencies

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Fissionable materials, ores, radioactive materials and equipment (Fissionable materials and ores; Radioactive materials and equipment); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public; Protection of individuals undergoing medical exposure); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment; Minister for Economic Affairs; Minister for Social Affairs and Employment; Minister for Health, Welfare and Sports; Minister for Finance; Minister for Foreign Affairs); 2. Advisory body - Health Council of the Netherlands; 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG; Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste - COVRA)

  5. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction (Licensing system; Offences, compliance and enforcement; Regulatory documents; Other relevant legislation); 2. Mining regime; 3. Nuclear substances and radiation devices; 4. Nuclear facilities; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment (Exports, Other imports); 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Governor in council; Minister of natural resources; Other Ministerial authorities; Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (National Research Council - NRC; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council; Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. - AECL)

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Argentina: Organisation and structure; 2 - France: Radioactive waste management (Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016 specifying the procedures for creating a reversible deep geological repository for long-lived medium and high-level radioactive waste), Liability and compensation (Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; Ministerial Order of 19 August 2016 listing the sites benefiting from a reduced amount of liability pursuant to decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy), Nuclear facilities (Decree No. 2016-846 of 28 June 2016 related to the modification, final shutdown and decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, and to subcontracting); 3 - Germany: Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation (Amendments to the Foreign Trade Act and the Foreign Trade Ordinance (2015)), Radioactive waste management (Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management (2016); Final report of the Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy; Draft Bill of an Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2016)); 4 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning), Nuclear security (Physical security of sources of ionising radiation), Radioactive waste management, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Enforcement measures); 5 - Luxembourg: Radioactive waste management (Agreement between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Belgium on the Management and Final Disposal of the Radioactive Waste of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the Territory of the Kingdom of Belgium, signed on 4 July 2016); 6

  7. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment (General provisions; Patents); 6. Radiation Protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public; Protection of the environment); 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Interdepartmental Committee for Economic Planning; Nuclear Safety Agency; Prime Minister; Minister for Economic Development; Minister for Labour and Social Security; Minister for Health; Minister for the Environment; Minister for the Interior; Minister for Transport and Navigation; Minister for Foreign Trade (now incorporated in Ministry for Economic Development); Minister for Education; Treasury Minister; Minister for Universities and for Scientific and Technical Research; Minister for Foreign Affairs; State Advocate General); 2. Advisory bodies (Inter-ministerial Council for Consultation and Co-ordination; Coordinating Committee for Radiation Protection of Workers and the Public; Regional and Provincial Commissions for Public Health Protection

  8. Radiological risk assessment of isotope laboratories according to the requirements of the radiation protection ordinance and the protective labour legislation; Beurteilung des radiologischen Risikos von Isotopenlaboratorien nach den Vorgaben der Strahlenschutzverordnung und den Richtlinien fuer Arbeitssicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerm, R.P. [SafPro AG, Ausbildung und Beratung in Strahlenschutz, Basel (Switzerland); Kuster, M. [Novartis International AG, Corporate Health, Safety and Environment, Basel (Switzerland); Traub, K. [Novartis Pharma AG, Zentralstelle fuer Strahlenschutz, Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    According to the Swiss Radiation Safety Ordinance the supervising authority may require a safety report from the operator of a radioactive laboratory (Art.95) and establish the methodology of the risk analysis. Isotope laboratories of the chemical industry are supervised by Swiss accident insurance agency (SUVA). In that respect SUVA safeguards both radiation protection issues and general protection of the workers and established guide lines in order to assess conventional risks in industrial premises. In these conventional analysis the working process is analysed according to its possible detriment (death, severe invalidity, slight invalidity, injury with absence, injury without absence) and the probability of occurrence (frequent, seldom, rare, improbable, virtually impossible). According to this the risks are categorised in a matrix as 'high', 'medium' and 'low'. SUVA requested such a risk analysis for two isotope laboratories of B type in Basel in which on the one hand the hazard to the workers on the other hand to the public should be analysed and radiologically assessed. It was proposed to use a methodology established in workers safety and the insurance section. This required a comparison of risks of radiation doses in mSv to the consequences of conventional working accidents (death, invalidity) and the risk perception of the public and politicians. In this paper this risk matrix derived in discussions among the supervising body, the company management, the laboratory head and workers is described. In the opinion of the authors such a comparison between radiological and conventional risks has not been performed up to now and the results obtained here are open to discussion. (orig.) [German] Gemaess schweizerischer Strahlenschutzverordnung kann die Aufsichtsbehoerde vom Inhaber einer Bewilligung zum Umgang mit radioaktiven Stoffen einen Sicherheitsbericht verlangen (Art. 95) und die Methodik der Stoerfallanalyse festlegen (Art

  9. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section compiles the presentations of the following texts sorted by country. Armenia - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: New design safety requirements adopted, New seismic hazard assessment guidelines adopted; France - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: Decree No. 2012-1248 of 9 November 2012 authorising the ITER Organisation to create the 'ITER' basic nuclear installation in Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (Bouches-du-Rhone); - Nuclear security: Law No. 2012-1473 of 28 December 2012 authorizing the approval of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Complementary safety assessments. Follow-up of the stress tests carried out on French nuclear power plants. Action Plan of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - December 2012; - International cooperation: Decree No. 2012-1178 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of the Republic of Tunisia for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed in Tunis on 23 April 2009; Decree No. 2012-1180 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of Mongolia in the field of nuclear energy (with annex), signed in Ulaanbaatar on 14 October 2010; Germany - General legislation: Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act to expedite the retrieval of radioactive waste from and to decommission the Asse II Mine (2013); Act to amend the Act on Environmental Legal Remedies and other environmental provisions (2013); - Radiation protection: General administrative rules on Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2012); - Nuclear Safety: Safety requirements for nuclear power plants (2012); - Transport of radioactive material: International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (2010, 2012); - Regulations on nuclear trade (including non-proliferation): Export List (2013); Greece

  11. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania: findings of the surveys conducted in 2005 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-04-01

    An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents' expectations with regard to confidentiality protection for adolescents in this domain, and explores the factors related to the diversity of these expectations. Two national surveys of Lithuanian residents completed in 2005 and 2012 using anonymous questionnaires. Participants rated their expectations for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations for confidentiality in both contexts. Public expectations regarding confidentiality were less demanding in 2012 than in 2005. The expectation of confidentiality protection was greater for topics related to sexual behaviour than for the consequences of sexual behaviour, such as pregnancy, abortion or a sexually transmitted infection. This implies a need for targeted information strategies for the general population and explicit guidance for physicians on when and for whom care should remain confidential.

  12. Proteção da autonomia reprodutiva dos transexuais Protection of the reproductive autonomy of transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Barboza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Constituição Brasileira assegura o direito ao planejamento familiar com fundamento nos princípios da dignidade da pessoa humana e da paternidade responsável. Esse direito é reconhecido não só ao casal, como ao homem e à mulher, que podem constituir sozinhos uma comunidade familiar, denominada família monoparental, constitucionalmente amparada. O Conselho Federal de Medicina adotou normas éticas para a utilização das técnicas de reprodução assistida destinadas a todas as pessoas capazes, abrindo assim tal possibilidade para qualquer pessoa independentemente de sua orientação ou situação sexual. Indispensável, neste momento, analisar o caso dos transexuais, que podem ter sua capacidade de reproduzir comprometida pelo processo transexualizador, para que seus direitos reprodutivos sejam resguardados.Brazilian Constitution ensures the right to family planning founded on the principles of the dignity of the human person and that of responsible parenthood. Such right is ensured not only to different sex couples but, individually, to men and women alike, for Brazilian Constitution also acknowledges individuals as a family community, that is, a "monoparental family". In order to ensure to every capable person a better fulfillment of that right, disregarding his or her sexual orientation, Brazilian Federal Medicine Council has established ethical norms to assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding transsexuals, it is of utmost importance to critically analyze Trans-sexualizing Process for it might compromise their reproductive capacities and rights.

  13. Governance, veterinary legislation and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, M

    2012-08-01

    This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I) - General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Bilateral safeguards agreements; International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Agreement; The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty Act; The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Act; The Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II) - Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for Health and Ageing; Minister for Foreign Affairs; Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts; Minister for, Resources, Energy and Tourism); 2. Advisory bodies (Radiation Health and Safety Advisory Council; Advisory Committees); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA); Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO); Supervising Scientist)

  16. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trading in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Safeguards and non-proliferation; Physical protection); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade - MITYC; Ministry of the Interior - MIR; Ministry of Economy and the Exchequer - MEH; Ministry of the Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs - MARM); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Nuclear Safety Council - CSN; Centre for Energy-related, Environmental and Technological Research - CIEMAT; National Energy Commission - CNE; 3. Public capital companies (Enusa Industrias Avanzadas, s.a. - ENUSA; Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, s.a. - ENRESA)

  17. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Licensing; Registration and monitoring of nuclear materials and radioactive sources; High activity sources); 4. Nuclear facilities (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiological protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (The President of the National Atomic Energy Agency - Prezes Panstwowej Agencji Atomistyki (President of the PAA); Minister of Health; Minister of the Environment); 2. Advisory bodies (Council for Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection); 3. Public and semi-public bodies (Radioactive Waste Management Plant); 4. Research institutes (Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection; National Centre for Nuclear Research; Institute of Nuclear Physics; Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology; Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion)

  18. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (Radiation protection standards; Emergency response); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government; Minister for Agriculture and Food; Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources; Minister for Finance; Minister for Health and Children; Minister for Defence); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; Food Safety Authority of Ireland)

  19. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear items and spent fuel (Ionising radiation sources; Nuclear items; Spent fuel); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response; Decommissioning); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (State Office for Nuclear Safety - SUJB; Ministry of Industry and Trade; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of the Environment); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (CEZ, a.s.; National Radiation Protection Institute - NRPI; Radioactive Waste Repository Authority - RAWRA; Diamo; Nuclear Physics Institute - NPI; National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection; Nuclear Research Institute Rez, a.s. - NRI)

  20. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  1. Chapter No.2. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    UJD as the central body of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the field of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' the preparation of rest regulations has continued. Following drafts of 5 were prepared regulations in 2001 and then they were sent for comments to various ministries by UJD: (a) Regulation on safety requirements for design of nuclear installations; (b) Regulation on safety requirements for commissioning and operation of nuclear installations; (c) Regulation on safety documentation; (d) Regulation on periodic safety assessment; (e) Regulation on safety requirements for siting of nuclear installations. Two following UJD safety guides were published in 2001 as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations': (a) BNS I. 11.2/1999 'Requirements for performance of safety analyses for ATWS' (b) BNS II.3.1/2000 'Evaluation of acceptability of faults detected during the operation inspection of nuclear installation selected equipment'. As UJD is responsible for performance of such reviews according to law No. 264/1999 Coll. on conformance assessment of products about 10 drafts of technical standards were reviewed. UJD provided documentation to the Slovak Republic position document related to Chapter 14 - Energy which was submitted to the European Union (EU). The set of recommendations related to nuclear safety was elaborated by the special working group on atomic question which was established by the EU Council. Their implementation is required as a prerequisite to close negotiations on Chapter 14 - Energy. The schedule of necessary safety related measures was agreed in co-operation with the SE a.s. and the Ministry of Economy and submitted as additional information for negotiations to the EC. The negotiations on Chapter 14 - Energy were successfully closed in October 2001. The activities in the area of Chapter 22 - Environment were concentrated on submission of necessary data

  2. Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Nazki, Salik; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Eun-Jin; Sun, Dong; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-08-22

    One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3-4 and ORFs 5-6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains.

  3. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; 11. Nuclear terrorism; II. Institutional Framework - The federal government: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Energy; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Labour and Social Security; Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources; Ministry of Communications and Transport); 2. Public and semi-public agencies: (National Nuclear Safety and Safeguards Commission; National Nuclear Research Institute)

  5. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  6. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  7. Trends in outdoor recreation legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Siehl

    1980-01-01

    The two decades which have passed since the era of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) have been active and fruitful in terms of Federal recreation legislation. The Commission and its final report "Outdoor Recreation for America" strongly influenced the burst of recreation legislation in the 1960's. Even today, the studies prepared...

  8. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  9. Evidence and argument in policymaking: development of workplace smoking legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to identify factors that affect the passage of public health legislation by examining the use of arguments, particularly arguments presenting research evidence, in legislative debates regarding workplace smoking restrictions. Methods We conducted a case-study based content analysis of legislative materials used in the development of six state workplace smoking laws, including written and spoken testimony and the text of proposed and passed bills and amendments. We coded testimony given before legislators for arguments used, and identified the institutional affiliations of presenters and their position on the legislation. We compared patterns in the arguments made in testimony to the relative strength of each state's final legislation. Results Greater discussion of scientific evidence within testimony given was associated with the passage of workplace smoking legislation that provided greater protection for public health, regardless of whether supporters outnumbered opponents or vice versa. Conclusion Our findings suggest that an emphasis on scientific discourse, relative to other arguments made in legislative testimony, might help produce political outcomes that favor public health.

  10. Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Wu, Yun; Lee, Ly James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1–Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-γ+ lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible. PMID:24493925

  11. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction.

  12. Protective effects of GABA against metabolic and reproductive disturbances in letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asad; Jahan, Sarwat; Razak, Suhail; Pirzada, Madeeha; Ullah, Hizb; Almajwal, Ali; Rauf, Naveed; Afsar, Tayyaba

    2017-09-15

    PCOs is a heterogeneous disorder with anovulation/oligo ovulation usually taken as oligo menorrhoea or amenorrhoea, hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, acne, androgen alopecia and polycystic ovaries as the key diagnostic feathers. The study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective and ameliorating effects of GABA in Letrozole induced PCOS model in rats by targeting insulin resistance. PCOs in Adult female rat was induced by the daily gastric administration of letrozole (1 mg/kg/day) in CMC (0.5%) for 36 days. Rats were given metformin (2 mg/kg), GABA (100 mg/kg/day) and GABA (500 mg/kg/day) along with letrozole. One group severed as vehicle control. On the 37 day, the animals were euthanized, and anthropometrical, biochemical (glucose, insulin, lipids, testosterone, Estradiol, Progesterone, oral glucose tolerance test, total protein content in ovary, cholesterol level, triglyceride, HDL, LDL), Antioxidants (CAT, POD, GSR, ROS, GSH, TBARS), and histopathological evaluation of ovaries were carried out. Daily colpocytological examination was also carried out until the termination. Both the doses of GABA significantly reduced body weight, body mass index and testosterone. While the levels of CAT, SOD, POD and Estradiol (E 2 ) were significantly increased in the both doses of GABA. A favourable lipid profile, normal glucose tolerance, and decreased in the percentage of estrus smears were observed. Histopathological examination of ovary revealed a decreased in the number of cystic follicles, and decreased in the adipocytes respectively. The effects observed with GABA were comparable to that with metformin. The results suggest that GABA treatment has shown protective effect in PCOs and provide beneficial effect either by reducing insulin resistance or by inducing antioxidant defence mechanisms.

  13. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. © 2014 AWHONN.

  14. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  15. Guidelines on the implementation of radiation protection measures during diagnostic medical exposures of female patients of reproductive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    These guidelines were produced in response to a perceived need for clear guidance concerning the implementation of the 10-day and 28-day rules regarding radiological radiation protection practices. At the outset it is important to emphasise that, in all cases, the seriousness of the clinical situation must be taken into account as being of paramount importance and an overriding consideration to the guidelines. Radiographs of the chest, skull and extremities may be done at any time, provided that best practices are adhered to. All requests for radiological examinations of female patients, which place the uterus in or near the primary X-ray beam, i.e. irradiation between the diaphragm and pubis, or nuclear medicine examinations which are likely to result in a dose to the unborn child up to 10 mGy, should include the date of the last menstrual period. The prescriber and practitioner or radiographer should ask a patient beyond day 10 of the menstrual cycle whether she might be pregnant. This enquiry and the patient's answer should be recorded in writing. If the answer is no, the examination may proceed. If the answer is yes or uncertain, the examination should not proceed. In cases of medical emergency, the practitioner or the prescriber, if necessary following discussion with the practitioner or radiographer and taking justification into account, may decide to proceed with the examination. The practitioner or prescriber must record this decision in writing and sign it. The 10-day rule is recommended for certain high dose examinations where the dose to the uterus is likely to exceed 10 mGy. These include a small number of diagnostic X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  16. Guidelines on the implementation of radiation protection measures during diagnostic medical exposures of female patients of reproductive capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    These guidelines were produced in response to a perceived need for clear guidance concerning the implementation of the 10-day and 28-day rules regarding radiological radiation protection practices. At the outset it is important to emphasise that, in all cases, the seriousness of the clinical situation must be taken into account as being of paramount importance and an overriding consideration to the guidelines. Radiographs of the chest, skull and extremities may be done at any time, provided that best practices are adhered to. All requests for radiological examinations of female patients, which place the uterus in or near the primary X-ray beam, i.e. irradiation between the diaphragm and pubis, or nuclear medicine examinations which are likely to result in a dose to the unborn child up to 10 mGy, should include the date of the last menstrual period. The prescriber and practitioner or radiographer should ask a patient beyond day 10 of the menstrual cycle whether she might be pregnant. This enquiry and the patient's answer should be recorded in writing. If the answer is no, the examination may proceed. If the answer is yes or uncertain, the examination should not proceed. In cases of medical emergency, the practitioner or the prescriber, if necessary following discussion with the practitioner or radiographer and taking justification into account, may decide to proceed with the examination. The practitioner or prescriber must record this decision in writing and sign it. The 10-day rule is recommended for certain high dose examinations where the dose to the uterus is likely to exceed 10 mGy. These include a small number of diagnostic X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  17. Chapter 3. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) as the central authority of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the field of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' a preparation of remaining 8 decrees have continued. In 2000 the following decrees were issued by UJD: (1) Decree No. 31/2000 Coll on events at nuclear installations. It came into force on 15 February 2000. (2) Decree No. 190/2000 Coll by which details of radioactive waste management and spent fuel management are regulated. It came into force on 1-st July 2000. The following six decrees are at the process of preparation: (a) Decree on quality assurance of nuclear installations, (b) Decree on safety requirements for design of nuclear installations, (c) Decree on safety requirements for commissioning and operation of nuclear installations, (d) Decree on safety documentation, (e) Decree on periodic safety assessment, (f) Decree on safety requirements for siting of nuclear installations. Following five UJD safety guides were published in 2000 as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations': (1) BNS I.9.1/1999 Safety of nuclear facilities during decommissioning (issued in April 2000). (2) BNS III.4.1/2000 Requirements on UJD SR permit issue for fuel use in WWER 440 reactors (issued in September 2000). (3) BNS III.4.3/2000 Requirements on assessment of fuel loading for WWER 440 reactors (issued in September 2000). (4) BNS I.2.6/2000 UJD SR requirements on chapter 4 of Safety analysis report 'Core design' (issued in September 2000). (5) NS I.4.2/1996 Use of PSA methodology in the process of regulation by regulatory authority (issued in September 2000). About thirty-five drafts of technical standards were reviewed as UJD is responsible for performance such review according to the law No. 264/1999 Coll. on conformance assessment of products. UJD provided necessary documentation for negotiation positions of the

  18. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Atomic Energy Co-ordination Council; Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority - HAEA; Minister for Health; Minister for Local Government and Regional Development and Minister for Justice and Law Enforcement; Minister for Agriculture and Rural Development; Minister for Economy and Transport; Minister of Environment Protection and Water Management; Minister for Defence; Minister for Education; President of the Hungarian Mining and Geological Authority; Governmental Co-ordination Committee); 2. Advisory bodies (Scientific Board); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Institute for Electric Power Research - VEIKI; Atomic Energy Research Institute - AEKI; Institute of Isotopes; Department of Physical Chemistry of the University of Pannon; Hungarian Power Companies Ltd - MVM Zrt.)

  19. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Safeguards for nuclear material; 7. Radiation protection; 8. Radioactive waste management; 9. Nuclear security; 10. Transport; 11. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration - SNSA; Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration - SRPA); 2. Advisory bodies; 3. Public and semi-public agencies; 4. Technical support organisations - approved experts

  20. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Inspection, including Nuclear Safety; Emergency Response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiological Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic - UJD; Ministry of Health; Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of Economy; Ministry of Labour and National Labour Inspectorate); 2. Public and Semi-Public Agencies

  1. Montgomery County Council Legislation - Bills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Council enacts local public laws for the ‘peace, good government, health, and welfare of the county’. The bills dataset contains all legislation considered by...

  2. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  3. Protective efficacy of a virus-vectored multi-component vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine circovirus type 2 and swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Sooryanarain, Harini; Matzinger, Shannon R; Gauger, Phil C; Karuppannan, Anbu K; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Opriessnig, Tanja; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and swine influenza virus (SIV) are three of the most economically important swine pathogens, causing immense economic losses to the global swine industry. Monovalent commercial vaccines against each of the three viruses are routinely used in pig farms worldwide. A trivalent vaccine against all three pathogens would greatly simplify the vaccination programme and reduce the financial burden to the swine industry. In this study, by using an attenuated strain of PRRSV (strain DS722) as a live virus vector, we generated a multi-component vaccine virus, DS722-SIV-PCV2, which expresses the protective antigens from SIV and PCV2. The DS722-SIV-PCV2 trivalent vaccine virus replicates well, and expresses PCV2 capsid and SIV HA proteins in vitro. A subsequent vaccination and challenge study in 48 pigs revealed that the DS722-SIV-PCV2-vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced lung lesions and viral RNA loads when challenged with PRRSV. Upon challenge with PCV2, the vaccinated pigs had partially reduced lymphoid lesions and viral DNA loads, and when challenged with SIV the vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced acute respiratory sign scores. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of DS722-SIV-PCV2 as a candidate trivalent vaccine, and also shed light on exploring PRRSV as a potential live virus vaccine vector.

  4. Legal strategies to protect sexual and reproductive health and rights in the context of the refugee crisis in Europe: a complaint before the European Ombudsperson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta Hernández, Elena

    2017-11-01

    In the context of the refugee crisis in Europe, the measures taken by the institutions and bodies of the European Union as they relate to respecting, protecting, and ensuring human rights have proven to be woefully inadequate. The development of a restrictive, defensive, security-based immigration policy has led to failure by European countries and the European Union to fulfil their human rights obligations. Specifically, the Agreement struck between the European Union and Turkey on 18 March 2016, in addition to externalising borders, placed economic and political considerations centre stage, leading to serious violations of the human rights of refugees and migrants, including their sexual and reproductive rights. In an effort to identify the failures and the institutions responsible for promoting the necessary measures to mitigate the negative impacts these policies have had, the international human rights organisation Women's Link Worldwide lodged a complaint with the European Ombudsperson. In its complaint, Women's Link alleges maladministration by the European Commission for its failure to carry out a human rights impact assessment of the 18 March 2016 EU-Turkey Agreement and the reports on its implementation. Such an assessment should include a gender perspective and a children's rights approach, and its omission is not only a failure to comply with international human rights standards, but also directly and negatively affects women's and children's rights.

  5. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  6. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  7. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  8. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  9. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  10. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection) (Protection of workers; Protection of the public); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Education, Science and Technology, including the Nuclear Energy Bureau; Minister of Knowledge Economy); 2. Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission; Atomic Energy Safety Commission); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI; Korean Institute for Nuclear Safety - KINS; Korean Electric Power Company - KEPCO; Korean Hydro and Nuclear Power - KHNP)

  11. Posthumous Assisted Reproduction from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in assisted reproductive techniques along with relieving the pain of childlessnesshas brought new ethical and policy dilemmas. Posthumous assisted reproduction is the mostchallenging, difficult and sensitive issue to be discussed ethically and religiously. In this paper theacceptability of the posthumous reproduction in Islamic contexts is evaluated and major concernslike Consent and ownership of the gametes after death, Family and Marriage vision and Welfareof the child are discussed together with some international legislation. We can conclude that uponIslamic vision to assisted reproductive techniques as treatment of families and relieving the seriousproblem of childlessness, posthumous assisted reproduction is unacceptable even with previouslyfrozen gametes or embryos. Also, Islamic vision to marriage, consent and welfare of the childconfirms the unacceptability. There must be some law or legislation to ban this procedure in Islamiccontexts.

  12. Environmental Legislation in China: Achievements, Challenges and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Mu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the environmental legislation of many developed countries, China’s environmental legislation was initiated late, beginning in 1979, but nevertheless has obtained considerable achievements. As many as thirty environmental laws have provided rules regarding prevention and control of pollution, resource utilization, and ecological protection in China. However, China’s environmental legislation still faces a series of challenges and problems, including that the sustainable development concept has not yet been fully implemented, as well as presence of gaps and non-coordination phenomena between laws and regulations, unclear responsibility, imperfect system design, imbalance between rights and obligations, higher impacts resulted from the GDP-centralized economy, lack of operability and instruments in the legal content, as well as difficulty of public participation. In contrast, China’s environmental legislation has improved, as a result of learning from experience in developed countries and introducing innovations stimulated by domestic environmental pressure. Looking into the future, increased attention to environmental protection and ecological consciousness paid by China’s new leaders will bring a valuable opportunity to China’s further development concerning environmental legislation. In the future, there are prospects for the gradual improvement of legal approaches, continuous improvements of legislation to mitigate environmental problems, and more opportunities to strengthen public participation can be predicted.

  13. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  14. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  15. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Nuclear fuels; Radioactive substances and equipment generating ionising radiation); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; 11. Environmental protection; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Federal Council; Federal Assembly; Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications - DETEC; Federal Office of Energy - SFOE; Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate - IFSN; Federal Department of Home Affairs - FDHA; Federal Office of Public Health - FOPH; State Secretariat for Education and Research - SER; Other authorities); 2. Advisory bodies (Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission - KNS; Federal Commission for Radiological Protection and Monitoring of the Radioactivity in the Environment; Federal Emergency Organisation on Radioactivity); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Paul-Scherrer Institute - PSI; Fund for the decommissioning of nuclear installations and for the waste disposal; National Co-operative for the

  16. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  17. Reproductive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include: Radiation Metals such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the ...

  18. Smoke-free legislation: global reach, impact and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruer, L; Tursan d'Espaignet, E; Haw, S; Fernández, E; Mackay, J

    2012-03-01

    Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2005) requires all signatory countries to adopt measures to protect people from tobacco smoke in indoor workplaces, indoor public places, public transport and other public places as appropriate. The aims of this symposium were to review progress across the world, to assess the evidence for the impact of legislation on health, and to identify the continuing challenges in making universal protection a reality. There was agreement that even in countries where strict legislation is enforced, many children continue to be dangerously exposed to parental second-hand smoke in the womb, the home and private cars. The importance of using accurate estimates of the burden of disease caused by second-hand smoke was agreed, in order to present an unassailable case for legislation and enforcement. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health; Minister for the Environment/Minister of Transport and Energy; Minister of Justice; Minister of Defence; National Board of Health; Emergency Management Agency); 2. Advisory bodies (The Danish Ministry of Energy, Supply and Climate and the Danish Energy Agency); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Risoe National Laboratory)

  20. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Ministry of Trade and Industry - KTM; Ministry of Social Affairs and Health; Ministry of the Interior; Ministry of the Environment; Ministry of Foreign Affairs); 2. Advisory bodies (Advisory Committee on Nuclear Energy; Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK; State Nuclear Waste Management Fund)

  1. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Prime Minister; Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources; Ministry of Health; Ministry of the Environment and Forestry); 2. Public and semi-public agencies (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority - TAEK; General Directorate for Mineral Research and Exploration - MTA; ETI Mine Works General Management; Turkish Electric Generation and Transmission Corporation - TEAS; Turkish Electricity Distribution Corporation - TEDAS)

  2. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Cabinet Office; Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry - METI; Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport - MLIT; Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - MEXT); 2. Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission - AEC; Nuclear Safety Commission - NSC; Radiation Council; Special Committee on Energy Policy; Other advisory bodies); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA)

  3. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  4. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  5. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  6. Abortion And Reproductive Rights In Nigeria – A Review Of Criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the legislative policies relating to abortion and reproductive rights, and proposes reformative measures in the Criminal and Penal Laws that would effectively control and regulate terminations in Nigeria. Keywords: Legislation, Abortion, Reproductive rights, Criminal code, Penal Code, Nigeria. Annals of ...

  7. Notification: Audit of CSB's Compliance With Improper Payment Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    November 17, 2015. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) plans to begin its audit of CSB’s compliance with the improper payments legislation.

  8. Freedom of Information Legislation In Esarbica Member States and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the question of freedom of information. It begins by arguing that although all Citizens have the right of access to information, each citizen is entitled to enjoy certain rights that must be protected and must be enshrined in a freedom of information legislation. The paper identifies the major elements that ...

  9. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I) - General Regulatory Regime - General Outline: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II) - Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Federal Authorities - Bund (The Federal Chancellery; The Federal Minister for Women's Affairs and Consumer Protection; The Federal Minister of the Interior; The Federal Minister for Economic Affairs; The Federal Minister of Finance; The Federal Minister of Labour, Health and Social Affairs; The Federal Minister of Science and Transport; The Federal Minister of Justice; The Federal Minister for the Environment; The Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs) B. Regional Authorities - Laender; C. District Authorities - Bezirksverwaltungsbehorden; 2. Advisory Bodies (Forum for Nuclear Questions, Radiation Protection Commission - SSK); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (The Seibersdorf Austrian Research Centre; The Graz Nuclear Institute; The Nuclear Institute of the Austrian Universities; The Institute of Risk Research, University of Vienna)

  10. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Department of Trade and Industry - DTI; Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Secretary of State for Health; Secretary of State for Transport; Secretary of State for Education); 2. Advisory Bodies (Medical Research Council - MRC; Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA; Health and Safety Commission and Executive - HSC/HSE; National Radiological Protection Board - NRPB; Environment Agencies; British Nuclear Fuels plc. - BNFL; Amersham International plc.; The National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. - NNC; United Kingdom Nirex Ltd.; Magnox Electric plc.; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Scottish Electricity Generator Companies; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Regional Electricity Companies in England and Wales)

  11. [Penal and non-penal legislative policy in relation to human biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2007-01-01

    The Spanish legislator has introduced a set of legislative novelties in the field of human biotechnology or is about to do so. This will be done either through the reform of some laws or through the approval of new laws, that is, without previous regulatory references available. The greater part of these novelties turn on research with cells or cell lines of human origin, specifically those from human embryos and through the use of diverse techniques, such as reproductive cloning and non-reproductive ('therapeutic') cloning.

  12. Model Legislation on Student Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education in the States, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Because of the radical variance in residency requirements from state to state and sometimes from institution to institution, and because of several court cases involving this issue, the Education Commission of the States appointed a Committee to develop (1) a statement of principles for consideration in drafting legislation in connection with…

  13. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  14. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  15. Facilitating access to adolescent sexual and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa (SA) has progressive legislation enabling adolescents to access various sexual- and reproductive-health services (SRH) independently, without consent from parents or legal guardians. This article reviews the SA legislative framework for adolescent access to SRH interventions. It outlines the five approaches ...

  16. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Reproductive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2005-03-01

    The emergency clinician is frequently called on to manage problems relating to the female reproductive tract. Because owners sel-dom have the medical knowledge needed to differentiate normal from abnormal reproductive behaviors, they frequently look to the emergency veterinarian for guidance and information during and after parturition. For this reason, it is essential that the veterinarian have a good understanding of the normal reproductive cycle as well as the common emergencies that may occur. This article reviews the events surrounding normal parturition in the dog and cat and the reproductive emergencies seen most commonly in practice.

  18. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Definitions; Licensing requirements); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing regime; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Surveillance of installations and activities); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (General; Principal elements of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; Additional radiation protection norms); 7. Radioactive waste management (Atomic Energy Act 2002; Radiation Protection Ordinance; International obligations); 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Non-proliferation regime; Physical protection regime); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities: Federal authorities (Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Minister for Education and Research, Federal Minister of Finance, Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs, Federal Minister for Economy and Technology, Federal Minister of Defence, Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS, Federal Office of Economics and Export Control); Authorities of the Laender; 2. Advisory bodies (Reactor Safety Commission - RSK; Radiation Protection Commission - SSK; Disposal Commission - ESK; Nuclear Technology

  19. Improving Pool Fencing Legislation in Queensland, Australia: Attitudes and Impact on Child Drowning Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Richard C; Peden, Amy E

    2017-11-24

    Four-sided, non-climbable pool fencing is an effective strategy for preventing children from drowning in home swimming pools. In 2009, the Queensland Government introduced legislation to improve the effectiveness of pool fencing. This study explores community attitudes towards the effectiveness of these legislative changes and examines child (houses with swimming pools) are protected.

  20. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Nuclear facilities (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Decommissioning); 4. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 5. Radiological protection; 6. Radioactive waste management; 7. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and physical protection of nuclear material (International aspects; National control and security measures); 8. Transport; 9. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC; Federal Public Service for Home Affairs; Federal Public Service for Economy, SME's, Self-Employed and Energy; Federal Public Service for Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue; Federal Public Service for Defence; Federal Public Service for Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Co-operation; Federal Public Planning Service for Science Policy); 2. Advisory bodies (Scientific Council for Ionizing Radiation of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control; Superior Health Council; Superior Council for Safety, Hygiene and Enhancement of Workplaces; Advisory Committee for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Commission for Electricity and Gas Regulation - CREG)

  1. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention in nat...... depends on the community’s resource endowments. These endowments are defined not only in terms of users’ current wealth accumulation but also from their expected ability to extract utility from natural resources over time....

  2. Legislators Urge Carbon Emissions Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    Legislators from the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries met on 14-15 February in Washington, D.C., to discuss the future of the global climate and strategies to mitigate temperature increases resulting from global warming. The world faces a ``double challenge-how to reduce damaging carbon emissions while still meeting the energy demand that the world's poor need to escape poverty,'' said World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz during a keynote talk.

  3. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  4. Women Reproductive Rights in India: Prospective Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kosgi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of government and judicial agencies in protecting the reproductive rights with special focus on the protecting the reproductive rights of people with disability (mental illness and mental retardation.

  5. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  6. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  7. Fighting falsified medicines with paperwork - a historic review of Danish legislation governing distribution of medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Rasmus; Kaae, Susanne; Minssen, Timo; Traulsen, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many areas of pharmaceutical legislation in the European Union (EU) are harmonised in order to promote the internal market and protect public health. Ideally, harmonisation leads to less fragmented regulation and cross-border complexities. This study, however, focuses on an increasingly harmonised legislative area that is subject to increases in requirements and complexities: the distribution of medicines. This study compared Danish legislation governing the distribution of medicines before and after Denmark joined the EU in order to assess the impact of EU harmonisation, as well as to evaluate whether the drastic increases in requirements mandated by the Falsified Medicines Directive of 2011 correspond to a new approach to governing the pharmaceutical supply chain. A review was conducted of 115 applicable Danish laws, executive orders and guidelines from 1913 to 2014. Legal requirements were organised according to the year they were published and the companies they affected. Greater changes in legislative requirements were developed through inductive content analysis. Early legislation positioned pharmacies as gatekeepers, requiring them to identify and stop medicines of substandard quality. Legislation to regulate the supply chain was slow to materialise. After Denmark joined the EU, the scope of legislation widened to include all actors in the supply chain, and the quantity of legislation increased dramatically. Simultaneously, requirements became more specific, thereby promoting a formalistic interpretation and focusing the attention of companies and authorities on predefined areas with little room to implement innovative solutions. Over time, documentation became the focus of legislation, requiring companies to provide documentary evidence for their compliance with legislation. The Falsified Medicines Directive continues these trends by increasing requirements for documentation and promoting a formalistic interpretation. The legislative approach adopted since

  8. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  9. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows for greater policy change.......This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent...

  10. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how institutional constraints affect legislative activism and how legislative activism in turn affects policy change through an analysis of the European Union's legislative process. The argument revolves around the key role of the European Commission in advancing...... policy change, and emphasises that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from the period 1984–2012, the article shows...... that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposals, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU's legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity...

  11. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  12. 38 CFR 13.3 - State legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State legislation. 13.3... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.3 State legislation. Field facility Directors are authorized to... regarding any proposed legislation relating to fiduciary matters will be taken without the approval of the...

  13. 46 CFR 67.132 - Special legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special legislation. 67.132 Section 67.132 Shipping... legislation. (a) Vessels not otherwise entitled to be operated in the coastwise trade or in the fisheries may obtain these privileges as a result of special legislation by the Congress of the United States. (b) In...

  14. 29 CFR 11.14 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legislation. 11.14 Section 11.14 Labor Office of the... Administrative Procedures § 11.14 Legislation. Notwithstanding any provisions of this part, environmental assessments or impact statements prepared in connection with requests for new legislation or modification of...

  15. 50 CFR 80.3 - Assent legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assent legislation. 80.3 Section 80.3... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.3 Assent legislation. A State may participate in the benefits of the Act(s) only after it has passed legislation which assents to the provisions...

  16. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  17. 33 CFR 276.5 - Legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislative history. 276.5 Section 276.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Legislative history. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the reports by the Senate Committee on...

  18. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  19. 10 CFR 1017.25 - Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reproduction. 1017.25 Section 1017.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.25 Reproduction. A document marked as containing UCNI may be...

  20. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN ARCHITECTURE: BETWEEN LEGISLATIONS AND ETHICAL MANIFESTATIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE EGYPTIAN CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Nehad Mohamed Eweda

    2011-01-01

    Several international and local legislations have been enacted to protect intellectual property rights. Nevertheless, legislations cannot alone provide protection for architects, and defend the right of owners over architectural products. The importance of this research paper is derived from the hypothesis that accepting, fostering and valuing intellectual property in architecture education and practice are similarly essential to enacting laws. This paper is an analytical discussion of intell...

  1. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  2. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...... variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote....

  3. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  4. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  5. [Chapter 2. The embryo in abortion legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Daniel

    2018-03-07

    For a long time, the legal condition of the child conceived, the embryo or the human fœtus, to use the language of biomedicine, was dominated by two main principles : one, having its roots in Roman law, made it possible to count it, by anticipation, among beings with a legal existence, so as to grant it its rights, as if it was already born (the infans conceptus maxim) : the other, protecting its life in utero, and so its chances of being born, by the penal incrimination of abortion. The legalisation of abortion by the ?Veil? law of 17 January 1975 upset this traditional approach of the law. The subsequent evolution of the legislation has accentuated the phenomenon. The promotion of the freedom of women to obtain an abortion has been accompanied by a correlated decline in the protection of the embryo. At the same time, abortion resting on medical techniques has become a means, precious for research, to obtain embryo or foetal cells or tissues. Eliminated on the one hand, the embryo has finally become on the other hand the object of medical and scientific stakes.

  6. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  7. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation. [WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted.

  8. Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record : An Ethical Analysis of a State-Enforced "Presumption Against Treatment" With Regard to Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or child protection order, are given a "presumption against treatment." This article reviews the legislation and identifies arguments that may be used to justify restricting access to ART for various reasons. The arguments reviewed include limitations of reproductive rights, inheriting undesirable genetic traits, distributive justice, and the welfare of the future child. We show that none of these arguments justifies restricting access to ART in the context of past criminal history. We show that a "presumption against treatment" is an unjustified infringement on reproductive freedom and that it creates various inconsistencies in current social, medical, and legal policy. We argue that a state-enforced policy of restricting access to ART based on the non-medical factor of past criminal history is an example of unjust discrimination and cannot be ethically justified, with one important exception: in cases where ART treatment may be considered futile on the basis that the parents are not expected to raise the resulting child.

  9. Equality, Legal Certainty and Tax Legislation in the Netherlands
    Fundamental Legal Principles as Checks on Legislative Power: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Gribnau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental legal principles may function as a check on legislative power protecting citizens against arbitrary interferences with their liberty. This contribution deals with the principle of equality and the principle of certainty. First, the testing of legislation against the principle of equality is presented as a case study of constitutional review. In the Netherlands, the constitutional dialogue between the legislator and the Dutch Supreme Court revolving around the principle of equality demonstrates a fair amount of subtle details. As a result, constitutional review can hardly be called an all or nothing affair.Secondly, retroactive tax legislation is dealt with. The legislator does seem to take the principle of legal certainty, another fundamental legal principle, quite seriously, although no testing of statutory legislation is possible by the courts. With regard to retroactive tax legislation the Government has committed itself in a memorandum, requested by Parliament, to adhere to rules of conduct with regard to different situations where it deems retroactive tax legislation to be justified. Thus, a soft law instrument facilitates a dialogue between different partners in the business of law-making.

  10. ESTIMATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND VULNERABILITY OF ADOLESCENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Stanojević

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are reproductive potential of society. Protection of their reproductive health is one of the biggest challenges of modern society. Adolescent reproductive health is endangered by early sexual activities, inadequate protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. It is necessary to take measures which would protect and improve adolescent reproductive health.Adoption of knowledge about sexuality, physiology of reproduction, protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexual infections are prerequisites for formation of correct attitudes related to family planning and taking over responsibility for their own sexual behaviour.

  11. Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Several jurisdictions in the United States (e.g., Florida and Washington) have recently incorporated the status of "homeless" under the protection of hate crime legislation. This was largely promoted by new data and reports by the National Coalition for the Homeless urging added protection for the homeless. The issue of whether the homeless belong under hate crime provisions raises the following question: What criteria must a group meet to be eligible for its inclusion? What similarities do the homeless have with other protected groups? Finally, what implications does the recognition of economic status have on other economic groups, particularity the top wealthy 1%? In this article, I explore some of the issues raised by including the homeless as a protected group. I survey several rationales offered for the selection of protected characteristics. I argue that the rationales currently offered suffer from descriptive inadequacy by either being under- or over-inclusive. I turn instead to the political conception of "disadvantage" for an identity marker that better explains the link between the various protected groups and identities under hate crime legislation. Moreover, the use of disadvantage allows for the inclusion of the homeless without the need for incorporating other socio-economic identities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Critical Care Nurses' Knowledge of Confidentiality Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Angela B; Kjervik, Diane K

    2016-05-01

    Health care legislation can be difficult to understand and apply in critical situations where patients may not be physically capable of autonomous control of confidential health information. Nurses are often the first to encounter confidential information about patients. To explore critical care nurses' knowledge of federal and North Carolina state legislation regarding confidentiality. This descriptive, qualitative study included 12 critical care nurses who were asked to describe their knowledge of federal confidentiality legislation and specific knowledge of North Carolina's confidentiality legislation. Critical care nurses were knowledgeable about federal confidentiality laws but demonstrated a need for further education about state-specific legislation. Nurses' application of confidentiality legislation demonstrates their knowledge of confidentiality legislation. To continue the trusting relationship that nurses have traditionally held with patients and patients' families, it is imperative for nurses to remain current about confidentiality legislation. Through education both before and after licensure, correct application of legislation can be achieved. Further research can aid in exploring the intersection between health care legislation and ethics. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  13. Irish public opinion on assisted human reproduction services: Contemporary assessments from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David J; Sills, E Scott; Collins, Gary S; Hawrylyshyn, Christine A; Sokol, Piotr; Walsh, Anthony Ph

    2013-12-01

    To measure Irish opinion on a range of assisted human reproduction (AHR) treatments. A nationally representative sample of Irish adults (n=1,003) were anonymously sampled by telephone survey. Most participants (77%) agreed that any fertility services offered internationally should also be available in Ireland, although only a small minority of the general Irish population had personal familiarity with AHR or infertility. This sample finds substantial agreement (63%) that the Government of Ireland should introduce legislation covering AHR. The range of support for gamete donation in Ireland ranged from 53% to 83%, depending on how donor privacy and disclosure policies are presented. For example, donation where the donor agrees to be contacted by the child born following donation, and anonymous donation where donor privacy is completely protected by law were supported by 68% and 66%, respectively. The least popular (53%) donor gamete treatment type appeared to be donation where the donor consents to be involved in the future life of any child born as a result of donor fertility treatment. Respondents in social class ABC1 (58%), age 18 to 24 (62%), age 25 to 34 (60%), or without children (61%) were more likely to favour this donor treatment policy in our sample. This is the first nationwide assessment of Irish public opinion on the advanced reproductive technologies since 2005. Access to a wide range of AHR treatment was supported by all subgroups studied. Public opinion concerning specific types of AHR treatment varied, yet general support for the need for national AHR legislation was reported by 63% of this national sample. Contemporary views on AHR remain largely consistent with the Commission for Assisted Human Reproduction recommendations from 2005, although further research is needed to clarify exactly how popular opinion on these issues has changed. It appears that legislation allowing for the full range of donation options (and not mandating disclosure of

  14. Impact of ARPANS-like legislation on minerals industry in Australia - the TENORM issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Processing of minerals results in increased concentrations of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral products and/or process wastes, relative to those in the source materials. Due to the current legislative trends this technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) phenomenon may bring mineral processing practices, including disposal of NORM-elevated wastes, into the realm of regulatory concern for practically all mineral-processing operations in Australia. The 1999 Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANS) legislation has been based on the 1996 International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As such, it contains very restrictive exemption criteria from the provisions of the legislation. ARPANS legislation is only binding upon Commonwealth entities. They, incidentally, do not include minerals industry operations. This legislation has been incompatible with the nature of the minerals industry. However, the current legislative developments have been aimed at imposing this legislation onto States and Territories. If this happens, and the current ARPANS legislative exemption criteria are not rationalised, major radiation safety-related operational and administrative impacts on the Australian minerals industry will occur. They will result in a marked burden to the national economy for yet to be clearly identified health and safety benefits. It is thus recommended that, without compromising rational radiation protection principles and practices, legislation commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national and state circumstances, conditions and interests be adopted in Australia. Such legislation would follow the spirit of the IAEA 1996 recommendations. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  15. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  16. Legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations in the arab counties a comparative analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the developments taking place in nuclear sciences and technologies during the twentieth century and the resulting increase of useful applications of these technologies, the international efforts aiming at helping different countries to establish nuclear safety systems. This was also increased through the promulgation of legislations that render the practices, which could be accompanied with exposure to ionizing radiations, more safe within a firm legal system that is also backed by promulgating suitable executive regulations. Most Arab countries are keen to promulgate their legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations and protection against their dangers. Those legislations usually get their genesis and provisions from the international recommendations as well as from the general legal system of the country. The present work consists of four chapters. The first chapter deals with the definition of legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations. Chapter two discusses the international trend to promulgate legislations for protection against ionizing radiations. Chapter three includes an analytical comparative study on the legislations that regulates the work with ionizing radiations in the Arab countries. Finally, chapter four deals with the legislations for protection against ionizing radiations in the Arab Republic of Egypt

  17. Some international perspectives on legislation for the management of human-induced safety risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Niemand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legislation that governs the health and safety of communities near major-hazard installations in South Africa is largely based on existing legislation that had been developed in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries. The latter was developed as a consequence of several major human-induced technological disasters in Europe. The history of the evolution of health-and-safety legislation for the protection of vulnerable communities in European Union (EU countries, France, Malaysia and the USA is explored through a literature survey. A concise comparison is drawn between EU countries, the USA and South Africa to obtain an exploratory view of whether current South-African legislation represents an optimum model for the protection of the health-and-safety of workers and communities near major-hazard installations. The authors come to the conclusion that South-African legislation needs revision as was done in the UK in 2011. Specific areas in the legislation that need revision are an overlap between occupational health and safety and environmental legislation, appropriate land-use planning for the protection of communities near major-hazard installations, the inclusion of vulnerability studies and the refinement of appropriate decision-making instruments such as risk assessment. This article is the first in a series that forms part of a broader study aimed at the development of an optimised model for the regulatory management of human-induced health and safety risks associated with hazardous installations in South Africa.

  18. Sexual and reproductive health services for women with disability: a qualitative study with service providers in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kira; Devine, Alexandra; Marco, Ma Jesusa; Zayas, Jerome; Gill-Atkinson, Liz; Vaughan, Cathy

    2015-10-15

    The Philippines has ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and recently passed domestic legislation protecting the sexual and reproductive rights of people with disability. However women in the Philippines continue to report barriers to sexual and reproductive health services, and there is limited empirical evidence available to inform policy makers' efforts to respond. This study aims to contribute to the available evidence by examining service providers' perceptions of disability and their experiences providing sexual and reproductive health services to women with disability. The study was conducted as part of a larger three-year program of participatory action research that aims to improve the sexual and reproductive health of women with disabilities in the Philippines. Fourteen in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted with a total of thirty-two sexual and reproductive health service providers in Quezon City and Ligao. Qualitative data were analysed to identify key themes in participants' discussion of service provision to women with disability. Analysis of service providers' accounts suggests a range of factors undermine provision of high quality sexual and reproductive health services to women with disability. Service providers often have limited awareness of the sexual and reproductive health needs of women with disability and inadequate understanding of their rights. Service providers have had very little training in relation to disability, and limited access to the resources that would enable them to provide a disability inclusive service. Some service providers hold prejudiced attitudes towards women with disability seeking sexual and reproductive health services, resulting in disability-based discrimination. Service providers are also often unaware of specific factors undermining the health of women with disability, such as violence and abuse. Recent legislative change in the Philippines

  19. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Special nuclear material; Source material; By-product material; Agreement state programmes); 4. Nuclear installations (Initial licensing; Operation and inspection, including nuclear safety; Operating licence renewal; Decommissioning; Emergency response); 5. Radiological protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public); 6. Radioactive waste management (High-level waste; Low-level waste; Disposal at sea; Uranium mill tailings; Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - FUSRAP); 7. Non-proliferation and exports (Exports of source material, special nuclear material, production or utilisation facilities and sensitive nuclear technology; Exports of components; Exports of by-product material; Exports and imports of radiation sources; Conduct resulting in the termination of exports or economic assistance; Subsequent arrangements; Technology exports; Information and restricted data); 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC; Department of Energy - DOE; Department of Labor - DOL; Department of Transportation - DOT; Environmental Protection Agency - EPA); 2. Public and semi-public agencies: A. Cabinet-level departments (Department of

  20. [Sexual and reproductive health and the economic crisis in Spain. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Isabel; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia

    2014-06-01

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is protected by the public authorities to ensure that people enjoy a free, satisfying, and safe sexual life. Despite the approval of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Strategy in 2011, the progress achieved may be jeopardized by recent proposals for legislative changes affecting this area (abortion Law and 16/2012 Law) and by the impact of the current economic crisis. This article aims to describe the current situation of sexual and reproductive health in the Spanish population and to identify the potential impact of the economic crisis. To this end, we used the following information sources: the National Sexual Health Survey, the DAPHNE surveys, births and fetal deaths statistics from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, the Registry of Voluntary Pregnancy Interruptions, reports from the National Epidemiology Center, and the National AIDS Registry. Sexual health and the availability of information are rated as good by the Spanish population. Among young people, schools and health services have become less important as information sources and the internet has become more important. Since the beginning of the crisis, contraceptive use and fertility have declined and maternity has been delayed. The economic crisis seems to have affected some indicators of sexual and reproductive health. However, the potential effects on other indicators should continue to be monitored because insufficient time may have passed for accurate determination of the full effect of the crisis. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Litigating reproductive health rights in the Inter-American System: what does a winning case look like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Ciara

    2014-12-11

    Remedies and reparation measures emerging from the Inter-American System of Human Rights in reproductive health cases have consistently highlighted the need to develop, and subsequently implement, non-repetition remedies that protect, promote, and fulfill women's reproductive health rights. Litigation outcomes that determine there have been violations of reproductive rights are regarded as a "win" for health rights litigation, but when implementation fails, is a "win" still a win? There has been considerable success in litigating reproductive health rights cases, yet the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights are not adequately equipped to follow up on cases after they have been won. Successful and sustainable implementation of reproductive health rights law requires incorporation of non-repetition remedies in the form of legislation, education, and training that seeks to remodel existing social and cultural practices that hinder women's enjoyment of their reproductive rights. In order for a reproductive health rights case to ultimately be a "winner," case recommendations and decisions emerging from the Commission and Court must incorporate perspectives from members of civil society, with the ultimate goal being to develop measurable remedies that address underlying obstacles to domestic implementation. Copyright © 2014 O'Connell. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  2. Intellectual property and access to medicines: an analysis of legislation in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Alejandro; Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass

    2009-10-01

    Globalization of intellectual property (IP) protection for medicines has been advancing during the past decade. Countries are obliged to adapt their legislation as a requirement of their membership to the World Trade Organization or as a condition of being part of international trade agreements. There is a growing recognition that, in low-income countries, stronger IP protection is a barrier to access to medicines. At the same time, the number of low-income countries writing national legislation to protect IP for pharmaceutical products is growing worldwide, but little research has been done on the ways in which this process is happening at the national level. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the implementation of IP legislation at the national level by providing a comparative analysis of the countries that are part of the United States-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). The analysis shows three trends. First, countries have often implemented stronger IP protection than required by trade agreements. Second, some countries have adopted IP protection before signing the trade agreements. Third, the process of ratification of DR-CAFTA increased public debate around these issues, which in some cases led to IP legislation that considers public health needs. These trends suggest that industrialized countries and the pharmaceutical industry are using more tactics than just trade agreements to push for increased IP protection and that the process of national legislation is a valid arena for confronting public health needs to those of the industry.

  3. Planning legislation and healthy air : a response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutis, P.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the legislative framework used to promote healthy air in Ontario with reference to the Planning Act, the 2001 Municipal Act, and the 2001 Brownfields Statute Law Amendment Act. The objective of the framework is to promote sustainable economic development in a manner which promotes healthy air, land and water. Another objective is to encourage a land use planning system that is led by provincial policy and which integrates matters of provincial interest. Provincial interests include the protection of ecological systems, agricultural resources, and the supply of energy and water. Provincial interests also include the efficient use of transportation, sewage, water and waste management systems. The Planning Act makes sure that any development and land use patterns that cause concern to public health and safety are avoided. The objectives for healthy communities are to promote street patterns and a mix of land uses in new and redeveloping areas which reduce trip length and facilitate walking, cycling and transit use to ultimately improve air quality, energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 1 ref, 1 fig

  4. Reproductive Failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for the establishment of a Reproductive Failure. Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital was considered long overdue, as it was felt that there were a number of high risk pregnancies continually being lost among the large volume of pregnant women attending the routine, busy and overcrowded antenatal clinics,. Various ...

  5. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  6. Impact of hazardous waste handling legislation on nuclear installations and radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosten, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The United States has enacted complex legislation to help assure proper handling of hazardous waste and the availability of funds to cover the expenditures. There are a number of uncertainties concerning the impact of this legislation, and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency and the states, upon nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. This report provides an overview of the U.S. hazardous waste legislation and examines the outlook for its application to the nuclear industry (NEA) [fr

  7. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  8. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  9. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Male Reproductive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Male Reproductive System What's in ... your son's reproductive health. About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  10. Development of Food Legislation Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of systems are presented in the perspective of the development of food legislation to give an impression of the features found in food law and the reasons they have taken certain forms. Legislation on food is not only widely distributed in time but also in space. The assurance of safe food

  11. 43 CFR 26.4 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislation. 26.4 Section 26.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUTH CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.4 Legislation. State programs must meet all of the requirements of section 4...

  12. Special Education Legislation and Policy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Shirley R.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the historical context in which Canadian legislation and policy for children with special needs has evolved. The potential for the rights of students with special needs in light of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is outlined. The role of the Federal and Provincial governments in legislation and policy vis-à-vis…

  13. 28 CFR 61.7 - Legislative proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the environment, that subunit shall prepare a legislative environmental impact statement in... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.7 Legislative proposals. (a) Each subunit of the... to Congress which may have an effect on the environment shall, in the early stages of development of...

  14. Governance, legislation and protection of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institutions and processes governing the conveyance and control of water have a long history. In this chapter, we discuss the extent to which water governance systems consider the management of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) and identify where research could inf...

  15. Radiation protection for EMF harmonizing legislation in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaruba, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    To effect a change in biological material through which it is passing, an Electromagnetic wave must deposit enough energy to alter some structure significantly. But:- Every material particle within the body already possesses an average thermal kinetic energy (kT) and these particles continually collide with other particles of similar energy. For a change to occur an EM wave should transfer energy greater than kT. There is a bond energy which is within an order of magnitude of electron volt (1.6 X 10-19 J). For a change to occur an EM photon which typically carries an energy of hf should deposit packets of energy larger than bond energy. RF fields : It is concluded (epidemiological, animal and in vitro studies) that exposure to RF fields is unlikely to lead to an increase in cancer in humans. IF fields: The data are still too limited for an appropriate risk assessment. ELF fields: No new studies support a causal relationship between ELF fields and self-reported symptoms. Preliminary study of RF radiation levels in the residential areas. The study was conducted 2007 - 2008.Measurements of RF radiation levels to 200 cellular phone base stations, 2 Television stations and 5 radio stations. Measurements done aat to 300 meters from the fence of base stations. Preliminary results showed public exposed to 0.05% of the ICNIRP reference levels. Need to re-confirm measurements

  16. Legislative Protection of Property Rights in Ethiopia: An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_A.

    177. 47 Civil Code, Arts. 1151-1206 ... In other words, '… laws on registration aim at promoting security in real estate transactions so as to ... the urban real property registration law, if and when enacted and backed by an administrative system ...

  17. Non-legislative means of consumer protection: The Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report approaches the new spheres of self-regulation, soft law and deregulation in the Netherlands from both a factual and historical point of view. Using the Dutch Advertising Code as an example, the article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of self-regulation, thereby illustrating

  18. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  19. AGAIN ABOUT GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN ROMANIA LEGISLATIVE MODIFICATIONS PROMULGATED ON MARCH 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLĂDILĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article continues our last year article, presented in the same conference, on the evolution of the legislation on domestic violence in Spain and in Romania. This new study shall approach only the legislative modifications of the Law No 217/2003 inserted in March 2012 after the shooting at “Perla” Hairdresser in Bucharest, which influenced not only the lives of those involved, but also legislative changes, as an attempt from the Government to offer a better protection for women, who are usually the victims of this type of violence. The present study is dedicated to these new modifications ad their social and legal impact.

  20. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  1. Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, P; Fablet, C; Le Dimna, M; Mahé, S; Touzain, F; Blanchard, Y; Paboeuf, F; Rose, N; Bourry, O

    2017-05-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unethical Female Stereotypes in Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garanina I. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the established stereotypes which are summarized prejudices identifying the membership of certain people in a certain group. The article reveals that women are victims of stereotyping them as housekeepers and mothers in the negative sense, which exclude them from performing other roles and functions. There are examples from the foreign legislation where they dispel the stereotype of a woman as a reproductive instrument and uphold the woman‘s right to equal dignity with men in their reproductive choice

  3. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  4. Harmonisation of Slovenian nuclear legislation with EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, M.

    1999-01-01

    Slovenia as a member of the first group of candidates countries which started the accession negotiations with the European Union. The extensive work started in 1998 to align the domestic legislation with the legislation of the European Union. The activities related to the accession of Slovenia to EU in the area of nuclear legislation are carried out in different national working groups. The main part of activities is in working groups: energy and environment, but there are some topics, which are covered in other groups, like control of dual-use materials in the group of External Relations, research in reactor physics, nuclear engineering and fusion in the group Science and Technology

  5. Cross-protection of a new type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccine (Fostera PRRS) against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-05-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the cross-protection of a new type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccine against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. The mean rectal temperature and respiratory score was significantly (P<0.05) lower in vaccinated challenged pigs than in unvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccination of pigs with type 2 PRRSV reduced the levels of type 1 PRRSV viremia after challenge with type 1 PRRSV. Vaccinated challenged pigs had significantly (P<0.05) higher frequency of interferon-γ secreting cells and lower levels of interleukin-10 compared to unvaccinated challenged pigs. Vaccination of pigs with the type 2 PRRSV effectively reduced the macroscopic and microscopic lung lesion and the type 1 PRRSV antigens within lung lesions in vaccinated challenged pigs. This study demonstrates partial cross-protection of a new type 2 PRRSV modified live vaccine against heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 10 CFR 51.88 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposals for legislation. 51.88 Section 51.88 Energy...) Legislative Environmental Impact Statements-Proposals for Legislation § 51.88 Proposals for legislation. The... proposals for legislation. final environmental impact statements—general requirements ...

  7. Knowledge of the abortion legislation among South African women: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Myer Landon; Morroni Chelsea; Tibazarwa Kemilembe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural...

  8. [Induced abortion. Legislation, epidemiology, complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, E; Nisand, I

    1995-11-15

    In France, induced abortion was legalized under certain conditions since the January 1975 and December 1979 laws suspended the effects of Article 317 of the French Penal Code that forbade induced abortion. For more than 15 years, induced abortion has been part of current gynecological practice. Adverse effects of abortions have been reduced. In the upcoming years, the interest in drug-induced abortion and abortion under local anesthesia will increase due to a concern for reducing risks that deteriorate physical integrity and women's gynecological/obstetrical future. Induced abortion still remains a very important act, if not serious, in a woman's life. Prevention of induced abortion remains the absolute medical objective and is necessary for information campaigns on contraceptives, especially among youth. If accessible and equal access to induced abortion is becoming a reality in France, abortion will always remain a failure and proof for women that they have recourse to abortion. Induced abortions have remained relatively stable in France (170,000 in 1980; 181,154 in 1991). The abortion rate ranges from 20 to 25 per 100 live births. 50% of women of reproductive age will have an induced abortion in their life. The fertility rate in France has been 1.8 since 1976. First trimester abortion-related mortality is less than 1/100,000. Abortion-related mortality increases with gestational age (0.5/100,000 at 8 weeks vs. 1.1/100,000 at 12 weeks). It is also associated with the anesthesia used (0.15 for local anesthesia vs. 0.58 for general anesthesia). The leading causes of abortion-related mortality are infection, pulmonary embolism, and anesthetic accidents. Immediate complications of induced abortion are anesthetic accidents, hemorrhage, uterine perforations, accumulation of blood in the uterus, cervical tears, and vagal discomfort. In France, the induced abortion related-perforation rate is between 0.2% and 1.2%. Perforation is more likely after 10 weeks and under

  9. Canadian parents' attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation in provinces with and without legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Degroot, J; Macpherson, A; Fuselli, P; Macarthur, C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to survey Canadian parents on their attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation and to compare responses from parents living in provinces with and without legislation. A national survey of 1002 parents of children aged under 18 years was conducted. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses from the surveyed parents in the different jurisdictions. Responses from parents living in provinces with legislation (n = 640) and without legislation (n = 362) were as follows: concern for injury (63% vs. 68%, nonsignificant [NS]); believe helmets are effective (98% vs. 98%, NS); child always wears a helmet (74% vs. 69%, NS); support legislation for children (95% vs. 83%, p legislation for all ages (85% vs. 75%, p legislation decreases the amount of time their child bicycles (5% vs. 8%, NS). Parents are highly supportive of bicycle helmet legislation in Canada. They believe that bicycle helmets are effective and that legislation does not decrease the amount of time a child spends bicycling. There was also a high level of support for legislation across all ages, and for police enforcement.

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  2. Rare disease patients in China anticipate the sunlight of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J J; Song, P P; Tang, W

    2013-06-01

    It is estimated that there are over ten million rare disease patients in China currently. Due to a lack of effective drugs and reimbursement regulations for medical expenses the diseases bring most patients enormous physical suffering and psychological despair. Past experience in other countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union have shown that legislation is the critical step to improve the miserable situation of rare disease patients. Laws and regulations for rare diseases in these countries prescribe a series of incentives for research and development of orphan drugs which turn out to obviously allow these drugs to flourish. Legislation has also established a drug reimbursement system to reduce the medical burden of the patients. These measures effectively protect the rights and interests of patients with rare diseases. In China, legislation for rare diseases has begun to attract the attention of authorities. It is anticipated that relevant laws and regulations will be established as early as possible to provide safeguards for rare disease patients in China.

  3. A Policy Analysis of Smoke-Free Legislation in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Stephanie; Hahn, Ellen J

    2016-05-01

    This article presents a policy analysis of proposed smoke-free legislation in Kentucky during the 2015 General Assembly. Kingdon's three streams model of agenda setting is used to analyze the failure to pass HB145. Secondhand smoke exposure and related deaths are a significant public health problem in Kentucky, a state with one of the highest smoking rates in the U.S. HB145, a comprehensive smoke-free bill, was designed to protect workers and the general public from secondhand smoke and e-cigarette aerosol in enclosed workplaces and public places, with few exemptions. The bill faced intense criticism from opponents who were concerned about violation of personal and business rights and the belief that the decision should be addressed on a local level. HB145 passed the House with amendments but failed to receive a hearing in the Senate. Failure of the smoke-free legislation was due to partisanship, fragmentation of advocacy groups, lack of political bargaining, and conflict of values. As in past years, the policy window did not open for state smoke-free legislation in 2015. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. BANK DEPOSIT CONTRACT: CURRENT STATUS OF LEGISLATION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kozhevnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.734The relevance of the study is determined by the debates around legal rules devoted to the bank deposit contract, as well as an extensive judicial practice, revealing the problems of existing legislation. Purpose: to systematize the main problems of enforcement related to the bank deposit contract and to suggest ways of improving the current legislation. Meth-ods: general and special scientific methods (systemic, comparative, formal-logical and other are used. Results: on the basis of the comparative experience of Belarus, Kazakhstan and other foreign countries, analysis of judicial practice proposals to improve existing legislation are presented (including types of contract, investigation of deposits, bail-in.The authors conclude, it is necessary to supplement Chapter 44 of Russian Civil Code by rules on types of bank deposit agreement, establish the order of registration of the deposit and deposited funds with the remote technology, by list of requirements as to the form of deposit and savings certificates, by details and peculiarities of treatment, as well as consolidate the definition of "interest capitalization" and establish the list of cases of restriction of the rights of depositors for disposal of deposits. Procedural rules on the investigation of the deposits, determining the jurisdiction of cases on the protection of investors, are also should be improved.

  5. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  6. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  7. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  8. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress. Volume 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  9. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  10. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU direc...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  11. Characteristics of the working legislative in 'post - socialist' Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author points the main these: labor low in 'post socialistic' Yugoslavia is contradictory, partial and inconsistent. Some working rights are neglected, some are imitation of its in the market economy and some of them are pre-modern. The main part of the working legislative gives opportunity to protect interests of old/new elite. The author analyses problems of the transitions, privatization, social role and power of economical elite and workers, the position of trade union, wages and the other household incomes, (nonemployment workers, economic pauperism of social groups. The former problems are explored on formal and empirical level.

  12. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress. Volume 1, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  13. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  14. Specific legislation on biobanks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Merino, Isabel Ma; Consuegra, Irene; Jiménez, José Luís; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2015-06-01

    Spain has enacted specific legislation concerning biobanks. This legislation regulates how biobanks should be set up, how they should operate, and the requirements they need to comply with. The main objective of this legislation is to keep a good balance between scientific progress and respect for the rights and freedom of individuals participating in research. Therefore, this legislation lays down a series of basic principles, for instance, the principle to inform donors accurately i) on the deposit of samples in terms of the objectives and implications of their donation and on the need to obtain written consents; ii) on the obligation to establish consistent procedures to guarantee the confidentiality of personal data associated with and obtained from biological samples; iii) on the concept of free sample donation either by donors or by biobanks; iv) on the need for consistent procedures to deposit samples and data in biobanks; and v) for acts of donation and data for research projects to be performed correctly. Although this Spanish legislation fulfills its objectives, it has some drawbacks; mainly it overprotects research participants. This issue should be analyzed in future revisions of the legislation.

  15. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  16. 40 CFR 798.4700 - Reproduction and fertility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reproduction and fertility effects. 798....4700 Reproduction and fertility effects. (a) Purpose. This guideline for two-generation reproduction... fertility, both males and females shall be studied. (B) The females shall be nulliparous and non-pregnant...

  17. Turkish nuclear legislation: Developments for a nuclear newcomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Erinc; Schneider, Horst

    2013-01-01

    The scope of legal investigation in this article focuses on nuclear legislation with regard to siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of NPPs, taking into account the main issues of nuclear safety, security, safeguards, radiological protection and nuclear third party liability. The state of existing legislation and, furthermore, of drafts published or announced related to substantive regulations and organisational aspects are at the centre of this article. International conventions and agreements, national legislation consisting of the constitution, laws, decrees and regulations as binding norms and otherwise, directives and non-binding guides provide the legal structure for nuclear activities. The evaluation of Turkish nuclear legislation with regard to the accomplishment of the obligations under, in particular, the CNS and Euratom directives, leads finally to the perspective on the specific issues that should be addressed in the regulation of nuclear energy for Turkey's future energy needs and to ensure conformity with international standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). A brief discussion of Turkish energy legislation and institutional structure is necessary, because NPPs also need a licence for electricity production under Turkey's energy legislation. The Turkish government is aiming for greater privatisation in the energy sector. The current electricity market is governed, on the one hand, by the Electricity Market Law and Electricity Market License Regulation, which requires NPPs to have an electricity production licence and, on the other hand, by specific institutions. In terms of the Electricity Market Law, private legal entities who wish to obtain an electricity generation licence must 'be established as incorporated or limited liability companies in accordance with the provisions of the Turkish Commercial Law'. The relevant institutions in Turkey's energy sector include: the Energy

  18. State legislators' beliefs about legislation that restricts youth access to tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nell H; Goldstein, Adam O; Flynn, Brian S; Cohen, E Joanna E; Bauman, Karl E; Solomon, Laura J; Munger, Michael C; Dana, Greg S; McMorris, Laura E

    2003-04-01

    Better understanding of the cognitive framework for decision making among legislators is important for advocacy of health-promoting legislation. In 1994, the authors surveyed state legislators from North Carolina, Texas, and Vermont concerning their beliefs and intentions related to voting for a hypothetical measure to enforce legislation preventing the sale of tobacco to minors, using scales based on the theory of planned behavior. Attitude (importance), subjective norm (whether most people important to you would say you should or should not vote for the law), perceived behavioral control (ability to cast one's vote for the law), and home state were independently and significantly related to intention to vote for the law's enforcement. The results, including descriptive data concerning individual beliefs, suggest specific public health strategies to increase legislative support for passing legislation to restrict youth tobacco sales and, more generally, a framework for studying policy making and advocacy.

  19. Indoor tobacco legislation is associated with fewer emergency department visits for asthma exacerbation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Christina E; Gurley-Calvez, Tami; Shireman, Theresa I

    2016-12-01

    During the past 3 decades, numerous cities and states have adopted laws that ban smoking in public indoor spaces. The rationale for these policies has been to protect nonsmokers from the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke. To determine whether the implementation of indoor smoking legislation is associated with a decrease in emergency department visits for asthma in children. This retrospective analysis used a natural experiment to estimate the impact of clean indoor air legislation on the rate of emergency department admissions for asthma exacerbation in children. Data were obtained from the Pediatric Health Information System. A Poisson regression was used for analyses and controlled for age, sex, race, payer source, seasonality, and secular trends. Asthma emergency department visits were captured from 20 hospitals in 14 different states plus the District of Columbia from July 2000 to January 2014 (n = 335,588). Indoor smoking legislation, pooled across all cities, was associated with a decreased rate of severe asthma exacerbation (adjusted rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.82-0.85, P legislation is associated with a decrease in emergency department visits for asthma exacerbation. Such legislation should be considered in localities that remain without this legislation to protect the respiratory health of their children. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental health legislation and human rights in England, Wales and the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) published its Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation (Geneva: WHO) presenting a detailed statement of human rights issues which need to be addressed in national legislation relating to mental health. The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which revised mental health legislation in England, Wales (2007) and Ireland (2001) accords with these standards (excluding standards relating solely to children or mentally-ill offenders). Legislation in England and Wales meets 90 (54.2%) of the 166 WHO standards examined, while legislation in Ireland meets 80 standards (48.2%). Areas of high compliance include definitions of mental disorder, relatively robust procedures for involuntary admission and treatment (although provision of information remains suboptimal) and clarity regarding offences and penalties Areas of medium compliance relate to competence, capacity and consent (with a particular deficit in capacity legislation in Ireland), oversight and review (which exclude long-term voluntary patients and require more robust complaints procedures), and rules governing special treatments, seclusion and restraint. Areas of low compliance relate to promoting rights (impacting on other areas within legislation, such as information management), voluntary patients (especially non-protesting, incapacitated patients), protection of vulnerable groups and emergency treatment. The greatest single deficit in both jurisdictions relates to economic and social rights. There are four key areas in need of rectification and clarification in relation to mental health legislation in England, Wales and Ireland; these relate to (1) measures to protect and promote the rights of voluntary patients; (2) issues relating to competence, capacity and consent (especially in Ireland); (3) the role of "common law" in relation to mental health law (especially in England and Wales); and (4) the extent to which each jurisdiction

  1. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  2. National Legislative and Regulatory Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This section gathers several amendments, rules and acts published in 2010 and sorted by country: 1 - Bulgaria: Amendment to the Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy (2010); 2 - France: Law on the new organisation of the electricity market (2010); 3 - Germany: Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act extending the operating lifetime of nuclear power plants (2010); Amendment to the Reliability Assessment Ordinance (2010); Amendment to the Ordinance on Persons Responsible for Nuclear Safety and on Reportable Events (2010); Amendment to the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (2010); 4 - Greece: Decree transposing European Council Directive 2006/117/EURATOM (2010); 5 - India: Civil Nuclear Liability Act (2010); 6 - Romania: Amendment to Article 35 of Law 111/1996 regarding new tasks of CNCAN (2010); Order approving norms regarding the radiological monitoring or recyclable metal materials (2010); 7 - Serbia: Establishment of the Agency for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (2009); 8 - Slovenia: Rules on operational safety of radiation and nuclear facilities (2009); Rules on radiation and nuclear safety factors (2009); Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage (2010); 9 - Sweden: Abolishment of the Act on phasing out of nuclear energy (2010); Act on Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2010); 10 - United States: Final rule on the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel (2010); Status of the high-level waste repository programme (2010); Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act (2010); Final rule on the export and import of nuclear equipment and material (2010)

  3. European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection principles are the foundation for national and European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of management and disposal of radioactive waste. Directives set up at Community level, which are to be implemented in the national legislative framework of the Member States are summarized. Policies and strategies in radioactive waste management are of national competence, as well as ensuring safety of all steps of handling, storage and final disposal; recommendations at Community level are developed to assist national authorities and agencies in determining their strategy. Existing recommendations are described and a preview of recommendations under preparation is given. Legislation in this field is mainly aimed at radioactive waste arising from operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations; for radioactive waste produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle and for material with significant levels of naturally occurring radionuclides special situations exist, and harmonization of legislation and the development of common practices on the management of such wastes may be desirable

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Framework: 1. General (The French nuclear power programme and its main players; French nuclear law); 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances and Nuclear Equipment (Regulatory diversity; Radioactive sources; Medical activities); 4. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (Basic nuclear installations - INB; Tax on basic nuclear installations, Additional taxes, Funding nuclear costs; Installations classified for environmental protection purposes (ICPE) using radioactive substances; Nuclear pressure equipment - ESPN; Defence-related nuclear installations and activities - IANID; Emergency plans); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (General provisions; Patents); 6. Radiation protection (Protection of the public; Protection of workers; Radiation protection inspectors; Labour inspectors; Protection of individuals in a radiological emergency); 7. Radioactive Waste Management (General regulations; Radioactive waste regulations; Discharge of effluents); 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Materials not used for the nuclear deterrent; Materials used for the nuclear deterrent); 9. Transport (Licensing and notification regime: Transport of radioactive materials, Transport of nuclear materials, Transport of radioactive substances between member states of the European Union; Methods of transport: Land transport, Sea transport, Air transport, Transport by post); 10

  5. Unintended consequences of health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, James H

    2011-10-01

    Unintended consequences of health care legislation threaten the financial and social well-being of the United States. Examples of major legislation resulting in unintended and unforeseen consequences include the Social Security Amendments Acts of 1989 and 1993 (the Stark laws), the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, and the Social Security Amendments Act of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid). Each of these has had unintended financial and social outcomes. Spending for Medicare and Medicaid now equals an unsustainable 23% of the federal budget. Major reasons for unintended consequences include failure to appreciate the complexity of the issues, the open-ended nature of medical advances with attendant increases in costs, the inducement of change in behaviors in response to legislation, and the moral hazard of people spending other people's money. Actions that should be considered to avoid unintended consequences include more involvement of health professionals in the design of legislation, the inclusion of triggers to target review of legislatively defined programs, and the setting of time limits for sun-setting legislation. The ACR has played an important advocacy role and should continue to offer input to legislators, federal policymakers, and other stakeholders. Many opportunities exist to address the current financial situation by reducing the amount of unnecessary care delivered. Both major US political parties need to find the political will to compromise to chart the way forward. Some level of sacrifice is likely to be necessary from patients and providers and other stakeholders. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  7. Effect of ruminally protected Methionine on the productive and reproductive performance of grazing Bos indicus heifers raised in the humid tropics of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Maquivar, M; Galina, C S; Mendoza, G D; Guzmán, A; Estrada, S; Villareal, M; Molina, R

    2008-12-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effect of methionine supplementation prior to a breeding program, thirty one heifers (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) were used averaging 386 +/- 29 days of age and a mean body weight of 402.6 +/- 28 kg. Fifteen of the animals received a supplement (SG) during 45 days with molasses-urea mixture (2 kg molasses + 407 g urea/head/day), plus 10 g of ruminally protected methionine. The other sixteen heifers did not receive supplement (CG). Fecal and pastures samples were collected to assess dry herbage intake and digestibility. Serial ultrasound measurements from the ovary were performed in both groups to evaluate follicular dynamics. The heifers were categorized according to their follicular size and presence of a CL. Forage intake and dry matter digestibility were reduced (P heifers, however, total intake, final weight, daily gain and dorsal back fat were not affected. After the supplementation period, the percentage of females in the categories or = 9 mm, the percentage of animals was 60% in SG and 18.8% in CG (P < 0.05). The percentage of ovulation for the SG and CG was 86.7% and 62.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). The combination of supplementation with methionine-urea and molasses at the end of the dry season and the anticipated onset of the rainy season favored the establishment of ovarian activity and follicular dynamics.

  8. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) ART refers to treatments and procedures that ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  9. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  10. A review of conservation legislation in Nepal: Past progress and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Joel T.; Kattel, Bijaya

    1992-11-01

    Nepal is considered a leader among developing nations with regard to conservation legislation and programs; it was among the first Asian nations to develop national conservation legislation, sign CITES, and develop a national conservation strategy. We review the history of modern conservation law in Nepal from the Rana period (early 1950s) to the present. The early legislation focused mainly on strict preservation of areas and species; this phase culminated in the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Subsequent legislation has evolved more in the direction of an integrated, holistic approach to conservation and is beginning to incorporate the participation of local people; subsequent amendments to the 1973 act allowed greater rights to rural villagers, and the designation of conservation areas in addition to the more strictly defined protected areas (national parks, wildlife reserves, etc.). Our review of conservation legislation suggests that Nepal has had many successes to date; the country has a protected area system covering over 10% of its land area, and many target species are recovering in parks and reserves. There are also some causes of concern, including staff shortages, financial constraints within the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, and the fact that there is little legal infrastructure outside of protected areas to enforce conservation laws; further, some aspects of hunting regulations are in need of revision. Primary needs include a comprehensive review of these policies and a nationalized strategy to ameliorate the shortcomings.

  11. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  12. Evolution of the Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to various legislative mandates, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) formed its Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), which in turn, implemented a tiered testing strategy to determine the potential of pesticides, commercial chemicals, and...

  13. Chloe's Law: A Powerful Legislative Movement Challenging a Core Ethical Norm of Genetic Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur L Caplan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, the ethical norm governing counselors involved in testing and screening for genetic conditions related to reproduction has been strict neutrality. Counseling about reproductive genetics was to be patient centered but nondirective. Many advocates for people with Down syndrome believe that high abortion rates following a diagnosis of this condition show an unfounded bias against those with Down syndrome. These advocates have succeeded in enacting federal and state legislation that requires women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome to receive positive information about the condition, thereby ending the nominal goal of value-neutral counseling and setting the stage for further normative shifts in clinical reproductive genetics as counseling expands because of cell-free testing.

  14. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  15. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  17. Before and after study of bar workers' perceptions of the impact of smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullally Bernie J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives: To compare support for, and perceptions of, the impacts of smoke-free workplace legislation among bar workers in the Republic of Ireland (ROI pre- and post-implementation, and to identify predictors of support for the legislation. Methods Setting: Public houses (pubs in three areas of the ROI. Design: Comparisons pre- and post-implementation of smoke-free workplace legislation. Participants: From a largely non-random selection, 288 bar workers volunteered for the baseline survey; 220 were followed up one year later (76.4%. Outcome measures: Level of support for the legislation, attitude statements concerning potential impacts of the law and modelled predictors of support for the legislation. Results Pre-implementation 59.5% of participants supported the legislation, increasing to 76.8% post-implementation. Support increased among smokers by 27.3 percentage points from 39.4% to 66.7% (p Pre-legislation three-quarters of participants agreed that the legislation would make bars more comfortable and was needed to protect workers' health. Post-legislation these proportions increased to over 90% (p Conclusion Smoke-free legislation had the support of three-quarters of a large sample of bar workers in the ROI. However, this group holds complex sets of both positive and negative perspectives on the legislation. Of particular importance is that negative economic perceptions did not diminish the widely held perception that the ban is needed to protect workers' health.

  18. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  19. Assisted Reproduction and the Courts: The Case of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Linda S.; Schmid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze appellate court cases heard in California between 1960 and 2000 that focus on the status of children conceived through reproductive technology in an effort to examine the role of the courts in defining parentage and family in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. In the absence of legislation, the primary…

  20. Dendritic cell-targeted porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antigens adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) induced non-protective immune responses against heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Derscheid, Rachel J; Madson, Darin M; Magstadt, Drew R; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine viral disease worldwide. Current modified live-attenuated vaccines are ineffective against heterologous strains of PRRS virus (PRRSV) circulating in the field. In this study, we evaluated three dendritic cell (DC)-targeted vaccine candidates for their protective efficacy against heterologous PRRSV challenge. Ectodomain regions of DNA-shuffled structural proteins GP3, GP4, GP5 and M of PRRSV were fused together to form the vaccine antigen which was in turn fused with one of three recombinant antibodies each specific to a DC receptor: DC-SIGN, Langerin, and DEC205. The recombinant antibody-fused vaccine antigens were co-administered with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) adjuvant and subsequently challenged with a heterologous type 2 PRRSV strain (NADC20) in pigs. Our results demonstrate that pigs in DC-SIGN- and DEC205-targeted, but not Langerin- and non-targeted, vaccine groups showed significant IFN-γ- and IL-4-specific CD4T cell immune responses against the vaccine antigen in 7days post-challenge. Pigs in DC-SIGN- and Langerin-targeted vaccine groups showed greatly reduced IgG responses as compared to the DEC205- and non-targeted vaccine groups. The immune responses induced by DC-targeted vaccines did not reduce viremia and lung pathological lesions in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. In contrast, pigs in Langerin-targeted vaccine group showed significantly increased serum viral titers and viral antigen in lung tissues at 7 and 14days post-challenge respectively. In conclusion, specific targeting of PRRSV antigen through DC-SIGN or DEC205 or Langerin-specific antibodies in the presence of poly (I:C) adjuvant induced immune responses that failed to protect pigs against heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Legal protection of land from pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.

  2. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  3. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  4. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  5. Marine legislation--the ultimate 'horrendogram': international law, European directives & national implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Elliott, Michael

    2014-09-15

    The EU is a pre-eminent player in sustainable development, adopting more than 200 pieces of legislation that have direct repercussions for marine environmental policy and management. Over five decades, measures have aimed to protect the marine environment by tackling the impact of human activities, but maritime affairs have been dealt with by separate sectoral policies without fully integrating all relevant sectors. Such compartmentalisation has resulted in a patchwork of EU legislation and resultant national legislation leading to a piecemeal approach to marine protection. These are superimposed on international obligations emanating from UN and other bodies and are presented here as complex 'horrendograms' showing the complexity across vertical governance. These horrendograms have surprised marine experts despite them acknowledging the many uses and users of the marine environment. Encouragingly since 2000, the evolution in EU policy has progressed to more holistic directives and here we give an overview of this change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protection of pregnant woman in working place: during pregnancy and maternity leaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Sernia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines an operating procedure aimed to protect female employees during pregnancy and breast feeding period, whilst they carry out various activities which may expose them and their baby to health hazards. This method, developed by the Coordinating Physician of “Sapienza” University of Rome Occupational Medical Centre (OMC, is a practical tool to be used for Risk Assessment in research laboratories, for informing and addressing the heads of departments of various organizations on the main regulatory requirements aiming to protect female employees. This paper consists of two parts: a Outline of Risks; b Job Duties. At last, the work fitness (referring to Legislative Decree no. 151/01 given by OMC in the last five years, (2009 to 2013 to the employees/equivalent are examined and described, to illustrate the effectiveness of this methodology aiming to promote and protect health and reproduction.

  7. Handbook on Nuclear Law: Implementing Legislation (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Cherf, A.; Tonhauser, W.; Vez Carmona, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the IAEA published the Handbook on Nuclear Law (the 2003 Handbook), which emphasized that the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy in any State can only be ensured with the promulgation and implementation of an effective national legal framework to govern this technology. The IAEA has long been involved in providing assistance to its Member States in developing these frameworks, and demand for such assistance has increased dramatically. Since publication of the 2003 Handbook, requests for IAEA legislative assistance have - if anything - been even more numerous, in large part due to the fact that over sixty Member States that currently do not utilize nuclear energy for the production of electrical power have recently expressed interest in pursuing this option. The current nuclear laws in many of these States are limited to non-power uses of ionizing radiation, such as those utilizing radiation sources for medical, agricultural and industrial purposes. If these States move toward nuclear power development, they will need to adopt legislation consistent with the various relevant international legal instruments covering the field (such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, among others) and with relevant voluntary guidance documents developed under the aegis of the IAEA. The 2003 Handbook has already made an important contribution to enhancing national capabilities to develop the necessary legal frameworks by setting out the general scheme of nuclear law. However, a number of important developments in nuclear law have occurred since its publication. These developments are discussed in the present volume. Also, over the past six years, representatives of many Member States receiving IAEA legislative assistance have suggested that it would be valuable to develop model texts of legislative provisions covering the key elements needed in a national nuclear law. The present volume provides such

  8. Handbook on Nuclear Law: Implementing Legislation (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Cherf, A.; Tonhauser, W.; Vez Carmona, Maria de Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the IAEA published the Handbook on Nuclear Law (the 2003 Handbook), which emphasized that the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy in any State can only be ensured with the promulgation and implementation of an effective national legal framework to govern this technology. The IAEA has long been involved in providing assistance to its Member States in developing these frameworks, and demand for such assistance has increased dramatically. Since publication of the 2003 Handbook, requests for IAEA legislative assistance have - if anything - been even more numerous, in large part due to the fact that over sixty Member States that currently do not utilize nuclear energy for the production of electrical power have recently expressed interest in pursuing this option. The current nuclear laws in many of these States are limited to non-power uses of ionizing radiation, such as those utilizing radiation sources for medical, agricultural and industrial purposes. If these States move toward nuclear power development, they will need to adopt legislation consistent with the various relevant international legal instruments covering the field (such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, among others) and with relevant voluntary guidance documents developed under the aegis of the IAEA. The 2003 Handbook has already made an important contribution to enhancing national capabilities to develop the necessary legal frameworks by setting out the general scheme of nuclear law. However, a number of important developments in nuclear law have occurred since its publication. These developments are discussed in the present volume. Also, over the past six years, representatives of many Member States receiving IAEA legislative assistance have suggested that it would be valuable to develop model texts of legislative provisions covering the key elements needed in a national nuclear law. The present volume provides such

  9. Impact of the legislation on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Douglas Lee points out that the question of nuclear waste will not go away. Nuclear waste is with us and consumers should support legislation to deal with the problem once and for all. The spent fuel is growing, and twenty-nine nuclear plants will face onsite storage problems in this decade. If these plants shut down, consumers will face higher electric generating costs if a switch to a more expensive fuel is necssary, or if the utilities are forced to purchase power of the grid. The cost of waste disposal under this proposed legislation will amount to about 75 cents per month for those electric customers serviced by nuclear plants

  10. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The benefists of outdoor recreation and the need for recreation inventories and monitoring are described in various policy and legislation documents at the European level. The objective of this paper is to analyse how these recreational aspects are reflected at the national level in core forest...... indicates that a consistent forest recreation monitoring system, linked to sustainable forest management, as describes for example in the Helsinki process, should be better transferred into national policuy and legislation. Compareable data across Europe could then provide a sound base for making decisions...

  11. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    European Union research has made great strides in understanding the dynamics of the European Union decision-making process. In contrast to this progress, the dynamics unfolding after the enactment of a European Union secondary legislative act has largely been ignored. Some of these acts remain...... revisions of European Union legislative acts are more likely to occur. Based on an analysis of the revision histories of 158 major European Union acts in the time period between 1958 and 2003, we find significant support for this hypothesis....

  12. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  13. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  14. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  15. Data Base Legislation in the Digital Age: Balancing the Public Good and the Owners' Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the impact of federal legislative proposals considered between 1997 and 2004 that offer protection to databases. It investigates the effect that the proposals had on the balance between the economic interests of owners and the right of the public to unfettered access to information. This identified legislation…

  16. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  17. Pediatric bicycle helmet legislation and crash-related traumatic brain injury in Illinois, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chelsea; Weston, Raquel; Feinglass, Joe; Crandall, Marie

    2018-02-01

    Bicycling is one of the most popular forms of play and exercise for children in the US. However, over 200,000 children per year are injured in bicycle crashes, and an estimated 22,000 pediatric bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur annually. Bicycle helmets are known to decrease the risk of head injury, but efficacy and magnitude of the effect of helmet legislation have not been fully elucidated. This was a retrospective, observational study of children aged legislation. A total of 3080 pediatric bicycle-related crashes were identified. Children wearing helmets were less likely to sustain a TBI, odds ratio [OR] = 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.84, P legislation in helmet legislation areas or over time in non-helmet legislation areas. Helmet use was protective against TBI, but socioeconomic and racial disparities exist in usage. Local legislation did not appear to impact helmet usage or admissions for bicycle-related TBIs in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving Pool Fencing Legislation in Queensland, Australia: Attitudes and Impact on Child Drowning Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Franklin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Four-sided, non-climbable pool fencing is an effective strategy for preventing children from drowning in home swimming pools. In 2009, the Queensland Government introduced legislation to improve the effectiveness of pool fencing. This study explores community attitudes towards the effectiveness of these legislative changes and examines child (<5 years drowning deaths in pools. Data from the 2011 Queensland Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI Social Survey include results from questions related to pool ownership and pool fencing legislation. Fatal child drowning cases between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2015 were sourced from coronial data. Of the 1263 respondents, 26/100 households had a pool. A total of 58% believed tightening legislation would be effective in reducing child drowning deaths. Pool owners were more likely to doubt the effectiveness of legislation (p < 0.001 when compared to non-pool owners. Perceptions of effectiveness did not differ by presence of children under the age of five. There were 46 children who drowned in Queensland home pools (7.8/100,000 pools with children residing in the residence/annum between 2005 and 2015. While pool owners were less likely to think that tightening the legislation would be effective, the number of children drowning in home swimming pools declined over the study period. Drowning prevention agencies have more work to do to ensure that the most vulnerable (young children in houses with swimming pools are protected.

  19. Legislation on university technology transfer and research management 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This book deals with legislation on university technology transfer in 2012, which includes invention promotion act, legislation on technology transfer and promotion of industrialization, legislation on industrial education and industrial cooperation, and special legislation on venture business. It lists the legislation related research and development by government department : fundamental law of scientific technique, law on evaluation and management of domestic research development business, national science and technology council and the patent office.

  20. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  1. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  2. Legislation, Empirical Research and Juridical Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotel, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the incorporation of empirical research into legislation from a juridical law perspective. Juridical law is characterized by four elements: autonomous and artificial reasoning; making statements to authorize factual actions; mobilizing helpers of the proponent and de-mobilizing

  3. Buffalo City learners' knowledge of abortion legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP) Act legalised abortion on request in South Africa until up to 12 weeks of gestation and thereafter under specified conditions. Within the context of liberal legislation, accurate information is a necessary (although not sufficient) requirement for women to exercise ...

  4. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  5. Parental Perceptions of the 2014 SEND Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John; Pell, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    The study researched parent's experiences of The Children and Families Act 2014 in Hull and the East Riding of Yorkshire. A sample of parents using KIDS Services in the area were surveyed by questionnaire, both before and after the legislation came into force. Nearly half of the parents were aware of a change in Special Educational Needs and…

  6. Networking Concepts and Cooperation among Legislative Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that military rule does not provide the appropriate environment for the growth and development of legislative libraries. Cooperation and not competition is stated as the driving philosophy for library networks and cooperation. Resource sharing is the premise for participation in library network. Network ...

  7. The need for hate crime legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South. Africa and convener of ... risk for developing a variety of mental health problems including ..... organisation has expressed an interest in support- ing South Africa by providing experts for related training.57. Regardless of whether hate crime legislation is adopted in South ...

  8. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  9. Quality legislation: lessons for Ontario from abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillard, Jérémy; Tipper, Brenda; Klazinga, Niek

    2012-01-01

    While the Excellent Care for All Act, 2010 (ECFA Act) provides a comprehensive approach to stimulating quality improvement in healthcare, there are other examples of legislations articulating strategies aimed at the same goal but proposing different approaches. This paper reviews quality of care

  10. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  11. The European legislative framework for audit committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    In 2014 the European Union reformed the regulatory framework of statutory audits in Directive 2014/56/EC and Regulation (EU) Nr. 537/2014. Part of the new legislation addresses the composition and responsibilities of the audit committee of public-interest entities. This contribution studies the

  12. Industrial Relations Legislation: A Creative Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Malcolm

    1976-01-01

    One specific area of industrial relations training is considered--that of meeting the implications of change as a result of the current theme of joint involvement in proposed industrial relations legislation. This will demand new approaches for industry in England. (Author/BP)

  13. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  14. 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    that peace, order and good governance shall be promoted both at the Federal and State levels. Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. Introduction. The National Assembly is the highest law making and representative body in Nigeria. It is the. Constitutional ...

  15. Herbal products: Marketing strategies and legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooyenga, P.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Groen, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing of herbal products in the European Union (EU) has been regulated under national legislation for years, leading to differences in legal status of these herbal products. In one member state, a product may be regulated as a food supplement, while in the other member state the same product is

  16. Reproductive Medicine in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Norin

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of amphibians includes ovulation, spermiation, fertilization, oviposition, larval stage and development, and metamorphosis. A problem at any stage could lead to reproductive failure. To stimulate reproduction, environmental conditions must be arranged to simulate changes in natural habits. Reproductive life history is well documented in amphibians; a thorough knowledge of this subject will aid the practitioner in diagnosis and treatment. Technologies for artificial reproduction are developing rapidly, and some protocols may be transferable to privately kept or endangered species. Reproductive tract disorders are rarely described; no bacterial or viral diseases are known that specifically target the amphibian reproductive system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of bicycle helmet legislation on pediatric injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, Lisa A; King, Brian P; Salemi, Gina; Salvator, Ann E

    2007-01-01

    Research supports the use of a correctly fitted bicycle helmet to reduce the risk of bicycle-related head injury. Although parents believe bicycle helmets work, a large percentage of children do not wear helmets while riding. The purpose of this study was to track pediatric bicycle-related injuries presenting to a pediatric trauma center 1 year before and 5 years after 2001 bicycle helmet legislation aimed to protect children 0 to 16 years. Prospective data collection of pedal cycle injury e-code 826.1 from hospital discharge data set from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2005. Bicycle-related injuries among children 0 to 16 years were grouped by injury type (head, extremity, and other), age, and gender. For years reviewed (2000-2005), bicycle-related injuries were highest in the period May through August. Bicycle-related injury rates per 100,000 for this population were 1,452 a year before legislation. The injury rate decreased 27% (1,054/100,000) one year later. Overall, bicycle-related injury per 100,000 continues to be down by 24%. Data show that extremity injury is greater than head and other injury categories in both male (24% greater) and female (27% greater) children 0 to 16 years one year before legislation. Data show extremity injury rates per 100,000 is greater than head and other injury categories in both male (24% greater) and female (38% greater) categories 5 years later. Bicycle-related injury rates per 100,000 in boys were greater than girls for all years reported. Male extremity injury was 45% higher for 10- to 16-year-old boys than for 5- to 9-year-old boys a year before legislation and continued to rise to 58% in 2005. Male head injury rates per 100,000 were higher in 5- to 9-year-old boys (598/100,000) than in 10- to 16- year-old boys (354/100,000) one year before legislation. In 2005, the bicycle-related head injury rates per 100,000 dropped to 485 for 5- to 9-year-old vs 223 for the 10- to 16-year-old boys. Female extremity injury rate

  18. A Systematic Review of Reproductive Coercion in International Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Karen Trister; Fleming, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive coercion is behavior that interferes with a woman's autonomous reproductive decision-making. It may take the form of birth control sabotage, pregnancy coercion, or controlling the outcome of a pregnancy. Perpetrators may be partners, a partner's family, or the woman's family. This article reviews the literature on reproductive coercion in international settings. In this review of 10 research studies, findings are presented on prevalence and type of reproductive coercion, associated factors, specific tactics, relationship with intimate partner violence and domestic violence (in-laws particularly), and implications for women's reproductive health. Findings highlight reproductive coercion as a subset of intimate partner violence that is poorly understood, especially in international settings. More research is needed on protective factors, how interventions can capitalize on protective factors, and the strategies women use to resist reproductive coercion. Policy implications and recommendations are discussed with particular attention to issues related to diverse social and cultural environments. PMID:28503353

  19. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  20. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  1. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The legislation of nuclear disposal. Text booklet with an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The book on the legislation of nuclear waste disposal covers the following issues: Part A: Introduction in the site selection law. Part B: Set of regulations: Constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany (extract), Guideline 2011/70 EURATOM on the responsible and safe disposal of spent fuel elements, common agreement on the safety of spent fuel treatment and on the safety of radioactive waste conditioning, law on search and selection of final repository site for heat generating radioactive wastes (site selection law), law on the civil use of nuclear energy and the protection against its hazards (Atomic Law AtG), federal mining act (BBergG), law on environmental impact assessment (UVPG), Law on supplementary regulations and legal remedies in environmental matters according EU guideline 2003/35EG, law on the construction of a Federal authority for nuclear disposal (BfkEEG), regulation on the protection against ionizing radiation hazards (Strahlenschutzverordnung), regulation on the transport of radioactive wastes or spent fuel elements. Regulation on the commissioning processes of facilities according paragraph 7 Atomic law, regulation on the definition of a development freeze for site protection for a final disposal, regulation on the warranty of nuclear safety and radiation protection, implementing rule for the nuclear safety warranty, regulation on the advance financing for the construction of Federal facilities for safeguarding and final disposal of radioactive wastes. Cost regulation for the Atomic Law.

  3. Institutional and legislative issues of emergency management policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiriev, B

    2001-12-14

    The emergency management policy as an organic component of the national development policy in contemporary Russia exists only for a slight more than a decade. However, its basic trends and directions could be revealed. In the legislative area covering technological accidents involving hazardous materials these include increasing differentiation of acts in terms of issue coverage, gradual integration of legislation via enforcement of the so-called systemic (umbrella) acts and increasing incorporation of specific acts, and keeping dominance of federal emergency acts. In addition, emergency legislation and policy programs on communities' protection against major hazards drift from alleviation-oriented towards more mitigation-focused. Meanwhile, the bulk of the existing acts are still specific laws and regulations, which consider most emergency response. In institutional realms the key direction of emergency policy development involved organization and progress of the Unified State System for Emergency Prevention and Elimination of the Russian Federation (USEPE) with EMERCOM as a key coordinator and actor in handling technological hazards and accidents. The detailed analysis of USEPE organizational pattern and operation modes including institutional structure, key functions, means and forces and operation routines is provided. It is argued that the system's logic and flexible organizational framework only to some extent contribute to effective mitigation of the major emergencies and/or disasters. In no less extent it depends on the existing socioeconomic conditions, which have been for a long time unfavorable in Russia and thus seriously constrain the USEPE effectiveness. This provides for ambiguous integral evaluation of the emergency management policy in the 1990s and early 2000s.

  4. Government capacities and stakeholders: what facilitates ehealth legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Newly established high-technology areas such as eHealth require regulations regarding the interoperability of health information infrastructures and data protection. It is argued that government capacities as well as the extent to which public and private organizations participate in policy-making determine the level of eHealth legislation. Both explanatory factors are influenced by international organizations that provide knowledge transfer and encourage private actor participation. Methods Data analysis is based on the Global Observatory for eHealth - ATLAS eHealth country profiles which summarizes eHealth policies in 114 countries. Data analysis was carried out using two-component hurdle models with a truncated Poisson model for positive counts and a hurdle component model with a binomial distribution for zero or greater counts. Results The analysis reveals that the participation of private organizations such as donors has negative effects on the level of eHealth legislation. The impact of public-private partnerships (PPPs) depends on the degree of government capacities already available and on democratic regimes. Democracies are more responsive to these new regulatory demands than autocracies. Democracies find it easier to transfer knowledge out of PPPs than autocracies. Government capacities increase the knowledge transfer effect of PPPs, thus leading to more eHealth legislation. Conclusions All international regimes – the WHO, the EU, and the OECD – promote PPPs in order to ensure the construction of a national eHealth infrastructure. This paper shows that the development of government capacities in the eHealth domain has to be given a higher priority than the establishment of PPPs, since the existence of some (initial) capacities is the sine qua non of further capacity building. PMID:24410989

  5. The paradoxes of application of the legislation on personal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Bobrova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of legislation on personal data and it’s enforcement in the educational process in higher educational institutions.The purpose of the article is highlight controversies in legislation on personal data, generating mistakes in enforcement during the educational procedures.The description of methodology. The author uses methods of complex analysis, synthesis, as well as formal-logical and formal-legal methods.The main results and scope of their application. The practice of interpreting the concepts of “personal data”, “confidential personal data”, “official secret”, “publicly available personal data” is extremely contradictory.Currently, there are hundreds departmental regulatory legal acts about various aspects of the protection of official secrets. Analysis of these acts shows that the rules aimed at preserving the confidentiality of official information regulate the following aspects of the functioning of state and municipal bodies, institutions and organizations: (a ensuring access to official information; (b providing state and municipal services; (c document flow and record keeping; (d staffing; (e anti-corruption; (f use of information systems; (g interaction with the media; (h prevention of conflicts of interest.The study load cannot be attributed to the personal data, that requires the consent of the teacher to be processed. The study load is nothing more than publicly available information, arising from the principles of collegiality of educational process management, competitiveness of education, its openness and transparency, that are established in the legislation on education.Conclusions. Extended interpretation of confidential personal data and inclusion of the teaching load to it is unacceptable. This contributes to conflicts of interest, corrupt factors and devaluation of higher education.

  6. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  7. [Protective effect of GnRH analogues on the reproductive capacity of women with neoplasia or autoimmune disease who require chemotherapy. Final results of a phase ii clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris-Martínez, José M; Trillo-Urrutia, Lourdes; Gómez-Cabeza, Juan José; Encabo-Duró, Gloria

    2016-02-05

    In order to avoid the toxic effect of chemotherapy, it has been proposed to use GnRH agonist analogues (GnRHa) to inhibit the depletion of ovarian follicles. Nevertheless, there is controversy about its effectiveness. This clinical trial has been conducted with the aim to assess the protective effect of GnRH analogues on the reproductive capacity of women with malignancies or autoimmune diseases, which require chemotherapy. Open phase ii single-center clinical trial. During chemotherapy, a total of 5 doses of GnRH antagonist analogue at a dose interval of 3 days and/or a monthly dose of GnRHa were administered. Hormonal determinations prior to the start of the CT treatment were conducted during treatment and at the end of it. The inclusion of patients was prematurely concluded when incorporating the determination of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a parameter for assessing the ovarian reserve. Out of 38 patients, 23 (60.5%, 95%CI 43.4-76.0) had AMH values below normal following completion of treatment. An intermediate analysis was carried out observing that while most patients were recovering the menstrual cycle (86.6% 95%CI 71.9-95.6), they had reduced levels of AMH. Although most patients recovered their menstrual cycles, the ovarian reserve, assessed by the concentration of AMH, decreased in many patients. Therefore, we can conclude that the concomitant treatment of chemotherapy and GnRH analogues does not preserve the loss of follicular ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Mexican National Consensus on Assisted Reproduction Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; López Ortiz, Carlos Salazar; Serviere Zaragoza, Claudio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Pérez Peña, Efrain; Santos Haliscack, Roberto; Luna Rojas, Martha; Valerio, Emilio; Santana, Héctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that 15% of couples living in industrialized countries are infertile, ie have failed to conceive, reproductive age, after 12 months ormore of regular intercourse without contraception. During the past decade has increased the demand for fertility treatments because they believe are moreeffective now. To unify the therapeutic approach and service to patients and set a precedent for a Mexican Official Standard respect and support for the legislation of these procedures. Consensus by technical experts group panel with the participation of 34 national centers accredited for use in assisted reproduction. He organized seven workshops with the following themes: 1) selection of patients for assisted reproduction treatment, 2) schemes controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques of high complexity, 3) preparation and egg retrieval technique, 4) transferembryo; 5) luteal phase supplementation; 6) indications and techniques of cryopreservation and 7) informed consent. Each table had a coordinator who wrote and presented the findings to the full, it made a number of observations until they reached unanimity of criteria, which are reflected in this document. Patient selection for assisted reproduction techniques is the first step of the process. Proper selection lead to success, in the same way that a bad pick up for failure. In the case of egg donation the most important recommendation is that only one to two embryos transferred in order to reduce multiple pregnancy rates and maintaining high pregnancy rates.

  9. European water framework directive reflected by the Romanian legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, M.; Ristoiu, D.

    2013-11-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is one of the most ambitious legislative instrument in the field of water policy which has as major aim the achievement of a good status for all surface and ground waters in the European Union (EU) until 2015. For this purpose Member States of EU have to identify major water surfaces within their territory, assign them to river basin districts and establish for the river basin districts the management plans and programmes of measures. The strength but also the most problematic issue of WFD law package is the pollution of water from chemicals which is set out in Article 16 of the WFD 2000/60/EC. As a first step of this strategy, a list of priority substances were adopted (Decision 2455/2001/EC) identifying 33 chemicals or groups of chemicals (mainly organic compounds as pesticides, certain PAHs, BTEX, halogenated solvents, flame retardants, etc.) which are of great concern throughout EU, due to their widespread usage. Romania, as a member state of the EU needs to align its legislative package on water quality protection to those proposed in WFD. Major problems arise from the lack of standard methods for qualitative and quantitative monitoring of these priorities chemical pollutants.

  10. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raguzin Igor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  11. The impact of the credit legislation on consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlako Choma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine two South Africa legislations dealing with over indebtedness of a consumer. It is clear that in terms of the South African law, section 129 (1 and 130 (3 of the National Credit Act provide that a creditor provider who wishes to enforce a debt under a credit agreement must first issue a section 129 (1 (a notice to the consumer (the purpose of the notice is to notify the consumer of his/her arrears. On the other hand, the South African National Credit Act encourages the consumers to fulfil the financial obligations for which they are responsible. The second legislation to be examined which serve or appear to serve same purpose as the National Credit Act is the Insolvency Act. It therefore, postulated that the compulsory sequestration of a consumer in terms of the Insolvency Act would stand as an alternative remedy for a credit provider before she/he can have recourse mechanisms, such as debt review that are focused on satisfaction of the consumer’s financial obligation , in terms of the provisions of the National Credit Act. The paper determines to what extend these measures comply with the constitutional consumer protection demands. The legislature had been pertinently cognizant of the Insolvency Act when it lately enacted the National Credit Act. This is much apparent from the express amendment of section 84 of the Insolvency Act to the extent set out in schedule 2 of the National Credit Act

  12. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  13. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijun; Lu, Yu; Wang, Xinglong; Qi, Jing; Liu, Jiyu; Hu, Yue; Li, Feng; Wu, Jiaqiang; Guo, Lihui; Liu, Junzhen; Tao, Haiying; Sun, Wenbo; Chen, Lei; Cong, Xiaoyan; Ren, Sufang; Shi, Jianli; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinbao; Huang, Baohua; Wan, Renzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  14. Sexual violence legislation in sub-Saharan Africa: the need for strengthened medico-legal linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Nduku; Ndung'u, Njoki; Nthamburi, Nerida; Ajema, Caroline; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Six sub-Saharan African countries currently have laws on sexual violence, including Kenya, and eight others have provisions on sexual violence in other legislation. Effective legislation requires functioning medico-legal linkages to enable both justice to be done in cases of sexual violence and the provision of health services for survivors of sexual violence. The health sector also needs to provide post-rape care services and collect and deliver evidence to the criminal justice system. This paper reviews existing data on sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and summarises the content of sexual violence legislation in the region and the strengths and weaknesses of existing medico-legal linkages, using Kenya as a case study. Many sub-Saharan African countries do not yet have comprehensive post-rape care services, nor substantial co-ordination between HIV and sexual and reproductive health services, the legal and judicial systems, and sexual violence legislation. These need to be integrated by cross-referrals, using standardised referral guidelines and pathways, treatment protocols, and medico-legal procedures. Common training approaches and harmonised information across sectors, and common indicators, would facilitate government accountability. Joint and collaborative planning and working at country level, through sharing of information and data between the different systems remain key to achieving this.

  15. Achieving fire-safe cigarette legislation through coalition-based legislative advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam O; Grant, Ernest; McCullough, Anna; Cairns, Bruce; Kurian, Ann

    2010-02-01

    Advocates who work for tobacco control legislation through coalition-based policy advocacy have access to a broad base of support and resources that are critical to overcoming the tobacco industry lobby. This article provides an example of how a coalition-based advocacy strategy that engaged a diverse group of stakeholders and was supported by a national coordinating movement achieved state level fire-safe cigarette legislation in a tobacco-producing and manufacturing state.

  16. HARMONIZATION OF UKRAINIAN LABOUR LEGISLATION ACCORDANCE WITH ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodianka LIUBOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the necessity of harmonization of the Ukrainian labour legislation in accordance with Acquis communautaire. The main legal acts in the sphere of Ukrainian labour legislation are analyzed. Special attention in the article is devoted to the critics of the Draft Labour Code of Ukraine, also marked its contradictions, positive sides and shortcomings are indicated. Potential dangers of the protection of labour rights in Ukraine connected with the lack of regulation of activity of trade unions are identified. The conditions necessary for the successful implementation of international labour standards and principles in Ukrainian national law are proposed.

  17. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A. YE.

    2002-01-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on U tilization of atomic energy ; Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on E nvironmental protection ; The new Federal Law O n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation . (author)

  18. Mental health legislation in Ireland: a lot done, more to do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Zahid; Malik, Mansoor A

    2012-01-01

    Mental health legislation is necessary to protect the rights of people with mental disorders, a vulnerable section of society. Ireland's new Mental Health Act 2001 was fully implemented in 2006 with the intent of bringing Irish legislation more in line with international standards, such as the European Convention on Human Rights and United Nations Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness. The new legislation introduced several important reforms in relation to involuntary admission, independent reviews of involuntary detention, consent to treatment, and treatment of children and adolescents. It also presented significant challenges in terms of service delivery and resources within Irish mental health services. Both mental health service users and providers reported a range of difficulties with the new legislation. In this article, we analyze the Irish Mental Health Act focusing on the enhanced protection that it provides for patients, but also highlighting some areas of concern such as the conduct of mental health tribunals, consent and capacity problems, resource allocation, and disruptions in mental health service delivery.

  19. Energy: reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Penagos, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ovulatory activity in the livestock depends on the readiness of nutritious energy with relationship to its use for the nursing. During the early nursing the cup of increment in the production of milk exceeds to the consumption of food, the difference in the energy consumption of the diet with relationship to the energy used for production is a negative energy balance. During the first weeks of nursing this reaches their maximum and it diminishes slowly with the increment in the consumption of dry matter. This first metabolic sign is in an increment in the pulses of hormone luteinizant that acts as and stimulate for the ovary and that with a great readiness of insulin, it takes to the ovarian follicles to respond to the stimulus. The sub-alimentation seems to affect the hypothalamic function and ovarian. The return to the positive energy balance in cows highly producers can be accelerated by the consumption of protected fat. The functions of the lipids are to provide energy for normal maintenance and production, to serve as source of essential fatty acids and eat payee of liposoluble vitamins. The importance of the addition of vegetable fat is that this is not degraded in the rumen but rather it is digested in its entirety in abomasa and absorbed in intestine. The addition of a source of Ca to diets with fats promotes the formation of insoluble soaps achieving that the fat doesn't inhibit the fiber fermentation; the chloride of Ca to be of high solubility in water it is completely ionized in rumen and it is more efficient in the formation of insoluble soaps of Ca. The addition of fat in the diet bears increase in the production of N microbial, inhibition of methane formation, increase and change in population of bacteria and mushrooms. The efficiency of the fat is superior when sources of fatty acids of long chain are used, the employment of these, in its protected form, in a diet, stimulates the number of follicles and it increases its size. The linolic acid is

  20. Radiation Protection in the Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemkajus, K.

    2002-01-01

    Information on use, effects of the use of ionizing radiations is provided. Ionizing radiation sources used in Lithuania are listed, description of characteristics of equipment using ionizing radiation sources is presented. Description of requirements for the licence holder is provided. Radiation protection requirements working with Ionizing radiation sources and legislation regulating radiation protection requirements in the industry is listed

  1. Protecting the protectors of wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Carlos Gambarotta

    2007-01-01

    Preserving the last remnants of wild country requires effective legislation, adequate finances, and appropriate policies, but in addition it requires the permanent presence of dedicated park rangers. For the International Ranger Federation, a ranger is a person who works in protected areas, and, among other tasks, is responsible for the protection of the natural and...

  2. Radiation protection, optimization and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Brisse, H.; Foucart, J.M.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.; Talbot, A.; Aubert, B.; Scanff, P.; Roudier, C.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, P.; Bar, O.; Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M.; Bouziane, T.; Brat, H.; Bricoult, M; Heuga, O.; Hauger, O.; Bonnefoy, O.; Diard, F.; Chateil, J.F.; Schramm, R.; Reisman, J.; Aubert, B.

    2005-01-01

    Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  3. Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined.

  4. Critical analysis of the Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas P, Elkin; Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document analyses the Colombian mining legislation, Act 685 of 2001, based on the reasons expressed by the government and the miners for its conceit and approval. The document tries to determine the developments achieved by this new Mining Code considering international mining competitiveness and its adaptation to the constitutional rules about environment, indigenous communities, decentralization and sustainable development. The analysis formulates general and specific hypothesis about the proposed objectives of the reform, which are confronted with the arguments and critical evaluations of the results. Most hypothesis are not verified, thus demonstrating that the Colombian mining legislation is far from being the necessary instrument to promote mining activities, making it competitive according to international standards and adapted to the principles of sustainable development, healthy environment, community participation, ethnic minorities and regional autonomy

  5. First experiences with NORM regulations in the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauke, Michael; Katzlberger, C.; Haider, W.; Ringer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives a brief overview of important aspects of the recently implemented NORM ordinance in the Austrian Radiation Protection Legislation. It describes first experiences from pilot studies and dose assessments in this field. The field of application of this ordinance is defined by a list of work activities which might cause a significant increase in the exposure of workers and of members of the public. This list includes work activities, which potentially increase the exposure due to radon or uranium, thorium and their progenies and work activities, where residues with elevated levels of natural radionuclides may lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers and the public. The first level of a dose assessment is the determination of activity concentrations in materials. It is assumed that the dose of workers does not exceed 1 mSv per year, if the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below 1 Bq/g. A notification of the workplace to the radiation protection authority is sufficient in this case. Otherwise a detailed dose assessment considering all relevant exposure pathways has to be performed as well as radiation protection measures and organisational measures, if needed. If the results of the dose assessment show higher levels than 6 mSv per year, radiation protection measures like personal dosimeters and periodical medical examination and reporting to the radiation protection authority are obligatory. A similar dose assessment procedure has to be applied for residues. The residues are allowed to be disposed as conventional waste, as long as the dose assessment shows a dose lower than 1 mSv per year. Otherwise the residues have to be treated as radioactive waste. Only accredited or certified institutions may perform authorised dose assessments. The Austrian Agency for Food and Health Safety performed pilot studies in this field for getting more experience in the field of dose assessment and to get an overview of the

  6. State Firearm Legislation and Nonfatal Firearm Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Mills, Brianna; Young, Bessie; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether stricter state-level firearm legislation was associated with lower hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries. Methods. We estimated discharge rates for hospitalized and emergency department–treated nonfatal firearm injuries in 18 states in 2010 and used negative binomial regression to determine whether strength of state firearm legislation was independently associated with total nonfatal firearm injury discharge rates. Results. We identified 26 744 discharges for nonfatal firearm injuries. The overall age-adjusted discharge rate was 19.0 per 100 000 person-years (state range = 3.3–36.6), including 7.9 and 11.1 discharges per 100 000 for hospitalized and emergency department–treated injuries, respectively. In models adjusting for differences in state sociodemographic characteristics and economic conditions, states in the strictest tertile of legislative strength had lower discharge rates for total (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.82), assault-related (IRR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.99), self-inflicted (IRR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.14, 0.24), and unintentional (IRR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.84) nonfatal firearm injuries. Conclusions. There is significant variation in state-level hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries, and stricter state firearm legislation is associated with lower discharge rates for such injuries. PMID:26066935

  7. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  8. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  9. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  10. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  11. Reproductive and hormonal factors in association with ovarian cancer in the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braem, M.G.M.; Onland-Moret, N.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Schouten, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Parity, oral contraceptive use, and hysterectomy are known to protect against ovarian cancer, whereas the effect of other reproductive factors remains unclear. The authors investigated the association between several reproductive and hormonal factors and the risk of epithelial invasive ovarian

  12. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2008-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  13. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2009-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  14. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  15. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEATHER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the current legislation and compliance issues leather waste in different waste groups according to relevant legislation and shows that, although seemingly harmless waste of skin sometimes contain dangerous compounds. As presented risks to human health were some restricted substances in leather. Since 2001 Romania had preoccupation in national legislation on waste management, but some categories, such as leather waste are not framed to this category. Also, another goal is implementing the EU management/storage strategy of industrial waste. Unfortunately, Romania imports huge quantities of used clothing and shoes. Transport, storage and use of them are poor, and many of these are subsequently stored waste by the fact that it is even sometimes improperly discarded. The paper also shows the statistics on waste management in the Bihor County by activity of national economy and by activity of industry at level of CANE REV.2 Section. Analyzing the postings on Internet regarding the sale and purchase of leather wastes in Romania, it was found that there are the following 'categories' of wastes: leather goods, leather from coats, leather from footwear industry, suede, leather, leather resulting from the production of upholstery. It was found that most car buyers use waste leather upholstery. It is recommended that production companies to highlight more transparent their inventory textile and leather waste on types for those interested (including online can access/capitalize them.

  16. Legislative Prohibitions on wearing a headscarf: Are they justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Osman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A headscarf, a simple piece of cloth that covers the head, is a controversial garment that carries various connotations and meanings. While it may be accepted as just another item of clothing when worn by non-Muslim women, it is often the subject of much controversy when worn by Muslim women. In recent years the headscarf has been described as a symbol of Islam's oppression of women and simultaneously of terrorism. As the debate regarding the acceptability of the headscarf in the modern world continues, an increasing number of states have legislated to ban the wearing of the headscarf. This article critically examines the reasons underlying these bans and argues that these prohibitions are not justified. It does this by first analysing the place of the headscarf in Islam, its religious basis and its significance to Muslim women. It argues that the headscarf is more than just a mere religious symbol and that Muslim women wear the headscarf as a matter of religious obligation. The headscarf is considered to be an important religious practice protected by the right to freedom of religion. Thereafter the article examines legislative bans on the headscarf in France, Turkey and Switzerland in order to identify the most popular justifications advanced by states and courts for banning the headscarf. It critically evaluates the justifications for protecting secularism, preventing coercion, promoting equality and curbing religious extremism, and disputes that the reasons put forward by states and accepted by courts justify banning the headscarf. It thereafter explores how South African courts would respond to a headscarf ban and argues that schools and employers should accommodate the headscarf. While Muslim women may not have an absolute right to wear the headscarf, there has thus far been no justifiable reason for banning the headscarf.

  17. The Legislative Framework Regarding Bullying In South African Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Laas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that has the potential to impact on children not only physically but also psychologically. In South Africa countless children fall victim to bullying, harassment and abuse at schools. A myriad of constitutional rights are infringed upon when bullying occurs, and the problem is escalating. The Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011 was signed and accepted into law on the 27th of April 2013. This new Act may grant relief to victims of bullying inter alia by providing for protection orders, and therefore adds to the legislative framework available to victims. However, in terms of bullying in schools, the parties to these incidents are minors and therefore a critical analysis is necessary with regard to the rights of the victim and the offender. In this context the relationship and interaction between the Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011, the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis.

  18. Overview of legislation on sewage sludge management in developed countries worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, A; Stamatelatou, K

    2016-01-01

    The need to apply innovative technologies for maximizing the efficiency and minimizing the carbon footprint of sewage treatment plants has upgraded sewage sludge management to a highly sophisticated research and development sector. Sewage sludge cannot be regarded solely as 'waste'; it is a renewable resource for energy and material recovery. From this perspective, legislation on sewage sludge management tends to incorporate issues related to environmental protection, public health, climate change impacts and socio-economic benefits. This paper reviews the existing legislative frameworks and policies on sewage sludge management in various countries, highlighting the common ground as well as the different priorities in all cases studied. More specifically, the key features of legislation regarding sludge management in developed countries such as the USA, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and the European Union (EU27) are discussed.

  19. Children's Concepts of Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)

  20. Reproductive Aging in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications ... of the links in the navigation bar. FAQs Reproductive Health Topics News and Publications Resources About ASRM ...